Usually the plant is cultivated in order to obtain seasoning for food or folk remedies against many diseases. But mustard can be used for garden and garden. Siderat is used to protect against infections and pests, increases soil fertility. At the same time planting and care in the open field are different from cultivation for food purposes.
Mustard as a fertilizer for the garden
Culture is used to increase fertility, improve the structure of the land, control weeds and attract bees to the site. Its composition has a beneficial effect on the beneficial soil microflora. Often white mustard is used as a siderata, but sowing of other varieties is acceptable:
The choice of white is justified by the high frost resistance and unpretentiousness of the plant. The green mass enriches the soil with nitrogen and organic matter, the root system makes phosphates available to other crops, which is used in horticulture and horticulture to improve the soil. Siderat cleans beds from phytophtoras, scab, pathogens of putrefactive and fungal diseases, allows to restore the fertility of the earth in a short time.
Mustard, along with yeast, salt, soda - natural fertilizer in the garden and vegetable garden. The plant can be used not only in the form of green, but also in the finished powder. In this case, the crop acts as a protective agent against pests, and not as a fertilizer. Yellow mustard has white seed, black has brown seed, but regardless of color, it can be used as siderat.
Digging green spaces need for 2-3 weeks before planting the following crops. To speed up the process, the bed needs to be watered so that the vegetable mass will rot faster.
What is green space management in agrotechnology
This is the name given to the instillation of the aerial parts of plants to enrich the soil in the country with nitrogen and organic components. On the site, depleted from the long-term cultivation of garden crops, populated with wireworms or slugs, siderats are sown. When building enough green mass of plants need to mow, plow into the ground or move to another place, add to the compost.
The use of similar varieties in the garden allows you to improve the characteristics of the soil, get rid of weeds, attract bees. The technique increases the buffering capacity, moisture capacity, the amount of soil absorption. When grown from siderata mustard, a developed root system is formed, capable of extracting insoluble nutrients from the deep layers, draining the structure of the earth.
Dense sowing of the crop, its ability to quickly germinate contributes to the weed driving, which greatly simplifies weeding, preserves nutrient nutrients in the soil. Mustard is a good honey plant, which has a beneficial effect on the fruiting of other garden and horticultural crops.
Improvement of the soil helps to create favorable conditions for cultivation for subsequent planting. The number of pests and weeds is reduced, the risk of contracting diseases decreases. Mustard as a fertilizer enriches the earth with phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, which are necessary for the growth and development of the aerial part and the root system of all kinds of plants. The accumulated organic matter is equal in value to the application of manure to the beds.
Useful properties of this siderat appear only when timely embedded in the ground. After the beginning of flowering and ripening of the seed material of the plant, all the nutrients are sent to the inflorescences. In addition to the benefits of mustard in the garden and cause harm if you do not follow the rules of crop rotation. It can not be planted on the site before or after the representatives of the Cruciferous family, since they have the same diseases and pests. After this siderata, cabbage cannot be planted (cruciferous flea affects both crops) and root crops, since in addition to useful nutrients, phytoncides accumulate in the soil, which inhibit the growth and development of vegetables.
Terms of sowing crops as siderata
The plant is permissible to plant from March to November, but as a fertilizer - in early spring or autumn. Growing white mustard as a siderata allows you to prepare the ground for planting other crops in a short time. Seeds quickly germinate, greens grow in sufficient quantity in 1-1.5 months.
Winter sowing for spring dressing is common. It is more difficult to guess the dates here, because the shoots appear very quickly.
In the case of late planting, 2 weeks will be enough for the above-ground part to be sufficiently developed to protect the soil from infections and pests. As a fertilizer, such shoots are of little value because they have accumulated an insufficient amount of nutrients.
Mustard can sprout at +2 ° C, survive short-term frosts at -5 ° C. Despite this, spring sowing is recommended to start after establishing +10 ° C, rather than waiting for the snow to melt. The sun warms the earth a little, returning frosts are rare, nights are getting warmer.
When using the white variety as a fertilizer, the spring should be planted in March or April. Depending on the region, the dates may shift slightly. At the age of 20-35 days, mustard is grass-like, soft and pliable, easily dug up without mowing.
The use of the vegetable garden when sowing at this time of the year is due to the nutritional value, improvement of the soil structure and the use of the aerial part as mulch or a component of the compost. In the fall planting mustard is made immediately after harvesting from previous crops. If you don’t want to mow ready siderats and embed them in the ground, you should leave no more than 1-1.5 months until frost is stable. During the winter, the shoots will start to rot on the soil surface, in the spring it will be enough to simply dig up the fertilized area. Mustard sown for the winter should not have time to germinate, so the seeds should be laid out in the prepared grooves, when the soil will freeze slightly. From above pour 1.5 cm of loose soil, leave to hibernate.
How to sow mustard
For the cultivation of crops for spice is required to comply with a specific planting scheme. When used as a siderat, this is required only for the winter embedding method, but to make the grooves for seed material close to each other. In other cases, you can just scatter on the ground and sprinkle a little earth.
How to sow mustard fertilizer:
- clean the soil from plant residues of the previous culture, dig,
- water and wait until the water is completely absorbed,
- scatter the seeds on the soil surface, observing the rate of white mustard sowing on siderat - 2-3 g / m²,
- sprinkle with loose earth or rake it to a depth of 0.5-2 cm.
Watering is not necessary if the soil is well moistened, but in dry soil the culture will grow for a long time, which will delay the next planting. When sowing mustard to fertilize the soil should not worry if some of the seed remains on the surface. The plant is unpretentious, so special care is not required. In dry regions, it is desirable to water it sometimes.
When to mow mustard
Culture should develop in the prepared area of 1-1.5 months. At the beginning of flowering, it is easy to understand that it has grown, has accumulated a sufficient amount of useful substances. While the plant is soft, grassy, you can plow. If a little late with the work, the stems harden, become rigid. Then you have to mow down the mustard plantings, chop it and then dig it out.
In late autumn, it is permissible to leave branches no older than 1 month right in the garden beds. If the plants are already large, mowed mustard can mulch the earth.
When winter sowing seedlings appear independently after melting snow. Leave them on the beds should also be 1-1.5 months. The following crops are allowed to plant no earlier than 2-3 weeks after digging.
Mustard is widely used as a fertilizer due to its frost resistance, the ability to create an optimal nutrient medium for the following plants and unpretentiousness. Digging up plant residues enriches the soil with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Cultivation on the site replaces the introduction of manure into the ground.
Characteristics and structure of mustard
The scientific name of mustard is Sinapis. Botanists classify the plant as belonging to the cabbage family. The mustard genus is represented by 6 species. The most useful as an organic additive is a type called white mustard. At the same time there is the national name of the plant - "English mustard".
CIS countries prefer to sow mustard in the northern regions. There, in some regions, it appears to farmers as a weed that grows at road junctions and in the fields.
Useful characteristics of the plant are being implemented in improving the soil. Planted mustard is able to release from the soil heavily dissolving phosphates and other components, accumulate them in their plant body.
Other agricultural plants are not able to absorb phosphate elements in the soil on their own. At the end of the mowing and rotting of mustard, other saplings are able to assimilate hardly soluble components quite simply. It is this feature of this organic fertilizer that makes it an excellent sideratom for sowing.
The term "siderata" must be understood as attributable to plants that are planted for the purpose of their future mixing with the soil. Not only mustard is used as green manure. Lupins, leguminous plants, crotalaria and clover are used here. Green manure is also referred to as "green fertilizer."
Sown mustard has another useful feature - the ability to accumulate in its root system, the stem part and the foliage of nitrogen compounds in large quantities that will be used in the future for the development of garden plantations.
Sowing plant perfectly carries out the accumulation of phosphate compounds. After mowing the mustard plantings and mixing them with the ground, the ground can get a sufficient number of useful microcomponents, required for subsequent plantings on this site and harvesting a good harvest.
The mustard leaves falling into the ground contain the following:
- 25% organic ingredients
- about 1% of phosphorus compounds,
- about 0.7% of nitrogen compounds.
What you need to know about how to plant mustard?
White mustard, used in the form of organic fertilizer, is characterized by some advantages over other siderats. Its seed material has a greater germination rate compared to other garden crops. From the moment of disembarkation to the appearance of the first shoots, it is required to wait approximately 4 days.
The frost resistance of young shoots is pretty good: the plant is able to withstand a drop in ambient temperature right up to up to - 5 degrees Celsius. Scientists have calculated that from an area of one hundred square meters you can get approximately 0.4 tons of green mass.
During planting mustard as a fertilizer is required to understand that it is strictly forbidden to allow the seeds to ripen. If this requirement is neglected, the plant will be able to multiply uncontrollably in large quantities in the garden plot. This rule applies to spring and autumn plantings.
English mustard grows pretty quickly. Sometimes flowering occurs before negative temperatures. For autumn planting is not required to mow the green mass.
In winter, the cold successfully eliminates mustard leaves. Strong stems can perfectly hold the snow mass. The root system helps to keep water in the soil.
Due to intensive development and a huge amount of green mass, the plant is used as a barrier against natural wind gusts. This helps retain water in the upper layers of the soil, makes it difficult to ventilate the ground and protects planted vegetables.
Since mustard spreads quite rapidly across the plot, it needs time to mow before flowering. It is allowed to re-plant a garden mustard seeds. It never hurts to make the soil much stronger than before. Yes, and the green mustard mass has excellent, fertilizing the earth substances.
Prejudices associated with the landing of mustard
Currently, unfortunately, mustard is not the most common type of cultivated plant in the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. To a large extent this is due to the presence of negative feedback from gardeners. For example, it is assumed that the plant loves heat too muchas well as poorly germinates in the climatic conditions of the middle geographical zone.
However, both assumptions can be attributed to the category of myths. The plant does not have high requirements for compliance with high temperature.
It does not need to be watered intensively. And it usually has time in the middle geographic band to germinate so that he even begins to form seeds.
Under conditions of natural growth, mustard can be found in all natural areas, not including the permafrost zone. English mustard is spread all over the planet: it can be found in the United States of America, India and on the Japanese islands.
Those gardeners who have already applied it plant as organic fertilizer, can say about the ease of its cultivation and benefits for future harvest.
Soil fertilizer with mustard dressing helps not only to provide the soil with nutrients, but also implements other additional functions. Have Mustard has the following benefits:
- The mustard plant has an accelerated growing season, as a result of which it practically does not allow other crops to grow next to it. Because of this, such a plant seems to be an excellent and effective tool in the fight against weeds in the garden area.
- Not only weeds, but also a significant part of harmful insects, the plant will drive away from its site due to the presence of phytosanitary qualities. Extremely specific mustard smell frightens away wire worms, pea podozhorok and slugs.
- Mustard has a fairly developed root system, which lies in the soil to a depth of 3 m. For this reason, it is well organized soil layers, helps fill the soil with gas, strengthens the soil, protecting it from destruction, wind drying and spreading. The soil gets less dense structure, it gets more oxygen and water.
- Plants generate a huge amount of green mass, which, after penetration into the soil turns into humic acid - a useful organic component, characterized by great nutritional value for vegetable crops.
- Since the plant contains many nitrogen compounds, its use as a siderata helps to retain this component in the soil in the required amount and protects the soil from leaching.
- With the advent of winter frost, autumn mustard stalks are laid on the ground, covering it. This circumstance does not allow the ground to become frozen.
- It is recommended to sow the plant in the place where in the future it is planned to plant potatoes and, in general, cultures of the nightshade. Harmful insects that feed on solanaceous crops cannot stay close to the plant for a long time due to its special strong smell. This circumstance can be applied for the benefit of the gardener.
- White mustard flowers for bees and other pollinating creatures are a good source of honey. So, beekeepers are advised to take note of this information.
- Sometimes there is a common incidence and attack of pests. For this reason, it is very important to observe the rules of planting plants. In the area where it is planted, no other plants of the cruciferous type such as cabbage and radish need be planted nearby.
- Mustard seeds, spilled on the surface of the ground and covered with only a small layer of land, love to dig up birds. They can pull apart all the spilled seed volume. To prevent this, it is necessary to introduce seeds deeper into the ground or diligently mulch the planting.
Thus, white mustard has many more advantages than disadvantages.
Sowing mustard in spring
During spring, it is recommended to plant the plant as a fertilizer in April. The middle geographic zone is not an obstacle for this. In this case, the sun's rays warm the earth well, and the night cold comes less often.
Despite the simplicity of the environmental conditions, it is desirable to wait for the pores when the ambient temperature rises to at least 10 degrees.
Sowing mustard in the fall
The plant is recommended to sow where the plantings of cereals or plants of the family of bowlings are located. As a result, you can already in the future calendar year expect a bountiful harvest.
You can not mow mustard before the winter period. During the thaw, the green mass has time to rot, ensuring the soil is saturated with useful substances. Для предотвращения опасности смыва семян желательно их сажать на глубину около 1,5 см.
Таким образом, мы рассмотрели вопрос о том, как сеять горчицу. Исходя из вышесказанного, посев горчицы требует лишь небольших усилий.
Немного о белой горчице
Annual plant, the use of which as a fertilizer has a number of properties that make it the best sideratom. White mustard is growing rapidly. 4 days after sowing sprouts will begin to appear. Plant unpretentious and can grow even at -5 ° C. Therefore, it can be planted in the spring. This plant grows very quickly and gives high yields. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the plant does not start to mature and does not fill the entire area. If aging began in the autumn, it is not necessary to cut them down. Frost will do everything for you.
Often white mustard is used as a barrier from strong air currents. Its height reaches 70 cm. Because of its ability to grow quickly plant can well hold airflows and various dust, protecting other plants. And also, well retains moisture in the soil. But it is necessary to mow it often and plant a new one on the spot. Its roots will be able to strengthen the soil, and the green part will be feeding for new plants.
- Prevents the washing out of valuable mineral substances from the soil.
- Substances secreted by mustard inhibit the growth of bacteria and mold.
- It is a good honey plant when landing in spring.
- On the ground with this sideratom, the number of slugs and wireworm decreases.
Many may wonder how to plant mustard and at what time it is best to do. It is possible to sow this plant for fertilizer from March to August, and it can also be planted in the fall (until November in the southern regions). But it is best to plant for month before planting the main crop. So the soil can be enriched to the maximum. The plant can be used for dividing flower beds and flower beds.
It is important to know that mustard must not be grown after crucifers. This can lead to undesirable consequences. For example, turnips can not even tolerate mustard in the neighborhood and therefore the chance to settle down on the site decreases. Another important thing to know that rotting the stems of this siderat will slow down the growth of other plants. Therefore, you need to wait 1-2 weeks after the bevel.
Let's go to how to sow mustard right:
- Before sowing, clean the area from the remnants of the main crop (these can be roots, stems, etc.).
- Clear all weeds from the plot.
- Mustard grows well in calcium-rich soils. This will ensure the rapid growth of sideratu. Therefore, lime is added to the soil.
- Enrich the soil with humus, scattering on the surface of the soil.
- Plot digging shovel. This mustard loves loose soils and it serves to get the maximum amount of moisture when watering and raining.
- Then the plot is raked.
- If you plant mustard for fertilizer, the beds do not have to. This can be done after they cut off siderat.
Having dealt with the preparation of the soil, we will understand the technique, as plant mustard:
- Seeds are scattered so that there are 5 grams of sown material per square meter.
- If there are a lot of seeds on the plot, it is not necessary to remove them or mix them. The goal is to make the siderats as thick as possible. But this does not mean that buckets of seeds should be poured onto the plot.
- If there are large spaces between the seeds, just add more seeds.
- Scattered seeds fall asleep with a thin layer of soil. The thickness of the layer should not exceed one centimeter.
- Water the plant exclusively with a watering can. Since the hose with a nozzle will form a strong pressure that will wash away the seeds.
In fairly hot weather, the plant should be watered moderately. With a lack of moisture, mustard will be small and rare. And the roots, by contrast, will be strong and long in order to extract moisture from the depths. Having understood the sowing of mustard, let's figure out when to cut greens.
Siderat does not require any special fertilizers. After 30 days, the plants begin to bloom. This means that it is time to mow siderat.
Mustard flowers are good honey plants, but there are several reasons why it is better to cut siderat before the beginning flowering:
- After flowering, the leaves and stems of the plants begin to grow rough. Because of this, rotting will last longer.
- When ripe, syeron mustard can fall to the ground and rise. And it becomes an unnecessary weed.
- For ripening plant consumes a lot of nutrients, because of what the foliage begins to become impoverished.
After the green part is cut down, it is necessary to dig up the area so that there is no greenery on the surface of the soil. The plot must be constantly watered, otherwise the soil will lose all the nutrients and the growing green manure will be in vain.
If the mustard is sown before winter, you should not mow it, as the frost will destroy the leaves, and the stems will remain, in the form of a snow retainer.
If you have a desire to collect mustard seeds for further planting, then there are a few rules. First, the sowing density should be less than when using this plant as a fertilizer. Secondly, it is necessary to plant siderat more in the spring. Then you are guaranteed to get seeds.
Using this plant as a siderata is very effective. But you must follow all the rules set forth in this article. But this plant should not be the only source of biohumus. It is necessary to add humus to the soil. And it is also important to monitor the compatibility of plants. So white mustard goes well with potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries and cucumbers.
Mustard as a siderat
The agrotechnical term "green man" comes from the French word "sideration", which means "stunning effect". The procedure involves the cultivation of some plants to obtain green mass, which after some time plowed into the ground. This allows you to improve the structure of the soil, to enrich it with mineral trace elements: potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus. Annual plants with a period of 30 to 60 days are suitable for sideration, which quickly increase the vegetative mass - up to 700 kg per 1 hundred square meters. In addition to mustard, rye, vetch, lupine, and legumes are often used.
After sufficient growth of greenery plants mown. It is important to do this before flowering. Next, the herbs are crushed and dripped into the soil, where vegetables will later be grown. There is another method: mowed plants rake and fold in a suitable place in the garden or garden for the manufacture of compost. The grass roots are left in the soil for rotting, which gives an effect similar to the introduction of manure.
Green manure can be sown at any stage of the growing season. For autumn, frost-resistant varieties are selected that are able to survive the winter. In early spring, mustard is often sown, since it is rapidly gaining weight. Approximately 14 days before the crops are sown, the grass is mown and plowed into the ground or left on the ground and used as mulch. The mustard roots remaining in the soil effectively structure the soil, enrich it with oxygen and useful microelements.
To increase the value of green manure, it is enough to water the cut plants with EM-preparations.
Mustard cultivation significantly increases the yield of crops that are planted after it. The plant has a beneficial effect on the condition of the soil, protects it from weathering and overheating.
Benefits and harm to soil
Mustard, embedded in the soil, actively nourishes the plants at the growth stage, the most important and responsible. The main useful properties of siderats include:
- soil disinfection, pest control: wireworms, slugs, pea moth and others,
- cleaning of beds from scab, phytophthora, putrefactive bacteria,
- weed growth suppression,
- improvement of soil structure, prevention of erosion and freezing,
- loosening, saturating the earth with moisture, enrichment with oxygen,
- rapid germination, use as a fertilizer, soil enrichment with useful substances,
- prevention of leaching of garden and garden plots due to the ability of nitrogen retention,
- activization of growth of many garden and garden crops: beans, grapes, fruit trees.
During the flowering period mustard attracts a large number of insects. For this reason, plants can be planted during the growing season.
Despite the large number of advantages, mustard has some disadvantages:
- susceptibility to the negative effects of parasites and cruciferous diseases,
- mustard seeds attract many birds.
When and how to sow?
After harvesting, it is time to sow mustard as a siderata. The time that remains until the onset of frost is enough for germination, and possibly flowering of this plant.
Often, planting is carried out on sites where grain crops or potatoes had previously grown. As a result, the soil that has lost a large amount of nutrients is healed and saturated with necessary substances. With the onset of spring, the site will again be suitable for growing crops and obtaining high yields.
There are 2 best ways to plant mustard:
- Seeding in soil. Seeds are sown at a distance of 13–15 cm, to a depth of no more than 2 cm. Mustard is growing rapidly and in a short time covers the beds with a lush green carpet. Consumption of seeds is about 150 g per 1 hectare.
- Scattering on the site. To do this, you just need to scatter the seeds on the beds, and then make harrowing using a rake. In this case, the consumption increases by 2 times, that is, it will take about 300 g of seeds per hundred.
Seeds can be bought only in specialized stores. Visually, their quality should be assessed: the surface of the planting material should be dense, without rot and no signs of drying.
High-quality seeds - a pledge of the emergence of the first shoots as early as 3 - 4 days after sowing. A month later, the plants reach 15 cm in height and will be fully prepared for further activities.
When to dig?
After a sufficient amount of green mass is obtained, the plants should be embedded in the ground. Many gardeners claim that this procedure is highly efficient. The first positive results will be noticeable soon. It is important not to miss the moment and start embedding in the ground before the appearance of flowers. Otherwise, the mustard stalks will become hard and coarse, and the work will require additional efforts. The optimal time is 5 - 7 weeks after landing. During this period, the mustard is soft and supple.
An important advantage of embedding stems is that they do not need to be transferred; all procedures are performed where the mustard was sown. With the help of choppers or shovels plants are nailed to the ground. To intensify the process of processing stems, they are watered with special compounds with microorganisms. For example, fit "Baikal". In a dry environment, decomposition occurs much slower, so the site should be periodically watered periodically.
If the beds on which the greening is carried out, were used for growing vegetables for a long time, there are few bacteria in them. As a result, there is simply no one to decompose the green mustard mass. Many gardeners, along with mowed plants, enrich the soil with compost with a large number of earthworms.
The use of white mustard allows you to heal the soil, fill it with micronutrients. Each culture absorbs, and then gives the soil certain substances. Mustard alone is not able to completely restore the balance of the nutrient medium. The optimal solution would be a competent selection of several siderats, corresponding to the characteristics of the soil. Do not forget about making other dressings that are useful for garden and garden plants.
Planting in the greenhouse
Tomatoes and other crops that are grown in greenhouses are often subject to various diseases. The most common ones are late blight, cladosporia and alternariosis. Neither complete care nor the use of other varieties help to cope with the problem.
If the symptoms of diseases recur annually, it is worth a few years to abandon the cultivation of vegetables in this area. Not everyone has this opportunity, so you need to think about carrying out a thorough disinfection of the soil. This is done as follows:
- In autumn, in September - early October, all the bushes are removed from the greenhouse. It is better to pull out the plants, and not prune, because the roots can also contain pathogens.
- All plant components are removed from the soil: mulch, weeds. Subsequently, they can be burned.
- If possible, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil and replace it with a new one.
- All wooden supports and ropes, which the bushes were tied up, are taken out of the greenhouse.
- For disinfection, you should sow densely the whole greenhouse territory with white mustard. These plants form specific substances that are detrimental to the fungal infection. Such an agricultural enterprise is considered the most effective and affordable for every gardener.
- The greenhouse does not close for the winter, the snow can be filled up not earlier than February, so that the soil is frozen.
- If the weather permits, the regrown mustard stems are mown and watered with solutions of microorganisms.
Sowing sideratov recommended to repeat in the spring. Mustard can be combined with cereals and legumes. A mixture of plants completely relieve the area from fungi, as well as improve the soil structure, enrich it with nutrients.
If the same diseases affect greenhouse plants every year, then you should not fill the ground, taken from your site, especially near the greenhouse itself. Another effective way is to use disease-resistant hybrids. It is enough to grow them only one year, and then you can return to your favorite plant varieties. Following these simple guidelines helps get rid of infections completely.
Fungal spores usually do not retain their properties for more than 12 months. The task of the gardener is to deprive them of a favorable breeding environment for at least a year. It is not necessary to plant bushes too sweat, it leads to dampness, stagnation of air, shading. All this has a positive effect on the spread of infection.
The use of mustard as a siderata is a great solution for anyone involved in the cultivation of garden and garden crops. Mustard improves the condition of the soil, saturates it with the components necessary for the growth and development of plants, retains moisture, and kills pathogenic bacteria. The use of green manure increases crop yields, contributes to the effective loosening of the soil and the supply of oxygen.
Benefits or why sow exactly mustard in the fall?
This green manure is available to any gardener, easy to grow and effective. Its main purpose as a fertilizer is to enrich the soil with phosphorus and nitrogen. Green mass, dug up into the ground, transfers these important elements to subsequent plants, stimulating the process of their growth and development. In addition, mustard has the following useful features:
Fast germination and high yields. Green mass is a complete fertilizer in composition.
High cold resistance. Sprouts can withstand cold temperatures up to -5 C. After a significant cold snap, the plants cover the soil from freezing and help preserve moisture in it until spring.
The content of essential oils. Mustard copes with plant diseases such as scab, phytophthora, protects against the Colorado potato beetle, slugs, weeds. This quality manifests itself in inter-row cultivation with potatoes, grapes, beans.
Lack of seed preparation. They are placed in the soil, falling asleep with a small amount of earth, sand, or buried with a rake.
Strong root system. It reaches 0.5 meters and loosens the earth to this depth. It can assimilate elements that are poorly soluble in water and inaccessible for this reason to other plants.
Increased air permeability of the earth. Achieved by increasing the number of earthworms after sowing mustard in the fall.
Prevention of erosion. Thick sowing is used where there is a danger of soil erosion and wind damage. The stems of plants planted in early autumn, to frost will be able to perform the function of snow retention.
Cons autumn sowing mustard as a siderata
The disadvantages of gardeners include:
1. Go to the weed. If you do not have to cut the mustard, then it will harden, bloom. Cut off seed plants, most likely, will fall into the ground and germinate. This garden weed is difficult to remove from the soil.
2. Limited use. White mustard should not be grown in the fall where other cruciferous plants, such as radishes, turnips, cabbage, will be planted next season. These crops are subject to the same pest diseases as mustard. Before them it is better to plant cereals, legumes.
When exactly is the mustard planting in the fall?
Sowing time depends on the weather conditions in the region and the gardener's wishes regarding the expected seedlings and the greening period. Autumn planting fertilizer is carried out in the following periods:
1. In late summer, early autumn. Sowing is done in a moist soil after harvest. Siderat grows well in large areas, where there used to be potatoes, strawberries, cereals. There is usually enough time from the moment of sowing to the beginning of flowering to get the right amount of green mass. So, when you make seeds immediately after harvesting, from 1 weave you can get about 400 kg of fertilizer that you need to mow and apply for its intended purpose.
2. At the end of September. При поздней посадке выросшие стебли не скашиваются, они погибают от заморозков и спасают почву от холода зимой. Корни же, находясь в грунте, перегнивают, питая, разрыхляя почву.
3. Под зиму. Посев горчицы поздней осенью осуществляется, чтобы удобрение взошло весной. To do this, the seeds are placed in a dug up cold ground, left to spend the winter there. In order for the mustard not to freeze, not to be washed by the melt water with the soil layer, it is necessary to increase the embedment depth.
How to sow mustard in the fall
To create high-quality fertilizer, green manure cultivation must obey the following algorithm of actions:
1. The beds should be freed from the remnants of vegetables and weeds after harvest.
2. It is desirable to fertilize them with humus at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 square. m
3. The earth needs to be dug up, leveled by a rake, to pour with water.
4. Next, you should start planting mustard row. Seeds are similar in size to small beans, they are convenient to seize and place in the soil. The distance between them should be at least 15 cm, between rows about 20 cm, as the plants grow.
5. About 250 g of seeds are planted on the land. They should not be placed too far into the soil, it will slow down germination, the optimum depth should not exceed 1-1.5 cm. With a lack of time, the mustard should not be sown in rows, but scattered in random order on the ground. The result will be worse than in the case of a uniform application, but it is still noticeable.
6. After planting the mustard in the fall, the seeds are dropped in a little or harrowed with a normal rake.
Plants sprout about 4 days after sowing, after a month, their height is 15 cm. For full growth, development mustard should be watered abundantly, it does not need additional dressing. Siderata shoots should preferably be cut to flowering for the following reasons:
• the stems and leaf stalks grow coarse with the appearance of flowers, which slows down the processing of green mass, the formation of fertilizer,
• plant nutrients are spent on flowering, which contributes to the loss of sidereal function,
• mustard seed begins to multiply and can quickly turn into a difficult weed.
How to use mustard as a fertilizer?
You can mow the green mass with a flat-cutter, chopper, oblique. After that, it needs to be embedded in the soil with a shovel to a depth of about 5 cm.
So mineral, organic elements get into the earth, thereby restoring its structure. If for some reason it is not possible to bury the greens, then you can leave it in the garden in the winter. The above-ground part is rotting, and the roots, having decomposed, break the soil.
Gardeners try to hasten the formation of biohumus with the help of Baikal EM-1. It promotes the formation of a favorable environment for the breeding of bacteria in the soil, which heals it and makes it more fertile. This product is really effective, but it will not be able to completely replace organic fertilizers such as compost, humus, nor it, or green manure.
As for sandy, clayey soil, the planting of mustard in the fall will not have a positive effect on the soil structure. A layer of humus will slowly form, seasonal growing of vegetables will destroy it again. Therefore, unprepared land is not suitable for sowing mustard in the fall under the digging. They must first be improved, and then apply the method of alternating crops in order to increase yields.
Using siderata for healing, nutrition of the soil must be borne in mind that plants consume, and then give followers a set of useful substances, trace elements. So, to ensure the balance of the nutrient medium only with the help of white mustard is quite difficult. For high-quality fertilizer of the soil, it is necessary to grow different types of greenhouse crops and not to forget about organic matter, an integrated approach will give the best results.