Leek is the oldest vegetable crop, cultivated by our ancestors. The plant matures for 2 years. In the beginning, in the first year, a false stem sprouts at the onion, and a root system is also formed. In the second year - flowering arrow with seeds.
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An important difference between this culture and onion is the absence of a bulb. Leaves and a white leg are suitable for eating. Vegetable will be a great addition to the first and second courses, salads. It is recommended to fry, pickle, and add fresh. The best varieties of leeks are presented in the photo and supplemented with a description in our article. A detailed description of some species can be found in the video at the end of the article.
Useful properties of leek
The composition of this vegetable is rich in vitamins C, B2, B, PP, B and various minerals. Salts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, ascorbic acid and essential oils make this product unique and very useful for improving immunity, improving metabolic processes in the body and treating a large number of diseases.
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If you eat leeks daily, you can cope with such serious diseases as:
- Excess weight,
- Stones in the internal organs,
- Salt deposits.
Recommended conditions for growing
The plant is very demanding on the quality of the soil. You can get a rich leek crop on fertile land with a good organic composition. Oxidized soil is strictly prohibited to use for growing leeks.
It is well acclimatized on the site, where for several years legumes or cabbage were grown, as well as plants of the nightshade family.
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It is recommended to use fertilizers to improve the chemical composition of the earth and to maintain its optimum humidity. Organic species are perfect - compost, humus (up to 15 kg / sq. M.).
It is best to plant leek on a plot well lit by the sun. Since the lack of light and being in the shadows has a negative effect on the growth of vegetables.
Ways to grow leeks
You can plant leek in the ground:
- Sowing seeds into the soil,
- Rassadny way.
It is recommended to use a seedless sowing method in areas with good climatic conditions, since the seeds are planted in open ground as soon as the soil warms up sufficiently.
The seedling method is suitable for the rest of the regions of central Russia and Siberia, and already grown seedlings are planted in open ground, which is less exposed to adverse factors.
Watch the video! Leek growing
Growing leek through seedlings
Sowing seedlings onion is necessary in a certain period. For varieties that ripen early, late sowing dates are recommended - mid or late March. Species that ripen later are best planted in mid-February.
Sowing of seeds is recommended to be carried out in a disposable container, which is 70% filled with a substrate that passes air and water well.
Treating the seeds before sowing is not recommended. It is desirable to carry out their disinfection in warm water, while the temperature should not exceed 50 degrees, the soaking procedure lasts 25-30 minutes.
Before sowing seeds, you need to prepare a special nutrient mixture for the soil. The composition of the soil should contain the following elements:
- Pure ash wood,
- Leaves decomposition,
- Pereprevshie sawdust,
- Sod soil without pests and larvae.
- As a soil moisturizer - hydrogel,
- Baking powder,
- Expanded clay
- Sand river.
Recommendations! The most successful proportion for obtaining good soil: 30% of peat and sand, 40% of the land.
If the soil that will be used for planting a leek has a high acidity, then you can add a little ash to it. Alkaline earth is recommended to treat dolomite flour. A good harvest can be obtained if used for fertilizer:
Heavy and clay soil is not suitable for growing this crop. Seeds can not ascend or will give weak shoots. The soil for cultivation can be purchased in finished form, suitable soil for pepper, cucumber and eggplant.
Sown seedlings should be tightly covered with foil and opened every 2 days for 15 minutes. The temperature in the room where the seeds are sown should not be lower than 20 degrees. Shoots should receive a sufficient amount of light. The recommended temperature when sprouts appear is from 15 ° C in the daytime, to 10 ° C - at night. Later - from 17 ° C in the daytime and 10 ° C at night.
The seedling needs moderate watering and spraying from the sprayer, constant fertilization and airing the room in which they are located.
It is important to know! The seedlings need constant light throughout the daylight hours. At home, a lack of light and an excess of heat and moisture lead to a gradual death of the seedlings.
Sowing seeds of leeks in open ground
This method is best used for growing onions in greenhouses or in hot areas.
Seeds are planted in the soil in early May, less often in late April. The beds are covered with a special agrofiber or film cover, which will help to keep warm. If the process of ripening is delayed and the plant does not mature until the first frost, then it can be transplanted into a container or box and continue to grow in heat. Seeds are scattered at a distance of 5 centimeters from each other in a shallow furrow up to 1.5 centimeters.
Watch the video! Leek Seed Review
Leek seedling care
The first seedlings appear 10-20 days after sowing.
Important! The yield of leeks depends on the moisture content of the soil on which it is grown. The soil should not be dry, but it should not be abundantly watered.
Seedlings need to be watered with lukewarm water, trying not to touch the fragile stem. Seedlings will get stronger faster if, in addition to watering, they are also fed.
To enhance the root system and thickening the stem, it is necessary to cut the leaves, leaving up to 10 cm.
Transplanting sprouts into the soil immediately is not desirable. It is necessary to carry out the hardening procedure in advance within a few weeks. To do this, you need to make plants on the street, reducing watering. After six weeks, you can plant sprouts in open ground.
It is recommended to plant sprouts in an open ground in 55-60 days after the first shoots, usually in the first half of May. Previously, the beds form holes with a depth of 15 centimeters, which are actively fertilized and watered.
The plant, when planted, deepened by 6-7 centimeters and pour soil. During growth, it is also necessary to fill the ground closer to the stem, since such conditions help to form a strong and thick stem.
The distance between the planted sprouts should not be less than 12-15 cm. The width between the rows should not be less than 50 cm. It is desirable to cut the roots and leaves, and feed the soil with fertilizers.
Growing seedlings of leeks out of seeds, allows you to harvest a mature harvest in September.
Care of beds with leeks
Agrotechnical cultivation of this vegetable is not difficult. It is necessary to loosen and water the soil, spud and feed the plant. Leek beds are mulched for greater convenience.
The plant needs constant moderate soil moisture. At the beginning of summer, the plant must be watered abundantly and not very often - every 7-10 days, and later - much less often. With a shortage of water, the plant stops growing, and the leaves become coarse and hard. After irrigation, the plant is quickly restored. Excessive moisture for this culture is also harmful. As the risk of contracting neck rot, black mold and downy mildew increases.
Fertilizing the plant should be done in 2.5-3 weeks after transplanting. You can use for this purpose a solution of bird droppings, taken at a ratio of 1:20, potash-nitrogen fertilizers (15-20 g of potassium salt and ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water) and ash, which should be poured closer to the stem.
Tip! Top dressing, for the entire period of growth is carried out at least 3-4 times. Also, do not forget about hilling. It is necessary to loosen the soil 1 time in 1-2 weeks to improve the exchange of oxygen.
Diseases and pests
Leek often affects the following types of diseases:
- Onion fly
- Black mold,
- Onion rust,
- Neck rot,
- Downy mildew.
Grow a healthy and mature plant from seedlings is not easy. Since it is necessary to constantly observe a certain temperature and water sprouts on time. Neglect of these rules can lead to the development of diseases in the plant.
The best way to prevent illness is timely and constant care. Another precaution: seed storage. It is recommended to plant seeds in the ground, which have lain for 2-3 years before sowing. During this time, all viruses and germs that could have infected the seeds will die.
An insect 5-6 mm long is very similar to an ordinary fly. It is dangerous because it lays its larvae in the soil. The first sign that the plant has become a victim of an insect is leaf wilting. To get rid of the pest by using saline, which is diluted at a ratio of 350 grams per 10 liters of water. Seeds are recommended to soak for a short time in the resulting liquid.
Bulk spots pads on the leaves of the plant indicate infection with onion rust. You can fight this disease by treating onion feathers with a fungicide solution. Infected leaves must be removed.
Features of growing different varieties
Some varieties of leek, the maturity of which is long enough, do not have time to ripen before the first frost. The growing season of onions lasts 6 months and during this time the plant does not have time to develop completely. It is recommended to leave such plants to ripen in greenhouses or special rooms. This option of growing onions is relevant for the following late varieties:
The term of ripening of early varieties of leek less, is only 4 months. The species that mature early include:
As well as the variety "Karantansky", which is characterized by excellent resistance to diseases and viruses.
Cleaning and storage of leeks
Leek is grown in open ground before the onset of the first frost. At this time, the length of the plant is 40-50 centimeters, and the thickness is 7 centimeters.
The plant is better to undermine and pull out the feathers. Remove the root system and the ends of the leaves.
Onions can be left in the ground for the entire winter, in the spring it will sprout. To ensure safety from frost, leek is covered with peat and spud. Top covered with cords of trees.
At zero temperature, the plant is stored in the basement all winter, just enough to prikopat it in the sand.
Useful! During storage, the leek does not lose its beneficial properties, but rather increases it. For example, the content of ascorbic acid increases significantly. This process is due to the influx of vitamins from the leaves to the stem.
Leek is a unique cultivated plant that not only has excellent taste, but is also a useful product. It is not at all difficult to get a rich harvest of leeks on your plot, just follow the rules and know some secrets of cultivation.
Watch the video! Leek from A to Z: sowing, picking, landing on the garden
The benefits of leeks
Before planting leeks, it is necessary to study in detail the beneficial properties of the plant, thanks to which it is so popular among vegetable growers.
To understand the properties and contraindications, it is necessary to find out the composition of the plant. It contains a small amount of calories, so that the vegetable is added to the diet during the diet. Also in the bulbs there are many nutrients and other nutrients that are needed by the human body. In addition, the bulbs have a high content of vitamin B, K, C, A.
The upper leaves of the plant contain a fibrous structure, which contributes to the spread and development of bacteria in the intestine, which reduce bloating. Therefore, doctors recommend eating pearl onions for people with impaired performance of the digestive system. It is also eaten with high blood pressure. Due to the potassium in the plant, regular use of fresh bulbs normalizes pressure.
The vegetable has no serious contraindications. However, all the same, doctors do not advise often to eat it to people with serious duodenal diseases.
Before planting, it is better to get acquainted with the main varieties of leeks, since each of them has its own characteristics.
The bulbs belonging to the early ripe vegetable species fully ripen by the end of summer. If we talk about the full cycle of fruit ripening, then it lasts 120-150 days. Among the early varieties of onions are several of the best varieties:
- Vesta. The most fertile early ripe variety, which grows up to one and a half meters. Differs in excellent tastes and duration of storage.
- Columbus It is considered the most juicy variety that grows to 60–70 cm. Often Columbus is added to fresh vegetable salads, as it has a light aroma and delicate flavor.
- Goliath. The lowest early ripe grade which height does not exceed 40 cm.
Mid-season pearl onions ripen closer to the end of autumn. These varieties are less likely to be planted early in the ripening season, as they have lower yields. Popular mid-season bulb species include:
- Camus. A small variety with green leaves curved shape, the surface of which is covered with a layer of wax. Adult plants grow to 15–20 cm.
- Casimir. The most popular mid onion, which is resistant to insects and diseases. When grown in optimal conditions, Casimir bushes grow to 20–25 cm.
- Jolant This variety is considered the most productive among mid-season onions. Dzholant differs narrow leaves and bushes about 35 cm in height.
Terms and rules of landing
Before growing leeks in the open field should be acquainted with the timing of planting this plant. It is recommended to engage in seedless growing plants in the first half of May. The end or middle of February goes well with the seedling method.
Before planting a variety of leek, choose a suitable site and prepare it for planting. This vegetable grows well in a well-lit area away from tall bushes or trees that can shade seedlings.
Before proceeding to planting in the open ground, the land at the site is prepared. This is done not in the spring, but in the autumn time before the onset of the first frosts. First, the entire area is dug up with a shovel or pitchfork and then 50 grams of urea with Nitrophosh are added to the ground. The next stage of preparation begins in the spring. In this case, every square meter of vegetable garden is fed by 2-3 kg of humus mixed with compost.
Many do not know what to do if the seedlings fell before planting in open ground. In this case, will have to engage in sowing and growing leeks from seed. To do this, all harvested leek seeds are planted in pre-prepared soil. On the site is 2–3 rows at a distance of 30–40 cm from each other. On each row they make shallow holes in which onion heads are planted. When the entire seed is planted, the rows are carefully watered at room temperature.
Often planting leeks spend seedling method. To use this method, it is necessary to prepare seed in advance. To do this, all seeds are treated with aloe juice or growth stimulants. It is also recommended to soak all seeds for 20–30 minutes in heated water with manganese for disinfection.
The prepared seed is sown no earlier than March 20, so that by the end of May, the grown seedlings can be transplanted into open ground. Young seedlings are grown in small pots or cups 5-7 cm in size.
Grown seedlings are transplanted when the seedlings grow to 10 cm in height. Planting sprouted seedlings is no different from planting seeds by seedless method.
Care for leeks is carried out on a mandatory basis, since the yield of the planted plant depends on it.
To understand how to grow leeks, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of watering this vegetable. It is recommended to moisten the ground at least once a week. At the same time, 5–7 liters of liquid are consumed per square meter of vegetable garden. Under drought conditions, the amount of watering increases up to three times a week, as the land dries out faster in this weather. During the ripening of the bulbs watering is reduced.
While caring for leeks, the plot is necessarily fertilized. The first top dressing is brought in soil before disembarkation, in the middle of autumn. During this period, mineral supplements with a small amount of organic matter are added to the ground. If after planting the growth of leaves will be slow, re-feeding. In this case, mullein and urea are added to the ground, mixed with 10 liters of water.On a square meter plot with onions consumed three liters of the mixture.
There are certain difficulties in growing and caring for leeks. Often, leeks do not grow well and you have to think about how to feed them to improve the growth of planted seedlings. To do this, add organic fertilizer to the soil in the form of compost with rotted humus.
The second common problem is weeds. To get rid of them, it is necessary to figure out how to properly loosen and weed the earth. Do soil hilling regularly. Experienced vegetable growers do this 2-3 times a month so that weeds do not have time to grow.
Not everyone knows how to store grown leek in the country. There are three common methods for storing harvested crops:
- Frozen. This method is popular among vegetable growers, as the thawed vegetable does not lose its taste. To freeze the bulbs enough to peel them, cut into several pieces and place in the freezer.
- In the cellar. The most suitable place to store leeks is the cellar. This room will save the bulbs from frost and decay.
- In the apartment. Onion heads are stored in living quarters much less frequently, since the conditions in them are not always suitable for storing crops. In order for the gathered onions to remain in the apartment, it is necessary to monitor the air temperature.
It is no secret that onions are often used in cooking and therefore you should familiarize yourself with the main dishes that are made from it:
- Onion pancakes. To prepare this popular dish, two large onions are rubbed on a fine grater and salted. Then juice is squeezed from the rubbed onion heads. After that, everything is filled with flaxseeds with semolina. The result is a thickish mixture, which is fried in a pan. Pancakes are fried very gently over low heat.
- Onions with bacon. To prepare this dish, the head is cut off from the leek, and the leaves are cut into strips 1 cm wide. Then take 100 grams of bacon, which is sprinkled with salt to taste. Then water is boiled in a small saucepan and onion heads are added to it, which boil for 5–10 minutes. After that, in a separate bowl, mix the grated apple with carrot, prune and sour cream. The mixture is added to the pan with bacon and onions, and then placed in the oven. The dish is baked for 20 minutes at a temperature of 120-140 degrees.
Leek - biennial plant with a height of 40 cm to 1 m. In the first year, a root system is formed with a false white bulb up to 12 cm long and up to 8 cm in diameter. In the second year, a spike up to 2 m long with white or pink flowers develop, seeds ripen in August -September Seeds remain viable for two years.
Leek grown from seed and seedling method. In the southern regions, seeds are sown in open ground. In the northern and central regions are grown from seedlings. Leek cold-resistant culture, demanding on moisture.
Leek grows well in areas where legumes have grown: beans, peas, soybeans, and others, white cabbage, tomatoes, green manure, potatoes. Do not plant on a plot where any types of onions grew.
Sowing seeds of leek in open ground
Vegetation period leek about 6-7 months, so the sowing of seeds in the open ground is produced to obtain salad greens at the end of July.
In the second half of April, seeds are sown in shallow grooves, the distance between which is 20-25 cm, and between plants 15-25 cm, depending on the variety. The temperature should be 8-12 degrees at night and 20 degrees during the day.
Before sowing seeds, they must be pickled (disinfected), this should especially be done for those gathered in their own garden. First, for several hours placed in hot water (40-45 degrees), then immersed in cold water.
For quick germination, the seeds are still germinated. A cloth is moistened with water, the seeds are laid out on top. Leave the seeds in a warm (20-25 degrees) place for 2-3 days.
Dry the seeds for a few hours so that they crumble and can be sown and sown in the ground.
If you use purchased seeds, there is no need to process them, immediately sow in the ground.
Sowing seeds of leeks on seedlings
To accelerate the ripening process Leeks are grown in seedlings.
In early March, seeds are sown for seedlings at home. Sowing seeds in the greenhouse is carried out in mid-April, when grown in a garden under a film, sown in late April. The soil should be light, sod-humus.
Dishes for planting, cups and other containers must be disinfected with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. The roots of leeks are long, so the containers should be up to 10-12 cm high.
Fill containers with earth, lightly tamp, pour. Sow the prepared seeds (see above, how it is done) and sprinkle with sand, a layer of 5 mm.
Cover all containers with glass or film. Transfer a warm place with a temperature of 22-25 degrees before germination.
Air crops daily and spray with water.
When planting seedlings in open ground
Seedlings of leeks at the age of 50-60 days are planted in open ground. Before planting, watering leek seedlings abundantly. In the process of landing, trimming horses and leaves into 1/3 part is performed. Plant the seedlings in the evening or in cloudy weather.
Soil for leeks
The area for leeks should be sunny, as far as possible from shrubs and trees. The soil for planting leeks is prepared in the fall, bringing in a bucket of humus, 1 teaspoon of urea and 2 tablespoons of nitrophoska per m 2 plot. After that, the plot is dug up. On too acidic soils, do the liming.
With the onset of spring, 3 kg of humus or compost per m 2 of plot are introduced, it is not necessary to dig up. Fertilizers will fall into the soil when planting seedlings and watering leeks.
When planting leeks in open ground
In the process of growing seedlings it is hardened for 6-7 weeks, carrying out for some time outdoors. On the plot for planting seedlings make grooves 10-15 cm deep and 20-30 cm apart. Seedlings are planted in the grooves at a distance of 10-20 cm from each other, it all depends on the variety.
Seeds of leeks lightly sprinkled with earth and watered abundantly so that there is no air around the root system.
How to plant a leek before winter
Leek is often planted in seeds before winter, right in the ground. In the summer, prepare the plot, fertilize and dig. In November, they make grooves 20 cm between them and spread the seeds after 8-10 cm into the furrows. Watch the weather, if it is warm, leeks will germinate and die from frost in winter.
Be sure to mulch the area with peat and snow when it falls. The more snow on the site the better for leeks, in the spring it will not freeze until the snow melts.
Conduct regular watering, weeding and loosening the soil, pest and disease control.
Loosen the soil once every two weeks. To grow a bleached stem, and this is the main value of leeks, you need 3-4 times for the entire vegetation period, to hilling plants.
The first hilling is carried out in the middle of summer, after which they mulch with dry grass, straw, and dry manure.
After planting seedlings in open ground, the plants do not water for three days. Moisture is the main component of the growth of leeks, so further watering is carried out once every 5 days, 10 liters of warm water per m 2.
Before each earthing up it is necessary to sprinkle wood ash under the stalks of onion, at the rate of a glass of ash per m 2 area.
For the entire period will need 3 dressing leeks.
First held 3 weeks after transplanting in open ground. In 10 liters of water dilute 15 grams of potassium salt and 20 grams of ammonium nitrate. This is enough to water a plot of 4 m 2.
Of organic fertilizers, a solution of bird droppings diluted 1x20 with water or a mullein solution diluted 1x10 is well suited.
Diseases of leeks and fight against them
Of the diseases, the most dangerous is the mosaic - apha carrier of this viral disease. On the leaves of leeks appear longitudinal spots of yellow color.
Also from diseases leek sick such fungal diseases: rust and powdery mildew.
With the disease powdery mildew oval spots appear over time, increasing in size, on the leaves of leeks.
Plants affected by these diseases are not edible.
Rust manifests itself by the presence of a bright yellow spore on the leaves of a leek. Affected leaves dry out.
How to deal with diseases?
It is necessary to treat the plants and the soil on the site with a solution of copper oxychloride or Fitosporin.
Viral diseases are not curable, therefore agrotechnical techniques will help to cope with the mosaic:
Weed and pest control,
Seeding seeds should be disinfected
Removal of infected plants
Growing varieties of leeks resistant to viruses.
Leek Pests and Fight
The main pest of leeks can be considered onion flies. Onion fly can cause irreparable damage to the crop.
In May, you can already notice the pest, the fly lays eggs on the leaves and soil. After a couple of days, the larvae that feed in the middle of leeks appear, the plants wither and rot.
Fighting the onion fly
To protect the crop from onion flies, the site is pollinated wood ash or a mixture of ash with tobacco dust. At 1 m 2 plot will need 1 cup of ash or a mixture of tobacco and ash.
Scare the fly processing ground pepper, a teaspoon per m 2 of the plot after processing, spend a shallow loosening of the soil.
The use of tobacco infusion has proven itself well. In 10 liters of hot water dilute 200 grams of tobacco and a tablespoon of liquid soap. Insist to room temperature, strain and spray the plants.
To fight the onion fly helps ammonia solution with a proportion of 2 tbsp. l liquid ammonia per 10 liters, watered 3 times at intervals of 10 days.
For sure to get rid of onion flies, plant in the aisle celery.
Planting seeds on seedlings
When and how to plant leeks? How to grow it? The growing season of this crop is quite long, so the onion planting should be carried out by the seedling method.
There are certain principles that need to be considered when sowing seeds in a container, and not in open ground:
- Planting material should be soaked in warm water for about 25 minutes. Then the seeds are left for some days wrapped in wet cloth. To do this is necessary regardless of the method of cultivation, the procedure stimulates the emergence of seedlings.
- Sowing seeds for seedlings should be carried out not earlier than the beginning of March.
- Soil for seedlings are prepared in advance. As soil mixture used land with humus or peat.
- The distance between the rows in the tank should be no more than 5 cm, and the depth of seeding should be about 1 cm.
- Boxes with seeds must always be covered with a film to maintain the desired level of moisture and heat.
- When shoots appear during the day, the temperature should be about 18 degrees, at night - 10 degrees.
- The plant needs additional feeding, which is carried out twice, using mineral fertilizers.
- Constant watering of seedlings is a guarantee of growing strong and healthy seedlings.
- Before planting leek seedlings on the garden bed, it must be hardened. To do this, a week before the intended landing, the temperature in the room is lowered, the tanks with seedlings endure on the air.
Care of transplanted seedlings
How to grow onions? The crops should be aired daily, and in order to keep the land a little wet all the time, it is sprayed with a spray gun. The first sprouts appear in 10 days, and as soon as this happens, from the crops clean cover, they are put on a bright light, the temperature is reduced to 18–20 in the daytime, and to 12–14 ° C at night. The roots of the plants should be warm, so put a sheet of drywall or foam under the container. Protect seedlings from direct sunlight and drafts.
If the seedlings have risen very abundantly, thin it. Water the seedlings with clean warm water.
When the plants grow and get stronger, they will need to be fed with a solution of 20 g of saltpeter, the same number of potassium chloride and 40 g of superphosphate in a bucket of water per 1 square meter. m sowing.
Soil for leek
The site for the culture picked open and sunny, away from the trees and bushes that obscure the lighting. Soil is needed fertile, neutral, air and water permeable. Very acidic soils must be chilled. Prepare a plot for planting leeks from autumn: for each square. m under digging make a couple of art. spoons of Nitrofoski, a teaspoonful of urea and a bucket of compost or humus. In the spring, it is necessary to disperse fertilizer and humus at a rate of 3 kg per square meter. m, but do not need to dig up - fertilizing will fall into the ground when planting seedlings and subsequent watering.
Landing leek before winter
Onions are often grown by sowing in the ground before winter. The site is prepared in advance, in the summertime - they dig up and apply fertilizer, and in November, the seeds are laid out at 8-12 cm in the grooves, which are at a distance of 20 cm from each other. Watch the weather forecast carefully: in case it is too warm, the bow will have time sproutwhich will almost certainly disappear with further cooling. Crops are mulched with peat and humus, and after they are covered with snow, the more it is in the area, the better: the snow will melt for a long time, and the onions will rise when frost is bypassed.
In the southern regions you can grow leek sowing seeds in the ground. A good time for sowing is March, you can continue in April. The timing will depend on the weather and the variety of the plant itself. Seeds are sown gently in small rows, the distance between which should be about 60 cm. If the seedlings have several leaves, the plants are thinned. Repeat the operation if there are 2 pairs of leaves. After thinning the distance between plants should be no less than 10-15 cm.
If the daytime temperature is below 15 degrees, in this case irrigation is not conducted. To adjust the frequency of irrigation and evenly distribute the water, a small irrigation system will undoubtedly help. It makes it possible to accurately measure the nutrient mixture, feeding the fertilizer in the amount that should be each plant.
Watering by sprinkling is not very effective, because the threat of the spread of diseases increases, due to high humidity.
Tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, cabbage, and herbs will be good predecessors for leek cultivation. After this culture, in addition, it is allowed to plant virtually all vegetables.
For the re-planting of the onion, it is necessary to choose a bed where the necessary crops had previously grown. It is allowed to return the leek to its former place only after 4 years. An earlier landing causes an increase in the number of pests and diseases.
Moisture is the basis of leek growth, however, the first 3 days after planting the seedlings on the garden bed cannot be watered. In the future, watering is implemented approximately once every 5 days, spending on each square. m from 10 to 15 liters of warm water.
During the season leek fed 4 times. 3 weeks after planting the seedlings in open ground, you should water the soil with a solution of 20 g of saltpeter and 15 g of potassium salt in 10 liters of water - this will be enough for you for 4 square meters. m beds. Leek responds well to base dressings - mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20). Before each hilling, pour wood ash under a onion stems 1 cup per 1 square. m plot.
Diseases and pests
With appropriate care, the plant is almost not sick and is not damaged by pests. However, abandoned landings are often attacked by various parasites:
- Onion fly - the most dangerous enemy that eats away the leaves. The larvae eat away the leg, the crop can be thrown away. For the prevention of disease can be planted leek next to the carrot.
- A viral mosaic hits a plant after a pick. Yellowish spots appear in the leaves, which prevent the onions from developing well. For planting it is necessary to use only fresh onion seeds.
- Rust is a fungal disease. It can be identified by the bright yellowish spore pads of the fungus that occur in the onion leaves. As they mature, the pads darken, and the affected leaves dry out.
How to deal with leek diseases when grown?
The causative agents of fungal diseases destroy processing plants and soil on the site Fitosporin or copper chloride. Unfortunately, viral diseases, like a mosaic, are incurable, therefore, they are controlled only by agrotechnical methods:
- crop rotation,
- fighting various weeds and harmful insects,
- use for sowing disinfected seeds,
- immediate removal of affected plants from the site,
- growing stable species
Cleaning and preserving leeks
Onions can be harvested as needed. In the deep autumn all plants should be hidden for storage. All plants allocated for long-term preservation should be prepared. Прокладывают осмотр каждой луковицы: устраняют испорченные листья, остальные срезают на 1/3 длины, корни также немного подрезают, оставляя примерно 1 см.
Убирать порей после выращивания необходимо раньше, чем температура в огороде снизится до -5 C, потому как растение выдерживает холода только до -7 C. Раскапывают лук при помощи лопаты и сохраняют его в некоторое время у края борозд для просушки. Затем растения чистят от земли, trying not to fall between the leaves, cut the roots of the onion a little and send it to save.
Store onions at a temperature of about 2-5 degrees. Suitable basement or lower chamber of the refrigerator.
If you keep the onions in the refrigerator, you must wrap it in a film, then it will lie longer without losing its properties.
In the cellar, onions are kept only in an upright state, in wet sand. For backfilling onions you can apply the soil from the garden.
If there is not enough space to preserve fresh onions, it can be dried. To do this, the white leg is cleaned, cut and dried in a cool room. Then dried in the oven. It is necessary to keep such a blank in a fabric bag, a cardboard box, but not in a sealed sealed container.
What are the features and secrets of planting a leek: in order we get acquainted with all the nuances
Leek has another very beautiful name - pearl onions. Despite the fact that in our country it is not very common as a home plant that can be grown directly in its own garden.
However, this plant is a very ancient and useful culture, which is why modern gardeners pay attention to leek. After all, you can eat not only the stems, but also its delicate leaves.
Leek breeding usually takes place with the help of seeds, which can be purchased at any specialty store, but direct planting is carried out with the help of seedlings. However, there is the possibility of planting this plant without seed, if climatic conditions can allow it.
What growth conditions do you need to provide for leeks or requirements for your garden?
With regard to the conditions of growing leek, then this plant can be called heat-loving to a greater extent, since its seedlings usually land closer to summer. To grow to him need a lot of sunshine and heat. For this reason, next to the leek, and especially from the south and south-west of it, it is better not to plant any strong-growing plants.
In a shaded place, the leek leaves will not be so deeply green, and the taste of the onion may also suffer.
Special temperature conditions are needed for seedlings. When it is grown in boxes with soil it is very important that the temperature was not very high. The reason lies in the fact that with a large abundance of heat, seedlings can start a flower arrow right away in the first year, and not in the second as it should be normal.
When sowing seeds, it is best to use peat-perchny pots and peat tablets. They will give onion seeds a lot of nutrients and will contribute to the excellent growth of seedlings.
Do not forget about watering seedlings with a compost solution. They are needed by the plant throughout the entire period of growth in an enclosed space, in which, in contrast to an open bed, nutrients do not get from the external environment.
When planting seedlings in the garden, there will not be any special requirements for the soil, although fertilizing should be carried out in any case and it is recommended to do it regularly. The only important thing is that the soil should be light, without any problems letting moisture through itself and not holding it for very long periods of time.
Best of all, the predecessors of this plant in the garden were potatoes, tomatoes with cucumbers, legumes, or white cabbage.
Features timing of planting leek: discuss the requirements for air temperature and soil
Above, we have already told that a leek can be planted in different ways and at different times, which directly depends on the climatic conditions of your region. So, if you do seedless sowing of seeds in the south of our country, then it is recommended to do this not earlier than May 15.
With good soil moisture and its temperature not lower than 12ºС, the seeds will very soon grow and grow.
In more northern regions, it is better to choose a seedling method for growing leek. The fact is that the growing season of this onion is quite long and planted with seeds in conditions with a short period of heat, he will not have time to ripen to the desired size and condition.
But before the seedlings to plant it still need to sow:
- If the seeds were sown in boxes on a windowsill, then the best time for this would be mid or last February. Under these conditions, the leek will not grow and develop very intensively, but by the time it is suitable for a transplant, the seedlings will be mature enough and will be able to easily adapt to the new conditions. Another remark to this method of growing seedlings is that the length of daylight for leeks should be not less than 10 hours. Since in February and the first month of spring it is almost impossible, the plant will have to be artificially highlighted.
- If there is a glazed greenhouse in your garden, feel free to sow leeks in it already in mid-April. In such conditions, the seeds will very quickly grow and the growth of seedlings will be quite intense.
- Leek seeds can also be sown directly on the breast at the end of April, but it is recommended to keep the whole bed under the film until stable heat arrives. However, you will have to be very attentive to the germinating grains and the seedlings that have emerged from them, so that it does not cover up under the film and receive enough oxygen and sunlight.
Planted in the garden seedlings can be in May, when the soil warms up well. Keep in mind that she has slow growth and will be ready to transplant only after 6-8 weeks from the time of sowing. About the readiness for planting will indicate the diameter of the stems of seedlings - 5-8 millimeters, as well as the appearance of 2-3 leaves on it.
What is the preparation and sowing of leek seeds?
The seeds of this onion can not be immediately thrown from the bag into the ground. Before that, they must be cleaned, that is, disinfected. This is done very simply and quickly: first, for a very short period of time, they must be placed in water heated to 40-45 ° C, and then immediately cooled down with cold water.
After this procedure, the leek seeds should not be poured in a thick layer on the wet and warm cloth, cover it and leave it in a warm place so that they sprout. Optimally, so that the temperature does not fall below 25 ° C, then literally in 2-3 they will start to germinate a little.
Then it will be possible to dry them a little so that they do not grow together among themselves and sort of scatter. After that, you can immediately begin to sow them in the soil. But this technology of preparation is more suitable for the seeds actually grown, because the purchased ones can be immediately sent to the soil, as they are usually sold already processed and easily germinate.
As for the required temperature for germination, immediately after sowing the seeds in the pots, they should be kept at air temperature from 22 to 25 ºС with the corresponding temperature and humidity of the soil.
Also, the soil contains under the film, which, after the appearance of gatherings necessarily removed. Further, the temperature should be slightly lowered to 17 ° C during the daytime and to 12 ° C. After one week, the temperature conditions need to be slightly increased, which provokes more intensive growth: in the daytime from 17 to 20ºС, and at night - from 10 to 14 ºС.
Also, in order to improve the growth efficiency of the future leek and in order for the seedlings to thicken, it should be thinned a month after the emergence, leaving a distance of 2-3 centimeters between the stems.
Also, it is very important to constantly monitor the length of the leaves of the seedlings, leaving it approximately at the level of 8-10 centimeters. Such a procedure will be well reflected in the growth of the root and the thickening of the stem.
In open ground, seeds are sown only in the southern regions, but in the middle lane it is better to send them either to boxes with soil, or to glass or film greenhouses.
We are engaged in preparing the beds for planting leeks
The preparation of the beds also cannot be overlooked, since it is from it that the size and quality of the future crop will depend. In particular, in the autumn about 6 kilograms of compost are introduced per 1 m2, which by the spring will have time to partially decompose and significantly increase the level of soil fertility.
In the spring, you can also sprinkle humus or the same compost over the bed, with a cost estimate of 3 kilograms of fertilizer per 1 m2. At the same time, before planting, it is not necessary to dig up a bed with fertilizers laid out on it, they will dig in during the planting of the seedlings themselves.
Preparation of seedlings of leeks for planting in open soil
Already at 6-7 week of growth of seedlings it needs to be gradually prepared for transplantation. In particular, plants worth a little hardenso that it begins to get used not to the room, but to the natural conditions of growth. To do this, daylight boxes with seedlings are carried out on the street, if weather conditions allow.
Before planting, the seedlings are pulled out of the former soil, having previously been watered. It is recommended to trim its roots and leaves slightly, reducing their length by 1/3.
Council gardener: In order for the leek seedlings to settle down better and faster in a new place, before planting, its roots should be dipped into a talker. The composition of the talker should include equal quantities of clay and cow dung slightly diluted with water.
Rules and scheme of planting seedlings of leeks: how to ensure the plant optimal nutrition area?
Seedlings of leeks planted in specially prepared holes. Their depth must be made large enough so that a sufficient amount of stubborn and decomposed humus or compost can be put on the bottom. 10-13 centimeters will be enough for this.
Only one plant is planted in one well, since the leek does not grow in the bush method. After that, the seedlings are covered with earth to half a pit and compacted well.
So that the soil is settled as closely as possible, it should be watered abundantly after planting. The most important thing is that there are no airbags near the roots that can dry them.
As for the scheme of planting leek seedlings, then this plant can be planted in the following ways:
- Planting leek seedlings in two rows, which implies a distance of 15-20 centimeters between plants in one row. At the same time, the distance between the rows should be no less than 30-35 centimeters. Such planting is not very economical with respect to the distribution of the space of the whole garden, however, it makes it possible to grow very large bulbs.
- With multi-row planting, the onion itself may not reach a very serious size, but the yield still remains high due to a closer planting of the seedlings. In particular, the distance between two plants in one row can be reduced to 10-15 centimeters, and between rows to 20-30 centimeters.
- Most of the garden plants, and leek is no exception, it is most acceptable to grow in narrow beds. This will not only facilitate the care of plants, but also increase their productivity.
- If you have chosen a two-row leek planting scheme, then it is not necessary to leave wide aisles empty. On them, you can sow either dill or carrots, with which the leek has simply excellent compatibility. Also, a good neighborhood can turn out with celery, beets, common onions, and even strawberries.
Loosening the soil around the leek: why and how often should be done?
Loosening the soil of the garden where leeks grow is imperative. After all, such a procedure not only allows the soil to be saturated with oxygen, but also contributes to a more rapid penetration of moisture into it, and also facilitates the growth of roots. Loosening regularlypreferably every 1-2 weeks.
During loosening of the soil, it is also important to constantly pour the soil into the hole near the stem of a leek (this is done to achieve the stalk of the plant with a pencil diameter).
After the hole is already level with the level of the soil, the leeks fill up every two weeks. This allows you to grow a longer stem with a large white part. This procedure is carried out at least 4 times in one season after watering.
We provide onions with moisture: frequency and volume of watering
Moisture is the basis of young leek growth.
After all, this plant requires frequent and regular attention from the gardener, which would be aimed at determining the state of soil moisture.
In particular, regular and abundant watering of this plant should be carried out necessarily, since its entry into the growing season and until mid-summer.
Of course, that overdoing with moisture is not worth it, which will also negatively affect the growth of the plant.
Do I need top dressing leeks and what fertilizers for this need to use?
In principle, the leek can not feed. But, in this case, to achieve high results may not work. So it is better to work a little and spend their efforts on feeding this plant.
To carry out this procedure is the same as irrigation, only in the first half of the growing season of the plant. Onions are fed exclusively with solutions that are prepared from poultry and cow dung. The concentration of the first in the water should be 1:20, and the second - 1: 8. The regularity of such dressings will allow to level the shortcomings of even the most fertile soil.
How to effectively deal with weeds in the beds with leeks?
Weeding beds is the most effective way to control weeds. Of course, modern gardeners are familiar with the existence of various chemicals that can prevent the emergence of weeds. However, if you grow onions in your own garden, it is better to grow an environmentally friendly product and walk through the garden removing all weeds. After all, with a large number of them, the thickness of onion stems will significantly decrease.
Also, it can cause an increase in soil moisture. To the bed does not overgrow with unnecessary plants, weed it regularly.