Potatoes are the crop that takes the best place in the garden. Breeders are constantly working on growing new varieties. Early varieties that can be dug out in June are especially attractive for gardeners. If the area is southern, then immediately realistically carry out a second landing, and receive a harvest 2 times a year. Potato Zhukovsky to such cultures and applies.
The variety was obtained by crossing two types of potatoes - "Hydra" and "Berry", which are resistant to frost and drought. Initially it was planned to grow such an early variety in areas with a short summer period. However, it turned out that it grows well in other conditions.
Early Zhukovsky potatoes grow in the form of bushes, consisting of 5-7 branches. The leaves are strongly dissected, dark green. On the branches inflorescences are located.
They are very compact, purple around the edges and red in the middle. Blossoming at a grade plentiful and from outside attractively looks. It takes a short time and after the flowers fall, the ovary is not formed. This culture is propagated only by tubers.. The growing season is up to 80 days.
Up to 12 tubers weighing from 120 to 150 grams are formed under each bush. They have a semi-oval shape, with a small number of eyes. Inside the potato pulp is white. Pink skin.
Characteristics of potato Zhukovsky early
Since this variety distinguished by its unpretentiousness, it can be found throughout Eurasia. Potato bushes adapt well to any soil, and with the right care for it, you can dig 60 tons per hectare in July. At the same time such a variety withstands long storage well.
Early Zhukovsky variety resistant to diseases:
- Crayfish. A disease that encompasses bushes that form dark-colored growths that look like cauliflower.
- Potato nematode. This is a parasite worm that starts on the roots, forming bald spots on them.
- Alternaria Symptoms are the appearance of brown spots on the leaves.
- Rhizoctoniosis. Another name is black scab.
However, the Zhukovsky potato poorly resists the disease against late blight, which has a second name potato rot. To fight this disease, you need to initially, during planting, view the material and postpone only healthy. 10 days before the crop ripens, it is desirable to cut off all the tops.
The big advantage of this variety is its ability to resist drought. As a rule, early varieties do not need watering. They have enough moisture in the soil from melting snow.
Of particular value is the nutritional value of tubers, which contain 15% starch, a wide range of vitamins, fiber and organic acids. They contain a large amount of protein and minerals. Calorie low, with a small percentage of fat and cholesterol.
Preparing the soil for growing potatoes Zhukovsky early
Preparation of chernozem is carried out in the same way as in the cultivation of other varieties, but some nuances are available. Despite the fact that the demands on the soil of this potato is low, it is not recommended to plant in areas with clay, depleted or acidic soil.
If the planting is carried out in a dense, nutrient-poor black soil, then the harvest will be small and tasteless. Such potatoes like loamy, sandy soils, well fertilized with organic fertilizers.
Preparation of the site begin with the fall. For this, black soil is dug up to a depth of 25 cm. Fertilizers are applied to it. For each hectare of land 40 buckets of compost mixed with wood ash.
In the spring, in addition to the black soil mineral fertilizers are added, the soil is loosened and well leveled. The culture will grow well if its predecessors were leguminous plants, cucumbers or cabbage.
Germination of tubers for potato varieties Zhukovsky
For seedlings, potato tubers are removed from the basement 20 days before planting. Considering that the planting is carried out in mid-April, seed germination should begin in March.
The process is carried out in several stages:
- Originally underway visual inspection of the material. Tubers are rejected, in which the skin is broken or rot has appeared on the surface. If during the winter period potatoes sprouted, and the length of the shoots is more than 5 cm, then they must be removed.
- In order to save space, under the seedlings are taken lattice boxes with a height of 10 cm. Potatoes are spread in one row. Then the tanks are placed on each other. If there is enough space in the room, the planting material can simply be scattered.
- For potato Zhukovsky, necessary to provide diffused lighting and create a temperature in the range of + 5, + 10 degrees. Periodically, the room should be ventilated and the air humidified. Tubers, which appeared sprouts 1cm, ready for planting. If shoots are formed thin, filiform, such material is subject to rejection.
In order to reduce the time of sprouting the roots, the tubers in the box are poured with sawdust. Periodically, the contents of the box are sprayed out of the spray gun. After 15 days, the shoots will hatch, and tubers can be planted. Planting should be carried out carefully so as not to disturb the young shoots.
Planting early potatoes
Before planting, every 50 kg of potatoes are treated with two glasses of ash. You can use the purchase of drugs, such as "Prestige", "Maxim" or Bordeaux mixture. Such processing is necessary to protect young shoots from diseases and to strengthen the growth of the root system.
Potatoes are sown according to the following rules:
- If tubers are planted in the northern regions, on light soils the planting depth is 12 cm. When planting in heavy soil, the depth goes 10 cm. If the area is peaty, then 7 cm is enough. In the southern areas the depth is 16 cm.
- The better the soil is fertilized, the thicker you can plant plants.. On lean soil, the distance should be made longer. Early potatoes can be planted with a smaller distance, because it does not grow large and does not require a lot of space.
- For every 100 sq.m. Sits up to 500 bushes.
- The distance between the bushes is maintained at 35 cm, and between the rows 60 cm.
- At 100kv. m., 24 kg of potatoes fall into the ground.
Care of planted material
The first ground sprouts appear at 10-15 days. It all depends on the degree of germination of tubers and weather conditions. Emerged shoots should be immediately earthed, covering 3 cm of the ground. This will protect them from unexpected frosts.
Rules for hilling potatoes:
- The first hilling is carried out after the emergence of shoots.
- The second necessary when bushes reach a height of 20cm. At this time, buds begin to tie. Hilling the ground leads to additional formation of ovaries. At the same time, the temperature in the soil is stable.
- This procedure is very responsible and cannot be approached lightly. Work should begin only on wet ground. If there was no rain for a long time, it is necessary to water the soil artificially. You can not start hilling dry land, it will damage the root system of the bush. Works are carried out in a cool season - in the morning or in the evening.
In case of cold weather or waiting for frosts, the area is required to cover with agrofibre. If this is not possible, then you need to spend extra hilling. True, it will only partially save the harvest. Frozen stems though continue to grow, but the tubers will not grow large sizes.
Beginning with a serious fight with Colorado beetles. At this time, late varieties are just beginning to grow, so the pest is actively attacking early potatoes. To destroy such a parasite can be manually or sprayed with drugs. This variety is well tolerated by chemical exposure.
Methods of dealing with the Colorado potato beetle:
- Cornmeal. This method is based on the property of corn flour particles to increase in volume when wet. Beetles eat them and in the stomach corn kernels grow. This is the drive to their doom.
- Powder plaster or cement. Beetles are guaranteed to die.
- If sprinkle sawdust in the aisle, the insects will not go to such a site. They do not like the smell of fresh wood.
- Spraying soap and water mixture. On a bucket of water, you need 1 piece of laundry soap and 2 liters of ash.
- Spray a mixture of sunflower oil in the amount of 1 cup and a bucket of water.
- At 10l. water is taken a pack of mustard and 100 ml of vinegar 9%.
- "Chatterbox". It consists of 300g of soda and the same amount of yeast. Diluted in a bucket of water and sprayed once a week.
- Spraying urea diluted in water. Urea is taken in the amount of 100g, and water - 10l.
When growing potatoes it is important to constantly remove weeds and loosen the ground. This is necessary so that the black soil is saturated with oxygen. Otherwise, the tubers grow small. If a good top dressing was carried out in the fall, then in the spring there should be no additional fertilizer. The soil moisture should also be moderate. Potatoes do not like stagnant moisture in the area of the roots. Usually there is enough rainwater, but if it is hot summer, then moderate watering is acceptable.
The variety of potatoes, bred by scientists, Zhukovsky, is very profitable to grow on your own plot. With low costs and moderate care, at the beginning of summer, you can shoot the first harvest. After this, engage in a secondary landing.
The originator of the potato Zhukovsky Early is the State Scientific-Research Institute of the Potato Farm named after A.G. Lorch. Thanks to the efforts of local breeders managed to get a plant that is much faster than the rest brings the crop.
Fruits of table purpose are successfully processed into crisp and have a great taste in any form. Moreover, their formation is stretched in time, so you can gradually dig up potatoes during the entire period of its ripening.
During the growing season, the lateral shoots of plants spread apart in different directions, so that with a certain planting method (for example, using straw), several potatoes can be obtained without even digging up the whole shrub. Usually from one seed fruit from the first reproduction is obtained about 4-5 kg of a new crop.
The Zhukovsky Early variety can boast of good resistance to the effects of many typical pests and diseases: it is much less likely to be affected by scab, potato nematode and not so often suffer from rhizoctonia.
Botva and tubers of a plant are often affected by late blight, and in some cases bacterioses, to which they are moderately resistant.
Advantages and disadvantages
Each variety has its advantages and disadvantages; however, when choosing the Zhukovsky Early for planting potatoes, you will see that it has comparatively more advantages. The valuable qualities of the plant include:
- abundant yield with high quality of fruits with different cultivation methods,
- good level, frost, drought and shade resistance,
- the possibility of early collection of tubers, due to their rapid maturation,
- good taste characteristics, especially when preparing young fruits.
Features of growing
A good end result of growing potatoes of this variety depends on the correct preparation of the tubers for planting. They are placed in boxes in several rows, placed in bags or simply left in a greenhouse, poured in a heap and covered with foil.
When germinating in the room, planting material is regularly moistened and turned over, and diffused lighting is achieved by covering the tubers with a white cloth or paper.
In addition, when moistening fruits, they must be disinfected using for this purpose a solution of potassium permanganate (such treatments are carried out every 6 days). A sign of readiness for landing on the soil will be centimeter sprouts on the tubers, but if the weather outside does not allow them to be planted in open soil yet, they can safely spend a few more weeks in shelter.
If the tubers are planted in the first half of May, then the result can be expected approximately in the middle of July, but in this case the fruits still continue to form, and when excavated, they will not be large. If you are not in a hurry, then wait another month and then the harvest will be pleased with really impressive size. On average, from the moment of planting to the collection of the first fruits, about 60-65 days pass.
In short, despite the fact that the potato variety Zhukovsky Early is early ripe, in order to get a good harvest, proper preparation of planting material, regular watering of plantings (in the hot period every evening) and timely removal of all pests are necessary.
In order to accelerate the development of planted tubers, especially during early planting, the area with plantings can be covered with agrofibre, which will protect young seedlings from unexpected frosts, and will contribute to an increase in the temperature of the soil. With increasing temperature indicators shelter removed.
Growing Zhukovsky potato varieties on your plot will not take more time than caring for any other variety, but the end result is usually much higher.
A bit of history
The Zhukovsky potato was bred at the end of the last century from the Hydra and Berry varieties, which are resistant to certain diseases and drought. Originally "Zhukovsky" was intended for cultivation in a short summer, that is, regions with a temperate climate. But field trials in other areas also showed good results, and in 1993 it was included in the State Register of Varieties of the Russian Federation. The patent owner of the variety is the GNU Institute of Potato Farming named after A. G. Lorkh. To date, this potato is zoned very widely - from the Far Eastern to the north-western regions. The greatest yields are in the regions of the Central Black Soil Region.
Advantages and disadvantages
In addition to the rapid maturation and the presence of large tubers, the variety "Zhukovsky" has other advantages:
- excellent keeping quality
- unpretentious care,
- resistance to diseases.
Potato Zhukovsky early
Tubers are practically not affected by potato cancer, nematode, rhizoctoniosis and scab, resistance to viral diseases is moderate.
Scab silver potatoes
Drought and heat this potato tolerates well, however, the tubers form a little smaller. This variety is perfect for growing for sale, because one of the first gives the crop, and the competition in the market is still small. In addition, the tubers are not afraid of mechanical damage, they retain their presentation for a long time, so they have a demand from the buyer. With favorable weather, 60 days after germination, up to 12 tons of quality tubers per hectare can be obtained, and at the end of the growing season, this figure rises to 45 tons. And even in bad weather conditions, the yield of "Zhukovsky" is about 200-270 kg per one hundred.
High harvest potatoes Zhukovsky
For the formation of sprouts, this potato needs 5-7 degrees of heat. If necessary, it can be planted into the soil directly from the cellar, without prior heating and germination of tubers. Since plantings are made early, and the soil is still saturated with moisture, the tubers have time to form before the onset of the summer drought. Water the bushes only as a last resort, for example, if there is no rain for more than a month and the potatoes are about to bloom.
There are very few flaws in the variety. The most serious of these is the low resistance to phytophthora. In rainy summer, the bushes are easily affected by late blight, especially when thickened planting, and this is not the best way affects the marketability and yield of tubers. Therefore, acquiring the "Zhukovsky" for landing, be sure to stock up with preparations for the protective treatment of tops.
Another disadvantage is the deterioration of taste during the delay in harvesting potatoes. Tubers, overexposed in the ground, when frying are not so crispy, and less tasty when cooked. But this is, rather, the problem of all the early varieties, and not only of Zhukovsky.
Before planting, all tubers are recommended to be treated with wood ash (for 50 kg of potatoes, 2 cups of ash). Purchased products can be used, for example, “Maxim”, “Prestige” or Bordeaux mixture. Such processing will accelerate the development of the root system and protect the potato from pests and diseases during the growth period.
What is the depth of planting potatoes
Variety "Zhukovsky" planted in rows according to the standard scheme: 60-70 cm between rows and 25-30 cm between tubers. With such a planting, 5-6 bushes will fit on every meter of area, the consumption of planting material will be 350-400 g / m2. The depth of insertion of potatoes into the soil should not exceed 6 cm. When choosing planting dates, you need to focus on the temperature of the soil: for early varieties, 5-6 degrees are sufficient.
Planting potatoes in the hole
The time of germination depends on weather conditions and the degree of germination of tubers. Usually shoots appear 10-15 days after planting. Как только первые ростки покажутся над поверхностью, их следует окучить, полностью засыпав слоем земли толщиной 2-3 см. Это поможет защитить растения от заморозков и стимулировать корневое развитие, что в дальнейшем способствует увеличению урожая.
How to spud potatoes
If the weather is cold enough, and repeated frosts are foreseen, after the first hilling, it is worth covering the ridges with agrofibre. In the absence of such an opportunity, it is necessary to re-hilling, but later, when the bushes begin to actively grow, this is ineffective. And although the frozen stalks quickly grow new leaves, the harvest will be less.
Agrofiber Covered Potatoes
Already in May, you need to start fighting the main pest - the Colorado potato beetle. Since late and mid-season potato varieties are only beginning to emerge at this time, the thick bushes of Zhukovsky attract these insatiable insects with might and main. You can destroy them manually or by spraying, the variety tolerates the processing of drugs.
How to deal with the Colorado potato beetle
It is very important to timely loosen and clean the weeds. With a lack of oxygen, the root system develops poorly, and the tubers grow small. If the soil on the site was well fertilized in the fall or before planting, this variety does not need additional top dressing, as well as irrigation. If there is no rain for a long time, and the soil dries out, the potato beds need to be watered, but moderately. Stagnant water at the roots adversely affects the maturation of tubers, so zealous here is not necessary.
Potato Description Zhukovsky Early
No wonder the potato is often called the "second bread." In its cultivation, Russia firmly holds 3rd place among the largest countries producing this product. Ahead of the whole planet except that only China and India.
Domestic breeders who have set themselves the task of breeding new varieties of early ripe potatoes, successfully cope with it. In the Moscow region in the Institute of potato farming them. A.G. Lorkha, after hybridization of varieties Berry and Hydra, a remarkable potato variety appeared - Zhukovsky Early. Authorship belongs to a large group of scientists - V.S. Andreeva, L.N. Konovalova, N.I. Petrunay, L.I. Shamakova A.P. Glukhov, N.N. Mamicheva, B.A. Pisarevu, I.M. Yashinoy, A.N. Rudnevu. After successful tests in 1993, he was included in the State Register of Russia.
Potato Zhukovsky early is intended for cultivation in many regions of Russia
The Zhukovsky early variety was cultivated specifically for cultivation in areas with a temperate climate and a short summer. Therefore, it is successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia: Central Black Earth, Volga-Vyatka, Central, North-West, North Caucasus, Middle Volga, Nizhnevolzhsky, and even in East Siberia and Far Eastern.
Potatoes belong to a varietal group with very early ripening periods. 2 months after planting, you can collect the tubers of the first harvest.
Potatoes should be planted in a well-lit place, although the early Zhukovsky can tolerate a little shade. The site should be southward and be covered from the north wind. It is advisable to choose a flat piece of land that is not exposed to even short-term flooding.
The composition of the soil variety is not particularly demanding. But it is best to choose cultivated fertile soils, for example, light loam or sandstone. Throughout the entire growing season, they are able to maintain friability and do not interfere with the access of oxygen, which will allow the weak root system of potatoes to develop normally.
Preparation of planting material
The quality of planting material is of great importance. To the future harvest did not disappoint, choose only healthy tubers from high-yielding bushes. Tuber weight should be from 80 to 100 g.
Only tubers of the correct form are used as seed material; pear-shaped or oblong ones should be excluded.
Germinated potatoes sprout 2 weeks earlier than without seedlings. Germinating potatoes Zhukovsky early need a month before planting. To do this, carry out the following preparatory work:
- Tubers are treated for pests and fungal infections. For this, the drug Maxim is successfully used.
- Dried potatoes spread in boxes or on racks in one layer.
- They make sure that the awakening of the sprouts and their further growth occurs at a temperature of + 10 - 12 0 С in the scattered light. The room is periodically ventilated and the tubers are moistened.
- Every week the tubers turn over and remove those that start to deteriorate.
- Wait until the sprouts are strong and reach a length of not less than 1 cm.
For sprouting potatoes are placed in boxes in a single layer.
Peaty-humus mixture with sand will help to reduce the germination process almost by half. Potatoes are placed into it, and from time to time they are sprayed with water. Light and temperature conditions do not differ from normal germination. Planting potatoes sprouted in this way should be done manually, with great care, since the roots have already appeared on the sprouts.
Potatoes with roots and sprouts are planted by hand, very carefully
To improve the germination and prevent the development of diseases, it is necessary for 1 - 1.5 weeks before planting to sustain the tubers in bright light until the peel is green.
Time and landing scheme
Planting potatoes Zhukovsky Early start in late April or early May, it all depends on the climatic conditions of the region. The moisture of the ground should be such that the ground taken from the depth of the spade bayonet is easily stuck together in a ball and does not crumble.
If the weather forecast portends prolonged rains during the intended landing period, then it is better to postpone it. Potato will quickly disappear in the ground that is too wet and free of oxygen.
For a variety with small bushes, the planting pattern is standard, providing for a distance between tubers of 30 cm, between rows - 60 - 65 cm. Planting depth - 8 - 10 cm. In the soil, which contains a lot of clay, potatoes are planted to a smaller depth. It is better to land on the cord, so you get even beds, which are then very easy to care for. In lowland areas and in places with a high location of groundwater, potatoes need to be planted on the ridges. If the weather is unstable, return frost is assumed, then rows with potatoes can be covered with agrofibre.
In the lowlands, potatoes are best grown on the ridges.
Potato Zhukovsky early very unpretentious, differing to the same resistance to periods of drought. The rules of caring for him are very similar to the agrotechnical methods of growing varieties of mid-ripening and late varieties. But still there are differences.
During the growing season, this event is held at least twice.
- The first time spud after the tops that have emerged from the ground has grown by 10 - 15 cm. It is extremely important to do this in those latitudes where return frost is possible. Row the ground in such a way that the tops of the plants are 5 cm high above the surface.
- The second procedure is carried out in a couple of weeks, especially if the soil during this period is very wet.
Hilling is a very useful procedure that helps the growth of tubers and their normal maturation.
Hilling potatoes helps tubers gain maximum weight
If the potatoes are planted in wet land and it rains periodically during the growing season, then additional irrigation is not necessary, but it is worth keeping the soil moisture condition under control. In the heat after watering, excessive evaporation of moisture can be delayed by covering the aisles with mulch.
Watered potatoes or early in the morning, or after 7 pm. In the period of active sun, it is better not to carry out the moisturizing procedure.
As mentioned earlier, the early potato variety “Zhukovsky Early” is completely unpretentious, therefore it is found everywhere in the whole of Eurasia: from the North-West to the Far Eastern regions and even in the hot climate of the North Caucasus.
That is why he adapted well to cultivation on different types of soil. If you follow the simplest rules of care you can get sufficiently large crop, at least 40 tons per hectare, already in July.
This is extremely attractive for amateur gardeners who grow all the vegetables and fruits in the garden to their table. After all, there is nothing tastier than boiled in a uniform or fried with onions, mushrooms and fresh greens of young potatoes of an early grade.
And it is worth noting that “Zhukovsky Early” is very well kept, so you can enjoy your favorite dishes all year round. The main thing to remember about the basic rules of winter storage, to observe the terms and choose the right place.
In the table below, we have collected several important characteristics of different varieties of potatoes, so that you can compare them with Zhukovsky early:
Diseases and pests
It is also very important that this potato variety is sufficiently resistant to such frequent diseases as:
- cancer, accompanied by the formation of dark growths, resembling a cauliflower,
- potato nematode, which is a parasite worm that breeds on the roots of plants of the Solanaceae family and as a result of its vital activity it forms a bald spot,
- Alternaria, which can be recognized by the presence of brown and dark brown spots on the leaves,
- rhizoctoniosis, better known as black scab.
However, Zhukovsky Early is subject to such insidious and dangerous fungal disease as late blight. Otherwise, this disease is called potato rot.
Before planting, select healthy roots from infected. This will significantly reduce the risk of late blight. Or this problem can be avoided by early ripening of the crop, if seven to ten days before harvesting, remove the tops.
On our site you will find all the necessary information about how to deal with it.
A huge advantage of the "Zhukovsky Early" is its drought resistance. It is worth noting that any variety of potatoes from becoming wetted begins to weaken and become ill. But the super early and early species, planted in spring in the soil well-moistened by nature after winter, do not need additional watering.
We are well aware of the heat of the second half of June, and in such hot weather it is still necessary to produce the morning watering of potatoes in order to preserve the plants and the harvest, respectively.
Thus, the early variety of potatoes "Zhukovsky Early" is ideal for growing in any Russian vegetable garden. Not susceptible to the soil, it will delight you with an extremely tasty, nutritious and rich harvest, without requiring constant care or special fertilizers. Use fertilizing when planting, and when and how to make it, we will tell you.
In addition, for the cultivation of this potato you absolutely will not need to study and apply complex agrotechnical methods, such as Dutch technology, cultivation in bags or barrels. It is enough to respect the time of planting and harvesting, and not to neglect mulching. And, of course, do not forget that the most important thing in any business is love. May your garden be always healthy and healthy!
We also suggest that you familiarize yourself with other varieties of potatoes with different ripening terms: