Cow manure is the most common, environmentally friendly organic fertilizer. The popularity of its use due to the availability and versatility of this material, it is important to know how to use it in the country or garden.
The benefits of cow dung
Adding cow dung to the soil formation of the fertile layer. In contrast to the use of mineral fertilizers, the use of organic leads to the accumulation of useful elements by the earth.
Periodic feeding with mullein-based fertilizers favorably affects growth and fruiting garden plants. In addition, enriched soil increases the ability to aerate, which favorably affects the development of the root system of plants.
One kilogram of mullein has the following biological composition:
- Nitrogen (3.5 g.)
- Calcium oxide (2.9 gr.)
- Phosphorus oxide (3 gr.)
- Potassium Oxide (1.4 g.)
Indicators of beneficial chemicals slightly vary depending on the age and quality of the animal's food.
Almost all garden plantings - fruit, berry, vegetable crops - respond favorably to dressing using cow dung. However, each crop has its own requirements for the method of fertilizer application.
Almost all garden plantings favorably respond to the introduction of manure
In this regard, it applies:
- as a dry substrate
- in granules
Eating fresh in its purest form undesirable. This is due to the high concentration of ammonia, detrimental effect on the state of the root system of the plant. Therefore, on the basis of fresh material is prepared solutionconsisting of manure and water in the proportions of the plant culture.
In the spring, the so-called “warm beds". Erected with a height of about a meter, the bed is able to develop internal heating to a temperature of 55 degrees. This property affects the early rooting and the favorable development of culture in the conditions of spring frosts.
The state of the humus is reached after 1.5 - 2 years storage. The rotted mullein has a loose structure, without the presence of moisture and odor. This is the most convenient form of use of cow dung.
The value of the method lies in the possibility of planting the plant in the ground immediately after fertilization. In addition, due to the structure of the material significantly reduces its consumption.
Liquid manure is made from fresh excrement and water. The method allows you to get rid of excessive amounts of ammonia, as well as the eggs of parasites that make up the biological material.
Feeding is carried out radical watering diluted infusion mullein Also, a weak solution is used in spraying weakened plants.
Manure in granules is a material subjected to biological treatment and pressing. Due to its structure, it is able to saturate the soil at a measured pace. throughout the season.
When it comes into contact with water, it swells up, and then gives away the acquired moisture to the soil, helping to maintain the moisture level for a long time during the dry season. It is used as a top dressing during spring planting of plants, as well as fertilizer applied for autumn digging.
When fertilizer cannot be applied
Fresh unsuitable for fertilizing plants. The decomposition of the components of feces is accompanied by many chemical reactions that have a detrimental effect on their root system. In addition, parasite eggs in fresh manure pose a great danger to human health.
If the material has visually noticeable white patches, this means the presence of fungal spores. Proper storage of manure in order to obtain humus will eventually destroy this problem. However, for the construction of "warm beds" such material is no longer suitable.
White plaque on the manure indicates the presence of spores in it
Some cultures have such dressing suffer badly. To such plants can be attributed radishes, carrots, celery, beets, parsley. Planting this row of plants into the soil that was subjected to manure a year or two ago is considered favorable.
How to make self-feeding
Given the availability of the source material, to produce fertilizer with your own hands is not difficult.
To obtain high-quality humus, it is necessary to prepare a crate, or a pit for the proper storage of manure. Main condition - providing protection from rain and direct sunlight.
The box is covered with roofing material or other waterproof material. To speed up the process of producing humus several times a season, the layers are turned over with forks. The ripening period of humus is one and a half - two years.
The ripening period of humus is 1.5-2 years
Fast and efficient manufacturing method - fresh manure infusion. It is made by pouring the material with water, in a 1: 1 ratio.
The resulting liquid is stored in a closed container, preferably in the shade. To enhance the effect of fermentation, the solution can be stirred regularly. Fermentation helps to reduce the amount of ammonia, the destruction of parasite eggs and spores of the fungus. Fertilizer is ready for use after a week.
In the face of increasing consumer demand for organic food, manufacturers refuse mineral fertilizers, making a choice in favor of organic. The use of cow manure in the cultivation of farms and household plots is not only effective, but also a safe method of obtaining high-quality yield.
Important information about cow dung
Fresh cow manure is a semi-liquid substance, which contains a significant amount of worms eggs and pathogenic microflora. When working with liquid mullein, care must be taken to use gauze bandages and rubber gloves.
The recommended way to get rid of harmful parasites - composting or insisting cow droppings.
As biofuel, cow dung is not used by gardeners as often as it creates a not very high temperature - only 24-45 degrees. A good result can be achieved if you make beds for cucumbers about 1 meter high.
As a top dressing and mulching, they use humus, to which cabbage, salads, cucumbers and zucchini react well. It is useful in the fall to make rotted manure under the placements for the next year of tomatoes, radishes, carrots, potatoes, beets and other root crops.
This kind fertilizer rich in trace elements that protect plants from many types of diseases, help to process nutrients, affect fertilization processes and fruit formation.
There are many useful chemical elements in cow dung:
- nitrogen, which contributes to the acceleration of plant growth. They are especially rich in litter manure, which contains rotten remnants of straw and hay.
- phosphorusthat plants need for the formation of fruit ovaries
- potassiumthat plants need for productive use of water, increasing the movement of juices in them, the development of a powerful root system. Potassium is especially necessary for tomatoes at the beginning of flower formation and fruit growth. That is why they are so responsive to feeding with liquid mullein during the growing season. Potassium makes plants more resistant to drought, frost, fungal diseases and pests.
- calciumthat neutralizes organic acids, turning them into a form that does not harm plants
- magnesiumwhich is directly involved in the production of plant body growth energy, its yield and fruiting
Cow Manure Species
It is classified according to the moisture content and the degree of its decomposition.
According to the moisture content, it is divided into 3 types:
- humidity up to 80% - solid consistency (litter of sawdust, straw, peat, leaves, etc.)
- humidity 80-90% - semi-fluid consistency
- humidity over 90% - liquid
According to the degree of decomposition are distinguished:
- fresh - straw of natural color, decomposition is weak. The value of fresh litter is small
- half-ripe - dark-brown straw with a brown tinge turns into a loose, easily torn mass. This species is the most valuable, since the loss of nutrients is only 20-30%. It turns out after 3-4 months of storage. It is recommended to use it in gardens and kitchen gardens.
- humus is a dark, friable, crumbly mass. All its trace elements are perfectly absorbed by plants. It turns out after 6-12 months of storage
Fertilizer with fresh manure
Fresh cow manure as a fertilizer is rarely used. It is rich in ammonia, which can damage the root system of a cultivated plant.
In summer, liquid fertilizer is prepared from it. This is a great option for feeding for many vegetables, flowers, fruit and berry plants. A fresh mullein is collected and bred with warm water in different proportions for each plant species.
Manure as fertilizer
Manure is the excrement of herbivores with admixture of litter or in its pure form, of varying degrees of decay. The composition depends on the diet of livestock and the type of litter. As the latter can use straw, sawdust, grass.
In the manure live colonies of microorganisms that contribute to the growth of soil microflora and participate in the formation of humus. It enhances the natural fertility of the land, making its structure loose and permeable to moisture and air.
The composition of the biomass contains everything necessary for plants and substances. Their ratio and combinations differ depending on the animal from which it is derived.
The composition of manure is alkaline, so it reduces the acidity of the soil. The average pH of manure is 8-9 units.
Table 1. NPK content in manure
Manure is the best organic fertilizer. Its composition is multicomponent and natural for the ecosystem. Plants easily get nutrients and trace elements from it.
Biomass for a long time improves fertility and soil quality. The effect of a single application is maintained for 2-3 years due to long-term decomposition and the gradual release of substances. And on clay soils, where this process is slowed down, to 6-7 years.
Advantages and disadvantages
Any fertilizer should be applied carefully and in moderation. They can both benefit and harm. Most often, the negative impact is manifested if you contribute more than the soil needs. Manure is no exception. Although its use is considered safer than mineral supplements, as the mass is of natural origin.
- Multicomponent composition. It contains all the macro and micronutrients that plants consume.
- Long exposure time. The gradual release and dissolution of substances allows the plants to nourish the entire season without additional feedings.
- Improves soil structure. Even clay makes more friable.
- Does not contain synthetic chemical compounds.
- Universally applied. Suitable for all types of soil and for growing most plants.
- In the process of decomposition produces carbon dioxide and nourishes the root system.
- If gardeners are breeding animals, then it is also the most affordable fertilizer for them.
- Excess manure can greatly reduce the acidity of slightly acidic soil, which will make it practically unsuitable for cultivation.
- Fertilizer is prepared for a long period, from several months to 2-3 years.
- To get biomass in urban environments is quite difficult.
- Without special analysis it is impossible to determine the exact composition of the fertilizer and calculate the application rate.
- If the tool is not enough, it may contain a large amount of nitrogen. Its surplus reduces the yield due to the violent growth of foliage and shoots.
- Active rotting of the mass may cause burns on the root system of the plant.
- An excess of organics reduces the keeping quality of vegetables and resistance to diseases.
Nevertheless, manure was and remains the most popular means for increasing fertility and soil quality. Therefore, before applying it, one should study the properties of different types of manure and application rates for certain crops.
Humus or manure: which is better?
Manure differs in the degree of rotting. During this process, the amount of nitrogen in the mass decreases, and it gradually ceases to "burn". Completely rotted composition is safer for plants than fresh. But they use fertilizer in a different state, since the process of rotting can take several months or years.
Types of manure according to the degree of rotting:
- Fresh. Thick mass with admixture of litter or in pure form. It is applied to top dressing mainly in the autumn period when the harvest is gathered. When introduced during the growing season diluted in water 10 times.
- Half broken. A drier mixture, from manure that has lain for 3-6 months. The composition is partially decomposed, but visible straw and mass heterogeneity. It is applied in the fall before digging the plot.
- Humus. Homogeneous mass. Easily crumbles. The nitrogen content in it is several times lower than in fresh. Suitable for vegetation and before planting.
To preserve nutrients during rotting, manure is stored in different ways. Under the open sky without tamping, the process goes very quickly, the mass heats up very much and loses up to 40% of the elements.
Compaction of layers allows to lower the temperature to 30 degrees and slow down rotting. In this case, most of the useful substances remain, but, ready for use, can be obtained only after 8-10 months.
To speed decomposition, growers use a mixed storage method. First, the mass is placed in stacks freely, and after it starts to “burn” it is heavily tamped. To create a greenhouse effect, it is covered with a layer of peat or grass, and then a film.
Liquid and granular manure
To make the use of manure possible in urban environments, far from farms, fertilizer producers produce products based on it - this is “liquid manure” and “granulated”.
These types of fertilizers are easy to use, have no pungent odor and are easier to calculate application rates.
Granules - dry compressed manure, purified from impurities, pathogenic microorganisms and weed seeds. 1 kg of granules is 4 kg of manure. Moisture is necessary for activation, therefore after introduction the site is plentifully water. Granules dissolve slowly - the effect persists throughout the growing season. The average consumption of 10-15 kg per 100 sq. M. Bring in the spring, mixing with the top layer of soil.
Liquid manure in plastic bottles is a concentrate. 1 liter replaces 100 kg of fresh manure. Liquid is used for irrigation. It can be used during the growing season. Since the substances are already in dissolved form, the validity of this tool is less long than that of the granules.
When is it best to apply to the soil?
Depending on the time of year and the climatic characteristics of the region, manure of various degrees of decay is introduced into the soil and sealed it at different depths. If you ignore these rules, then the fertilizer can get the opposite effect and the yield will decrease.
Tip! In arid regions, fertilizing is introduced deeper (20-30 cm) than in those with enough precipitation (10-12 cm).
Fresh manure in the spring do not contribute. Biomass is used only on poor soils that were not fertilized in the fall. It is possible to use half-rotted manure and humus under late crops during planting.
Sometimes the composition is scattered over the snow, while it is necessary to increase the norm by 1.5 times, since some of the substances disappear before the fertilizer reaches the ground.
During the growing season, the use of fresh manure and humus is not recommended, because in a short time the fertilizer will not have the effect, and can harm the root system and the general health of the crop.
In the summer, only slightly concentrated slurry solutions are used for fertilizing with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. It is diluted 5-6 times and watered during the formation of the first leaves. Consumption 10 liters per 1 sq.m. The mixture is brought under the root, then immediately mulch.
Due to the high nitrogen concentration, any manure ceases to be applied from the beginning of the formation of the fruit to the harvest.
The main and most fruitful period for making is autumn. During the winter manure manages to partially decompose, and is no longer dangerous for plants. For the autumn application, any manure is suitable, both in composition and in the degree of rotting.
After harvesting, the mass is scattered over the area in a uniform layer, then dredged. The average consumption rate of 5-6 kg per 1 sq.m.
The composition can be made annually, each new portion in the first year is less effective than in the next two. Therefore, with regular application, the soil will always be fertile.
What are the different types of manure?
Manure varies in composition and decomposition rate, depending on the animal from which it is derived. Therefore, the use of different types has its own characteristics.
It is a moist, soft, sometimes semi-fluid, dense substrate. Decay occurs at a temperature of 15-25 degrees. Decomposition rate is average.
В нем нередко размножаются грибы-поганки, поэтому рекомендуется добавить немного извести при внесении в землю. Хорошо удерживает влагу. Подходит для супесчаных и глинистых почв. The effect of manure from cow dung lasts up to 2-3 years. The application rate is 7-10 kg per 1 sq. M.
To improve the structure, sawdust is added to it and after rotting it is introduced into the soil in the fall. A liquid mullein is also prepared from it - this fertilizer with sufficient dilution with water is used even in summer.
Its structure is friable and porous. Decomposes at a temperature of 50-70 degrees, in connection with this process is faster. It is used to fertilize heavy soil types. Makes it more airy and easy. It has a diverse chemical composition. Due to the release of large amounts of heat, it is often used in greenhouses and greenhouses.
Consumption rate - 3-5 kg per 1 sq. M. It is more difficult to get it, because horses are bred less. Before laying on rotting, excrement is mixed with sawdust. When making add lime.
It has a semi-liquid structure. It is characterized by high acidity, so when adding it is necessary to add lime. It decomposes for a long time, at a low temperature. To speed up the process, it is mixed with horse. Contains a large number of weed seeds. Suitable for light soil types. Bring at the rate of 4-6 kg per 1 sq.m.
Contains a lot of nitrogen and potassium. The structure is dense, solid and dry. It decomposes at high temperature - 70 degrees, but very slowly. To make the process faster, sheep feces are mixed with the slurry. Used on clay soils.
Solid and dense in structure. Suitable for clay and depleted soils. Loosens the ground. In terms of nutrients, it is not inferior to cow and horse. Decomposes slowly. Does not contain weed seeds.
Dog excrement as a fertilizer is used extremely rarely. This is due to the fact that dogs are not herbivores, so their droppings are not particularly valuable. It contains phosphorus and calcium, but with them there may be helminths. Therefore, there are more arguments against dog droppings for fertilizer than for. If used, it is only after a long rotting in the compost heap.
Each plant has its own needs, so the type of manure and consumption must meet them in order for the culture to receive exactly as many nutrients as it needs. Most plants do not like fresh manure, however, some vegetables react favorably to its introduction even during the summer period, others only use humus.
This vegetable crop does not tolerate organic. Therefore, it is worth making manure in the autumn period when digging, so that nutrients are released from the mass. Use the composition for dressing during the growing season is only on depleted soils or when the external stems of the plant are weak.
Feeding is carried out with a slightly concentrated solution of mullein. For 10 liters of water take 0.5 liters of organic composition. Consumption 3-4 liters per 1 sq.m.
Fresh manure for tomatoes is not suitable. When planting in the wells add humus with wood ash. The first feeding can be done after 20 days. A liquid mullear (0.5 liters per 10 liters of water) or a manure solution infused for 3-5 days (0.3 liters per 10 liters of water) will do. Next, feed every two weeks until the beginning of flowering third brush.
Cucumbers need a lot of nitrogen to grow and produce fruits, so fresh manure can be used to feed them, especially if the soil is acidic. It is best to use chicken manure and mullein.
Feed 4 times during the growing season, alternating types of manure:
- In the flowering period. 10 liters of water 1 cup of cow dung. Consumption of half a liter per plant.
- In the period of fruit set. 10 liters of water 0.5 kg of bird droppings and a handful of wood ash. Consumption 1 liter per plant.
- After 2 weeks from the beginning of fruiting. On a bucket of water 1 liter of mullein. The resulting solution must be filtered. Consumption 10 liters per 1 sq.m.
- After another 2 weeks. Use chicken droppings again. On a bucket of water 1 liter of manure, diluted with water in the ratio of 1 to 3. Consumption of 5 liters per 1 sq.m.
Under the cucumbers, you can make horse manure in the fall or any semi-ruptured spring. A large amount of fertilizer is necessary for this crop to form powerful stems capable of withstanding fruit.
Garden strawberries are fed with manure twice per season with different frequency:
- During the ovary of berries. 1 liter of mullein is diluted in 10 liters of water. Consumption of 0.5 liters per bush. Feeding can be done annually.
- After harvesting before the first frost. Fresh manure is placed in the aisle and left it in this form until the spring. During this time, it will perepet, and substances will become available for the plant. Feeding is repeated 1 time in 3 years.
For strawberries it is best to use manure, which quickly decomposes and has a less pungent odor: cow and horse.
Currant and raspberry
These crops love slightly acidic soil, so the manure for them is most welcome. For the first time it is added to the ground before planting shrubs. Three years after planting, organic fertilizers are not used, they are fed only with mineral fertilizers. Then fertilizers are applied annually.
- In the spring they make root dressing from half-overgrown manure. To do this, at a distance of 30 cm from the bush, dig holes and place fertilizer in them, cover with a layer of earth and water it abundantly.
- During the fruiting period, fertilize from mullein or slurry is added, diluted 3-5 times with water.
- In the spring, before flowering. A bucket of humus with a handful of ash mixed and placed around the shrubs.
- Feed currants during the growing season can be liquid fertilizer from manure. The mullein or slurry is diluted 4 times with water and poured into the groove around the bush.
- In the autumn, before frosts, fresh manure is laid around the bush.
Root top dressing with liquid fertilizers or the introduction of manure into the ground in the autumn of shrubs are not needed, since excess nitrogen can provoke the growth of young shoots, and reduce disease resistance.
The grapevine is fed with organic matter 1 time in three years, starting from 4-5 years after planting.
In late autumn, before frosts, or in the spring, fertilizer from rotted manure is applied directly to the soil. It is undesirable to use fresh for grapes, as well as to make any manure in the second half of summer. If you overfeed the vine with nitrogen, it will not survive the winter.
In the spring, before flowering, the vine can be fed with infusion of bird droppings. It is diluted with water 4 times and allowed to infuse for a week. Then diluted another 10 times and watered with a solution of the root zone of the plant.
Fresh manure under fruit trees is applied at intervals of 2-3 years to 2-3 kg per plant in the autumn, before digging the area. The rest of the time they feed with humus, which has lain for at least 2-3 years. Fertilizer is applied in June, the first half of July. Humus diluted with water in the ratio of 1 to 5 and insist for a week, then watered the trees.
Flower beds also need organic feeding. If the flower bed is a perennial, then nothing will work except liquid fertilizers. It is best to apply mullein or horse manure. In order not to spoil the smell of flowering plants, it is desirable to purchase factory fertilizers in granules or in the form of a liquid concentrate.
Preparation of fertilizer: 1 kg of rotted horse or cow manure is diluted in 10 liters of water, another 10 liters of water are added every other day and watered with a bed composition.
Important! Sheep and pig manure are not suitable for flower beds.
Land under the flower bed can be prepared in the fall. To do this, rotted manure is distributed over the surface and dug. Consumption 10 kg per 1 sq.m. During sowing in the spring, 5 kg of humus per 1 sq. M.
Manure in the greenhouse
In greenhouse conditions, the use of manure as a fertilizer should be more careful than in open ground. The greenhouse effect contributes to intensive decay with the release of gas and heat, so fresh manure can be applied only in the autumn period when digging the ridge or in early spring to warm up under a large layer of earth.
Ideal for fertilizing land in the greenhouse - humus. This earthy mass no longer emits heat, but makes the soil fertile, loose and soft.
Any manure is a source of pests and pathogens, greenhouse conditions are ideal for their development. Therefore, before planting the plants, it is necessary to cultivate the fertilized soil:
- pickled seeds, laid out in the greenhouse, will help get rid of the bear,
- a weak solution of potassium permanganate heated to 60 degrees (1 g per 10 liters) destroys many pests, they shed soil before planting,
- spraying topsoil and walls of the greenhouse with copper sulfate eliminates fungus, mold, moss.
To warm up the soil after wintering, use horse manure. It quickly overheats and heats up well. From it, together with sawdust and straw make the bottom layer of the ridge. Then 25 cm of earth are poured on top and spilled with hot water, covered with foil. After 7 days you can start planting.
The use of rotted manure and humus
In fresh litter many different intestinal pests and harmful microorganisms that can harm the roots of plants. They are trying to get rid of them by creating compost.
The main components of the compost mass are fresh manure and slurry. They are added: bird droppings, peat, chopped straw, weeds. As well as food debris, fallen leaves, sawdust, various mineral supplements. The humidity of the mixture should be in the range of 70-75%.
Compost is prepared in a pit or stored as a collar. It is periodically necessary to condense and moisturize, which will lead to an increase in the internal temperature to 65 degrees and above. Abundant heat release will destroy most species of harmful microflora and helminth eggs, as well as significantly reduce the percentage of germination of weed seeds.
Over time, biomass decomposes and becomes loose and shallow. As fertilizer compost from manure with additives is valued no less than pure humus. And in a mixture with peat and phosphorus flour surpasses pure organic matter in nutritional value.
Cow humus - This is compost or litter, which decomposed two years or more. It looks like a homogeneous, friable, dark mixture that smells like earth. It is the perfect organic fertilizer for any cultivated plant. It grows seedlings of garden crops, they mulch the beds after watering, use holes for tomatoes and cabbage, zucchini and eggplants, pumpkin and watermelons as a filler.
The norm for making a mullein in the reversed state - from 7 to 10 kg per square meter, taking into account the fertility of the land.
In the autumn, it can be applied as a dry top dressing before digging up the soil before wintering, thereby enhancing the positive effect of this agrotechnical technique. From it you can make a special infusion for sprinkling plants (top dressing) and watering at the root.
Here you need to remember about one thing. In a fresh mullein, active oxidative processes take place. Therefore, it is important to know the concentration and rate of irrigation of the liquid top dressing for different plants, so as not to damage their stems and leaves with serious burns.
The rotted cow droppings (humus) can be used both in the fall (when digging) and in the spring in the form of mulching of all garden plants, including berries, fruit trees, perennial flowers. Experienced gardeners make humus in the soil right when forming the beds.
Dry humus does not like onions and carrots, so cow dung is not included in the beds for them. From the humus can be done infusion, which can be safely sprayed all garden and garden plants.
Preparing mullein infusion
For these purposes, deep capacity is required. You need to take a small part of the manure and fill it with 5 parts of water. The mixture should be thoroughly stirred and set to infuse under the lid for 10-15 days. To avoid volatilization of beneficial ammonia during fermentation, you need a lid for a container that will fit snugly.
Every 3 days, the solution should be stirred to ensure that it becomes homogeneous. If everything is done correctly, the fermentation process should begin. This will indicate small bubbles that will appear on the surface.
After a week, the solution should brighten, and solid and large particles settle to the bottom.
The mixture before use should be diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio. It is advisable to add wood ash (per 10 liters of a diluted solution of 500 grams) and superphosphate (per 10 liters of 100 grams). A balanced complex fertilizer will be obtained, which will be enriched with the missing phosphorus and potassium.
Storage and processing features
When stored in bulk without compaction (in bags, clamps) a lot of nutrients are lost, primarily nitrogen. The quality of this fertilizer is low. It can be increased by adding a small dose (about 3%) of phosphate rock.
When stored in bulk with compaction (cold method), a heap is formed in a cool place, on a flat surface with a strong layer. The bottom is laid out with dry leaves, peat or earth, 25-30 cm thick. Then layers of manure and peat (or dry earth) are laid with obligatory compaction. Bring the height of the heap to 1.5-2 meters, and then cover with film, turf or other improvised materials.
This method is suitable for storing fertilizer in the winter. It is important to constantly monitor the humidity (to prevent neither drying nor over-wetting) and to timely remove weeds.
Cow dung has an advantage - it is natural and well absorbed by all plants, making fertilizer very effective. They are convenient and easy to use in different forms:
- in the form of humus in the fall before plowing
- as a liquid fertilizer from fresh mullein
- in the form of mulching with humus beds, holes in greenhouses, greenhouses and open ground
- in the root zone of fruit trees and shrubs
It mixes easily with other beneficial additives. It serves as a natural defense against many harmful microorganisms and fungal diseases.
It is easy to buy, it does not have a high cost, and having a cow is generally free. Special firms (such as ours) pack it up in convenient bags and deliver it to the site.
Benefit and composition
One of the most affordable organic fertilizers in the home is cow humus. The formation of a fertile layer of soil occurs due to the introduction of cow manure into it. The main difference between organic and mineral fertilizers is that they contribute to the accumulation of nutrients in the soil.
The soil enriched with mullein or fertilizer based on it increases the aeration capacity of the soil. Thereby it contributes to a beneficial effect on the proper development of the root system of plants. Such an impact leads to rapid growth and high yields of fruit and vegetable and berry crops. The effective effect of organic fertilizers can last up to 4-6 years.
In its composition, mullein has many nutrients and minerals necessary for the proper development and fruiting of horticultural crops.
The composition of mullein per 1 kg:
- 1.4 grams of potassium oxide,
- 3 grams of phosphorus oxide,
- 2.9 grams of calcium oxide,
- 3.5 grams of nitrogen.
Indications of the chemical composition of manure can vary depending on the nutrition of the animal and its age. To start using fertilizer for its intended purpose, it is necessary to study in more detail what cow dung is like fertilizer and how to apply it correctly.
Varieties and classification
Mullein is an organic fertilizer that has a beneficial long-term effect on horticultural crops. It acts slowly, but evenly and for a long time. In addition, this organic is available to almost all gardeners. But in order to properly use fertilizer for its intended purpose, it is necessary to consider its classification.
Korovyak is divided into 2 states of fertilizer, each of which, in turn, is divided into several types. All species have their own distinctive characteristics, which should be reviewed more closely. Korovyak classified according to moisture content and degree of decomposition.
According to the moisture content in the composition of the species are divided:
- up to 80% of moisture in the composition - solid consistency of mullein. Easily explained by the characteristics of the litter. Her animal can eat with straw. The litter in this case most likely consists of sawdust, foliage or peat crumb,
- 80−90% - semi-liquid consistency of manure,
- more than 90% - slurry.
Varieties of mullein on the moisture content can be used as intended in solutions with water or should be sent for processing in order to obtain humus. Usually cow manure as a fertilizer in the home is more common to divide according to the degree of decomposition of the product.
According to the degree of decomposition, there are types:
- fresh - has a weakly expressed decomposition structure and in agrotechnology does not represent special value,
- semi-matured - formed by proper storage for 3 months. On the appearance it is much darker than fresh, and has a looser consistency with a splash of straw in it,
- humus - dark friable structure, perfectly crumbles. Humus is saturated with a huge number of microelements and easily digestible nutrients. It is a valuable product. Formed within 6 months of proper storage.
В саду применять можно все разновидности коровяка, но необходимо знать, как именно применять тот или иной вид правильно, без ущерба своему будущему урожаю.
Показания и противопоказания к применению
Практически все садово-плодовые растения прекрасно откликаются на подкормку естественного продукта. But It is worth noting that the feeding of each fruit crop must be approached individually. Each plant has its own requirements for the direct introduction of organic matter into the soil. Therefore, it is used in various forms.
Cow dung is used:
- in a liquefied
- in granules
- as a dry substrate.
It should be noted that the use of fresh mullein is not recommended. This is due to the fact that it contains a high concentration of ammonia. By introducing it in this form, you can harm the plant's root system. Therefore, it is desirable to dilute it with water. Use fresh manure into the soil should be only in the autumn, when preparing it for the next garden season.
To get high-quality and safe fertilizer in liquid form, you need to dilute fresh manure with water. The composition of fresh biological material includes eggs of various parasites. You can get rid of them using the method of breeding manure in water. In addition, water completely removes the sharp ammonia smell of the product. There are 2 ways to use cow dung in liquid form.
Ways to use liquid fertilizer:
- Basal dressing - the main type of fertilizer in liquid form. Fertilizer is introduced into the soil at the very roots of the plant.
- Spraying is done with a very weak solution of the aerial part of a weakened plant.
The diluted solution of mullein promotes the rapid activation of all processes of the full activity of the plant.
Fertilizer granules are produced by biological treatment and subsequent pressing. This form is convenient in that the root system of the plant with the help of granules can receive nutrients and trace elements in portions throughout the season.
When irrigated, the granules are able to absorb moisture and gradually give it to the soil along with useful substances. In addition, the granules are able to maintain the required level of moisture, preventing overdrying of the soil.
Granulated fertilizer is introduced into the soil only in the fall during soil preparation for winter. In the spring of granules sprinkled on the surface of the soil. Each form of mullein-based fertilizer has a different purpose. The beneficial effect of manure on the growth and yield of plants does not affect the form of its use.
Like all fertilizers, manure has some contraindications. Therefore, before using a product based on cow dung, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the conditions under which it cannot be strictly applied.
In a fresh product, there are many chemical reactions that can adversely affect the root system of a plant, therefore, in this form it is not recommended to use it for its intended purpose. In addition, the live eggs of parasites in fresh feces are very dangerous both for the plant and for human health.
Often on a pile of manure can be observed white bloom. This indicates fungal infections. It is also impossible to use such a product, especially for “warm” beds. It is possible to get rid of fungal plaque only by drying the product with further proper storage.
Before making manure dressing, you should familiarize yourself with the characteristic features of growing fruit plants. It is necessary to take into account that some of them categorically do not tolerate it. For example, vegetables such as beets, celery, radishes and carrots react poorly to such fertilizers. Therefore, in order to fertilize the soil for these plants, organic fertilizing should be applied to the soil 1-2 years before planting in a certain place.
Methods and features of processing
The quality of the future fertilizer depends on the proper storage and processing of the product of the vital activity of cows. Competent processing consists of several staged processes, each of which is very important and cannot be violated.
Stages of processing:
- Product collection using pumping equipment or mechanical method.
- Proper storage.
- Timely recycling.
Recycling is carried out naturally or with the introduction of special ready-made bacteria to manure. For proper processing, manure is placed in dense heaps, which provides the optimum temperature for the natural decomposition of the product of life.
Further, the semi-matured mass is transferred to other heaps, while it is tamped a little more densely, dusted with peat from crumbs. In this form, the humus does not lose nitrogen. After 2 months, rotted manure becomes full-fledged humus.
Recently, a method with the addition of bacterial cultures has been used more frequently, which helps to speed up and make the process much better. The bacterial process is completely harmless to absolutely all crops and does not represent a danger to human health.
To get the maximum benefit from the use of organic fertilizers in the garden or garden, it is recommended to adhere to simple rules and requirements for organic.
Rules and requirements:
- just before sowing or planting seedlings it is categorically impossible to add organic fresh. Due to chemical reactions occurring in it, the root system of plants can die,
- The process of mullein harvesting will be much more efficient if fertilizer is applied to the soil after harvest in the fall. In this case, after fertilization, the soil must be dug along with the mullein,
- in the process of fertilizer should follow the standard standards: for 1 sq / m of soil is recommended to 3-4 kg of manure,
- fertilize the soil is necessary 1 time in 2−3 years. With such a fertilizer schedule, the soil is not depleted and preserves the yield of all fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops,
- rotted or dry humus should be used in spring as mulch on beds and near-stem circles of fruit crops.
The optimal use of the product of the life of the cow will use the mass, which is processed more than 2 years.
The advantages of organic fertilizers are obvious: a natural, environmentally friendly fertilizer is perfectly suitable for the effective feeding of the soil and its natural protection.
Manure as one of the popular dressings
Organic litter is a fertilizer from the category of organic matter, which is produced everywhere, respectively, most farmers can receive it. There are several negative phenomena associated with the use of such fertilizer for the garden: an unpleasant consistency, a sharp and acrid smell, a method of obtaining substances.
Preference is given to manure thanks to a large number of useful elements, they enrich the soil and increase productivity. Due to the natural type of fertilizer, it is often preferred over synthetic options. Due to self-production or purchase from large farmers at a low price, you can get a big profit from the harvest.
Manure is a completely natural type of fertilizer that is used in almost all farms.
Processing of manure into fertilizer takes some time, as it is rarely used in raw form. For a good top dressing, it is required that the raw material be re-burnt. Based on the degree of decomposition there are several types:
- Fresh. It can be used only in the fall, when preliminary digging of the soil is carried out and sufficient time is provided for partial overheating of the manure. It is recommended to spread the fertilizer with a thick layer, and sawdust and a little bit of soil should be laid on top of it, this will help speed up the splitting and reduce the intensity of the smell.
- Poluporevshy, he's liquid manure. The dilution of raw materials is necessarily carried out on the basis of a dosage of 1 kg per 1 bucket of water. It should be used as top dressing throughout the maturation stage. Many farmers introduce liquid manure when planting seedlings. In case of overdosing of manure, it is necessary to increase the concentration of the substance by 2 times.
- Humus. Gained popularity due to the ability to improve consumer qualities. After using it, the taste becomes richer, brighter and better pronounced. The effect occurs in almost all cultures. It is mainly used as an additive to the soil or instead of mulch.
Types of manure: what to take
Based on the type of fertilizer, that is, the animal that developed it, numerous types of manure can be identified. What kind of manure is preferred depends entirely on the farmer, but each option has both positive and negative sides. In the further analysis of the chemical properties of manure, consideration of 4 basic trace elements will be used: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. All elements are not contained in pure form, but as oxides.
The main types of manure:
- Cow manure as a fertilizer has numerous positive reviews when used in relation to various plants. Its use should be done with extreme caution. Cow droppings contain a lot of nitrates, if the amount is exceeded, fertility may deteriorate.
- Pig manure as a fertilizer is in demand due to the greater concentration of nutrients. Not only pork manure is used as fertilizer, butt-eaten food, litter remains and even fallen bristles are used. The chemical composition is as follows (per 1 kg of the substance): nitrogen - 8.13 g, phosphorus - 7.9 g, calcium - 7.74 g, potassium - 4.5 g. Pig manure should be used as a fertilizer with extreme caution , as in the composition there is a large amount of ammonia.
- The horse species is in demand when growing certain plants and for preparing biofuels. Due to the small number of horses, its value is higher than other varieties. It can not be made in its pure form.
- Goat manure, as a fertilizer, is very similar in properties with sheep manure, respectively, the scope of use is identical. They have the greatest number of beneficial substances, it is 2 times more efficient than cows. Goat manure is often used for greenhouses. Usually used for feeding potatoes, pumpkins and beets. Manure in its pure form is placed on the ground and covered with soil.
- Rabbit manure as a fertilizer has gained positive reviews due to a high degree of plant safety. Manure of rabbits before being introduced practically does not require preparation, since it does not contain harmful elements for plants.
Rabbit manure can be used as a liquid or dry fertilizer, some reviews indicate the possibility of mixing it with other varieties. Before you get fertilizer from rabbit manure, if you follow the reviews regarding the dry use of raw materials, you must put it in the sun and dry out. Then dry feces are crushed in a mortar.
Often rabbit manure is used as a fertilizer for home flowers, according to reviews, they begin to actively develop and throw out more color. Need 1 tbsp. l dry mix mixed with 3 liters of land.
Preparation and use of manure
Top-dressing from fresh manure is practically not used in the farm, as the animal feces contain various pests that can pollute the soil. To eliminate harmful microorganisms, it is worthwhile to leave the mixture for 6 months, which will make feeding more secure.
The horse species is in demand when growing certain plants and for preparing biofuels.
There are several methods to reduce the waiting time:
- composting allows you to get high-quality fertilizer, for its preparation is enough to collect all the raw materials in a pile. Inside is laid substrate from last year. At the base of the heap are also used plant waste, which are transferred in layers with manure. If the heap is increased to 1–1.5 m, it should be filled with water and left waiting for the debate. The method allows you to use the mixture after 2 months, but it’s best to expect 1 year,
- Vermicomposting is suitable for making high-quality fertilizing using worms, they are sold in fertilizer stores. The technique makes it possible to enrich the soil with useful microelements from manure and additionally with worms, which also have a beneficial effect. Before immersion of the worms, liming is always used by slaked lime, ash, or bone-type flour. Neutral environment causes the death of worms,
- under the action of humates, these are components for accelerating the overheating of manure and enrichment with useful substances, which leads to a reduction in dosage and economical consumption. The use of humates occurs in March or April when the temperature rises above 0 ° C. The ratio is the following - 10 kg of raw materials require 10 g of humates. To create a uniform composition you need to mix a bunch,
- Insisting is the fastest way to eliminate harmful ammonia and microorganisms. It is necessary to mix manure and water in the ratio of 1 to 1 and leave for a week. The solution is mixed with ordinary water from a ratio of 1 to 10 and is used for irrigation. Watering at the root of this mixture is not recommended. Liquid manure is preferably used in the evening.
Fresh manure and its application
Manure is allowed to be applied raw, only by taking special care, since the risks are greater and the plants assimilate it worse:
- spring can be used to heat the soil, it will help get an early harvest. Sheep dung heats the earth best
- in summer, liquid manure shows itself better. The raw material is mixed with water in a ratio of 1 to 4, then the mixture is poured around the rhizome, so that the liquid does not get to the roots. On 1 m 2 about 1.5 l are used,
- autumn fertilizer is added in the process of digging. It is necessary to ensure the penetration of manure into the soil to a depth of about 30 cm, and to cover it from above with earth. 10 kg are used per m 2,
- in winter, it is important to use it for simple spreading on snow, this will allow soil to be fertilized in advance. It is worth using 15 kg per 1 m 2.
The main task of using manure is to enrich the soil with nutrients, but additionally it affects the condition of the soil, providing porosity, better permeability and optimal conditions for the existence of worms. Mainly manure is used after dilution. Often, a technique of covering with a manure of the ground surface is used, and additional soil is laid on top, this allows to enrich the soil and heat it.
Among the disadvantages of this fertilizer can be identified:
- the high cost, which is formed due to the lengthy process of preparation and the complexity of transportation,
- there are a lot of weed seeds inside, they will start to germinate and lead to the need to constantly weed,
- there is a risk of introducing a large amount of nitrate or ammonia, it will worsen the quality of plant cultivation,
- in the composition there are pests, with proper composting they can be eliminated.
On closer examination, cow dung contains 1 kg of nitrogen: 3.5 g of nitrogen, 3 g of phosphorus, 2.9 g of calcium, and 1.4 g of potassium. When selecting, it is recommended to take into account sex, number of years and other organic factors of the animal. When using manure from calves, the useful properties of 15% less.
Cow droppings have fewer nutrients and belong to the group with low efficiency
Before using manure, a composting step should be carried out. Cow droppings are laid out of the ratios of 7–10 kg per 1 m 2. If necessary, heating the beds is recommended to fill shoulders with a maximum height of 1 m.
Today, cow droppings have fewer nutrients and belong to the group with low efficiency. The advantage is minimal risk of poisoning or burns.
Horse variety is used with high efficiency when growing zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkins, potatoes and cabbage. One kilogram contains nitrogen - 4.7 g, phosphorus - 3.8 g, calcium - 3.5 g, potassium - 2 g.
Experienced gardeners note the optimal dosage - 5 kg per 1 m 2 for open ground. When growing plants in a greenhouse, they simply sprinkle 30 cm of soil on the ground and pour hot liquid with the addition of potassium permanganate from pests. On top of the fertilizer stack 20 cm of soil.
Pork has a high risk of burns due to ammonia. Composting is recommended for good fertilizer. Dung from horses, pigs and cows should be used as humus.
Use of pig manure
A useful property of pig manure, as fertilizer, is the presence in the composition of 70% of all nitrogen in a form that is easily absorbed by plants. Manure is mainly used for liquid application to the soil with a small number of solid pieces, but their diameter should not exceed 10 mm, preferably about 5 mm. Before use, it is passed through composting, it allows to eliminate frequent pests of pigs.
Often found in certain regions of sheep dung, it is characterized by a high concentration, respectively, it is better to breed in water.
Getting humus from mammal manure
Humus can be easily prepared independently. Следует выполнить несколько этапов:
- Изначально всё сырьё укладывается на кучу. Лучше использовать яму или ёмкость.
- Сверху горка накрывается рубероидом.
- По мере перепревания следует иногда увлажнять его. Стоит контролировать, чтобы верх на протяжении всего времени находился влажным. For the penetration of air necessary for the reaction, it is worth 1-2 times a month to loosen a bunch.
If a dry type of manure was acquired, there is no need to cover it, just moisten it. With such a manipulation, it is necessary to expect maturation of 4–5 months, the optimal period is 1 year, and the ideal preparation period is 2 years.
Chicken manure also belongs to the category of animal type fertilizer, only its characteristic feature is an excess amount of urea, which will lead to burns on plants. This provokes contraindications for use in raw form.
Fresh Chicken Dung
Chicken manure as a fertilizer allows you to saturate the soil with carbon dioxide. It contains a lot of nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. Avian droppings contain 4 times the number of useful elements.
This fertilizer has properties similar to feeding with complex fertilizers. The duration of the positive impact is 3 years. Due to the availability of fertilizer, it is often used in small farms.
Rules for making bird droppings
To obtain a large and high-quality crop when using chicken manure (or any other bird) you need to follow 3 fundamental rules:
- Manure should be kept outdoors for 1 year or more, otherwise dry fertilizer should not be applied.
- Can be used in dry form a little earlier when mixed with sawdust or peat in a ratio of 1 to 3. The mixture is placed in the grooves and filled with water. The entire surplus will take the straw, acting as a sorbent.
- It should be used in liquid form when conducting dressings for young plants that were previously transplanted. It is necessary to plant on the basis of the following concentration: 1 kg per 20 liters of water. The solution should be allowed to stand for 10 days on the street, this will allow the urea to erode.
Preparation of humus from bird droppings
Birds litter perfectly complements the properties of the compost. For making it is recommended to lay leaves or tops on the bottom, and lay chicken litter on top. Top hole covered with a film (can be replaced by a layer of earth 5 cm). It is recommended to carry out periodic moistening. Due to the release of methane, the rate of decay increases significantly. Ready humus can be obtained in 6-8 months.
Fresh chicken manure solution
Plant compost is the easiest to prepare organic fertilizer. Any farmer or summer resident can cook it. As raw materials for preparation are used: leaves, tops of plants, stalks of plants. For nitrogen enrichment, it is recommended to use legume stalks and cut grass. To ensure a sufficient amount of phosphorus is to lay the mustard, canola and similar crops for technical purposes. Calcium will be enough when laying melon.
The main thing is to create the conditions for compost preparation, otherwise, instead of the expected benefits, the summer resident will receive a hotbed of weeds, pests and diseases. There are a number of rules for the proper formation of humus:
- All plants affected by diseases or pests are not suitable for preparation. In the presence of growths, manifestations of phytophthora and other characteristic symptoms, it is worth burning raw materials. Ash will no longer have flaws and will allow to fertilize the garden.
- Grass seeds should be excluded from the bookmark. It is important to prevent the ingress of aggressive varieties of herbs - wheat grass, sow thistle and others. Otherwise, the land will be infected with weeds for a long time.
- Be sure to fit the grass with manure. It is recommended to lay in a pile of lawn grass, which is complemented by chicken or other litter.
- The use of harmful substances of synthetic origin has negative consequences. The use of paper or cardboard is allowed (subject to the absence of impurities and dyes). You can also make wood chips, but a longer period of compost ripening is required.
The sequence of actions when composting
To create humus from plants you need:
- Knock the wooden box, you can replace the usual pit.
- Inside are plants that will be used for compost. It is better to shift the pile in layers, alternately mixing the land, plants, manure, litter or fertilizer with a high concentration of nitrogen. Earth is necessarily shifted, as it provides access from microorganisms, worms and insects. You can replace the land with manure or bird droppings. If possible, it is better to give preference to manure.
- Above the pit is covered with a film or roofing material. In this state, it should be 1 year.
- Moisten and mix the compost periodically.
If there is an opportunity to add raw materials to the pile, you can use the same sequence. It is recommended to create a pile with the number of layers up to 5. The thickness of the earthen surface layer is 7 cm.
Autumn organic fertilizer application
To make compost that has not yet matured, it is recommended in the autumn. With the introduction of substances in the autumn is to distribute the substrate with the maximum uniformity of the area and a little drip (15 cm). By spring, organic matter will decompose somewhat, and the plants will receive the necessary substances.
Litter should be used in the fall, but to reduce the complexity of the work, it can be applied in the winter, right on top of the snow. This will exclude the procedure of digging.
Adding humus in spring
Before planting various crops, only ready-made humus can be used. Its consistency must be loose, soft and easy to crumble. When ready, the manure has a dark color, slightly brown or completely black. In finished form, manure should acquire an earthy smell. The only exception is compost humus, which has a pungent odor.
It is important to ensure that the humidity of the humus, it should release some water when squeezed in his hand. It is introduced into the well during planting. To use manure in the garden is when digging trees.
The virtues of cow droppings as fertilizer
The use of cow manure as a fertilizer has a positive effect on the creation of a fertile soil layer. Organic fertilizers, in contrast to mineral fertilizers, allow the soil to accumulate beneficial substances for quite a long time.
The feeding of the soil with mullein favorably affects the fertility of garden plants. Also, the enrichment of the land with cow dung increases soil aeration, which has a positive effect on the sprinkling of the root system.
The fertilizer applied continues to enrich the soil for at least four years.
Nutrients in manure
A kilogram of cow manure contains the following components in such quantity:
- calcium oxide - 2.9 g,
- nitrogen - 3.5 g,
- phosphorus oxide - 3 g,
- potassium oxide - 1.4 g
Depending on the age of the animal and its diet, the number of useful chemical elements may slightly deviate.
Most garden fruits interact well with cow manure, increasing yields. And yet, all plants have their own nuances when feeding manure.
It is used in various forms:
The use of fresh cow manure in its pure form to feed plants is undesirable. This is due to the fact that in fresh feces the content of ammonia is very high, which is harmful for the roots. Nevertheless, fresh product is best used for fertilizing the soil before the onset of winter.
Also fresh material can be used for the construction of warm beds. A half-meter-high bed, erected, is able to warm up the internal space up to 50 o C. Thanks to this, the plant, planted in early spring, is protected from possible frost, and its root system begins to develop rapidly.
Sometimes, fresh manure is still used to fertilize seedlings already planted, but it is worth considering the risk that the plant may die. The process of decomposition of feces involves all sorts of chemical reactions that are detrimental to the roots.
Mullein solution, what is it
Usually, liquid cow dung concentrate is prepared from fresh material and water in equal proportions. Thus, the level of ammonia and the eggs of all kinds of parasites is significantly reduced.
To feed the plants you need radical irrigation of the diluted concentrate. Regarding how to breed a mullein for feeding, it depends on what kind of culture should be fertilized. But, as a rule, the concentrate is diluted in a ratio of 1:10, and each plant is watered with a volume of about half a liter of composition.
A weak solution of mullein can also spray the stems of weakened plants.
In what situations fertilizer is unacceptable
So, it is clear that the use of fresh manure is undesirable. This can provoke the death of the plant, and the parasite eggs contained are dangerous to human health.
In addition, if a white bloom appears on the litter, this indicates the development of fungi. Turning fresh material into humus will get rid of the problem. And yet it is absolutely impossible to use such manure to create a “warm bed”.
Also it is necessary to take into account that not all garden crops favorably perceive fertilizing with manure. Some plants are unable to positively interact with cow droppings, these include:
Planting these plants in fertilized soil is allowed a year or two after fertilization.
Independent preparation of dressings
In order to get good fertilizer from cow dung, it is necessary to allocate a place for storing and ripening the future compost.
What gardener fertilizer knows, perhaps, every gardener. To get a good humus, it is important to know how to store manure. The best solution would be a suitable pit depth or impressive box dimensions. An important condition for the preparation of the substrate is the absence of moisture and the exclusion of sun rays.
Manure is covered with a dense waterproof material and stored in this form for about two years. To speed up the process, it is advisable to turn the contents upside down with garden forks every few months.
Cooking instruction for liquid mullein
The most common and easiest way to obtain liquid manure is to prepare a concentrate in the ratio of water and faeces of 1: 1. This liquid is stored in a tightly closed container and in a dark place.
The solution settling lasts about a week. During this period, ammonia is neutralized in the composition, fungal spores and eggs of parasites will die. You can speed up the process by regularly stirring the composition.
Before use, the concentrate is further diluted with water in various proportions.
The popularity of cow dung
Due to the fact that the modern consumer is trying to buy food grown without the use of artificial fertilizers, all agricultural enterprises are trying to switch exclusively to natural fertilizers. One of the most frequent decisions is precisely the use of cow manure due to the optimal ratio of useful components in its composition.