No matter how hard gardeners try to do without spraying, trees have to be protected from diseases and insects. Without protective treatments, you can lose the entire crop. For fruit plantations is dangerous as an excessive amount of pesticides, and their lack. Gardener must know the timing of spraying the garden. This avoids unnecessary, useless work.
When to spray fruit trees
Treatments begin long before harvest and even the formation of the crop - in early spring. Finished in late autumn. In summer, when the pests are most active, the garden should not be left without protection either.
Spraying is carried out at a temperature not lower than +5 degrees. A procedure performed in colder weather will be useless.
How to spray fruit trees
The pesticide must be approved for use in private farms and at the dacha plots. Those who wish to have an organic crop can use folk remedies instead of chemicals.
Most pests and pathogens produce immunity to the drug, which is used in the area. The advantage must be given to new means. Unfortunately, common insecticides like Intavir, Karbofos, Spark do not always help. They were replaced by more effective pesticides.
Fungicides are drugs against plant diseases. They contain a substance that has a detrimental effect on microscopic fungi, bacteria and viruses - sulfur, copper or iron.
The fungicide is suitable for spraying any trees: pome and stone fruit. The drug is useful after pruning, when wounds appear on the tree that require disinfection.
It is recommended to spray the garden with blue vitriol to disinfect the bark and soil twice:
- in March-April, before the first leaves appeared,
- late autumn, after leaf fall.
A kilogram of powder contains 980 grams of the active substance - copper sulfate. The period of protective action is 1 month.
- 50 g of copper sulfate dissolve in 5 liters. water.
- Spray bark, leaves, tree trunks.
- Consumption rate - about 10 liters. per hundred.
Copper sulphate solution has a beautiful bright blue color. Do not be afraid if the bark and foliage after spraying become bluish. Color change is temporary.
It is an odorless, instant substance consisting of iron and sulfur. Iron sulfate is not as toxic as copper, so it can be used when fruit is already poured on trees. In a bag of ferrous sulfate contains at least 50% of the active substance.
In the garden, a pesticide is used to prevent black cancer, septoria, scab. The garden is sprayed in spring and autumn, seizing branches, trunks, and earth in tree trunks.
For treatments of a leafless garden, a worker is made solution of 5% concentration:
For vegetation treatments only 1% solution:
Iron sulfate destroys not only diseases, but also harmful insects, including larvae and eggs. For example, with abundant garden cultivation, up to 50% of the eggs of the heifers die.
Copper sulfate is also a fertilizer. The iron entering into it, is necessary for growth and development of plants. Vitriol is important for apple, cherry, plum. With a lack of iron in crops, chlorosis of the leaves begins, the fruits become shallow.
The active ingredients of a popular drug for any garden disease are copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide. In a kilogram of the mixture contains 900-960 gr. active ingredients.
Bordeaux mixture - contact pesticide to protect the garden from fungal diseases. With its help you can cope with mycosis, rust, scab, curly, peronosporozom.
Before the swelling of the kidneys apply a 3% concentration:
- 150 gr. vitriol,
- 200 gr. fuzz,
- 5 l. water.
During the growing season using a 1% solution:
- 50 gr. vitriol,
- 50-75 gr. fuzz,
- 5 l. water.
- Copper sulfate pour into glass, enamelled or plastic dishes and cover with a liter of warm water.
- Waiting for the complete dissolution of the vitriol, add water to the rate specified in the instructions.
- In the second tank, dilute the lime with water.
- Thin trickle into the limestone. Not the other way around!
Topaz is a systemic remedy for the protection of seed and stone fruit against powdery mildew and other fungal diseases. The advantage of Topaz is that it is not washed off by rain. After contact with the leaves, it is absorbed and moves into the tissues, protecting the plants from the roots to the top.
For the treatment of the garden from coccomycosis, powdery mildew and fruit rot, spraying is carried out in the summer, during the growing season. Waiting period –7 days, for the summer you can make up to 4 sprays. To obtain a working solution of 2 ml of topaz diluted in 10 liters. water.
The active ingredient of the drug is sulfur - 800 gr. on 1 kg of means. Tiovit Jet is produced in the form of granules, which quickly diverge in water, forming a homogeneous suspension. After processing, the sticky mass is held for a long time on the surface of the leaves and bark.
The drug protects plants immediately from two troubles: from ticks and diseases. Under the action of sulfur, insects and microscopic fungi quickly begin to die.
Preparation of working solution: 30-80 gr. drug dissolve in 10 l. water. During the summer you can make from 1 to 6 treatments. The drug is not toxic to fish and birds.
An alkaline solution made up of soda and water helps against fungal diseases, especially powdery mildew.
- 35 gr. water,
- 10 gr. any liquid soap,
- 5 l. water.
The components mix and spray the garden when spots and patches appear on the leaves.
Preparations for the destruction of harmful insects, their eggs and larvae are necessary at each site. Without insecticides, the grower will lose most of the crop, which will be the prey of hordes of caterpillars, beetles and aphids. Choosing poison, you need to pay attention to whether it is allowed to use it in private gardens, and how many days must pass after processing, so that the crop is no longer toxic to humans.
Protects the apple and plum from the moth and leafworm. The active ingredient is fensoxycarb. It is harmless to humans and bees, as it has only a third degree of danger.
Spraying the garden is carried out during the growing season. Waiting period:
- on an apple tree - 40 days,
- on the sink - 30 days.
During the season you can spend no more than three treatments. For preparation of working solution 6 gr. drug or 1 packet of powder is diluted in 8-10 l. water.
The working substance is lufenuron. The drug protects fruit trees from butterflies, locusts and beetles. The tool is almost not washed off by rain. Effectively when pyrethroids and organophosphate pesticides do not help.
The drug is sprayed against apple podozhorki at the beginning of egg-laying. The waiting period is 4 weeks. Over the summer, you can make two treatments - against the first and second generation of the pest.
Preparation of the solution: 8 ml of the drug is diluted in 10 liters. water.
Biological, safe for humans drug that can clear apple trees from caterpillars, aphids and ticks. Application: 5 ml of agravertine is diluted in one and a half liters of water, sprayed the garden, evenly wetting the leaves. The air temperature during treatment should be from 12 to 25 degrees. The period of protecting action is 1-3 weeks.
Insecticide mass action. Available in liquid or powder form. The working substance is thiamethoxam.
Aktara is an enteric insecticide effective against an insect complex. It is used in the garden to protect the apple trees, pears, grapes from the coppers, tsvetoedov, weevils, aphids.
For receiving working solution in 5 l. water diluted with 1 ml of the drug. Spraying is carried out before flowering. The waiting period is 2 months. Apple trees can be processed once per season, pears - twice. The period of protective action, depending on weather conditions, is up to 4 weeks.
Half an hour after the treatment, the insects cease to move, after 24 hours they die. The drug is toxic to bees, but safe for birds and earthworms. After processing, the bees should not sit on the trees for 96-120 hours.
Biological preparation safe for humans and pets against larvae of the codling moth, moth, silkworm, white American butterfly, moth. The active ingredient of lepidocide is spores of a special microbe, destructive for caterpillars.
Garden sprayed against each generation of pests with an interval of about a week. The waiting period is 5 days. During the summer you can make 2-3 treatments.
Preparation of working solution: 50 ml of the drug is diluted in 10 liters. water.
Spraying is carried out at air temperature not lower than 14 degrees. The optimum temperature range of 18-30 degrees. Fluid should be used throughout the day.
Self-made means will protect the garden from aphids, caterpillars, moths. Spraying is carried out before flowering and after.
- 500 gr. dried, ground in a coffee grinder, pods of hot pepper, 40 gr. household soap pour 10 liters of water.
- Hold for 48 hours.
- Boil for half an hour.
- Insist 2 hours.
- Store in a dark place.
Before processing, 1 liter of broth is diluted in 2 ten-liter buckets of water.
Decoction of wormwood
The tool protects against spider mites, codling moths, aphids, leafworm, seeded trees, orthoptera, weevils.
- 800 g of dried wormwood pour 10 liters of water.
- Insist day.
- Boil for half an hour.
Before use, dilute the broth with water 2 times.
Dalmatian Chamomile Infusion
Dalmatian chamomile contains pyrethroids - these substances are used in industrial pesticides. It is easy to prepare a potion, poisonous for caterpillars and sucking insects, having a Dalmatian chamomile on the plot:
- 200 gr. plants, such as flowers, stems, leaves, roots, pour 1 liter of water.
- Insist 10-12 hours.
- Drain infusion.
- The remaining vegetable raw materials pour 5 liters. liters of water.
- Insist 12 hours.
- Connect both infusions.
Garlic protects the garden from diseases and pests. It destroys fungal diseases, bacteria, aphids, ticks and caterpillars. Tincture is used 3 times after 9 days.
- 200 g of garlic, peel and mince.
- Fill with a small amount of water.
- Insist 1-2 days.
- Add water - up to 10 liters.
Now you know what it takes to ensure that the orchard is not affected by the invasion of pests and plant-damaging diseases. Using the agrotechnical and lunar calendars of treatments and the list of permitted drugs, you can get by with minimal intervention in the life of the garden, keeping the crop safe and sound.
During the period of cold weather, pests prefer to lie down in a warm place for wintering, for example, in dead foliage, bark and soil. Therefore, it is so important that autumn sprinkling of trees, which will help to overcome scab, spotting, various rot and other diseases.
Under the untreated bark, the bacteria spread much faster, which leads to a slowing of the vegetative process. Because of this, with the advent of spring, the trees "come to life" more slowly, and for this reason, the autumn processing is optimal.
Spray should be prepared plants. Preliminary processing includes several stages and varies by age of seedlings. If they are older than six years, the first thing to do is to remove the old bark with lichen (for this, a regular metal brush will do). Thus, the causative agents of various diseases have nowhere to hide. Then you can start spraying. It is produced in several visits, the last - when the trees drop foliage or after the first frost. Before processing, it is necessary to remove fallen leaves, branches and weeds.
The full cycle of garden preparation for winter includes a number of activities:
- cleaning the trunks of plants from the "dead" bark and burning it,
- collection and destruction of mummified and rotten fruits from twigs and earth,
- whitewashing trunks of fruit trees until frost, shelter shtambov young seedlings with shade or spruce branches to protect against rodents in the winter,
- digging up the soil (tree trunks) under the trees will allow us to get rid of weevils, moths and sawflies who have rested there,
- fertilizing in tree trunks, organic or phosphorus-potassium will do,
- removal and destruction of trapping belts, if installed, from tree trunks,
- directly sprinkling the garden.
Features autumn processing
Spraying the garden in autumn with preparations is important to carry out comprehensively, covering all fruit trees. For example, the treatment of apple protects it from aphids, covering the bark with billows. If it is not destroyed, the pest will begin to parasitize on the pear, plum, cherry plum and apricot. it can be recognized by twisting and falling leaves.
Plums are disinfected from the appearance of the May beetle, eating the ovaries of fruits and leaves. The roots of young seedlings are harmed by its larvae, which can lead to the death of the entire tree.
For apples, plums, pears and cherries, sprinkling is a way to preserve leaves and fruits, including during ripening.
Amateur gardeners, choosing what to spray fruit trees in the fall, often stop at one of the means below:
- Copper sulfate. Treatment with this drug is recommended twice per season. The first spraying is carried out in early spring, before the leaves appear on the trees, for which it is dangerous in the recommended concentration. The second time the procedure should be repeated after leaf fall. In addition, copper sulfate is a disinfectant for wounds of plants. Traditionally they are treated with a plum and an apple tree. Spraying is best done in the morning or in the evening in warm, windless weather. About 10 liters of the prepared solution are sprayed onto one fruiting tree, for a young sapling 2 is enough.
- Bordeaux fluid. Summer residents also popular with spraying fruit trees in the fall with Bordeaux liquid. Such a mixture is made of warm water, copper sulfate and hydrated lime in a ratio of 3 liters, 300 g and 400 g, respectively. Then the solution is diluted with 10 liters of water and sprayed on fruit trees and berry bushes to prevent gray rot, scab, purple spotting, coccomycosis, etc.
- Urea (urea). A weaker solution of this drug is treated trees a week after flowering, as well as in late autumn. Such a “therapy” destroys the caterpillar of the leafworm, sucker, flower beetle, aphid, etc. In preparing for the winter, a more concentrated solution is used (500 g per 10 l of water). Urea is not only a fungicide, but also a fertilizer, therefore, in addition to branches and stems, it is also possible to spray the soil. The drug should be applied to bare branches after the fall of the foliage, in a concentrated form, it is fraught with burns for the leaves and their premature fall.
- Preparation 30. It is used in early spring and late in the fall for processing apples, plums and pears. So, 200 g of the drug, diluted in 10 liters of water, will prevent the appearance of whiteflies on the trees, grassworms, moths, aphids, scale insects, and other pests that hibernate on the bark. Effectively this tool and to combat the larvae in the summer. According to the manufacturer, it is absolutely safe, since the fight against insects is not the use of various substances, but the formation of a thin film on the bark of the tree after spraying. In larvae or eggs of pests that have fallen under treatment, adverse living conditions are created due to disturbances in water balance and gas exchange, and they die.
- Diesel fuel. This tool is used for spring and autumn processing. Here the main thing is to keep proportions, since spraying too concentrated solution is fraught with burns on the plants or even their death. In the spring of diesel fuel, the trunks and branches are disinfected until the buds and leaves appear, and in the fall - after full leaf fall.
Spraying trees in the garden
Trees, waking up after the cold weather, begin to gradually accumulate forces for the formation of future fruits. At the same time, huge hordes of pests are gradually becoming more active, which are just waiting for warming and the opportunity to eat fresh buds, young leaves, and then fruits. If you do not help the tree in the fight against parasites, the long-awaited harvest can never wait.
Spraying fruit trees is a topic that causes a lot of controversy among gardeners. One group is of the opinion that spraying can harm the tree itself, the environment and the person eating the fruit soaked in chemicals.
Another group of people only recognizes organic gardening and uses only natural and absolutely safe products in the fight against parasites. Unfortunately, very often their work does not pay off and the size of the crop obtained does not at all correspond to the enormous efforts that have been spent.
There is also a third group of gardeners who adheres to the opinion that spraying, carried out strictly according to the indications and in a correctly calculated time, is not capable of harming anyone except the parasites themselves. In the arsenal of these gardeners there are both chemical and biological or combined means.
Stages of spring processing
Spring is beautiful, but the period that is cunning for the garden - together with plants, pests and hungry people wake up from hibernation, and they gladly pounce on the newly spreading leaves. To fight them garden and fruit trees are processed for a whole year, and spraying is an extra care that must be used according to a specially designed schedule.
The advantage of early spring processing is that pesticides do not directly affect the fruit or ovary. It can be said that spring pest control negates the risk of poisoning from the use of chemically treated fruits.
Spring processing is carried out in 4 main stages:
- Before the growing season, in the first half of March. The goal is to destroy the microorganisms,
- In April, right after the kidneys were proklikulis. The goal is to protect against fungi, apple blooms, moths, ticks, scab, weevils, aphids, powdery mildew,
- During flowering. The goal is to protect from ticks, caterpillars, weevils, improve immunity to fungal diseases,
- Immediately after flowering. The goal - the prevention of putrefactive diseases, combating moth, stray, shield and other late pests.
Spring spraying can not be clearly regulated in time. Each plant is unique, much depends on the weather, and also on what diseases or insects are common in a particular garden.
When planning the treatment of your site, you need to focus on the degree of infection of the garden and which parasites it is. Spray trees without need just "just in case" is useless and even harmful. Such a procedure can affect the well-being of the plant. In addition, a negative impact on the environment and, ultimately, in humans.
In order for the first spraying to be effective, it is necessary to treat the trees before it, and if there is, shrubs. The purpose of this treatment is the destruction of those parasites that have winterized in the ground at the trunk of a tree or bark. They must be destroyed when they have not had time to recover from the cold.
The first thing to do is to cut the frozen branches, remove the tops. If there are areas of bark damaged by rodents on the trunk, it should be cleaned and treated with 1% solution of copper sulphate. After pruning the branches, cut with a radet.
Next, you should get rid of lichen, dead, exfoliated bark. If there are hollows, they need to be sanitized and cleaned. The resulting garbage is strictly impossible leave right there under the tree. Even before the procedure, it is necessary to lay a cellophane around the trunk, in which, upon completion of the work, wrap off the bark and branches, take it out of the garden and burn it.
The next stage is whitewashing trunks. In the event that in the fall the tree trunks were not cleared, now is the time to do it. All mummified fruits and fallen leaves must be burned. Then, whitewash trunks and pristvolnye branches. The solution for this can be purchased at any specialty store or cook yourself.
For homemade solution you need:
- 1 kg of clay,
- 250 g of copper sulphate,
- 2 kg of hydrated lime,
- a bucket of water,
- 1 grated soap,
- 250 grams of PVA glue.
All ingredients are mixed until completely dissolved. This mixture to process trunks and nearby branches.
The first spring processing
After all the preparatory work, you can start the first, in the new year, spring spraying. Such a procedure is carried out only on a windless, dry day. It is desirable that in the next few days the rain is also not predicted.
In addition to the solution and the sprayer itself, it is necessary to prepare goggles, a respirator (gauze bandage), rubber gloves and a bandana on the head. It is better not to leave exposed skin. Children and pets, at the time of the procedure, removed from the site.
It is important to wait for the moment when the air has warmed up to a temperature of plus 5 degrees and is holding steadily, without falling below this mark. Otherwise, if the treatment is carried out at lower temperatures, the effect can be reduced to 0.
The first spraying is one of the most important. Choosing a drug for treatment, it is necessary to give preference to those that have a wide spectrum of action. Among gardeners such preparations are popular:
- Drug number 30. Effective against caterpillars, aphid larvae, mite eggs and most species of scale insects,
- Nitrofen. Helps to fight with aphids, various insects and those mites that overwinter in the bark,
- Inkstone. A proven and effective remedy not only against insects, but also against fungi,
- Olekuprit 4%. It is effective against eggs of hedgehogs, aphids and ticks. Successful in the fight against fungi and various rot,
- Bordeaux fluid. Fights most fungal diseases.
Spray the trees start from the crown, from top to bottom, moving towards the trunk. Particular attention should be paid to cracks in the trunk. We must not forget about the near-barrel areas, they should also be copiously processed. At the end of the procedure, in order to prevent the parasite larvae from leaving the soil, the ground under the tree is covered with black film, which can be removed after the end of flowering. On trunks wear trapping belts.
Spraying before flowering
The next spring spraying is carried out after the buds are swollen, before flowering begins. The gardener needs to assess the condition of the trees and, depending on the conclusions made, select the means for processing. Most often, at this time the most dangerous are scab, ticks, sucker, fruit rot.
During this period for spraying, it is recommended to choose only biopreparations that are safe for pollinating insects, people and animals. The basis of their production are bacteria and antagonist fungi, destructive for parasites, but strengthening the immune system of the tree. These include:
- Gaupsin. Effective against all fungal diseases, moth, aphids and ticks,
- Lepidocid. Effective against caterpillars and caterpillars, as well as sawflies,
- Fitoverm. Fights ticks, fruit moth, apple moth, leafworms, thrips,
- BTB-202. It helps in the fight against caterpillars and spider mites,
- Trichodermin. The antagonist of most pathogenic fungi, on the plant itself has a strengthening effect,
- Pentaphage Effective against bacterial cancer,
- Mikosan Protects against fungi and viruses
- Planriz. It is a bacteria that fights against lepidopteran pests, root rot, brown rust, powdery mildew.
Biological agents have the following advantages:
- small expense
- safe for the environment
- in the soil do not accumulate.
In the event that biological products have not shown efficacy in pest control, you can use chemical ones, reducing their concentration by a factor of 2.
Spraying trees during flowering
Most experts strongly advise against spraying fungicides and insecticides during flowering. Spraying pesticides can damage the inflorescence, which further adversely affect the setting of fruits. In addition to the plants themselves, harm can be done to insect pollinators.
It is possible to carry out the treatment only if, for some reason, the second spring spraying was missed. For these purposes it is allowed to use only biological products that do not harm the plant.
If the weather prevents the bees from flying, the drug "Universal Ovary" can be used to stimulate the ovary. Or independently prepare a honey solution, taking 100 g of natural honey and stir it in 10 liters of water. Fruit trees and other plants in the garden are abundantly sprayed with this solution. After such actions, the number of insect pollinators in the garden increases significantly.
Trees after flowering
The last spring spraying is carried out 3 weeks after flowering. Its purpose is to destroy moths, ticks, caterpillars, aphids, codling moths and other diseases. Choosing a tool for processing, you must use an individual approach. Parasites will differ depending on the type or variety of fruit trees:
- pear and apple trees are more likely to be affected by scab, mites, apple moth and powdery mildew. To combat these pests, you can choose "fast", "Vectra", "strobe",
- apricot and peach attacks monilial burn and klyasterosporioz. Effective 1% copper sulphate and copper oxychloride,
- Cherry and sweet cherry are struck by a cherry fly, aphid, coccomycosis. Zolon is used for insects, and copper oxychloride is fighting against diseases,
- plum may suffer from polystygosis or moniliosis. For treatment against these diseases, copper oxychloride is suitable, to which an insecticide has been added.
All stages of spring processing are responsible and labor-intensive processes that require deep knowledge and financial costs. But if all the steps were completed correctly and in a timely manner, the resulting harvest compensates for all costs.
How to process fruit trees from diseases and pests and when
If there were no problems with fruit trees last season at the dacha, then in the spring you still need to spray. This procedure is a preventive measure for aphids, powdery mildew, caterpillars, tsvetoedov, leaf worm and other pests.
If the garden has been damaged by insects, the first steps should be taken after harvesting in the fall. However, spraying can be carried out only when the weather is still not less than +5 degrees. In addition, you need to process not only the trunks and branches of plants, but also the foliage lying under them. Thus, it will be possible to minimize the possibility of spring damage to plants.
With the onset of spring, the treatment will need to be repeated. If you follow the recommendations of professionals, then in the spring, you should carry out a three-time spraying: the first time - in early March, before bud breaks, again - in early or mid-April, when the temperature will set at +10 degrees and the fruit plants will bloom, and the last - the end of May.
When carrying out the first processing of fruit trees, it is necessary to calculate that it takes at least 20 days from spraying the plant to blooming its foliage. The bottom line is that products of chemical and biological origin that are suitable for their treatment decompose for several weeks. To young leaves are not injured, it is necessary that the drug had time to decompose before their dissolution.
The second treatment should be carried out before flowering. In this case, the concentration of drugs should be very weak, so as not to destroy the inflorescences.
Last spraying is desirable to hold closer to the end of May. The tool and its consistency should be similar to those used during the second spraying.
It is desirable to carry out work in the morning or evening, in windless and, of course, dry weather. If you treat fruit plants before the rain, then it will wash away the preparations and there will be no sense from such processing.
Preparation of trees for spraying
Before starting treatment, it is imperative to prepare the plants and the dacha territory in which they are planted. First, we remove old branches and foliage from the site, left over from the past season, as parasites could spend the winter there.
From trees that are more than 10 years old, the old bark should be removed, cleaned of lichen and moss. In the presence of cracks in the trunk, it is necessary to carry out manipulations with a brush on the metal. Such procedures help the plant to breathe, and also improve the appearance of shoots and stimulate its regenerative abilities.
When the preparatory work is done, the territory and fruit trees are cleaned, you can choose what to spray and in what concentration to dilute the drug. Irrigation solution should be made immediately before its use, otherwise it can harm the plant, but remain harmless to insects.
Folk remedies for the fight against insects - pests
For such pests as the hawthorn and the apple caramel, from folk remedies you can use tansy, celandine, tobacco or dandelion. Pollination of these plants can be made after rain or watering, only, beforehand, they need to be dried and finely crushed. Also from them it is possible to prepare decoctions that are perfect for processing fruit and berry trees and shrubs.
1. Infusion of tansy. It is quite simple to prepare it: 0.7 kg of tansy powder must be poured over 10 liters of boiling water. Mix a lot, leave to infuse for 48 hours. When the necessary time has passed, the resulting mixture is boiled for about a quarter of an hour, then we filter through gauze (sieve) and mix it with another 10 liters of water. Mix everything up again. Spraying with a similar solution can be carried out several times per season.
2. Peppers infusion. A bucket of water will require 1 kg of pods. They must be poured with liquid, insisted for 48 hours, after which an hour (plus or minus) boil the resulting mass. Concentrate after boiling must be bottled with tight lids. You can use the tool as needed all year. Before use, you must add soap (80 g) to a bucket of water (10 liters).
3. Onions, dandelions, tobacco and celandine can be used without cooking infusion. It is enough to finely chop dry plants and sprinkle them on the watered fruit and berry plant.
Chemicals for spraying fruit plants from diseases and pests
Chemicals are used to process fruit trees when infusions do not cope with the many representatives of pests, as well as when plants infect diseases.
1. Bordeaux liquid. This tool can be used when re-spraying, when the buds on the branches already exist, but have not yet dismissed. But the prepared solution should be very weak. Add to the bucket with water:
- 50 grams of dry blue vitriol,
- 0.2 kg of lime.
Everything is mixed and the resulting solution is pollination.
2. Urea (carbamide). This preparation can be used for treating the trunk and branches at the end of a week after the flowering of pears (plums, apple trees), as well as in the further preparation of fruit trees for winter.
In the first case, a bucket of liquid must take 0.5 kg of urea and about a matchbox of copper sulfate. The high concentration of such a solution destroys all the larvae. And if you spray the plum in the fall with a tool, you will be able to save the plum blossom from the spring frosts.
Weak urea solution can be used to spray the orchard after it blooms. This will save seedlings from aphids, leafworms, tsvetoeda. To obtain a weak mixture, 50 grams of urea is taken on a bucket of liquid.
Treating trees with urea in the autumn period can be carried out no earlier than the branches lose half the foliage. Then you need to take 0.25 kg of urea per bucket of liquid. You can wait until the foliage crumbles completely, and use more concentrated carbamide (8%). In this case, not only the orchard, but also the ground should be processed, that is, the fungicide will act as a fertilizer.
3. Copper sulfate. Pollination with this tool of an orchard can be carried out no more than 2 times a year. The first treatment is carried out in early spring, before the buds appear. The reason is that even a weak solution of the drug can destroy young leaves. In addition, the use of blue vitriol is recommended if cracks appear on the seedling that need to be disinfected. As a rule, trees are treated with this fungicide in early March, and then towards the end of October. A solution of blue vitriol is used to protect apples and pears from scab, curly, phyllosticosis, and plums from coccmicosis and curly.
For one young seedling, whose age is not older than 6 years, it will take 2 liters of solution, and for an adult fruiting plant - 10 liters.
The mixture for primary pollination of wood is prepared as follows: add copper sulfate and lime (0.3 kg each) to water (10 l). Mix, leave for 48 hours, boil for 45 minutes, drain, add another bucket of liquid.
For secondary processing, you need to take 0.1 kg of lime and vitriol per 10 liters of liquid, boil and strain. Dilute with water and carry out the procedure.
In order not to prepare infusions, you can buy ready-made remedy - Nitrafen, dilute it in 10 lit. fluid.
4. inkstone. If old pears, plums and apples predominate in the orchard, then spraying with a solution of this agent should be carried out in the spring (early) and in the autumn (later). Due to this, it will be possible not only to eliminate pests, but also to get rid of moss, depriving, cytosporosis, septosporosis, as well as black cancer. Also next year, planting trees in a fruit garden will increase yields.
Iron sulfate is not only struggling with insects and diseases in the garden, but also supplies the plants with the iron they need for life.
5. Diesel fuel. Her and some other oil products have been used for a long time when it is necessary to process an orchard. However, in its application it is necessary to do everything carefully. The presence of personal protective equipment (respirator, gloves and closed clothing) is required. In addition, spraying the garden with this tool can result in the destruction of fruit plantations. Therefore, all manipulations must be carried out carefully and in a timely manner.
In the spring, garden processing is possible when there is still snow in some places and there are no buds in the trees. Осенью манипуляции нельзя проводить до полного сброса листвы с насаждений, то есть до заморозков.
В чистом виде данный нефтепродукт использовать нельзя. Он разбавляется в большом количестве жидкости, также добавляются иные средства, которые способны свести к минимуму разрушительную деятельность солярки. It is possible to use such a mixture with a concentration of 50%: 10 parts of the fuel are diluted with 9 parts of water and add 1 part of household soap to the mass.
6. Drug 30. Gardeners recommend using this tool at the beginning of spring or at the end of autumn, diluting 0.2 l of the substance in 10 l of water. The solution helps to effectively get rid of whiteflies, aphids, ticks, leafworms and other insects that comfortably winter in the bark of fruit trees. Manufacturers guarantee absolute safety for the sapling when using "Preparation 30". The bottom line is that the substance does not poison the pests, but disrupts gas exchange in the larvae and eggs that are in the treated area. The preparation 30 covers the bark on the trunk with a thin film, under which the pests die.
However, this tool, although very effective, is often not recommended. Optimal spraying time - every 3 seasons.
How and what to process fruit trees in the autumn
When autumn comes, the orchard requires special care. Constant temperature drops adversely affect fruit plantations. At such times, the plants need competent care, and the gardener must be able to correctly determine the time for all treatments. In mid-autumn, potash fertilizers and superphosphate must be applied under the trees.
In the first decade of October, it is necessary to clean the branches and stumps from the old bark, then apply lime mortar on them. Young seedlings in the country can be treated with chalk solution. Pear and apple seedlings can be saved from rodents, if you tie straps and the beginning of skeletal branches of matting, using hazel or cherry branches. In a pinch, normal stockings will do.
But this is not the end of the work. After the first snowfall, you need to pile up the stumps in order to block access to rodents.
Stages of insect pests
All insects - pests go through 4 stages of development (separate ones of 2 or 3 stages), and 2 of them damage the garden and the garden:
- Stage 1: eggs and pest eggs,
- Stage 2: larvae and caterpillars are the most harmful stage, because at this stage of development the main task of the insects is nutrition and growth,
- Stage 3: pupa,
- Stage 4: adult insect - most species actively feed again in order to lay eggs.
When to spray trees and bushes from pests and diseases
Before blooming buds. At this time, the garden should be sprayed for preventive purposes. With this treatment (insecticides), most of the pests that winter in the pores of the bark are exterminated.
Prior to the beginning of flowering - promotion of inflorescences and isolation of buds, but in no case at the beginning of flowering - bees and useful helpers will die. Spray special fungicides. The main purpose of this protection is to destroy microorganisms: bacteria and fungi that induce diseases such as spotting, moniliosis, powdery mildew, scab.
Immediately after flowering, but no later than 5-7 days after its completion.
Summer. In some cases, another garden treatment is required at the beginning of summer - to destroy the second generation of aphids and mites.
When spraying trees in spring, keep in mind that different fruit trees bloom at different times. So, for example, it is worth rather quicker to process cherries, apricots, plums and other early cultures. In this case, you can apply the fungicide together with a broad-spectrum insecticide (see the manufacturer's instructions, or you can combine them), because you can not treat twice the treatment.
Spring protection of trees from pests includes whitewash. The shtamby of all plants must be carefully cleaned (the part of the bark on which there is damage) and anoint garden pitch, so we destroy all the nests of insects. Next shamb covered with a uniform layer of whitewash, while whitewashing should fill all the pores. If done correctly, whitewashing will burn the pests left in the pores of the bark.
Autumn protection of trees and bushes. Autumn sprinkling of the garden is a good prevention from fungal diseases and from pests of fruit crops. Such a spraying will protect your garden from the invasion of insects in the spring, increase the yield of fruit trees and berry bushes.
Spraying fruit trees in spring before flowering
The second stage of the attack on diseases and pests is carried out when the plants are preparing to bloom, the buds have already been opened, and also at the stage of the appearance of the ovary. At this time, the focus is on the extermination of pests, as well as securing the results of the fight against diseases and infections.
How to sprinkle fruit trees in the spring in order to gather a full-bodied healthy harvest in the summer? Garden processing is carried out in two steps:
- when only colored buds appear on the trees,
- when most of the petals fly around, and the first signs of the ovary become visible on the branches.
At this stage, complex insecticides are used in combination with fungicidal agents. In addition, you should pay attention to foliar treatment of trees with urea or urea. The chemical product copes with several tasks at the same time:
- fights most diseases of apples, pears and stone fruits, including all kinds of rot,
- destroys pests on the stage of eggs and pupae,
- is a nitrogen supplement that simulates the growth of green mass.
In large gardens, located far beyond the borders of residential areas, spring processing of fruit trees from pests is carried out with the help of the preparation DNOC, which simultaneously acts on ticks, insects and pathogens.
The drug is toxic, so when using it, you need serious security measures. The treatment is carried out in very early spring or autumn, when the plants do not show signs of active growth.
Recently popular preparations of biological origin are good for the prevention of diseases. If the tree is already pained or hit by pests, such means, although they are safer for the plants and humans, will not help much, and I can’t cope with the problem at all.
How to spray trees and bushes
Before protecting plants in the garden, it is necessary to determine the means for spraying, they can be divided into the following types:
- Chemicals: insecticides - against insects, fungicides - to combat pathogens of fungal diseases, bactericides - from bacterial infections of fruit crops, acaricides - against ticks, antibiotics from viral diseases, nematocides - against nematodes, rodenticides (zoocides) - against rodents, herbicides - to destroy weeds .
When choosing a drug for spring spraying against diseases and pests, it is necessary to know the degree of its toxicity, the period of its effect on harmful organisms, and the allowable period of the last treatment before harvesting.
- Biologically active substances: biologically active substances (these are bacteria that destroy harmful microorganisms and are absolutely safe for plants),
- Folk methods : mixtures created according to popular recipes (infusions on various herbs). Also steamed from diseases and pests, gooseberry and black currant bushes (time - February, water 80 degrees). Poured on top of quite hot water for 30 seconds.
- Copper sulfate. Spring sprinkling of trees with blue vitriol. Most often, the bluestone is mixed with lime in a 1: 1 ratio and diluted with water, and sprayed (add 200 liters of water to 200 grams of dry mixture) of wood. The resulting mixture is called Bordeaux liquid. Its use is effective against both most diseases and pests. By the way, the mixture has a pale blue color. It will be washed out of the plants at the first discharge, while it will not do any harm to trees and fruits.
These tools have shown their effectiveness in the fight against beetles.
When using chemicals it is necessary to take all the necessary safety measures.
Spraying apple and pear
March - the beginning of April. I hope you have already done early spring gardening. This includes cleaning up the old bark, destroying the wintering nests of the haws and golden-tails. When pruning trees, it was necessary to cut annual shoots with wintering silkworm eggs.
April. Upon reaching positive temperatures of 4 - 6 degrees - processing of apple from the apple tree beetle. Overlay of trapping belts on shtaby with pestfix glue.
At the end of April - processing of the garden from stocks of scab and fruit rot. To do this, during the period of the green cone (the period of swelling of the kidneys) should be used for spraying 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 grams of copper sulfate + 100 grams of lime per 10 liters of water). Substitutes are also suitable - the drug “HOM” (40 grams per 10 liters of water), “Kartotsid” (40–60 grams per 10 liters of water), copper sulphate (100 grams per 10 liters of water), “Abigapik” (50 grams per 10 liters of water).
On a pear, at the beginning of bud break, anti-mite spraying is carried out on “gray colloid” (50-100 grams per 10 liters of water) and Neoron (15-20 milliliters per 10 liters of water).
May. During the flowering period, it is possible to use against the caterpillars of leaf-worm biologically active drugs, such as Lepidocid (20–30 grams per 10 liters of water), Biotoxybacillin (40–80 grams per 10 liters of water), Fitoverm (1.5 - 2.0 milliliters per liter of water).
Immediately after the flowering of apple and pear trees, in the presence of scythes, treat the trees against strollers “Karbofos” (75 - 90 grams per 10 liters of water). Perhaps spraying drug "Aktara", drug number 30.
If there are upper or lower mining mines, it is possible to use Fozolon or Rogora-S.
Against scab and powdery mildew, you can use the “Skor” preparations (2 milliliters per 10 liters of water) or “Topaz” (2 milliliters per 10 liters of water).
At the end of May, when the sum of effective temperatures is above 10 degrees, corresponding to the fly of the moth, the treatment of apple and pear trees in the evening (from 19 to 24 hours) with insecticides is recommended. To do this, you will need one of these drugs: Kinmiks (2.5 milliliters per 10 liters), Karate (2 milliliters per 10 liters), Karbofos (75–90 grams per 10 liters), Insegar ( 5 grams per 10 liters), "Calypso". Re-seed crops can be sprinkled after 14 to 16 days.
Against aphids, it is advisable to use "Fitoverm" (1.5 - 2 milliliters per 1 liter) and "Hostavik" (2 milliliters per 10 liters).
June. In the first summer month under unfavorable conditions, a second treatment may be necessary against the codling moth. The preparations are the same as in May. To avoid addiction, it is better to alternate drugs.
In the presence of ticks, the trees should be treated with Neoron (15 to 20 milliliters per 10 liters of water) and Colloidal Sulfur (50 to 100 grams per 10 liters of water).
Apply Scor (2 milliliters per 10 liters of water), Agat-25 (1.2 grams per 6 liters), copper sulfate (15-20 grams per 10 liters of water), and Impact against scab.
July. This month, the seed crops are treated with a weak solution of copper sulphate (5 - 10 grams per 10 liters of water). This technique has a deterring effect - there will be no weevils in the trees.
All treatments with synthetic drugs should be stopped 20 days before the harvest.
So, we figured out what and when to spray fruit trees of pome crops.
Spraying tools and safety measures
To carry out the spraying of trees qualitatively in large farms there are mechanical installations. A small plot grower has several trunks, and there is no need for expensive equipment. For small areas, knapsack or hand sprayers are available for different filling volumes. They can be with a continuous supply of air or periodic inflation. But any of the devices must have a retractable rod, which can feed the solution to the upper branches of the tree.
Spraying the trees is then considered quality when every centimeter of a sprig is wetted with a fine spray. The spray should be fine so that the liquid does not flow down the trunk, and wets the tree. At the same time, protective equipment is required - glasses, rubber gloves, boots with trousers and a rubber raincoat, which are indispensable items for the worker. Chemical burns are dangerous because they do not heal for a long time and you should not neglect safety measures. Preparation of solutions should be carried out in a special container, enameled or plastic. Galvanized metal buckets for cultivation of vitriol and urea can not be used. All residues of the solutions after the end of the work must be disposed of, and the dishes washed
Why you need to spray trees and shrubs in the spring
The beginning of the season, that is, the period when garden trees and shrubs, waking up after the winter cold, begin to accumulate forces for the formation of fruit mass - this is the time when you need to take care of their protection as much as possible. That is why Treating trees in the spring against pests and diseases is an important step in garden farming.
In fact, spring is a cunning period. On the one hand, the tree needs time to recover after a long stay in extreme conditions of severe frost, on the other - various pests, having also recovered from hibernation, begin to actively feed on, eagerly attacking barely opening leaves and flowers. It is not surprising that the care of trees in the spring includes the obligatory treatment of pests, because if you do not intervene in the process, you can not wait for the harvest. Of course, it will not be possible to destroy all harmful insects in the garden, although such a task is not set. It is much more important to ward off uninvited guests from the garden, to make your trees and shrubs as unattractive as possible for such pests, both in terms of food and in terms of "living."
Another important argument in favor of spring processing of the garden from pests and diseases is that this period excludes the direct impact of toxic chemicals on the ovaries and fruits (simply because they have not yet formed), therefore, the pest control in the spring minimizes the risk of subsequent poisoning with such drugs as a result of eating processed fruits and berries.
In this way, The main task of spraying the garden in spring is to prevent pests and diseases that will lie in wait for your plot throughout the season, including when the use of fungicides and insecticides will negatively affect the ecological cleanliness of the crop.
Of course, ideally, we all want to brag about fruits and berries grown without chemicals. However, it is very important to maintain a healthy balance and sense of proportion. Breeders around the world are struggling to create resistant to one or another disease plant varieties, but to bring out completely immune to harmful external influences the form has not yet succeeded, and it is hardly possible at all, since the very nature of the scheme, in which "everyone eats everyone ". Therefore, we should expect that the fruits of the tree, which does not infect any pest, will be inedible for humans, because we are also part of the animal world.
In addition, even if the manufacturer assures you that this particular variety (for example, an apple tree) is absolutely not affected by scab, it is worth treating such statements with a fair amount of skepticism. And this does not mean that they are deceiving you. The fact is that the development of certain diseases, like the spread of various pests, depends largely on the specific external conditions that are constantly changing. In addition, insects and carriers of infectious diseases tend to mutate and adapt to new realities. No wonder they say that the same fungicide cannot be used in the garden - the preparations must be constantly changed to ensure the best result.
The main enemies of fruit trees, against which the spring spraying is directed, are caterpillars, butterflies, various beetles and aphids. So, if you do not spray the apple tree at the very beginning of the season, the aphid begins to actively suck the juice from greenery and flowers, and also deforms the bark of the tree, forming ugly growths on it, which then crack and turn into gaping wounds. As a result, the tree may stop developing and die. The same danger lies in wait for pears, plums, apricots, cherry plums and other fruit trees.
Maycha likes to eat leaves and ovaries, and his favorite delicacy is the plum tree. While the adult is rampant on the surface, its numerous larvae infect the root system of trees, which is especially dangerous for young seedlings. Timely spraying can help rid the garden of such misfortune.
Caterpillars and butterflies are also happy to eat greens and fruits of apples, pears, plums and cherries, so the protection of such trees, carried out in the spring, will preserve the future harvest.
The above fully applies to the treatment of shrubs (black and red currants, gooseberries, raspberries, etc.), since it is in the spring that basic measures need to be taken to protect all plants from pests and diseases.
How to spray the trees in the spring of diseases and pests
Currently, there are plenty of options than to treat fruit trees from pests in the spring. Conventionally, they can be divided into three groups:
- biological preparations
- «подручные» средства, которые обычно применяют ярые противники первых двух вариантов, считая такой способ более безопасным для здоровья (и, безусловно, более экономичным).
Biological garden treatment products are becoming increasingly popular as a direct alternative to chemistry.
Their effect on harmful insects and disease carriers is not exerted by artificially synthesized toxic substances, but by living organisms (bacteria, bacterial viruses, antagonist fungi, and even insects). Also, as an alternative, not the living being itself is used, but the toxin (biotoxin) secreted by it.
"Trikhodermin"is an excellent antagonist of a number of pathogenic fungi (including pathogens of scab, various types of rot, late blight and other unpleasant diseases). The plant itself does not experience any harm from the action of Trichoderma, on the contrary, this fungus releases substances that make the plant more resistant to the corresponding diseases. Treatment with the drug can be carried out from the moment of bud break and continue throughout the season.
"Planriz" is a soil bacteria that protects the garden from powdery mildew, root and root rot, leaf rust, septoria (often infecting raspberries), as well as lepidopteran pests.
"Pentafag"- A proven way to prevent diseases of fruit crops with bacterial cancer, and damage to stone-hole perforated spotting. In addition, it is a good prevention of scab and powdery mildew.
"Phytodoc"inhibits the development of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, in particular, protects fruit trees from late blight, bacterial cancer, root and fruit rot, mold, powdery mildew, fusarium wilt, etc.
"Fitosporin-M"It protects the garden against fungal and bacterial diseases such as scab, wilt, late blight, root rot, powdery mildew, brown rust, and others.
"Mikosan" protects fruit trees from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. Its action is based on covering the organs of the plant with a protective film that does not allow the pathogen to hit them. The drug strengthens the immune system of the tree and helps it to cope with the disease itself. This tool should be used separately from any other drugs, in the calculation of 0.1 kg of the substance in 4-8 liters of water.
"Gaupsin"proved to be an effective remedy against aphids, codling moth, leafworm, cherry and plum flies. Of the diseases, the zone of influence of the drug is powdery mildew, late blight and others. It also nourishes the plant with the necessary nitrogen for it.
"Bitoxibacillin"also well protects the garden from gnawing and lepidopteran pests (spider mites, cabbage moths, haws, silkworms and others). Its action is based on the violation of the intestinal function of the insect, as a result of which the larva dies.
"Actofit"kills caterpillars, ticks, whiteflies, aphids.
"Riverm" It provides protection against various diseases of the fungal character and, just like Gaupsin, releases nitrogen molecules from the air. A distinctive feature of the drug is its very fast, compared with other biological means of protection, the effect (the root system of the tree, the active substance reaches less than half an hour after spraying).
Healthy Garden - Another tool to protect trees from aphids, moth, powdery mildew and other pests and diseases.
Tick and moth can help get rid of the drug "Fitoverm", from the caterpillars of the silkworm, moth, scoops, moths, cabbage, etc. - "Lepidocide".
"Nemabakt"- These are small roundworms that penetrate the larva and destroy it with lightning speed. Over the summer, these small parasites are able to completely clear your garden of pests, overwinter and continue their useful “activities” in spring.
Biological agents have a number of unconditional advantages: they do not accumulate in the soil, do not harm the plant, and their consumption is much lower than that of other drugs. But there are some drawbacks. Basically, these formulations need much more time to achieve a beneficial effect, while the chemical poison acts much faster.
When garden treatment for diseases and pests is needed
Terms of processing fruit trees from pests in the spring, as we already understood, can be different. Some preparations should be used as early as possible, due to their particular aggressiveness, others can be used even during flowering and after the formation of ovaries.
In any case, competent processing of the garden in the spring period includes four stages:
- The first spraying is carried out before buds begin to swell in fruit trees and shrubs.
- The second is carried out at the moment when the kidneys are actively swelling.
- It is recommended to carry out the third spraying before flowering, but when the flower buds are formed and is about to open.
- The fourth (final processing) is made immediately after the plant has flown.
Features of processing the garden in early spring
The very first garden treatment is considered perhaps the most important. It is better to destroy preventively pests and carriers of diseases that overwinter in the bark and near-ground soil before they came to their senses after hibernation and began their dirty work.
The snow has come down, the temperature has crossed the zero mark, it turned out to be a windless day - and get to work!
What we spray trees in spring before bud break, we already know: we use pesticides, the aggressiveness of which is not yet terrible for the tree, but is deadly for pests.
Bordeaux liquid for the first spraying use in concentrations up to 3%. You can buy a ready-made kit with correctly selected components, and you can make the drug yourself by mixing 0.45 kg of lime and 0.3 kg of copper sulphate in a bucket of water (10 l).
You can also spray trees with Nitrofen or a mixture of urea and copper sulfate (0.7 kg and 0.05 kg, respectively, in a bucket of water). Instead of urea, some gardeners use nitrogen or potash fertilizers, but not chlorine-containing ones. In any case, fertilizer should be used immediately after its breeding, otherwise it will lose all its effectiveness.
Treating trees and shrubs should be completely - from the trunk (especially in places of cracks) and tree trunks to the tips of the branches. Before spraying, be sure to thoroughly clean the barrel with a brush.
In addition, you need to keep in mind that different plants wake up after winter is not at the same time, so if you tighten with the first treatment, especially early trees and shrubs can be burned. So, if apples, pears and plums are sprayed in mid-March, then, say, black currant can have a growing season earlier. Accordingly, it is better to divide the procedure into several stages than to try to catch in one day and as a result rinse the young buds with poison.
Spraying trees and bushes before flowering
As it was said, before the beginning of flowering, after the buds swell, and also right on the buds (before they bloom), the garden is re-treated. If spraying is carried out with pesticides, their weaker concentration should be used (for example, if we diluted the Bordeaux liquid with a 3% solution during the first treatment, now we use 1% solution).
However, it is preferable at this stage to use more modern products that can be purchased in specialized stores. For example, by mixing the fungicide "Chorus" and the insecticide "Aktar", you simultaneously protect the garden from fungal diseases and from pests. The same mixture can be reapplied after flowering trees. Such drugs as "Fufanon", "Decis", etc. have proven themselves well.
The nuances of garden processing during flowering
The question “Is it possible to spray trees during flowering?” Is quite controversial. Many gardeners categorically do not recommend this, because it is possible to damage the inflorescences and disrupt the entire subsequent process of fruit set.
In general, there is no doubt that during the flowering period it is impossible to apply potent pesticides that can harm not only flowers, but also bees that are actively “working” in a flowering garden.
If for one reason or another you did not have time to process the garden before the appearance of flowers, it is still better later than never. Processing of the garden during this period will protect the tree from aphids, ticks, leafworms, creepers, sawflies and other pests, as well as from many insidious diseases. Phosphorus-containing organic preparations can be used, for example, Fufanon or Actellic. In a warmer time, use "Fitoverm", "Akarin", "Iskra Bio", "Entobacterin" and other biological products, because we remember that they are safe for the tree, but deadly for pathogens of infections and harmful insects.
Treating trees and shrubs after flowering
Spraying fruit trees and shrubs after flowering is the final stage of spring garden protection from diseases and pests.. Its main goal is to destroy the caterpillars of the moth, codling moth, weevils, moths, aphids, ticks and to prevent possible diseases of the garden.
Processing should be carried out no later than three weeks after the trees and shrubs fade.
There is a mass of modern preparations for processing the garden during this period, so there should be no problems with the choice of the most suitable one. But what exactly is not worth spraying the trees after flowering, so it is pesticides in high concentration. It is better at this stage to give preference to biologics or more gentle chemical agents. For the May spraying of fruit trees, for example, you can use the following drugs: Brunka, Blue Bordeaux, Fital, Delan, Saprol, Fury, Fastak, Talstar, Fufanon, "Decis", "Karate", "Confidor", "Aperkot", "Koragen".
The "Skor" fungicide recommended for use at this stage is also effective and of low toxicity. The choice depends on many factors, in particular, each drug is aimed at combating certain pests, which, in turn, have their own preferences among fruit trees. Therefore, read the instructions and select the optimal mixture.
So, for example, for an apricot, the greatest danger is perforated spotting and monilial burn, from pests - aphid, leafworm, moth.
Peach, blooming, is often affected by the curvature of foliage and blooming, and it is often attacked by the pinworm. Plum trees are susceptible to moniliosis, klyasterosporosis, and polystygosis, among insects their main enemies are ticks, aphids, leafworms, seed moths. Cherry and cherry orchards after flowering can infect bloom and coccomycosis. Cherry flies love to lay eggs under the peel of the fruit at the time of their setting, and these trees also infect aphids and moths.
Apple trees and pears suffer from scab and powdery mildew, from pests for them the codling mite, mites, aphids, and sawflies are dangerous.
How to handle trees and shrubs from diseases and pests
By and large, you can act as you like, but for safety (yours and those around you), as well as to achieve maximum effect, it is better to follow certain rules and recommendations.
It is necessary to begin spraying from krone, gradually moving down. The final stage is the processing of the wheel circle (it is very important not to forget this section). With the exception of the last spraying, which is carried out during the period of active “work” of the caterpillars, it is better to treat the trees from early morning.
For the procedure you need to choose windless dry day. Ask about the weather forecast and if rain is foreseen in the next day, postpone the procedure for several days. With minimal moisture, the active substance absorbs faster and causes less damage to the plant. An exception may be some biological products, which, on the contrary, require the presence of moisture, so before using them, read the instructions. It is also important to correctly calculate the required amount of the drug, since its reuse after some time is absolutely unacceptable: you need to dissolve exactly as much as you need for today's treatment. It follows from this calculation: about 5-6 liters of solution “leaves” for an adult tree, 0.5 to 1.5 liters for shrubs and young trees, depending on their size.
Finally, in order to work comfortably, you should not put a broom in a bucket and splash it on a tree — buy a modern sprayer better. Today, manufacturers offer the broadest selection of models that will allow you to choose the best option depending on the size of your garden (they differ in both volume and power, well, and, accordingly, in price). Low-growing trees and young saplings can be treated with an ordinary plastic sprayer, and for large gardens it may be worth buying an expensive but very reliable electric pump.
Do not forget about the technique of personal safety. It is necessary to clearly understand how toxic the drug with which you work and, depending on this, to correct your behavior. In any case, the face should be covered with a respirator or gauze bandage, the hair should be covered with a kerchief or bandana, and eyes protected with glasses. Wear gloves and it is generally better not to leave open skin. Keep households (especially children) and pets away.
Spring garden processing is a difficult process, requiring considerable labor and financial costs, as well as sufficiently deep knowledge of agricultural engineering. And yet you can’t do without it, of course, if you are counting on the long life of the trees or shrubs you plant and you want to harvest a decent harvest each year.