Describing sea buckthorn, we consider its flowering: it is expressed by single-blooded, regular flowers, each of them is endowed with a tubular two- or four-lobed perianth.
Sea buckthorn on the plot
In each flower are from four to eight stamens.
Fruits of the plant - Kostyank-shaped false berries, developing from the receptacle. Fruits are juicy, contain one stone. Her rhizomes are numerous. They release a lot of offspring. The root system is superficial.
The plant has many branches with the presence of spines at the ends. The bark of young shoots covered with scales of silver tone. With age, adult branches turn brown or rusty black.
The tree can reach a height of six meters with optimally created conditions of soil and environment. The flowering time of the bushes falls on the third decade of April - the first decade of May. And they bloom before the foliage begins to bloom, and after flowering. The time period of ripening berries is issued in September.
The ripe fruit tastes bitter, but only the first frosts hit - the bitterness disappears, and the taste becomes sweet and sour, sufficiently pleasant. In addition, the berries acquire the aroma of pineapple.
The leaves of sea buckthorn bushes are removed for medicinal purposes at the end of the summer season, and the bark - in the period of early spring. It is advisable to collect the berries after the first frost.
Collect them in a special way - by scrubbing. At temperature conditions of at least minus ten degrees. The shelf life of frozen fruits is no more than six months.
The plant grows in all territories of Ukraine, Russia, the Caucasus. The best growing areas for it are the banks of the reservoirs. Often sea buckthorn forms impassable thickets. It is cultivated in gardens and vegetable gardens. Next, consider in detail the care and cultivation of sea buckthorn, how to propagate it by cuttings.
Selection of species
Sea buckthorn should be formed in the form of a tree or a bush of several trunks. From the formed plant it will be easier to remove the berries, because then it will grow only up to two meters. At that time, as a plant is not formed can reach three and a half meters.
Sea buckthorn Giant
Varietal buckthorn species, intended to form a bush:
These varietal species are subjected to the formation of a tree:
- Altai News
- Botanical amateur
The traditional shade of the fruits of sea buckthorn is orange. If you want to be with the harvest of red fruits, then you need to plant a variety "Etna".
It is rather difficult to collect sea buckthorn due to the presence of elongated spines. They are not only on the branches, but also on the trunk. As a result, thornless varietal varieties of sea buckthorn were derived; they have practically no or no thorns.
Characteristics of low-varietal varieties:
- Nugget. Distinguishes average height. Orange shade large fruits. This species has few spikes.
- Chuy. Also practically without thorns. Srednerosly plant, krone - rare and sprawling. Aging is early. The disadvantages of this variety are expressed by the fact that the plant risks to melt during thaws, if they are frequent. In addition, it is prone to mycosis.
- Botanical amateur. Especially high-yielding variety of culture, resistant to mycotic drying and harmful insects. Compact, medium hardwood. There are almost no thorns on it.
- Nivelen. Has not a lot of thorns. Grows srednerosly compact bush. The crown is similar to the shape of an umbrella. Yellow-orange fruits, rather large in size.
- Essel. Spikes are missing completely. Fruits are large, especially sweet. Varietal species - high-yielding.
Sea buckthorn culture is dioecious. For its full-scale pollination, it is required to plant one “male” tree on three or four “female” trees. Male pollinators are varietal species of Altai and Dwarf. Among the "female" may be noted such varieties as the Gift of the Garden, Otradnaya and Chui. It will be difficult for an inexperienced gardener to understand the seabuckthorn floor accessories.
So, for a start it is better to buy plants in a good nursery. There you can buy favorite sea buckthorn varieties.
Before flowering in the spring or in the fall after leaf fall, it becomes possible to recognize in the buds where the male tree is and where the female is. On a male plant, the buds will be several times larger than on the female. There are up to seven covering kidney scales on men’s, and two on women’s.
Ahead of planting culture, you should decide on its varietal species. High-quality planting material will subsequently delight the berries with a sweet-sour taste, medium and large fruits from yellow-orange to orange and reddish hue. Sea buckthorn plants grow well along the edges of the plots, along the path, near the lawns and near the garden buildings.
Sea buckthorn planting
From the territories that are intended for digging, it is better to plant it at a distance. All due to the fact that the root system of the culture is a weak branching whip, they extend to the side of more than ten meters from the bush. They are shallow from the surface of the soil. If by chance you injure at least one of the rhizomes of a plant, then it runs the risk of becoming very weak or dying.
To dig up, even with great care, the ground next to the sea buckthorn is not recommended for the same reason. In addition, additional digging is the cause of abundant shoots, which occurs at the site of damage to the buckthorn roots. It should competently pick an open area for its growth, because the culture is light-requiring and it needs to grow in the open sectors of the garden.
It is advisable to plant the culture in early spring. Fertilizer formulations introduced into planting ditches will be a good feed for plants two years ahead.
Ahead of planting seedlings in the ditch created for planting, you need to add the sand-humus mixture in equal parts. We calculate the total volume as follows: about two kilograms of the mixture per square meter of the total area of landing, or in each of the pits. More should be added and phosphorus-potassium supplements.
If the soil has an increased acidity, then add ash or slaked lime to the mixture. If the trees are planted in numerous compositions, it means that between them we will keep intervals in rows of up to two and a half meters, and the width between rows should be up to four meters.
Work on the care of culture
After disembarking sea buckthorn, the ground should be kept for two or three years under black polyethylene. Then it will be possible to plant green crops, such as parsley and dill. They do not need deep tillage. To create the most favorable conditions for plants, it is advised to sow grass in the growing area. Next, mow it and leave as fertilizer.
We cultivate the land near the sea buckthorn to a depth of no more than seven centimeters. Due to the shallow passage of its root system, it is necessary to constantly control the soil moisture. On dry days, at least fifty liters of water are consumed per square meter of the stalk territory. When the fruit buds of the coming harvest are formed in June and July, the irrigation is controlled with the utmost care. The crust resulting from irrigation must be loosened shallowly.
Feed fruit plants need mineral and organic additives. This should be done once every three years. To do this, we use ten kilograms of organic composition and twenty grams of potash and phosphorus additives per square meter around the barrel.
You can also feed the sea buckthorn with nitrogen, only in moderate doses. Every year we sprinkle a couple of manure buckets around the near-stem circle of the plant, but only the one that has already broken.
It provokes the formation of new roots in the sea buckthorn, due to which the plant will fix better in the soil.
We prune and eliminate shoots
Dry branches of sea buckthorn culture shortened in the spring. Pruning required to make sure that the dry branches of the tree does not accumulate harmful insects, and it had a good view. All shortened branches must be burned.
When it grows up with age around the sea-buckthorn bushes, it must be promptly eliminated. For these purposes, with the help of a hoe or spade, expose the base of the root offsprings. Remove them with a pruner or knife. Plot the slice patch with garden pitch, and sprinkle the groove with fertile soil.
Reproduction of culture
Reproduction is carried out by overgrowing and cuttings, as well as lignified and green cuttings, grafts and seeds.
Sea buckthorn seed
If the decision is made to propagate the crop under crops, then in that case all characteristics of the mother plant will be transferred to the plant. It should be noted that the shoots formed near the main tree are not suitable for breeding. In order for the roots of young siblings to grow more actively, it is recommended to constantly spud soil near it and to control its moisture level throughout all spring and summer days.
In the spring around the shoots carefully rake the soil. Cut the processes with shears with a small part of the maternal rhizome. After this operation, the finished specimen is transplanted to a permanent place of growth.
Propagating the culture of layering, choose branches, which are located close to the ground. In early spring, near these branches, pits are made in the ground with a depth of about fifteen centimeters. Bend the branches, fix them with hooks.
In the event of appendages on the bent branches, sprinkle them with fertile, loosened soil. In the coming spring, these branches dig up and separate the secateurs with annual shoots that have been rooted. They are immediately planted for growing or on their permanent site.
To date, widely used methods of propagation of seed culture. Sprouts grown from seeds will be able to adapt well to growing conditions.
Such a tree will have a high yield in the future. But its fruits are often small.
We fight with insects and diseases
The culture is prone to fusarium, endomitosis, scab, and a dozen different diseases:
- Affected sea buckthorn fruits endomitoz begin to lose their flavor and will easily crumple in the hands during harvest. In the coming year, these trees almost no berries. To get rid of this disease you need chemicals: Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride. Initial processing is carried out after the end of flowering culture, re-processing in the middle of summer.
- Such a disease, as scab is everywhere, it provokes the drying of shoots. If the scab has developed extensively, then the plant does not avoid death. The disease affects the foliage, fruits and young shoots. It manifests itself in the first half of summer and has the appearance of rounded shiny spots of coal color, they increase in size until the end of summer days. A little later, pink-yellow mucus appears. This is controversy. They go out through the gaps of the berry peel. This process causes the fruits to rot, they turn black and dry. The foliage at the ends is twisted, becomes brown, and the appearance of black swellings on the processes. Get rid of this scourge should, resorting to the autumn crop and irrigation Bordeaux liquid, which has a concentration of one percent. Only it must be produced no later than three weeks before the harvest begins.
The most important enemies of sea buckthorn are sea buckthorn moth and sea buckthorn fly. Chlorophos is suggested to fight them; they need to irrigate plants at a certain time.
Sea buckthorn pests
A sea buckthorn aphid is considered an unpleasant harmful insect; it, together with the larvae, can infect the leaves of plants. In private homesteads, infusions and decoctions from the foliage of tomato and potatoes, garlic and onion husks, and tobacco foliage mixed with household soap are struggling with it. In addition, a chemical method using karbofos at a concentration of ten percent is effective in combating aphids.
Use and application of fruits
Sea buckthorn is a medicinal plant that has long been used by mankind to heal a variety of ailments. Curative and useful characteristics of the product are used in conventional therapy and traditional medicine.
Berries give juice, oil, syrups, various additives, tinctures, medicines, candles for the treatment of ailments in proctology and gynecology.
In the people for healing is used not only the fruits, but the foliage and branches, rhizomes and other parts of the plant. From the obtained raw materials prepare various tinctures and decoctions. The action of sea buckthorn is directed against various inflammations, it has a wound-healing effect. It is an excellent antiseptic. Able to quench the pain, to fight atherosclerosis. It has a whole range of multivitamins. It has a laxative effect on the human body.
Useful properties of sea buckthorn - on video:
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Harvesting sea buckthorn
Pest and disease control measures
The use of sea buckthorn in medicine and other areas
List of used sources
Amateur gardeners already appreciated the sea buckthorn and gladly accepted it to the culture. In the recent past, little-known shrubs have become one of the best multivitamin plants.
In folk medicine, sea buckthorn fruits are used as an analgesic, gastric, antiscorbetic and antisclerotic agent. A decoction of the fruit is used to treat skin diseases. Sea buckthorn flowers are used as a skin softening cosmetic.
Of particular value is sea buckthorn oil derived from the fruit. It is used as a therapeutic drug against radiation injuries of the skin, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gynecological diseases, eczema, hypertension, anemia and cataracts.
Sea buckthorn has high nutritional value. Jam, compotes, jellies, jellies, marmalade are prepared from its fruits, used in the food industry. In these products of processing vitamins and other biologically active substances are well preserved (TF Tsar'kova, Buckthorn, 1987).
Due to the numerous beneficial properties of sea buckthorn in the Altai Territory, the International Seabuckthorn Symposium is held annually.
Sea buckthorn belongs to the berry shrubs of the Loch family. It occupies an intermediate position between typical shrubs and trees. Under natural conditions, sea buckthorn most often grows as a multi-stem tree shrub from 0.5 to 9 m tall. In culture, it is a multi-stem tree up to 3–4 m high and a crown diameter up to 4–5 m. The main skeletal branches live 10–15, less often - 20 years.
The most common type of sea buckthorn is sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnodesL.). This plant can often be found throughout almost the whole territory of Europe and Asia and southern Siberia. Sea buckthorn grows predominantly near water bodies, most often on sandy soils. In the wild state, it is distributed throughout Europe, in the Caucasus, in Western and Central Asia, Mongolia, China, and enters the tropical regions of Pakistan and India. On the territory of Russia it is found in the European part, in the North Caucasus, in Western and Eastern Siberia, in Altai. Diluted in gardens and parks as an ornamental plant. The plant is widely distributed in Russia. It grows clumps in the valleys of mountain rivers, along the shores of seas, lakes, on sand, pebbles with oozy sediments, in places flooded with spring and summer floods every year. In the middle lane (in the Kaliningrad region), it can be seen in community with poplar, willow, birch, black elder, dog rose, and blackberry (E. I. Yaroslavtsev, Your Garden, 1984).
Sea buckthorn is a wind-pollinated dioecious plant, on some bushes there are only female (pistillate), and on others - only male (staminate) flowers. Female plants bloom and bear fruit, male plants only bloom, forming pollen for pollinating female plants.
Prior to fruiting, male plants are virtually indistinguishable from female ones. From the 3rd to the 5th year of life, mixed, vegetative-generative buds are laid on the annual shoots. They can easily determine the sex: in the male, the kidneys are much larger than in the female. In the winter-spring period (in the absence of leaves), men almost seem to be shorter and swollen due to the fact that they are covered with numerous opaque scales. In the female, the kidneys are small, covered with 2 - 3 scales.
Annual gains in female plants are more subtle than in male plants. There are cases when individual males are fastened on some males. As a rule, they are small, underdeveloped, the seeds isolated from them have an ugly shape.
The sea buckthorn blooms in early - mid May. The flowers are small, inconspicuous, petalless, with greenish-brown perianths, collected in many spikelet short inflorescences. Мужские цветки в пазухах чешуек несут по 4 тычинки, состоящие из коротких нитей и продолговатых пыльников, которые выбрасывают множество пыльцы цвета охры.
Цветёт облепиха в начале – середине мая. The flowers are small, inconspicuous, petalless, with greenish-brown perianths, collected in multi-spikelet short inflorescences. Male flowers in the axils of the scales carry 4 stamens each, consisting of short filaments and oblong anthers, which emit a lot of ocher pollen.
Pollen grains are very small - dust. Even a small breeze lifts a significant amount of pollen into the air and transfers it to female flowers. Pollen kernels that fall on the stigma of the pistil germinate in 3 to 4 hours, and fertilization occurs 7 to 10 days after pollination.
Female flowers of yellow-green color, without petals, develop in the bosom of a covering leaf singly, less often - in the form of an umbrella with 2 - 3 flowers.
Both female and male flowers do not have nectaries, so bees and other insects do not pollinate them. Sometimes bees visit staminate flowers to collect pollen.
The duration of flowering male plants, depending on weather conditions, varies from 6 to 12 days. Flowers open and emit pollen at air temperature not lower than 6 - 10 ° C. To start budding, the sum of effective temperatures is 120–200 ° C (average daily temperatures above + 10 ° C are called effective), about 200 to start flowering, and 200–300 ° C for mass flowering.
The crown of the bush consists of branches of different ages. Young plants usually have a central conductor and side branches subordinate to it. During the growing season, annual shoots have 2-3 growth periods, resulting in the formation of lateral shoots of the second and third orders of branching.
With the entry into fruiting, along with simple vegetative, mixed vegetative-generative buds are laid. The simplest buds form the strongest growth shoots, while those of mixed buds are shortened overgrown branches.
Vegetative growth of shoots begins shortly after the end of flowering of sea buckthorn with an average daily air temperature of about 12 ° C. Intensive growth occurs at a temperature of 17–20 ° C. With increasing age, the pozgoobrazovatelny ability of plants decreases.
At a young age, the progressive growth and branching of the shoots are mainly due to the apical buds. Some weak summer shoots when drying apical buds form spines.
Upon entry into the fruiting season, the growth of shoots is resumed from 5-7 contiguous buds located close to the apex. A false whorling is formed - a group of two or more shoots sitting on one node of a branch. The buds on the shoots of such whorls are mixed: next year they will form both flowers and new shoots. And the flowers (and then the berries) are located at the base of the new shoots, thickly clinging to the twigs.
After fruiting, the buds die off, exposing the wood that has been harvested. The formation of new leaves and shoots is transferred to the peripheral part of the crown much higher. Usually, in the third order of branching after the formation of a whorl, individual branches begin to dry out. Due to this, the crown is lightened and regulated by the growth of whorls. By the fourth or fifth year of fruiting, the total length of the shoots of the current year and, consequently, the yield reaches a maximum value. In the future, as the length of annual growths decreases and they are removed from the center of the crown, the yield gradually decreases.
From the beginning of flowering to the full ripening of the fruit usually takes 3-3.5 months. The duration of the formation of the fruit depends on the variety and weather conditions during the growing season. In optimal conditions, the fruit is set to 30-40% of the total number of pistillate flowers, but in the process of development, some of the ovaries fall off and by the end of the growing season the number of fruits decreases to 20-30% of the number of pistillate flowers. Ovaries tightly cling to the base of young shortened shoots and almost the entire increase of the last year (E. I. Yaroslavtsev, Your Garden, 1984).
Sea buckthorn berries come in various shapes: round, oval, cylindrical, bulbous, ovoid, obovoid. They ripen in 20-30 days after the end of the growth of the pericarp and seed formation. As they mature, the bright green color turns into yellow, orange or orange-red, the content of chlorophyll in the pulp decreases, and the carotenoids increase. The previously dense berries soften under the influence of hydrolytic enzymes. The mass of 100 fruits of wild-growing forms of sea-buckthorn is on average 25 - 45 g, of cultural forms - 40 - 90 g. Seeds of sea-buckthorn are oval in shape, dense, grayish-brown or dark brown. The mass of 1000 seeds in the air-dry condition is 15-20 g.
Leaves are linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, simple, with a small petiole, without stipules. Leaf arrangement is next. The size of the leaf blade varies depending on the variety and position on the shoot. In the middle part of the shoot, the leaves are most developed and usually reach 7–10 cm in length, at the top and base of the shoot, the length of the leaves is 2–6 cm. -green hairs. Due to the absence of stomata from the upper side of the leaf and the lowering from the lower, evaporation of moisture is significantly reduced. This adaptive property was developed in plants in natural growing conditions - at elevated air temperatures and high solar radiation.
Sea-buckthorn has a superficially located root system: during the period of full fruiting, the bulk of the roots are located 10 to 40 cm from the soil surface. Only a few roots penetrate to a depth of 1.5 - 2 m. They have the appearance of long lashes with underdeveloped lobe.
Composition and nutritional value
Fruits and leaves of sea buckthorn - a real fount of useful substances. They contain vitamins A, B, C, PP, H and E.
Also in the plant are:
- essential oils,
- folic acid,
100 g of fruits contain 82 kcal. This product has the following indicators BJU (per 100 g):
- 1.2 g of proteins
- 5.4 g fat
- 5.7 g of carbohydrates.
The rich and diverse chemical composition of this plant makes it very useful for humans. Sea buckthorn is shown for:
- treating gout and rheumatism
- increase immunity, due to the high concentration of vitamins,
- treatment of colds and viral diseases,
- improve digestion and activate the production of digestive enzymes,
- removal of inflammatory processes, their internal and external manifestations,
- treatment of diseases of the oral cavity, gums and teeth,
- treatment and prevention of gynecological diseases,
- hemorrhoids treatment,
- cancer prevention.
- helps from burns
- is a diaphoretic and diuretic
- promotes healing and resorption of stitches, scars and scars,
- relieves pain,
- is an important component of the diet and health food.
It is noteworthy that practically all parts of the plant, the leaves, the bark, and the drupes, are of benefit to the human body, but their range of application is somewhat different.
This is the main medicinal raw material of this plant. Sea buckthorn fruits:
- used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, both in classical and traditional medicine,
- shown in vitamin deficiency, reduced immunity, during viral and colds,
- due to the high content of vitamins, significantly facilitate the recovery after long illnesses and operations,
- contribute to blood formation
- improve cardiovascular function.
Sea buckthorn juice is used for external use, for dermatitis, irritation, burns and ulcers of the skin.
Tincture of fruits and leaves to strengthen the body: 20 g of dried sea buckthorn fruits pour 200 ml of warm water and leave to infuse for 6 hours. After the indicated time the infusion is filtered and taken 50 ml 3 times a day.
Oil from the fruits of this plant is highly valued in folk and classical medicine, as well as cosmetology. This product is incredibly useful because:
- has anti-inflammatory properties,
- acts as an anesthetic,
- helps with skin diseases of different etymologies, including bedsores, ulcers, burns and frostbite,
- candles with this oil are considered safe and effective for hemorrhoids and anal fissures,
- effectively in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as the treatment of esophageal oncology.
Sea buckthorn oil is used as follows:
- When a stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer in 10-15 ml before meals.
- For the treatment of gynecological diseases, cotton swabs are moistened in it and injected vaginally.
- On burns, wounds, ulcers, and other skin lesions impose gauze compress soaked in sea buckthorn oil.
Alcohol extract is made from the bark of this tree, which is indicated for cancer patients during chemotherapy. Folk healers also emphasize the effectiveness of decoction of sea buckthorn bark with diarrhea.
Broth from the bark of sea buckthorn from diarrhea: 1 tbsp. 200 ml of boiling water are poured over a spoonful of bark and simmered for 5 minutes. Ready broth is cooled and filtered. Take as needed 3-4 times a day.
Decoction and tincture of sea buckthorn foliage is used for:
- treatment of rheumatism and gout,
- strengthen the immune system
- improve liver function
- normalization of vision
- douches from gynecological diseases.
Compresses for local anesthesia from sea buckthorn leaves: dried or fresh leaves are wrapped in a bandage or gauze, then dipped in boiling water for 2-3 minutes. When the lotion cools down to a tolerable temperature, it is applied to the sore spot.
Harm and contraindications
Although the fruits, foliage and bark of this plant are extremely beneficial, there are several cases where they should be avoided, namely:
- individual intolerance and allergic reactions,
- with pancreatitis and cholecystitis,
- during the acute course of hepatitis and peptic ulcer diseases.
In order for this medicinal plant to bring maximum benefit to the body, it must be properly prepared. The foliage is harvested either before the beginning of flowering, or at the end of August, along with the harvest.
And the bark - at the very beginning of spring. Collecting stone farms can be started in August or postponed until frost, it all depends on how you plan to prepare them.
Methods of harvesting sea buckthorn:
- For drying, whole fruits are needed, that is, harvested immediately after ripening. They are washed and dried, and then dried in an oven at a temperature not higher than 50 ° C, or dried in fresh air, but this requires approximately 60 sunny days in a row, and this possibility is not always there.
- You can also freeze the sea buckthorn on the twigs or pre-harvesting the fruit and placing it in a container. This method allows you to save fortified stone fruit until next season.
- Another way to store sea buckthorn is to put it in jars and pour it with cold boiled water, then close the lid tightly and put it in the refrigerator or cellar.
- The leaves are dried in a well-ventilated area. The collected raw materials must be spread out on thick paper and left away from sunlight. Periodically, the leaves need to be mixed and turned over so that they are not moldy and evenly dried out.
- The bark is also dried in protected from light areas with good air circulation.
Special attention deserves sea buckthorn oil - it is incredibly useful, and cook it at home is not difficult. For this you need to take ripe drupes, rinse them and squeeze the juice. Then the remaining cake is dried and crushed in a mortar or coffee grinder. Sea buckthorn powder is poured with vegetable oil (olive or sunflower), heated to 60 ° C in a 1: 2 ratio. Mixture allowed to brew for 24 hours and filtered. After that, the oil is ready for use for medicinal purposes. The remaining oil can be poured over with oil and used for cosmetic or culinary purposes.
Now you know how the fruits, foliage and bark of sea buckthorn are used for medicinal purposes. This plant can help in solving a variety of health problems, as well as strengthen the immune system and help the body recover from long-term illnesses and operations.
And folk recipes for dealing with various ailments, which include this plant, allow you to make medicine on your own, at home.
Culture has long been grown as an ornamental and medicinal plant. There are many varieties of wild sea buckthorn, and there are also varieties bred artificially. The most popular variety grown by gardeners - Sea buckthorn or Sea Buckthorn.
Gardeners believe that this culture is picky and afraid to plant it on their site. In fact, sea buckthorn is easy to grow: you need to choose the right place, prepare the soil and provide the necessary care.
Male and Female Saplings
- The buds on the female tree are small, have 2 covering scales,
- Male kidneys are large, have 5−7 covering scales.
It is better to choose a place away from the beds, flower beds and trees. The roots of sea buckthorn grow to the sides, it needs a lot of free space. When loosening the soil is easy to damage. It is better to plant it near the fence or use it as a hedge. The plant prefers light, slightly acidic or neutral fertile soils with the addition of sand.
Sea buckthorn is light-requiring, the soil must be constantly wet, but overmoistening harms the roots. Saplings are planted in spring, but a pit is planted for planting in the fall, its diameter is 60 × 50 cm. Planting is carried out in May, the soil is mixed with organic and mineral fertilizers.
In the spring, they plant a sapling not less than 40–50 cm long, the root collar is covered by 5–7 cm. The soil is trampled down, covered with a layer of mulch (sawdust, peat, grass, leaves, straw). The seedling must be tied to a peg and watered abundantly before the shoots start growing. New trees will begin to bear fruit in 3-5 years, depending on the variety. Scientists have bred several varieties of sea buckthorn, some of them lack spines, some have larger fruits.
- The soil under the bushes need to constantly loosen and remove weeds, so that oxygen passes to the roots and excess moisture evaporates. Loosening should be shallow (up to 5 cm),
- What is important is abundant watering throughout the season: from spring to autumn,
- It is necessary to feed the bushes with potash and phosphate fertilizers. Nitrogen is not required. Small tubers form on the roots, and the bacteria that live in them take away nitrogen from the air (like legumes),
- Pruning is carried out in early spring before the buds have blossomed. Up to 5 years of age can form the shape of the crown. After 7–10 years old, weak, thin and thin branches should be removed, as well as those that shade the inner part of the bush. Every year you need to remove diseased and dried branches,
- Most of the harvest can be obtained from plants aged 8−12 years. After twelve years old, the plant can be cut down, it will grow again. For this you need to start growing from the old stump.
The plant can be propagated by seed or cuttings, grafting and root growth.
Gardeners do not use seed propagation, as a new plant does not always retain signs of maternal. It is used by scientists to breed new varieties.
The easiest and most popular breeding method - green cuttings:
- Harvest cuttings in June. You need to cut them with a length of 15 cm,
- Remove three sheets from the bottom,
- Dig in the ground, create greenhouse conditions,
- Water regularly
- After the appearance of the roots, you need to feed mineral compounds,
- After one or two months you need to remove the film,
- In the spring cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
Reproduction of wood cuttings:
- At the end of autumn or at the beginning of winter, cuttings of at least 5 mm thick are cut,
- They dig them in the snow,
- In the spring, the cuttings are shortened to 10−15 cm
- For one or two weeks put in the water,
- When buds and small roots appear, they are planted into the soil under the film, leaving 1–2 buds on the surface,
- The cuttings require constant watering,
- When the stalk grows in a length of 50−60 cm, it is transplanted into the garden to a permanent place.
Reproduction by vaccination:
It is used infrequently, the method does not always give the desired result, since the bark of the plant is loose and soft:
- Vaccination is carried out in early spring,
- You need to prepare cuttings (the lower part is cut off at 45 ° C, and the upper part at 90 ° C) with a length of 5−10 cm
- Make a T-shaped incision in the bark of the stock (tree to which it is grafted) and insert a cutting into it,
- Vaccination site and fix the film.
The shrub does not tolerate transplantation, the site for planting should be chosen immediately.
The ancient Greeks called sea buckthorn "shiny horse." Horses with pleasure ate berries, became stronger and more beautiful. Sea buckthorn began to be used to treat sick and depleted horses, and later they began to use berries to treat people.
All parts of the plant are useful, except the roots: bark, fruits, leaves. The sea buckthorn contains about 200 useful substances:
- Berries are eaten fresh or prepare juices, jams, preserves, compotes. It should be borne in mind that during the heat treatment of some vitamins is destroyed. The easiest way to save the berries and vitamins - freezing,
- Ягоды облепихи улучшают иммунитет,
- Из облепихи получают масло: его можно употреблять в пищу, использовать для наружного применения. Оно помогает при кожных, заболеваниях (порезы, экземы, ожоги), болезнях сердца, желудка. The oil is an antiseptic, it is used for colds and flu,
- Leaves prepare infusions that help with diseases of the stomach and skin diseases,
- From the bark and twigs can be prepared decoction to strengthen the hair,
- In winter, birds eat berries,
- Creams, shampoos, balms, shower gels, masks for hair or face are made on the basis of sea buckthorn.
Breeders have long recommended the use of sea buckthorn in landscape gardening along with other plants. Despite the fact that almost everyone knows it, sea buckthorn is not yet perceived as an ornamental plant. Even as a fruit crop, it did not find wide distribution in garden plots. Often, they feel sorry for a good place on the plot and plant it behind a fence along a dusty road.
Nevertheless, with the help of sea buckthorn, you can create an original landscape, successfully combining it with other plants. Culture is perfect for the formation of contrasting groups. Amber-orange fruit picturesquely look against the background of dark green conifers.
Sea buckthorn produces spectacular hedges. For them, the neighborhood with thuja, juniper, barberry will do. Branched roots of a tree will allow to fix road slopes, ravines, slopes. By strengthening the soil, the tree thereby protects it from erosion. It accumulates atmospheric nitrogen in the soil due to nodule formations on the roots and makes the soil more fertile.
Sea buckthorn - perennial plant. This is a dioecious tree that can grow to a height of 4-5 meters.
The main feature of this plant - the presence of thorns, which complicate the harvest. It is advisable to wear tight gloves so as not to stab your hands. Most fruit trees do not have such a protective mechanism. On the trunk grows many branches, which are tightly covered with hard and sharp spikes about 2 centimeters long.
Sea-buckthorn bark has a grayish-brown shade. Foliage - linear-lanceolate, whole-red about 8 centimeters in length. They have a light green color with a silvery shade, like an olive tree.
When the tree begins to bloom, the flowers have a different color. Male specimens have a dark brown color. On each flower can be 4 pistil, all the inflorescences are collected in the "spike" of 10-15 pieces up to one centimeter long. Unlike husband. signs of flowers, women have stamens. They have a greenish color, and the inflorescences are collected in brushes for a few things. Flowering begins in late April and early May.
Fruits of sea buckthorn prunus until ripening have a light green color. After maturation, a bright orange color. Drugs are usually oval, small. But they tightly cover the branches, that they under the large number of fruits can not be noticed. In one adult tree you can collect several buckets of berries. Fruit ripening ends closer to mid-autumn.
Usually crushed sea buckthorn can be found in Europe and Asia, as well as in Transbaikalia, in Altai, the Caucasus and even in the southern territories of Siberia.
Sea buckthorn grows very well even in wild conditions, therefore it is capable of creating impassable thickets in the natural environment. It grows well in sandy soil, in river valleys, near rivers. You can hardly care for these trees, as they themselves quickly adapt to the climate, and can take water from under the ground.
Sea buckthorn can be propagated by seed, root pagon abstraction or seedlings.
The description of the chemical composition of the sea-buckthorn fruit mainly depends on the plant variety, the place of growth, the time of the harvest, etc., therefore it may differ.
The sea buckthorn contains many vegetable fats that are free of cholesterol. Thanks to carotene oil has an orange color. There are also many vitamins of groups B, C, E, K, R. All of them are necessary for the human body for the normal functioning of important vital systems. The fruits have folic acid, betaine, phosphorolipids, glucose, sterols and triterpene substances. There are various organic natural acids: malic, tartaric and citric.
The chemical composition includes tannins, which are useful for the healing of tissues in the body, as well as a variety of micro and macro elements: iron, magnesium, silicon, aluminum, calcium and potassium, sodium, lead, nickel, molybdenum and even strontium. Heavy metals are contained in meager amounts, so that there will be no harm to health.
Sea buckthorn juice with pulp is recommended as an adjuvant for low acidity of gastric juice, hypokinesia of the stomach and intestines, and atonic constipation. It is also used in the complex treatment of patients with toxic hepatitis and for the prevention of occupational diseases as a multivitamin remedy.
Sea buckthorn oil is used for radiation injuries of the skin, thermal and chemical burns, bedsores, trophic ulcers, etc. The wound or ulcer surface, cleared of necrotic tissues, is washed with a solution of penicillin or other antibiotics. Sea buckthorn oil is plentifully applied to the damaged area and bandaged. Bandages change every other day. The treatment is carried out before the appearance of granulations filling the wound surface.
Like any other natural products, there are a number of contraindications to the use of sea buckthorn and products based on it. You can not take it when diagnosing pancreatitis, gastric ulcer, high acidity, in acute cholecystitis, as well as in the pathology of the biliary tract.
Special attention should be paid to the sensitivity of the human body to the components of sea buckthorn. If after its use there are signs of an allergic reaction, then you need to abandon the medication on the basis of these berries.
Sea buckthorn on the plot
Sea buckthorn Ideal on thick, thorny hedges. Looks good in gardens, also used for planting urban greenery. It has decorative, silvery leaves and very picturesque, bright orange berries, which can be a wonderful accent in the winter garden. Besides, sea buckthorn fruits edible, but they should be collected only after the first frost - they will then get rid of the expressive tart taste.
Sea buckthorn, or sea buckthorn(lat. Hippophaë rhamnoídes) shrub or tree, belongs to the family Lokhovye. In nature it grows in Europe and Asia. These plants are resistant to frost, drought, wind, polluted air, and not demanding to grow. Sea buckthorn can also be used as a garden plant - it has decorative, silver-gray leaves, bright (and healthy and tasty fruits), it can also be used to create hedges and to strengthen the slopes and slopes of the plot. Sea buckthorn is sometimes called "Russian pineapple". It has a very exotic, original appearance.
Sea buckthorn - a large, voluminous shrub, grows rather slowly, but can grow to about 4-6 m in height, with a crown diameter of about 3-5 meters. It has an irregular, asymmetric cover and spreading, taut, stiff branches that are covered with smooth, brownish bark. The branches are covered with thin, hard and sharp enough spikes. Sea buckthorn forms dense, tangled thickets, and due to the numerous processes of the root system, this shrub grows quite widely.
Sea buckthorn plant is seasonal. The leaves develop in spring and are an interesting decoration of the plant - gray-green above, silvery below, gently covered with villus, 7 cm long, narrow and hard.
Flowers appear before the development of leaves (March-April), they are small, yellow-green, they smell quite characteristic, but do not have too much decorative value. Sea buckthorn dioecious plant There are instances of male and female. Fruits appear only on female individuals, but in order to reach dusting, at least two different shrubs should grow at a close distance from each other. After pollination on the female bushes there are fruits - small, spherical, orange drupes, which begin to ripen in August, but they fully mature only in October. Sea buckthorn fruits are edible, but they can only be harvested after the first frost (formerly very tart). Gloves must be worn during harvest. If they are not collected, they will hang on the bush until spring, being food and a treat for birds. Sea buckthorn is directly covered with fruits; it is also an interesting decorative element in the garden.
Sea buckthorn requires a sunny plot. Shrubs planted in the shade, wither. This plant prefers light soil, sandy, permeable and fairly dry. It grows very poorly in heavy soil, clay, wet. But they like high humidity, so it often grows in coastal areas (on dunes and rocks). Shrubs tolerate soil salinization and air pollution, also completely frost resistant.
Sea buckthorn can be planted both in early spring and autumn. The plant is planted in a hole with a depth and a width of about 80 cm. A layer of compost should be put at the bottom of the pit - then frequent fertilization is not required (this plant lives in symbiosis with bacteria that binds nitrogen to air). If you want to create a hedge from sea buckthorn, the bushes should be planted at a distance of about 80-100 cm. The ground around the planted bushes should be tamped down, and the seedling should be watered abundantly. Plants are watered abundantly during the first 3 years from planting. Adult specimens are fairly drought tolerant. Every year, in the spring, we dig up the earth around the bushes, float it up. Also plantings should be weeded.
If we count on sea buckthorn fruits , it should be remembered that this plant is dioecious - dusting flowers on bushes with female flowers is caused by pollen from flowers of male bushes. Therefore, at 6-8 female species must plant at least one male specimen. Female specimens can be recognized only when they are 3-4 years old and begin to bloom - their flower buds are smaller and the total number is smaller.
Recently planted bushes need to shorten shoots so that the plant releases new shoots and thickens well - we do it in early spring. After a few years from landing, it is possible in this way to form sea buckthorn. Later, the bushes are not pruned, because they are very badly restored. Cut out only dry, broken, damaged branches.
Sea buckthorn grows rapidly and over time can drown out the rest of the plants, so it is worth systematically removing the root processes, which quickly multiplies. Shoots should be pulled, not cut. We do this in late autumn or early summer, when the young roots are not yet stiff.
Shrubs pretty resistant to pests but can sometimes appear aphid or pincers . Weaker plants can be infected with diseases such as: Fusarium, Verticillis.
Sea buckthorn can be propagated seeds (generative reproduction) of root cuttings or an escape (vegetative propagation). Seeds are sown in the ground in the fall or stand (stratified) and sow in the spring. After 3-4 years, it will be possible to separate male individuals from female (when they begin to bloom).
Root cuttings we dig up, we cut off (the bush takes roots rather small), and then we cut into smaller parts and place in penetrating soil, which should be constantly slightly wet. The newly emerged plants are planted in the ground in the spring.
Vegetative escape we take at the beginning of summer, should have a length of about 15-20 cm and several leaf buds. We place them in a mixture of sand and peat, the mixture should be constantly slightly wet, in a bright place, but not to the sun itself. In the ground we plant in the spring next year.
Types of sea buckthorn
In Russia, 71 sea buckthorn varieties are registered. Breeders are actively working on the cultivation of new varieties: with a high content of all nutrients, large fruits, high yields, dessert taste, lack of spines. In the wild, a shrub or tree can grow up to 30 years. The maximum height of the shrub is 6 m, the tree is 15 m. The most popular wild-growing species of our region is the sea buckthorn. What other species and varieties are considered the most useful?
- Chuy sea buckthorn Popular garden shrub variety. Its peculiarity is rare spikes, sweet fruits, high yield. The height of the shrub - no more than 4 m, does not require heavy pruning.
- Sea buckthorn This is a wild species that is found in India, Nepal, China, Bhutan. The height of the plant reaches 15 m, the shrub is found in the highlands up to 3500 m. The local population uses berries and leaves to make tea. The fruit is also used for polishing precious metals. In Europe, this variety is not found.
Collecting and harvesting
Now there is a lot of information about the conditions for growing sea buckthorn, its various varieties, as well as a huge selection of seedlings. Therefore, many avid gardeners and gardeners are trying to grow this shrub alone, and quite successfully doing it. In some varieties, the first crop can be harvested the next year after planting. With good yields for 7–8 years, up to 15 kg of berries are removed from the shrub.
- Start collecting. Berry is removed in the fall - in September or October. However, the fruits can remain on the branches throughout the winter. Mature fruits should be bright yellow or orange, firm, with dark dots on the peel.
- Features of the collection. Some prefer to leave the berries until the first frost, after which the fruits are easily removed. However, there is a risk that the berries will be a treat for birds. It is also believed that fruits lose some of their nutrients during frosts. Collecting sea buckthorn is troublesome. The reason for this is the spines and tightly attached fruits that can be easily damaged during harvest. Some prefer to cut the branches and then remove the berries from them. This method harms shrubs that do not like strong pruning. How to collect the fruit? You need to be patient and tight gloves. Berries can be scraped into a container or shaken from the branches, putting a piece of canvas under the tree.
- Drying Fruits can be dried in natural conditions. But in wet weather and cold, it is better to dry them in the oven or electric dryer. The readiness and quality of the raw material is indicated by its dark red color, pleasant aroma.
- Storage It is important to remember that the fruits of sea buckthorn deteriorate quickly during transportation. They need to be collected in small solid containers, carefully pour and wash during processing. The permissible shelf life of fresh fruit - 4 days, in the refrigerator - 7 days. The shelf life of dry raw materials - 2 years. Frozen berries store no more than six months.
- Harvesting other parts of the plant. In addition to fruits, they collect bark, leaves, plant seeds. The leaves are harvested in spring, during the flowering period of the shrub. Dried in a natural way, stored in the same way as berries. The bark should be harvested in early spring.
Sea buckthorn is an unpretentious, frost-resistant plant. Its average life expectancy is 20 years. In addition, it is also a beautiful ornamental shrub, requiring careful pruning after 10 years of life.
What are the pharmacological, healing properties of sea buckthorn?
- Wound healing.
The most valuable in sea buckthorn is vitamins. Mature fruits are a natural reserve of carotene (vitamin A), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and also vitamins E, F, P, and group B. Also found in the chemical composition of the plant are:
- fatty oil
- organic acids
Useful properties are also found in the leaves of sea buckthorn, its bark, seeds. In the leaves - a lot of vitamin C, A, tannin, tannins, in the bark - alkaloids and serotonin, substances with antitumor properties, in the seeds - fatty oil, a lot of vitamins E, group B, tannin.
Indications for use
What does sea buckthorn treat? In what areas of traditional medicine, in what diagnoses and symptoms does it apply?
- Gastroenterology. Apply with inflammation of the digestive tract. Especially effective is a remedy for chronic pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, colitis and enterocolitis, esophageal tumors. With hemorrhoids, rectal fissures make microclysters with the addition of sea buckthorn oil and anti-inflammatory herbs. It is also useful in liver damage, especially in case of alcohol poisoning. Sea buckthorn cleanses the gastrointestinal tract, acts as a mild laxative.
- Endocrinology. The tool normalizes metabolic processes, removes toxins from the body, acts as an antioxidant drug. Sea buckthorn can be taken with diabetes, but under medical supervision.
- The cardiovascular system . Sea buckthorn and pressure - a matter that requires separate consideration. Due to its vasodilating properties, the plant is effective in hypertension, that is, it reduces, regulates pressure, normalizes blood circulation. Although previously it was believed that due to the tonic properties of the berry is able to increase the pressure.
- Antitumor agent. There are positive reviews about the treatment of this berry cancer. In folk herbalists you can find recipes from sea buckthorn from cancer at an early stage. The most effective tool for malignant tumors of the stomach and esophagus, the fruits of this plant inhibit the growth of malignant cells.
- Restorative remedy. Напитки из облепихи полезно пить для профилактики ОРВИ, гриппа, простуды, весеннего авитаминоза, цинги.It can also be taken as an antipyretic, diaphoretic at temperature. Fresh juice is a good antitussive.
- Outdoor use. Sea buckthorn (especially oil) due to epithelial, wound healing properties is widely used in gynecology for the treatment of cervical erosion. Also, the tool is prescribed in otolaryngology for the treatment of sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis, tonsillitis. With the defeat of the oral mucosa (gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontal disease), this plant is also effective. Sea buckthorn treats ulcers, bedsores, fissures, burns (including radiation), frostbite, phlegmon, inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, psoriasis, eczema. It is noteworthy that for dermatological problems, burns of the esophagus and throat, sea buckthorn is also taken orally.
From sea buckthorn you can make jam, jam, jelly, marshmallow, jelly, compote. There are many recipes when berries need to be sterilized. However, during the heat treatment of fruits a lot of vitamins are lost. There are other ways to make fortified jams.
- Pass the fruit through the juicer.
- Take pure juice without oilcake.
- For 1 kg of juice, add 1.5 kg of sugar.
- Stir well.
- Pour into dry sterilized jars.
This jam should be stored only in the refrigerator.
The benefits of sea buckthorn for women, men, children
- For women . Sea buckthorn is useful not only for various inflammations of the genitourinary sphere. This is one of the safest herbal preparations, which is allowed during pregnancy, if there are no general contraindications. It is prescribed to pregnant women as a multivitamin. To prevent stretch marks, sea buckthorn oil is rubbed into the skin to increase its elasticity. You can also drink sea buckthorn nursing mother. However, you should remember about the high content of carotene in the fruit, which can cause allergies in the baby. Therefore, small doses of drinks from this berry are recommended.
- For men . Sea buckthorn is a recognized folk remedy for increasing potency. Due to the high content of tocopherol (vitamin E), the berry is useful for the reproductive function of middle-aged men.
- For kids . Unfortunately, children are often allergic to sea buckthorn. But if there is no allergic reaction, then it is an indispensable product in the child’s winter diet. It is useful to give a drink during ARVI, flu, as well as during recovery from an illness, to strengthen the immune system.
The benefits and harms of sea buckthorn are well known in traditional medicine, but also studied in scientific medical practice. This berry is most useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, but it cannot be (especially when fresh) taken during an exacerbation. This is a good wound healing, bactericidal agent, which is used in dermatology, gynecology, otolaryngology, and dentistry. It is often prescribed for the prevention of viral infections and beriberi.