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How to grow grapes in the open field of the middle band and tips on planting and care for beginners

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One of the most ancient cultures that people grow is no doubt grapes., which is also called the berry of life, because of the incredibly large number of elements that are beneficial for our body. A large number of people have an erroneous opinion, ostensibly a grape vine that will bear fruit, can be grown exclusively in the southern regions.

How to grow grapes in central Russia

At the moment there is a fairly large number of grapes resistant to frost. Due to this, nowadays there is an opportunity to grow a fruiting vine even in the territory of central Russia.

DEven considering that in the area where you are going to grow grapes, it can be a cold and long winter, and sometimes you can see a mark of -20 degrees Celsius on the thermometer, all this should not prevent you from planting grapes. And if you follow the tips from this article, it can be a good help when growing your grapes in central Russia.

What varieties to grow

Now, almost every dacha grows any sort of grape. If this suburban area is not in the south, then most likely Isabella will grow there. This is a rather unpretentious grape variety, the vines of which produce a large amount of harvest, and the vines themselves can serve as an extremely good decoration for the summerhouse.

However, the berries in this variety are rather small in size and, moreover, have a tart, sour taste. Over the past couple of decades, with the help of breeding work, many different varieties have been bred that have high resistance to frost, as well as having large and sweet fruits. Thus there is a huge selection of varieties of grapes varied in taste, shape and color. From all this abundance of choice, you can choose for yourself the most suitable variety.

You have every right to expect a good harvest, if you bought a good seedling, here is a list of suitable winter-hardy varieties. White to pink varieties:

  • Crystal
  • Laura
  • Aleshenkin
  • Tsikhmistrenko
  • Muscat dessert
  • Muscat
  • Delight
  • Samara
  • Amber

Blue and dark purple shades:

  • Agat Donskoy
  • Brother Delight
  • Cardinal
  • Kishmish unique
  • Codrean
  • Purple early

All these varieties of large berries have a great delicate aroma.

Selection of grape seedlings and planting sites

Grapes saplings will be better to buy either from amateurs engaged in collecting, or from breeders. The most desirable option would be to come to their own plot in order to see how the vine grows in the variety you want, as well as how the vine bears fruit and what kind of care it needs. This way you will be sure that you have taken exactly what you need. Spontaneous markets are best avoided. It is necessary to follow certain rules during the purchase of grape seedlings:

  1. Purchase worth making in the spring.
  2. It is better to buy from someone who understands grapes and can also share their knowledge and give some recommendations in terms of care.
  3. Sapling, which is two years old, will have a powerful root system with a light color of roots.
  4. It is necessary to process only acquired seedlings with a double dose of the drug Kinmiks or Bi 58 (the usual dose). All this is done to protect against grape pests. It happens as follows: the drug itself is diluted in pure water, with the calculation of two milliliters of the drug per ten liters of water. Then we wet the seedlings in this solution, leave for half an hour and wash them.
  5. It is necessary to plant purchased seedlings on the street only during the second decade of the month of June. And before that, they should be stored in perforated paper bags.
  6. From the beginning of May, it is possible to transplant a sapling from a package into a bucket (5 liters) and put it to grow until June at the south window.

Landing place for a vine it is necessary to choose such that it is closed from the winds from the north, for example, a wall of a house or a shed, or a fence. The place should also be sunny. The soil for planting should have drainage. The arrangement of rows for grapes must be chosen from the south to the north. If there is even the smallest slope in place, then it is worth planting grapes on the slopes of the south or south-west.

If the site is flat on its own, however, there is no place on the young wall, that is, an opportunity to build a fence, but no higher than a couple of meters, and also to make an orientation from east to west. Here you will immediately become available secrets that are used in the monastery vineyards and why they are so fruitful. Instead of using a fence made of planks, you can build a high weave that has a good density.

Thus, instead of an unpretentious Isabella or Lydia, which are quite unpretentious, you can grow grapevines with a good harvest in your area, in the form of large, fragrant and sweet berries that have a rather expressive taste. Such species will grow in conditions of central Russia, thanks to the work of breeders.

In addition, the expressiveness of the taste of a similar grape grown on its site will not yield to foreign products.

For beginners, it is recommended to grow early varieties in the middle lane. Ripening of such varieties happens by the middle of August.

Quite popular grape varieties for growing in central Russia are also: Muromets, Kesha, Kosmos and Arkadia. All these varieties have large fruits, approximately in size, like a small plum, and besides, they all have great taste, sweetness, combined with a delicate aroma.

More tips to buy

You should not make the purchase of a sapling, as they say, rashly. That is, if you buy from the nursery, then you should not take the first one that got caught. It is necessary to carefully evaluate and weigh everything, look at the price and compare. It will be better if you will have a look at the grown specimens, when they bear fruit.

Try for yourself the option of purchasing cuttings on a vast farm for growing grapes. Try to persuade the owner to give you a small tour. Choose a bunch of grapes that you liked and try it, and after that you can ask about the cuttings of the grapes you like. By making a choice in this way, you will precisely select what you need, and you can also get advice from the seller.

Material for autumn, as a rule, is much more enduring than spring. Thus, if it transfers the winter normally, then in the spring there is already a good growth.

It is better for beginners not to tackle at once difficult specimens of hybrids, since they usually require great attention and, besides, a large amount of knowledge, together with experience.

It is better not to store the purchased seedlings, but instead soak them in purified water, and after one day transplant them into the soil.

It is not necessary to acquire supposedly elite grape varieties in the ordinary market from sellers who are trying to impose their goods on you. Thus, you will not risk buying something "wrong".

More about the place and the landing process

If you want to plant only one bush of grapes, then you should choose a sunny enough place for this, which is far enough from trees and various types of shrubs. These characteristics are suitable when selecting a place for a large vineyard:

  • Slope from east, south, or southwest
  • The place should be well lit during the day.
  • The place must be located at a remote distance from the groundwater and swamps.

You should not plant a vine on the north side, or under a tree or close to any body of water.

So, how does the grapes plant in the middle of Russia? And this:

  1. It is necessary to slightly cut the purchased material after it is soaked during the day. The roots make quite a bit shorter, while the shoot makes less by three buds. Side layouts should also be removed, if any.
  2. Ready seedling should be dipped into the clay solution directly with its roots, then sent to the finished hole or dug trench.
  3. Much better than any general advice would be recommendations from experts for your specific case of feeding the grapes during the landing process, as well as what depth is suitable for positioning the heels of the cubes on it and how to choose a drainage for your site. Here are the recommendations and get it.
  4. It should make a hill around the germ itself, if the landing is during the period of winter. When the cold comes, it is necessary to cover it with a plastic bottle and cover it with peat or mulch.
  5. Planting in the spring requires the moistening of the trench or pit itself. It is necessary to do the shading, after you land the chubuki and make the soil dense. This is done so that the sun in the spring does not burn the shoots.
  6. A week after planting in the spring, it is necessary to water the seedlings, and after the soil dries, the upper layer must be loosened.

Spring care of grapes

After the start of the growth of new copies, along with one-year-old and two-year-old seedlings, it is necessary to perform certain procedures for the care of them. Here they are:

  1. It is necessary to remove unwanted weeds under the vine, as well as around the vineyard
  2. Next, loosen the top layer of the soil
  3. It is also important every year to cut weak roots that are at a depth of twenty centimeters underground.
  4. Spraying the bush with a liquid Bordeaux before vegetation begins. This is done in the spring as a preventive measure.

In order to provide a sufficient amount of nutrition to adult seedlings, it is very important to produce the correct watering in spring and summer. Abundantly, several times. It is necessary to use for one time about fifteen liters of water for one bush. Watering should not stagnate in the root system, because it can cause some fungal disease or even rotting of the root system. Properly organized drainage will help to avoid all these troubles. In order to understand the frequency of watering in the summer, you will need to know the mode of temperatures in your area this summer. In the rain or cold, gulf bushes are allowed twice. If the temperature in your area is normal, then you can spend four watering.

After the rain, your grapes need you to pay special attention to it and make a special treatment. Such processing is simply obligatory after the rain has passed, because high humidity leads to the rapid spread of harmful spores in the seedling. It is necessary to spray the bushes with multi-purpose solutions that will help protect the bush from oidium, blight and mildew.

Holders of grapes in central Russia make a global, large pruning twice a year. Such pruning is necessary in the fall, before covering the seedlings for the winter period. Spring pruning is done after the opening process. Dried and frozen shoots are cut, in addition, during the growth of the bush shoots pinch and make them pruned, so that the vine has formed correctly.

In order for a bush to be properly formed, it is necessary to make it pruned already from its first year. The shoots that break off the green in order to prevent them from creeping into the branches. On younger seedlings, flowering branches are removed to prevent the berries from developing. This is done because young saplings can deplete themselves, due to the fact that all their strength is given to the fact that the bunch grows. Those shoots that remained, they set the direction and make a garter.

During the direction, if you want your bush to grow powerful, you should send up those shoots that you have left. The correct formation of a grape bush in central Russia with the help of trimming will help to make your bush the way you want it to be.

Thus, following these simplest recommendations, you can get for yourself the ideal grapevine, which will produce sweet, large and fragrant berries..

Top Grades

Over the past years, breeders involved in the creation of new varieties of plants, brought a lot of grape varieties. Many of them are distinguished not only by large fruits, but also by resistance to low temperatures. They are the best varieties for central Russia. It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of each of them in order to choose the best grade in the future.

Samara Amber

Breeders received such a variety back in 1949 by crossing Muscat and Madeleine grapes. At a plant srednerosly bushes which height reaches two meters. In spring each planted bush is covered with large leaves, on the tips of which there are straight teeth of a triangular shape.

Berries of Samara Yantar large and grow to 20 mm. The weight of each of them reaches five grams. The ripened fruits are covered with a thin peel of golden color.

Such technical grape varieties as Delight are excellent for growing on the territory of the middle band. The advantages of the variety include its large and tasty grapes. Their surface is covered with crispy and dense skin, under which there is a sweetish flesh. Their diameter reaches 30 mm, and weight - 7-8 grams.

Experienced gardeners who have been engaged in the cultivation of Delight for many years, note its frost resistance. Even at temperatures below 25 degrees below zero, the bushes do not lose their ability to bear fruit and grow normally.

Gardeners who prefer to grow super early grape varieties should turn their attention to Crystal. Its fruits have time to ripen for 100 days, so that it is possible to harvest in early August.

Ripe oval grape berries are colored golden with a light shade. They are covered with a thin layer of waxy plaque that protects them from dangerous microorganisms. The advantages of Crystal include its taste. The grapes are sweet, and therefore, when making compote and jam, some housewives do not even add sugar.

In the middle lane, many grow Laura grapes, which copes well with the harsh winter frosts. The bushes of the plant are large and grow up to 2-3 meters. In spring, they are covered with five-lobed green leaves.

In the middle of summer fruit clusters are formed on the bushes, which grow to 35-40 cm in length. The weight of each bunch reaches one kilogram. When grown in a greenhouse, you can increase the weight of fruit brushes to three kilograms.

When to buy planting material?

It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of purchasing planting material in order to purchase the best seedlings. It is better to buy in the spring, a few days before planting grapes in the garden. However, before this you should familiarize yourself with the following recommendations:

  • You can not buy grape saplings in a temper. When choosing a plant, it is not necessary to take the first seedling, as it may turn out to be damaged. It is better to carefully examine it and compare with other seedlings that are sold in the store.
  • Purchases are made only in stores selling seeds and seedlings. In such places is always a good choice, which allows you to choose the best grape varieties for planting in the middle lane.
  • For planting seedlings that are planted in the autumn are better suited. They are harder than spring, and therefore gardeners are advised to buy them. However, if they are engaged in grapes in July, and not in autumn, it is better to buy seedlings for spring planting.
  • Purchased seedlings are not stored for a long time. It is necessary to plant them in the garden the day after the purchase.

Timing and site selection for planting

Before planting seedlings, you should determine the optimal timing and choose a place for grapes.

You can plant grape seedlings in spring and in autumn. Experienced gardeners advise planting them in the fall, as this will allow the grapes to get used to the new climatic conditions more quickly. In addition, in the bushes planted in autumn, immunity to pests and diseases is strengthened.

The best time for planting grapes in the middle lane in autumn is the end of September and the first half of October.

Choosing a place

When choosing a plot for the vineyard take into account the soil. It can not be planted on marshy soils and areas where groundwater lies close to the upper layers of the soil. The landing site should be reliably protected from gusts of wind and be illuminated by sunlight. Without enough light, the bushes will grow slowly and produce poor fruit.

How to plant grapes in the middle lane?

Inexperienced gardeners may have difficulty planting grapes in central Russia. To do everything right, you must learn in advance how to plant their own grape seedlings. When disembarking adhere to the following recommendations:

  • Acquired seedlings are soaked in cool water beforehand and cut. When pruning pruned root system and shorten the shoot for three buds. Also, gardeners are advised to immediately get rid of the side shoots, which can at times slow down the growth of planted bushes.
  • Cut the plant for half an hour is placed in a container with a clay solution, after which it is planted in open ground. Для посадки на участке делается неглубокая ямка, в которую можно будет посадить сразу несколько кустиков.
  • Organic matter or mineral fertilizers that promote grape growth are added to the excavated hole for planting.
  • When planting, seedlings are lowered into the soil to a depth of 7-10 cm so that the root system is in the ground.
  • When planting of grapes in the fall with saplings will be over, a low mound is made around the grapes for protection from frost.

Care and Growing Tips

Not everyone knows how to properly grow grapes in the middle lane. To deal with this, you should familiarize yourself with the features of the care of grape seedlings.

During the care of grapes in the middle lane is carried out watering. Soil moistening is practiced in the summer or spring season. At the same time for each planted bush spend at least 10-15 liters of fluid.

If rainy weather prevails in summer, the grapes are watered 1-2 times per season. In dry weather, the amount of watering is increased up to 4-5 times. It is not possible to water the plant more often, since at high humidity pests are activated, and the probability of infection with mildew or late blight increases.

Reproduction of grapes in central Russia

Gardeners want not only to grow grapes, but also to reproduce it. The most common method of propagation of such a plant is to sprinkle a vine with soil. This method is best used only in the middle lane and in the southern regions. Experienced gardeners are advised to carry out the procedure in the middle of summer or at the end of spring, if the bushes are already lignified.

During the powder vines ensure that its upper part remains on the surface of the soil. After a few months, a part of the plant that is covered with soil will begin to germinate. In October, all the sprouts formed are carefully separated and transferred to the room. In spring, when the air temperature warms up to 15-20 degrees, the seedlings can be planted in the garden.

When to prune?

In order for grape bushes to grow and fruit better, they will have to be pruned periodically. To carry out the maintenance pruning in the fall will have at least two times. In this case, the extra shoots are removed a few days before the winter shelter of the plant. For a start, you need to prune only large stems, on which there were no brushes. All cut twigs are carefully laid near the base of the seedlings.

The stems from the grapes are pruned not only in autumn, but also in spring. When spring pruning removed dried branches, on which there are no leaves. Also in the spring are engaged in pinching the stems, which contributes to the proper formation of grapes.

Gardeners with many years of experience in growing grapes are recommended to tackle immediately after planting. This will allow you to properly form a bush and increase yields.

Procedure for sheltering grapes for the winter

It is necessary to cover the grapes for the winter, because without a special shelter it can die. To do this, in the fall all the bushes gently dropping to the roots did not freeze. Sometimes plants are not added dropwise, but covered with dried leaves, straw or twigs. Covering material from above can be sprinkled with soil or covered with oilcloth so that the soil does not freeze.

The created shelter is removed only in the spring, when the night frosts end, and the air temperature will always be above zero.

Planting grapes in the garden

Before you buy a seedling, you must select the appropriate grade. A gardener must take into account a number of factors: frost resistance, demanding care, the time of ripening of berries and much more. The following varieties are suitable for growing in the northern part of the country:

  • Isabella is a high-yielding variety that can withstand temperatures down to -32 ° C,
  • Riesling - wine variety, does not require special care, tolerates frosts down to -26 ° C,
  • Alpha - a variety resistant to a number of diseases, withstands temperatures down to -29 ° C,
  • Nina is an unpretentious variety, the berries are slightly sour, tolerate frost down to -25 ° C,
  • Amur grapes are an early ripe variety that can withstand temperatures down to -29 ° C.

Before buying a seedling should be carefully examined, it must be strong, without signs of any disease.

When planting grapes, choosing a place on the plot

When and how to plant grapes to seedlings to take root faster? Such a question is often asked novice gardeners. It all depends on the planting material. Lignified shoots are planted from the 20th of April until the end of May, depending on weather conditions. More tender, green saplings - not earlier than the first days of June. Professionals recommend planting from September 20 to October 10, it is believed that in the fall, saplings adapt more quickly to cold weather and tolerate winter more easily. In this case, special attention will need to be paid to the shelter of plants.

Grapes prefer sunlit areas, so it is best to plant it along a wall or fence on the south side. It is unpretentious to the choice of soil, but in areas where the earth is too dense, it is necessary to add drainage during planting, if, on the contrary, a peat bog, it should be diluted with sand. You can grow grapes on almost any terrain; it will not grow only in salt marshes and in the area where groundwater flows close to the surface.

Planting Grape Saplings

For planting prepare pit size 80x80x80 cm. A peg is put exactly in the middle, and a layer of gravel or broken brick (drainage) is poured at the bottom, a 10-centimeter layer is enough. Further, humus or cow dung is placed in the pit (three 10-liter containers), sprinkled with potassium salt (100 g), superphosphate (250 g) and ash (slightly less than a shovel) on top. No more than a third of the pit is filled with garden soil and watered abundantly.

Further, the question arises, how to plant the grapes correctly? Around the peg (support) make a mound and on the resulting elevation straighten the roots of the seedling, tying it with a soft cloth flap to the support. The seedling should be planted at the same level at which it grew in the shipping container. The remains of the soil gently spread around the plant and slightly compacted soil. The near-stem circle is recommended to be mulched using humus, compost or peat, a layer thickness of 3 cm is sufficient.

What to do next, how to grow grapes in the garden? You can immediately prepare the supports, which consist of a frame and a thick wire. The first stretch should take place at a level of 30 cm from the ground, the second - 50 cm and the third - 70 cm. If several specimens are planted, then a distance of at least one and a half meters must be maintained between the seedlings. When planting the vine along the walls or fences should retreat 45 cm.

Features care grapes

Growing a plant such as grapes on the plot, planting and care at the initial stage may seem to be a bit difficult for the gardener. In fact, most of the work has already been done, and as soon as the sapling takes root, it will only be necessary to regularly prune and pinch the shoots, water and fertilize.

Watering grapes

For good growth and fruiting plants need enough moisture, but excessive moisture should be avoided. If the summer is not too dry, then for the season is enough to spend 5 treatments. Water for irrigation using warm, pre-settled in the barrel. After watering, the ground is loosened and, if necessary, weeds are removed.

Vine pruning

Young saplings are pruned as soon as the length of the side branches reaches 12 cm. When carrying out the first pruning, 4 strong shoots are left on the central stem and 2 on the handle. Further adjustment of the branches is carried out annually. One week before flowering, the vines are pinned to the top, this is done in order to get more side shoots. In order for the grapes to ripen well, the leaves shading them are removed. Also break off all weak, dry and damaged branches.

The vine grows very quickly, so every autumn the branches are thinned, removing young green shoots with garden shears. Lignified branches are cut to no more than 2/3, the cut should be at a right angle.

Preparing a Vineyard for Winter

After planting grapes, care for them continues until the cold. In the autumn, shortly before the onset of frost, the ground around the plants is mulched, the layer thickness should be 6-8 cm. Sawdust, shavings, peat or humus are used as material. The vine is gently bent to the ground and covered with spruce branches or special material. If the variety is frost resistant, and winter is expected to be snowy, but mild, then no additional shelter is necessary.

Tips for growing grapes in central Russia

Given that the grape is a heat-loving plant, many gardeners living in the northern part of the country have come up with a number of tricks to create a favorable microclimate for the plants.

Before planting seedlings along the ridge on the north side, a wooden screen about a meter high is installed. From the side of planting it is sheathed with sheets of iron and painted in dark green or dark brown color. Iron, heated by the sun, creates an optimal microclimate in the vineyard, even if the weather is not hot. In addition, the screen will reliably protect the landing from the cold northerly winds.

When growing grapes, you can resort to another trick. In 25 cm from seedlings dig a furrow and place there glass bottles from under wine or beer bottom up. Bottles are installed close to each other and buried, leaving only 4-5 cm on the surface. Such a kind of “solar battery” in warm weather is able to heat the soil to 30 cm.

05.05.2018 admin Comments No Comments

Each summer resident dreams of having juicy, sweet and fleshy grapes at his summer cottage. But not always the climatic conditions allow you to grow your favorite varieties. What to do? Thanks to the efforts of breeders, new types of grapes are emerging that can survive in harsh conditions. In this article we will look at growing grapes in the middle lane for beginners, learn about varieties and proper care.

Growing grapes in the middle lane for beginners

Growing grapes in - where to start?

For a start, we note that planting a selection grape in your summer cottage means getting good, tasty bunches that are in no way inferior to the usual varieties. Experts recommend planting early types of grapes in mid-latitudes, which begin to bear fruit in mid-August. But before planting grapes, it must be purchased. How to do it right?

In order not to be mistaken when choosing a vine, we recommend you to use some tips:

  • Resist the pressure of sellers. If you buy a grape sapling in the nursery, do not take the first one and do not go on about the sellers. Sometimes they want to sell faster what is least popular with buyers. Rate each variety, find out the prices. If possible, inspect the adult plant during fruiting.
  • Get seedlings in the vineyard. Almost every city has such organizations. Why not talk to the owner of the company and find out his recommendations regarding varieties for the middle zone. So you get not only good planting material, but also excellent recommendations from a qualified specialist.
  • Don't take up hybrid varietiesrequiring some experience and knowledge. For a beginner, these processes will seem too complicated, and inappropriate care can lead to the death of the plant.
  • Plant grapes immediately after purchase.. Do not delay planting, saving the seedling in water or land. It is recommended to immediately plant it on the place intended for it.

Plant grapes immediately after purchase.

Growing grapes in the middle lane begins with a search for a suitable location. How to choose it correctly? For a start it should be noted that the bushes of grapes, without exception, like single places, without a neighborhood with closely growing trees or shrubs. It is important to observe the following conditions:

  1. Give preference to the south or east side.
  2. Ensure that the plant receives ultraviolet light throughout the day.
  3. Exclude wetlands or close proximity to groundwater.

Planting and care of grapes in the middle lane for beginners

After the seedling is in your hands, it requires a little soaking and cutting. The root system is clipped only slightly, dipped into the mud and placed in a prepared pit or trench for planting. Some experts advise to use fertilizers when planting: mineral or organic, but this is a personal decision of each summer resident. A week after planting, the seedling must be watered for the first time. If the process occurs in the spring, much more moisture is needed.

While the grapes are small and not strong enough, it requires careful care: removing weeds, spraying attacks from pests and diseases, loosening the soil, fertilizer, regular watering, etc. In the middle zone pruning of grapes is carried out twice a year. The first is used to shelter a plant under the ground, and the second - after opening. In the process, old, damaged or frozen branches are removed, pinching of the shoots and the formation of the vine are also carried out. In winter, it is necessary to protect the grapes from low temperatures. To do this, the bushes covered with straw, dry leaves or reeds.

So, growing grapes in the middle lane for beginners is a simple process, requiring only care and following the correct recommendations. We hope that our advice will help you grow on your summer cottage a beautiful, rich harvest of juicy grapes.

Home »Watering» Growing grapes in the middle zone of Russia video

Growing grapes in central Russia video

  1. In the hot summer, watering is needed. Vineyard needs pruning. Shelter for the winter.

Growing grapes in the middle lane in recent years more and more interested gardeners and gardeners. It is quite possible, you only need to choose the appropriate variety of early maturation. Basically, caring for grapes in the middle lane is reduced to proper pruning, application of organic and mineral fertilizers, and removing from the trellis and preparing the vine for winter is a matter of technology.

Soil preparation

Successful cultivation of grapes in the middle lane begins with the preparation of the soil. These activities should be carried out 15-20 days before planting young seedlings.

In order to reduce the acidity of the soil, make lime at the rate of 150-200 grams per 1 square. m. planting area. Soil at the site of the future of the vineyard must be deeply dug. Poor soil is flavored with rotted manure or compost. To do this, make one bucket of organics per 1 square. m. and be sure to add one of the complex mineral fertilizers, for example, superphosphate.

Support for grapes

At the site of the future vineyard you need to build a support for the vine. In the landing row after 2.5 meters it is necessary to drive in wooden poles of 3 meters in length. They are driven into the ground to a depth of 60 cm.

Metal wire is pulled between the posts. The first is located at a height of 40 cm, then the distance between the wire is 30 cm. The grapevine will be attached to them in the future.

Shelter for the winter

In late autumn, before the first frost, the vine is removed from the trellis, pruned, leaves are removed, carefully tied and laid on the ground. The base of the bush must be high spud.

If there is a vaccination, the earthing up must be done in such a way that it is completely hidden by the ground. Further, before the onset of steady frosts, the vine is covered. The easiest way is to hide an elbow.

Varieties, specially bred for the middle band, covered in this way, winter well. Another way, widely practiced by gardeners, is the use of nonwoven covering material, for example, sugril. They are wrapped with grape bushes tied and laid on the ground, and covered with roofing material on top. The spring, when the snow melts, these shelters remove and produce sanitary pruning of grape bushes. Cut out the extra weak shoots, frostbitten and broken vine.

Agronomy grapes: growing grapes in the middle lane

The grapes are now grown in almost any region. Once again we will repeat everything about grapes in central Russia. Agrotechnics of growing grapes in this area boils down to a good choice of place for grapes, proper planting and care of the vine.

The place should be chosen the sunniest on this site, in addition, cold northern winds should not penetrate there, for this they install a screen or plant grapes along the southern wall of the house or fence. When planting young grapes it should be noted that be fruitful for many years, so the planting should be taken responsibly. A good drainage and nutrient soil should be laid in the landing pit.

As drainage use broken bricks. If the soil is heavy, you need to add sand. Nutrient soil may consist of rotted manure or humus, to which 200-250 g of superphosphate must be added, this fertilizer is necessary for future harvest. If done correctly, young grape bushes begin to bear fruit in the 3rd year.

Further care is the proper formation of the bush and pruning. В жаркое лето виноград требует полива примерно 5 раз за сезон. Полив должен быть редким, но обильным.Во избежание вымерзания даже морозостойкие сорта винограда в районах с холодными зимами необходимо укрывать.

Как выращивать виноград в средней полосе России

Оказывается в средней полосе России можно выращивать виноград и получать неплохой урожай сладких ягод, лакомиться ими и даже готовить домашнее вино. The vine loves sunlight, so it should be planted on the south-west or south side of the plot.

These places are better protected from cold winds, and in the warm season they warm up faster. If the grapes are planted in a lowland, then it can suffer from autumn and spring frosts or become ill with such a common disease as mildew. It is possible to grow grapes in central Russia on any soil, the vine is quite unpretentious to them, except for heavily saline and marshy.

We must remember that the vine is a perennial plant that bears fruit for more than 25-30 years. Therefore, plant the plant should be no closer than 1.5 meters from the walls of the house and away from large trees, the roots of which strongly dry up the soil.

But near the bushes of gooseberry or currant vine can be grown boldly. September - the best time for planting grapes. Prepare the soil thoroughly beforehand - we dig up shovels on a full bayonet and choose weeds.

For this you can use the herbicides of continuous action, such as "Tornado", "Grand Bio", "RoundAp". Here the main thing - just follow the instructions for use of the drug. Soil for the grapes must be fertilized.

On one square. a meter we prepare such a mixture: 200 g of superphosphate and a glass of wood ash are mixed in a bucket with rotted manure. It is better to buy grapes in nurseries. There you will be offered proven planting material, which has better survival rate and disease resistance. When choosing a vine for cultivation, give preference to varieties of zoning, i.e., well-growing in central Russia.

Seedlings should not have spots, signs of drying and mechanical damage. A healthy bush should have at least three roots, and a shoot no less than half a meter in length. Plants with a closed root system, that is, sold in containers, are best tolerated.

If a whole vineyard is planted, then the distance between the seedlings should be 1.5-2 meters, and between rows up to 2 meters.

In the planting hole 60-70 cm deep, we apply fertilizer and lower the seedling so that its top remains at ground level.

We sprinkle the roots with soil, pour out a bucket of water and only then fill the hole completely. If the vineyard is planned to be planted in several rows, then place the seedlings from south to north. When planted in one row - from west to east. How to grow grapes in central Russia?

Since grapes are liana, it needs to build a support. The simplest trellis is wooden or metal poles 2.5 meters high with wire stretched between them in several rows. The soil in the vineyard must be periodically loosened and weeded.

Once in 2-3 years, top dressing should be made, because the vine removes a lot of mineral substances from the soil. A good result in growing grapes is the mulching of wood chips or chopped straw. In between rows you can sow parsley. It is able to scare away the yellow-green aphids that feed on the roots of the plant, and thereby protect it from phylloxera infection. Pruning of adult grape bushes is carried out twice a year - in the fall (remove excess shoots) and in the spring (remove dead during the winter). Most of the grape varieties, grown in central Russia, needs shelter in winter.

For wintering bushes must be prepared in advance. To do this, remove the grapevine from the trellis, stack it, pin the shoots to the ground with staples, spray it with a solution of iron sulphate, fill it with straw or sawdust and cover it with covering material. From rodents that can spoil the vine, you need to lay scare away agents. If everything is done correctly, your grapes can give a harvest of delicious berries in the first year after planting.

Grape varieties for central Russia

View all videos: 70Rates: | Views: It turns out that in central Russia you can grow grapes and get a good harvest of sweet berries, taste them and even prepare homemade wine. The vine loves sunlight, so it should be planted on the south-west or south side of the plot.

These places are better protected from cold winds, and in the warm season they warm up faster. If the grapes are planted in lowlands, then he can suffer from autumn and spring frosts or become ill with such a common disease for him as mildew.

To grow grapes in central Russia can be on any soil, the vine is quite unpretentious to them, except for highly saline and marshy. We must remember that the vine is a perennial plant that bears fruit for more than 25-30 years.

Therefore, plant the plant should be no closer than 1.5 meters from the walls of the house and away from large trees, the roots of which strongly dry up the soil. But next to the bushes of gooseberry or currant vine can be grown boldly.

Place for planting grapes

A place to plant grapes should be sunny and protected from the wind, for example, at the southern wall of the house, shed or at the fence facing the south, with well-drained soil. If there is a minimum slope on the plot, plant grapes on a gentle southern or south-western slope, orienting the row in the "south-north" direction.

If the site is flat and the southern walls are occupied, create a place for your grapes by building a nice solid fence 1.8-2 m high, oriented along the east-west line, in any convenient place of the plot. And you will immediately understand the secret of the monastic vineyards! You can also use for this purpose, dense hedges or screens made of scrap materials, such as vine or reed.

Tips for a beginner-grower

The method of planting grapes depends on the type of soil. Variations are possible, but it is recommended to plant grapes in trenches on sandy soils, and on poorly heated loams and clays and in areas with close groundwater storage, it is recommended to plant on ridges that were called “worked” in ancient times.

For irrigation and fertilizing of grapes, I place plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom between seedlings. In table varieties, as the bushes mature, I replace them with trimming asbestos-cement pipes, and in “techies” (wine varieties), after three years, I clean them altogether. An adult wine grape itself must get water from the soil, and the deeper its roots, the better the wine from its berries.

Do not rush to plant seedlings "for permanent residence", especially if these varieties are on trial. Let them live up to the first signal brushes in the shkolka (where it is easier to hide). Some winegrowers-northerners in the first year do not plant seedlings in open ground at all, but keep them there in mobile containers (for example, in buckets) half buried in the ground. In the fall, containers with seedlings are moved to the basement, and planted in late spring. Such seedlings come into fruition earlier.

Do not plant the vines spontaneously. If you do not have grape bushes in the “point” planting, planning a plot of grapes is necessary. Group varieties according to their intended purpose, since the interval of planting is different. The distance between bushes of juice-wine varieties is 0.8 m, table varieties are at least 1.5 m, between rows 2-2.5 m. It is advisable to specify the growth power of the selected varieties in order to correctly calculate the right place. Grouping varieties by maturity and frost resistance will facilitate the care of grapes. It will not be necessary to spray and cover everything to the maximum.

Do not plant grafted seedlings (from European and southern nurseries) vertically, but place them practically lying at the maximum possible angle, otherwise there will be problems with the aging of the vine. Gradually transfer them to their own roots.

Do not forget that grapes have the property of vertical polarity. When opening, tie the fruitful arrow on the trellis or stakes only horizontally - then all annual green shoots will grow the same. With a vertical garter, shoots only grow intensely from the upper ocelli, and from the lower ones, they grow weakly or do not grow.

Limit watering. Only irrigation of young vines for the first 2 years is required, and water-charging irrigation, common for all varieties, in the autumn. 7-10 days before the expected flowering of the watering, stop, as excessive moisture causes shedding of color and delaying the ripening of the crop.

Do not sprinkle, otherwise you will cause illness. Arrange the drainage channels and place the irrigation pipes on the side of the aisle no closer than 30-50 cm to the base of the bush. Grapes do not like wet leaves and wet surface of the earth. If possible, arrange a visor over the grape bushes.

Green operations spend sparingly and on time. It is unacceptable to simultaneously remove all points of growth on the shoot: both chasing the tops and pinching stepchildren. After all, there is a danger that the hibernating buds of the bush will start to grow and its potential will sharply weaken. Pasynki not break out completely, leave 1-2 sheets. Embossing spend in August, immediately after straightening the crown.

Pruning grapes is necessary, otherwise the berries are crushed, and the bush grows too much. But in the year of planting no pruning, except for the removal in the fall of the undiminished green parts of shoots. From the 3rd year, cut off the shoots according to the recommendations (short or long pruning), but do not follow the thoughtlessly recommended total load, since your conditions - relief, soil, the sum of active temperatures (CAT) - will correct it. Record, starting with which buds grow fruiting shoots specifically for you.

What place to choose for planting the vine

Grapes like open to the sun, sheltered from the wind, dry places. Therefore, when choosing a place for planting a vine, it is necessary to take into account these nuances. The best place on the summer cottage will be the south or southwest slope. It is most protected from the northern winds and open to the sun. The southern slopes before all open in the spring of snow and warm.

It is not recommended to plant the vine on the top of the slope, as it will become unprotected from the north wind, and it is not recommended to plant it in the lowland - the vine will be exposed to lowland frosts, which sometimes happen even in summer.

How to care for grapes in the middle lane

Optimally choose the middle of the slope or slightly higher.

The soil of the grapes is loyal to almost any - sandy, loam or black soil. Saline and marshy soils are contraindicated.

Grapes are a perennial plant, so when planting it is necessary to take into account that large trees are not planted nearby, which can later shade the vine. Vine fruits during 25-30 years.

How to choose grapes

Grapes saplings for planting is better to buy in the nursery - they sell proven material with the best survival rate and disease resistance. When inspecting a seedling, pay attention to the absence of signs of drying, stains and damage. The bush must have at least three healthy roots and a stem of at least half a meter in length.

If seedlings with a closed root system are available, it is better to buy them - they take root better.

Vine Care

The grapevine does not require any particular difficulty in caring - just as much as other trees and shrubs require. Periodic loosening of the soil and weeding contribute to the good development of the vine. Fertilizer fertilization is required every two to three years.

Excellent results are obtained by mulching the soil around the plant with chips or straw. In spring and autumn, pruning is necessary - in the fall extra shoots are removed, in the spring those that did not survive the winter.

In winter, the grapevine is removed from the trellis, laid on the ground, pinned to the ground, sprayed with a solution of blue vitriol, covered with straw and (or) sawdust and covered with a covering material.

If everything is done correctly, the grape harvest is guaranteed.

What conditions are needed for planting grapes in spring

Most often, the grapes are planted in the spring from March to June, sometimes in the autumn before the first frost. It is difficult to determine the most suitable time for this work, the timing depends on the weather conditions in the region, but mostly it happens in April, in this case, the soil for the grapes starts to be prepared in the fall.

If you want to plant seedlings with a closed root system or green cuttings, then it is better to do it at the end of spring. Plants with open roots can be planted since the last decade of April, at this time the soil is already warm enough.

For a seedling you need a lot of light and sun, for this reason, the place for planting is chosen at a distance from buildings and tall plants. It is important to choose a grape variety suitable for your climate, many southern varieties will not be able to produce in the middle lane, and varieties destined for the middle lane planted in the south will yield a small crop. It is important to find out all the characteristics of the variety, to find out what kind of soil is needed for it and whether it can successfully develop in your area.

Pay attention to the resistance of the plant to temperature extremes, and whether it can withstand major diseases. On alkaline soil and in wetlands, grapes will develop poorly and often hurt. It needs aerated, sufficient, but not too wet, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus soils.

Seedling preparation

Planting grapes in the spring should be made only healthy planting material. In this case, you need to consider a few nuances:

• There should be no brown spots on the root section of the seedling, it should be white,

• Last year's sprout on a seedling must be fully mature,

• On good shoots elastic buds that hold well and do not fall off with a slight press,

• When planting cuttings, they need to soak in advance,

• The lower part of the cutting is cut so as not to touch 1 cm of escape near the first bud and about 2 cm above the top,

Saplings 24 hours kept in a honey solution of 1 tbsp. honey to 3 liters of water to stimulate the growth of shoots. After soaking, the cuttings are lightly dried and treated with paraffin. To do this, mix 300 ml. water and paraffin and add 15 grams. tar and wax, all heated up constantly stirring. Cuttings are dipped into the mixture one or several pieces, dipping first into the heated mixture, and then into cold water. Cover with paraffin need no more than 6 cm length of the handle.

In addition to pruning and preparation, the planting material of the grapes needs to be hardened before planting on a permanent place. Otherwise, they may suffer greatly in the sun. For 7 days, the seedlings are kept in the shade under a canopy. After that, about 1.5 weeks under the dim sun. Plants that have developed with a lack of light - increase the acclimatization period by 1.5 times. Outwardly, they are distinguished by pale green leaves and elongated shoots.

Seedlings, which are planted in a permanent place without quenching, suspend development for a long time, the growth begins to harden early - so the plant is struggling with strong stress. Closer to the second decade of June, they will recover active growth.

Planting grapes in spring

In April, there is already little moisture left in the soil for only planted plants, for this reason they need to ensure daily watering and often feed seedlings. This is the only minus planting grapes in spring.

At the same time, there are advantages:

• After harvesting in the garden, there is enough time to plan the site,

• In autumn you can fertilize the soil with high quality,

• Planting grapes in spring, eliminates the need to protect young plants from frost and rodents.

Plot planning

Proper placement of plants on the site is an important step in creating a productive vineyard. Experienced winegrowers often raise plants on a vertical trellis, which allows them to get the maximum amount of sunlight. The soil at the planting site of the sapling is excavated in advance, leveled and harrowed. Loosening retains moisture in the soil, while at the time of planning they mark the exact places where the grape bushes will be planted so that even rows are obtained, in 2-3.5 meters depending on the grape variety. Bushes in a row are planted at a distance of 3-3.5 meters when forming shoots in the same plane. This will provide adult plants with enough space for green mass and development.

Growing grapes in central Russia

What place to choose for planting the vine

Grapes like open to the sun, sheltered from the wind, dry places. Therefore, when choosing a place for planting a vine, it is necessary to take into account these nuances. The best place on the summer cottage will be the south or southwest slope. It is most protected from the northern winds and open to the sun. The southern slopes before all open in the spring of snow and warm.

It is not recommended to plant the vine on the top of the slope, as it will become unprotected from the north wind, and it is not recommended to plant it in the lowland - the vine will be exposed to lowland frosts, which sometimes happen even in summer.

How to care for grapes in the middle lane

Optimally choose the middle of the slope or slightly higher.

The soil of the grapes is loyal to almost any - sandy, loam or black soil. Saline and marshy soils are contraindicated.

Grapes are a perennial plant, so when planting it is necessary to take into account that large trees are not planted nearby, which can later shade the vine. Vine fruits during 25-30 years.

Как правильно посадить виноград

Самое лучшее время для высадки саженца виноградной лозы — сентябрь.

  • Выкапываем ямку глубиной до полуметра и примерно такого же диаметра,
  • Из выбранного грунта тщательно выбираем сорняки,
  • Часть грунта смешиваем с удобрениями — 200 г суперфосфата, стакан древесной золы и полведра хорошо перепревшего навоза смешиваем с таким же количеством грунта и высыпаем в ямку,
  • On top of this mixture you can put dry branches, a little crushed red brick.
  • All this lightly sprinkle with soil and pour
  • Now we drop a seedling into the hole, sprinkle the root system with earth and water it again
  • Only after that we bury the seedling completely.

In the process of landing do not forget to provide one trick. The root system of the vine requires water and sufficient air. To remove this problem with the planting of a seedling in a hole, at a distance of 15-20 cm from it, bury a plastic bottle with the bottom of the neck or pipe cut off.

If you plan to plant several seedlings, it is necessary to keep a distance between them of 1.5-2.0 meters. In order for the vine to develop well and to light up, it needs to build a pedestal - trellis. The easiest way is to build from columns with wire stretched between them in three or four rows.

How to choose grapes

Grapes saplings for planting is better to buy in the nursery - they sell proven material with the best survival rate and disease resistance. When inspecting a seedling, pay attention to the absence of signs of drying, stains and damage. The bush must have at least three healthy roots and a stem of at least half a meter in length.

If seedlings with a closed root system are available, it is better to buy them - they take root better.

Vine Care

The grapevine does not require any particular difficulty in caring - just as much as other trees and shrubs require. Periodic loosening of the soil and weeding contribute to the good development of the vine. Fertilizer fertilization is required every two to three years.

Excellent results are obtained by mulching the soil around the plant with chips or straw. In spring and autumn, pruning is necessary - in the fall extra shoots are removed, in the spring those that did not survive the winter.

In winter, the grapevine is removed from the trellis, laid on the ground, pinned to the ground, sprayed with a solution of blue vitriol, covered with straw and (or) sawdust and covered with a covering material.

If everything is done correctly, the grape harvest is guaranteed.

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Berries of grapes are known for their beneficial qualities. For this crop, fertile soils, a humid and warm climate, and a lot of sun are needed, which will give an opportunity to get a rich harvest.

What conditions are needed for planting grapes in spring

Most often, the grapes are planted in the spring from March to June, sometimes in the autumn before the first frost. It is difficult to determine the most suitable time for this work, the timing depends on the weather conditions in the region, but mostly it happens in April, in this case, the soil for the grapes starts to be prepared in the fall.

If you want to plant seedlings with a closed root system or green cuttings, then it is better to do it at the end of spring. Plants with open roots can be planted since the last decade of April, at this time the soil is already warm enough.

For a seedling you need a lot of light and sun, for this reason, the place for planting is chosen at a distance from buildings and tall plants. It is important to choose a grape variety suitable for your climate, many southern varieties will not be able to produce in the middle lane, and varieties destined for the middle lane planted in the south will yield a small crop. It is important to find out all the characteristics of the variety, to find out what kind of soil is needed for it and whether it can successfully develop in your area.

Pay attention to the resistance of the plant to temperature extremes, and whether it can withstand major diseases. On alkaline soil and in wetlands, grapes will develop poorly and often hurt. It needs aerated, sufficient, but not too wet, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus soils.

Seedling preparation

Planting grapes in the spring should be made only healthy planting material. In this case, you need to consider a few nuances:

• There should be no brown spots on the root section of the seedling, it should be white,

• Last year's sprout on a seedling must be fully mature,

• On good shoots elastic buds that hold well and do not fall off with a slight press,

• When planting cuttings, they need to soak in advance,

• The lower part of the cutting is cut so as not to touch 1 cm of escape near the first bud and about 2 cm above the top,

Saplings 24 hours kept in a honey solution of 1 tbsp. honey to 3 liters of water to stimulate the growth of shoots. After soaking, the cuttings are lightly dried and treated with paraffin. To do this, mix 300 ml. water and paraffin and add 15 grams. tar and wax, all heated up constantly stirring. Cuttings are dipped into the mixture one or several pieces, dipping first into the heated mixture, and then into cold water. Cover with paraffin need no more than 6 cm length of the handle.

In addition to pruning and preparation, the planting material of the grapes needs to be hardened before planting on a permanent place. Otherwise, they may suffer greatly in the sun. For 7 days, the seedlings are kept in the shade under a canopy. After that, about 1.5 weeks under the dim sun. Plants that have developed with a lack of light - increase the acclimatization period by 1.5 times. Outwardly, they are distinguished by pale green leaves and elongated shoots.

Seedlings, which are planted in a permanent place without quenching, suspend development for a long time, the growth begins to harden early - so the plant is struggling with strong stress. Closer to the second decade of June, they will recover active growth.

Planting grapes in spring

In April, there is already little moisture left in the soil for only planted plants, for this reason they need to ensure daily watering and often feed seedlings. This is the only negative planting grapes in spring.

At the same time, there are advantages:

• After harvesting in the garden, there is enough time to plan the site,

• In autumn you can fertilize the soil with high quality,

• Planting grapes in spring, eliminates the need to protect young plants from frost and rodents.

Plot planning

Proper placement of plants on the site is an important step in creating a productive vineyard. Experienced winegrowers often raise plants on a vertical trellis, which allows them to get the maximum amount of sunlight. The soil at the planting site of the sapling is excavated in advance, leveled and harrowed. Loosening retains moisture in the soil, while at the time of planning they mark the exact places where the grape bushes will be planted so that even rows are obtained, in 2-3.5 meters depending on the grape variety. Bushes in a row are planted at a distance of 3-3.5 meters when forming shoots in the same plane. This will provide adult plants with enough space for green mass and development.

How to plant grapes

If you want to have several grape varieties, then you need to place the bushes of one variety in the same row.

Growing grapes in central Russia

Another variety should be placed in the next row.

Before disembarking, planting material must be prepared:

1. The roots are shortened, leaving at least 10 centimeters,

2. On the shoots should be 4-5 buds,

3. The root system is dipped in a mixture of mullein and clay; a stimulator of root formation is added to the solution,

The most commonly used compounds that stimulate the development of roots are succinic acid, heteroauxin, fumar, various formulations with humic acids.

Prepared seedlings are planted in the landing holes or in a trench. The optimum depth for planting 30-40 centimeters. The roots of adult plants are placed in this layer, and more nutritious soil is better aerated here. If the cutting or sapling is too short, it will still be planted to this depth, but from above, at the site of planting, a recess is made.

Planting growing seedlings

Planting material with growing shoots is adapted for growth in favorable conditions of the greenhouse, they will have to be hardened before transplanting into open ground. Green seedlings are transferred for a few hours to the street to a place where the sun's rays shine faintly. It is strictly forbidden to place them under the direct rays of the sun, a powerful stream of ultraviolet radiation, hitting unused plants, destroy them. At night, the seedlings are again brought into the room.

During transplantation, the pot or cup with a seedling on both sides is carefully cut and removed. Nutritious soil is poured on the bottom of the planting hole, a seedling is installed on this soil. The pit is half asleep, the ground is slightly trampled and watered. When moisture is absorbed, the landing hole will fall asleep. You can begin planting green seedlings only when the warm weather is fully established.

Planting cuttings

Not all grapes are taken root; they are planted in several ways:

• Lay the cutting arc.

To get a bush with a strong root system, cuttings must be planted with a length of 0.5-1 meters. The bottom of a long and flexible escape should be carefully placed in a ring at the bottom of the pit. After planting, the pit is covered with soil, one kidney should remain above the surface, it is carefully covered to protect it with a small layer of soil. The roots on the handle will be formed at each node, as a result the plant will get a lot of strong roots.

In exhausted (after uprooted garden plants or vine bushes) contaminated with diseases or frozen soil, cuttings will develop poorly or simply die. It is best to cut the cuttings of juicy, flexible and hard shoots with a diameter of at least 8 mm. Cutting planting material should be in the fall, until the spring cuttings stored in the basement.

If the temperature at -18 degrees Celsius stays outside for five or more days, it will kill 70% of the grape eyes. When the temperature drops to the level of -20 degrees Celsius, all the eyes, as well as annual vines and even perennial wood, die. What can we say, if the rhizome of grapes is even more sensitive to cold. Some of its elements will be damaged even with a slight cold snap to -5 degrees Celsius.

In case of frostbite of the aerial parts of the bush, full recovery is possible, but freezing of the roots will kill the plant, respectively, it is recommended to warm the grapes for the winter to preserve the viability of the bushes.

The only solution that can protect the grapes from frosting is shelter. It is important to understand the features of this process depending on the territorial location of the landing.

Grapes varieties that take root well in central Russia

For example, the shelter of grapes for the winter in the middle lane is not needed, since in places where the air temperature in winter does not fall below the rate of -16 degrees Celsius, it makes no sense. When the temperature drops to -20 degrees Celsius, all frost-resistant varieties are subject to shelter, but if there is a possibility of reducing the temperature below -24 degrees Celsius, all bushes should be covered.
To carry out the harboring grapes for the winter can be different.

But in any case, to begin with, the bush must be removed from the trellis, cut in accordance with all the rules discussed below, remove the remnants of vegetation and treat with copper sulfate. If the terrain is characterized by rodent activity, it is highly recommended to set the poison bait along with the vine.

The presented options and methods of sheltering grapes will help protect the bushes from damage and maintain their viability before the beginning of the period of movement of juices. Bushes need to bend down to the ground, pressing the ground. Do not leave them upright, even wrapped in paper. Alas, this material does not protect against frost. Such covering material for grapes for the winter will save the bush only from drying out during the frosty winds.
It is recommended to bury the vines in a moist soil borrowed from the row spacing. If you choose the soil directly from under the bushes, it will leave the root system without proper frost protection. This type of shelter during a warm winter leads to drowning and death of a part of the eyes, therefore experienced gardeners recommend the use of the air-dry shelter method. On the frame or directly bushes pounce black film. Often plastic sacking is used for the same. This material showed itself perfectly in practice, as it is capable of passing moisture and air without the formation of condensate. And only after wrapping the grapes with the selected material, you can bury the bushes with soil. Such preparation of grapes for winter is suitable for areas with unstable temperature conditions, since, if necessary, shoots can be opened for drying and cooling.

Another way of shelter, which is practiced for storing grapes in winter, is to fill the bushes with organic dry material, for example, fallen leaves or straw, and tighten the film all over, sprinkling it with earth. It is very important to complete the shelter before the start of the first frost, because otherwise the vine will dry out and become brittle, which is why it cannot be covered without damage.

How to prune grapes for winter

If you are still thinking about whether to cut the grapes for the winter, the answer to this question is an unconditional “yes”. The fact is that with the help of pruning can not only prolong the life of the bushes, but also significantly increase the yield. It is important to carry out this procedure correctly so that it goes to the plant for the benefit and does not cause harm.

Pruning grapes for winter is best done in the fall, and for several reasons. One of them lurks in the possibility of increasing the volumes of fruit bearing already mentioned above and, naturally, a properly carried out procedure will provide the bush with a long life, and for the gardener who has spent a huge amount of time growing it, calm and confidence in the integrity of the plant.

Beginning gardeners often do not know how to properly cut the grapes for the winter, but in fact this process does not bear any difficulties. It is important to understand that it is carried out in two stages, and the given sequence of manipulations cannot be broken.
The first stage is recommended to begin in September with the removal of young shoots located at a height of more than 50 centimeters from the ground. It is this height that is optimal for wire mounting, therefore young shoots that will still wear out on metal are recommended to be removed. The shoots growing below the declared height are cut side processes and tops.

The second stage is held in the middle of October, after all the leaves fall and before the onset of severe frosts - more than -3 degrees Celsius. At this time, the question of how to preserve the grapes for the winter, while increasing the volumes of the future crop, will be most relevant, so pruning in the second stage is more cardinal.

The largest shoots are pruned, ten holes should be left on the fruit shooters, and only four on the lower shoots. After that, the vines must be removed from the trellis, put in the direction of growth on the ground and secured with a film.

To minimize losses during pruning, it is recommended to carry out this manipulation, leaving cuts only on the inner side of the shoots. So they will grow much faster, restoring the normal process of sap flow, thereby ensuring the activation of the processes of growth and development of the plant.

In the middle zone of the country, planting of grapes by cuttings in the autumn, up to the onset of the first frost, is increasingly practiced. Due to the agrotechnical properties of the soil - to receive, preserve and accumulate solar heat over the summer, the process of rooting and the development of seedlings in the autumn season proceeds without pronounced stress for future grape bushes. The accumulated heat in the open ground is enough for the young roots of grape seedlings to quickly adapt and firmly rooted in the soil long before the beginning of the winter period.

The survival rate of cuttings and seedlings in the open field mainly depends on the development of the root system, since the roots are responsible for the development of a powerful above-ground part of the vine crop. It will be extremely difficult to form a strong root system using only warm soil, since the proper development of the root system also depends on the condition of planting material and soil, on caring for plants during the first growing season, and on the presence / absence of aeration and nutrients in the soil.

Growing grapes: tips for beginners

How to grow grapes in the middle lane

The extreme climate of the sunny berry is not a hindrance. And to get a good grape harvest in the second or third year after planting is an achievable goal, even for beginners.

So, how to stop dreaming and start growing grapes ... First, we will determine the two most important tasks in growing grapes - choose a place to plant grapes and varieties that will be planted. In principle, the vine will grow almost everywhere (except for a solid shade), and if you take care of it, somehow fruitfully.

However, competent planting in the right place will allow you to get really good yields with much less effort. Remember that laying a vineyard with seedlings of low-quality varieties takes you time, energy and good mood. You may undeservedly be disappointed in the grapes, although the mistake will be exclusively yours.

Собранный урожай прекрасных спелых ягод так приятно отведать на свежем воздухе! Терраса в загородном доме создает атмосферу уюта и тепла. Если у вас есть открытая деревянная площадка — веранда или терраса — нет лучше места для приема гостей и дружной дегустации урожая.

Но чтобы сохранить эту красоту, древесине требуется специальная защита.

Как правильно выращивать виноград в средней полосе?

Узнайте подробнее, как правильно окрасить пол террасы специальным защитным маслом Pinotex.

Place for planting grapes

A place to plant grapes should be sunny and protected from the wind, for example, at the southern wall of the house, shed or at the fence facing the south, with well-drained soil. If there is a minimum slope on the plot, plant grapes on a gentle southern or south-western slope, orienting the row in the "south-north" direction.

If the site is flat and the southern walls are occupied, create a place for your grapes by building a nice solid fence 1.8-2 m high, oriented along the east-west line, in any convenient place of the plot. And you will immediately understand the secret of the monastic vineyards! You can also use for this purpose, dense hedges or screens made of scrap materials, such as vine or reed.

Tips for a beginner-grower

The method of planting grapes depends on the type of soil. Variations are possible, but it is recommended to plant grapes in trenches on sandy soils, and on poorly heated loams and clays and in areas with close groundwater storage, it is recommended to plant on ridges that were called “worked” in ancient times.

For irrigation and fertilizing of grapes, I place plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom between seedlings. In table varieties, as the bushes mature, I replace them with trimming asbestos-cement pipes, and in “techies” (wine varieties), after three years, I clean them altogether. An adult wine grape itself must get water from the soil, and the deeper its roots, the better the wine from its berries.

Do not rush to plant seedlings "for permanent residence", especially if these varieties are on trial. Let them live up to the first signal brushes in the shkolka (where it is easier to hide). Some winegrowers-northerners in the first year do not plant seedlings in open ground at all, but keep them there in mobile containers (for example, in buckets) half buried in the ground. In the fall, containers with seedlings are moved to the basement, and planted in late spring. Such seedlings come into fruition earlier.

Do not plant the vines spontaneously. If you do not have grape bushes in the “point” planting, planning a plot of grapes is necessary. Group varieties according to their intended purpose, since the interval of planting is different. The distance between bushes of juice-wine varieties is 0.8 m, table varieties are at least 1.5 m, between rows 2-2.5 m. It is advisable to specify the growth power of the selected varieties in order to correctly calculate the right place. Grouping varieties by maturity and frost resistance will facilitate the care of grapes. It will not be necessary to spray and cover everything to the maximum.

Do not plant grafted seedlings (from European and southern nurseries) vertically, but place them practically lying at the maximum possible angle, otherwise there will be problems with the aging of the vine. Gradually transfer them to their own roots.

Do not forget that grapes have the property of vertical polarity. When opening, tie the fruitful arrow on the trellis or stakes only horizontally - then all annual green shoots will grow the same. With a vertical garter, shoots only grow intensely from the upper ocelli, and from the lower ones, they grow weakly or do not grow.

Limit watering. Only irrigation of young vines for the first 2 years is required, and water-charging irrigation, common for all varieties, in the autumn. 7-10 days before the expected flowering of the watering, stop, as excessive moisture causes shedding of color and delaying the ripening of the crop.

Do not sprinkle, otherwise you will cause illness. Arrange the drainage channels and place the irrigation pipes on the side of the aisle no closer than 30-50 cm to the base of the bush. Grapes do not like wet leaves and wet surface of the earth. If possible, arrange a visor over the grape bushes.

Green operations spend sparingly and on time. It is unacceptable to simultaneously remove all points of growth on the shoot: both chasing the tops and pinching stepchildren. After all, there is a danger that the hibernating buds of the bush will start to grow and its potential will sharply weaken. Pasynki not break out completely, leave 1-2 sheets. Embossing spend in August, immediately after straightening the crown.

Pruning grapes is necessary, otherwise the berries are crushed, and the bush grows too much. But in the year of planting no pruning, except for the removal in the fall of the undiminished green parts of shoots. From the 3rd year, cut off the shoots according to the recommendations (short or long pruning), but do not follow the thoughtlessly recommended total load, since your conditions - relief, soil, the sum of active temperatures (CAT) - will correct it. Record, starting with which buds grow fruiting shoots specifically for you.

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Gardeners have been growing grapes in Central Russia for a long time. Of course, not in such quantity as in the southern regions, but with the right agricultural techniques, following some rules and little tricks, the vine gives a good harvest in the north-west, in the center, and even in Siberian regions.

Growing grapes in central Russia

What place to choose for planting the vine

Grapes like open to the sun, sheltered from the wind, dry places. Therefore, when choosing a place for planting a vine, it is necessary to take into account these nuances. The best place on the summer cottage will be the south or southwest slope. It is most protected from the northern winds and open to the sun. The southern slopes before all open in the spring of snow and warm.

It is not recommended to plant the vine on the top of the slope, as it will become unprotected from the north wind, and it is not recommended to plant it in the lowland - the vine will be exposed to lowland frosts, which sometimes happen even in summer.

How to care for grapes in the middle lane

Optimally choose the middle of the slope or slightly higher.

The soil of the grapes is loyal to almost any - sandy, loam or black soil. Saline and marshy soils are contraindicated.

Grapes are a perennial plant, so when planting it is necessary to take into account that large trees are not planted next to them, which can later shade the vine. Vine fruits during 25-30 years.

How to plant grapes

The best time to plant a vine sapling is September.

  • We dig a hole about half a meter deep and about the same diameter,
  • From the selected soil carefully choose weeds,
  • A part of the soil is mixed with fertilizers - 200 g of superphosphate, a glass of wood ash and half a bucket of well-rotted manure are mixed with the same amount of soil and poured into the hole,
  • On top of this mixture you can put dry branches, a little crushed red brick.
  • All this lightly sprinkle with soil and pour
  • Now we drop a seedling into the hole, sprinkle the root system with earth and water it again
  • Only after that we bury the seedling completely.

In the process of landing do not forget to provide one trick. The root system of the vine requires water and sufficient air. To remove this problem with the planting of a seedling in a hole, at a distance of 15-20 cm from it, bury a plastic bottle with the bottom of the neck or pipe cut off.

If you plan to plant several seedlings, it is necessary to keep a distance between them of 1.5-2.0 meters. In order for the vine to develop well and to light up, it needs to build a pedestal - trellis. The easiest way is to build from columns with wire stretched between them in three or four rows.

How to choose grapes

Grapes saplings for planting is better to buy in the nursery - they sell proven material with the best survival rate and disease resistance. When inspecting a seedling, pay attention to the absence of signs of drying, stains and damage. The bush must have at least three healthy roots and a stem of at least half a meter in length.

If seedlings with a closed root system are available, it is better to buy them - they take root better.

Vine Care

The grapevine does not require any particular difficulty in caring - just as much as other trees and shrubs require. Periodic loosening of the soil and weeding contribute to the good development of the vine. Fertilizer fertilization is required every two to three years.

Excellent results are obtained by mulching the soil around the plant with chips or straw. In spring and autumn, pruning is necessary - in the fall extra shoots are removed, in the spring those that did not survive the winter.

In winter, the grapevine is removed from the trellis, laid on the ground, pinned to the ground, sprayed with a solution of blue vitriol, covered with straw and (or) sawdust and covered with a covering material.

If everything is done correctly, the grape harvest is guaranteed.

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Berries of grapes are known for their beneficial qualities. For this crop, fertile soils, a humid and warm climate, and a lot of sun are needed, which will give an opportunity to get a rich harvest.

What conditions are needed for planting grapes in spring

Most often, the grapes are planted in the spring from March to June, sometimes in the autumn before the first frost. It is difficult to determine the most suitable time for this work, the timing depends on the weather conditions in the region, but mostly it happens in April, in this case, the soil for the grapes starts to be prepared in autumn.

If you want to plant seedlings with a closed root system or green cuttings, then it is better to do it at the end of spring. Plants with open roots can be planted since the last decade of April, at this time the soil is already warm enough.

For a seedling you need a lot of light and sun, for this reason, the place for planting is chosen at a distance from buildings and tall plants. It is important to choose a grape variety suitable for your climate, many southern varieties will not be able to produce in the middle lane, and varieties destined for the middle lane planted in the south will yield a small crop. It is important to find out all the characteristics of the variety, to find out what kind of soil is needed for it and whether it can successfully develop in your area.

Pay attention to the resistance of the plant to temperature extremes, and whether it can withstand major diseases. On alkaline soil and in wetlands, grapes will develop poorly and often hurt. It needs aerated, sufficient, but not too wet, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus soils.

Seedling preparation

Planting grapes in the spring should be made only healthy planting material. In this case, you need to consider a few nuances:

• There should be no brown spots on the root section of the seedling, it should be white,

• Last year's sprout on a seedling must be fully mature,

• On good shoots elastic buds that hold well and do not fall off with a slight press,

• When planting cuttings, they need to soak in advance,

• The lower part of the cutting is cut so as not to touch 1 cm of escape near the first bud and about 2 cm above the top,

Saplings 24 hours kept in a honey solution of 1 tbsp. honey to 3 liters of water to stimulate the growth of shoots. After soaking, the cuttings are lightly dried and treated with paraffin. To do this, mix 300 ml. water and paraffin and add 15 grams. tar and wax, all heated up constantly stirring. Cuttings are dipped into the mixture one or several pieces, dipping first into the heated mixture, and then into cold water. Cover with paraffin need no more than 6 cm length of the handle.

In addition to pruning and preparation, the planting material of the grapes needs to be hardened before planting on a permanent place. Otherwise, they may suffer greatly in the sun. For 7 days, the seedlings are kept in the shade under a canopy. After that, about 1.5 weeks under the dim sun. Plants that have developed with a lack of light - increase the acclimatization period by 1.5 times. Outwardly, they are distinguished by pale green leaves and elongated shoots.

Seedlings, which are planted in a permanent place without quenching, suspend development for a long time, the growth begins to harden early - so the plant is struggling with strong stress. Closer to the second decade of June, they will recover active growth.

Planting grapes in spring

In April, there is already little moisture left in the soil for only planted plants, for this reason they need to ensure daily watering and often feed seedlings. This is the only minus planting grapes in spring.

At the same time, there are advantages:

• After harvesting in the garden, there is enough time to plan the site,

• In autumn you can fertilize the soil with high quality,

• Planting grapes in spring, eliminates the need to protect young plants from frost and rodents.

Plot planning

Proper placement of plants on the site is an important step in creating a productive vineyard. Experienced winegrowers often raise plants on a vertical trellis, which allows them to get the maximum amount of sunlight. The soil at the planting site of the sapling is excavated in advance, leveled and harrowed. Loosening retains moisture in the soil, while at the time of planning they mark the exact places where the grape bushes will be planted so that even rows are obtained, in 2-3.5 meters depending on the grape variety. Bushes in a row are planted at a distance of 3-3.5 meters when forming shoots in the same plane. This will provide adult plants with enough space for green mass and development.

How to plant grapes

If you want to have several grape varieties, then you need to place the bushes of one variety in the same row.

Growing grapes in central Russia

Another variety should be placed in the next row.

Before disembarking, planting material must be prepared:

1. The roots are shortened, leaving at least 10 centimeters,

2. On the shoots should be 4-5 buds,

3. The root system is dipped in a mixture of mullein and clay; a stimulator of root formation is added to the solution,

The most commonly used compounds that stimulate the development of roots are succinic acid, heteroauxin, fumar, various formulations with humic acids.

Prepared seedlings are planted in the landing holes or in a trench. The optimum depth for planting 30-40 centimeters. The roots of adult plants are placed in this layer, and more nutritious soil is better aerated here. If the cutting or sapling is too short, it will still be planted to this depth, but from above, at the site of planting, a recess is made.

Planting growing seedlings

Planting material with growing shoots is adapted for growth in favorable conditions of the greenhouse, they will have to be hardened before transplanting into open ground. Green seedlings are transferred for a few hours to the street to a place where the sun's rays shine faintly. It is strictly forbidden to place them under the direct rays of the sun, a powerful stream of ultraviolet radiation, hitting unused plants, destroy them. At night, the seedlings are again brought into the room.

During transplantation, the pot or cup with a seedling on both sides is carefully cut and removed. Nutritious soil is poured on the bottom of the planting hole, a seedling is installed on this soil. The pit is half asleep, the ground is slightly trampled and watered. When moisture is absorbed, the landing hole will fall asleep. You can begin planting green seedlings only when the warm weather is fully established.

Planting cuttings

Not all grapes are taken root; they are planted in several ways:

• Lay the cutting arc.

To get a bush with a strong root system, cuttings must be planted with a length of 0.5-1 meters. The bottom of a long and flexible escape should be carefully placed in a ring at the bottom of the pit. After planting, the pit is covered with soil, one kidney should remain above the surface, it is carefully covered to protect it with a small layer of soil. The roots on the handle will be formed at each node, as a result the plant will get a lot of strong roots.

In exhausted (after uprooted garden plants or vine bushes) contaminated with diseases or frozen soil, cuttings will develop poorly or simply die. It is best to cut the cuttings of juicy, flexible and hard shoots with a diameter of at least 8 mm. Cutting planting material should be in the fall, until the spring cuttings stored in the basement.

If the temperature at -18 degrees Celsius stays outside for five or more days, it will kill 70% of the grape eyes. When the temperature drops to the level of -20 degrees Celsius, all the eyes, as well as annual vines and even perennial wood, die. What can we say, if the rhizome of grapes is even more sensitive to cold. Some of its elements will be damaged even with a slight cold snap to -5 degrees Celsius.

In case of frostbite of the aerial parts of the bush, full recovery is possible, but freezing of the roots will kill the plant, respectively, it is recommended to warm the grapes for the winter to preserve the viability of the bushes.

The only solution that can protect the grapes from frosting is shelter. It is important to understand the features of this process depending on the territorial location of the landing.

Grapes varieties that take root well in central Russia

For example, the shelter of grapes for the winter in the middle lane is not needed, since in places where the air temperature in winter does not fall below the rate of -16 degrees Celsius, it makes no sense. When the temperature drops to -20 degrees Celsius, all frost-resistant varieties are subject to shelter, but if there is a possibility of reducing the temperature below -24 degrees Celsius, all bushes should be covered.
Осуществить укрывание винограда на зиму можно по-разному.

Но в любом случае для начала куст нужно снять со шпалеры, обрезать в соответствии со всеми правилами, о которых речь пойдет ниже, удалить остатки растительности и обработать раствором медного купороса. Если местность характеризуется активностью грызунов, настоятельно рекомендуется закладка отравленной приманки вместе с лозой.

The presented options and methods of sheltering grapes will help protect the bushes from damage and maintain their viability before the beginning of the period of movement of juices. Bushes need to bend down to the ground, pressing the ground. Do not leave them upright, even wrapped in paper. Alas, this material does not protect against frost. Such covering material for grapes for the winter will save the bush only from drying out during the frosty winds.
It is recommended to bury the vines in a moist soil borrowed from the row spacing. If you choose the soil directly from under the bushes, it will leave the root system without proper frost protection. This type of shelter during a warm winter leads to drowning and death of a part of the eyes, therefore experienced gardeners recommend the use of the air-dry shelter method. On the frame or directly bushes pounce black film. Often plastic sacking is used for the same. This material showed itself perfectly in practice, as it is capable of passing moisture and air without the formation of condensate. And only after wrapping the grapes with the selected material, you can bury the bushes with soil. Such preparation of grapes for winter is suitable for areas with unstable temperature conditions, since, if necessary, shoots can be opened for drying and cooling.

Another way of shelter, which is practiced for storing grapes in winter, is to fill the bushes with organic dry material, for example, fallen leaves or straw, and tighten the film all over, sprinkling it with earth. It is very important to complete the shelter before the start of the first frost, because otherwise the vine will dry out and become brittle, which is why it cannot be covered without damage.

How to prune grapes for winter

If you are still thinking about whether to cut the grapes for the winter, the answer to this question is an unconditional “yes”. The fact is that with the help of pruning can not only prolong the life of the bushes, but also significantly increase the yield. It is important to carry out this procedure correctly so that it goes to the plant for the benefit and does not cause harm.

Pruning grapes for winter is best done in the fall, and for several reasons. One of them lurks in the possibility of increasing the volumes of fruit bearing already mentioned above and, naturally, a properly carried out procedure will provide the bush with a long life, and for the gardener who has spent a huge amount of time growing it, calm and confidence in the integrity of the plant.

Beginning gardeners often do not know how to properly cut the grapes for the winter, but in fact this process does not bear any difficulties. It is important to understand that it is carried out in two stages, and the given sequence of manipulations cannot be broken.
The first stage is recommended to begin in September with the removal of young shoots located at a height of more than 50 centimeters from the ground. It is this height that is optimal for wire mounting, therefore young shoots that will still wear out on metal are recommended to be removed. The shoots growing below the declared height are cut side processes and tops.

The second stage is held in the middle of October, after all the leaves fall and before the onset of severe frosts - more than -3 degrees Celsius. At this time, the question of how to preserve the grapes for the winter, while increasing the volumes of the future crop, will be most relevant, so pruning in the second stage is more cardinal.

The largest shoots are pruned, ten holes should be left on the fruit shooters, and only four on the lower shoots. After that, the vines must be removed from the trellis, put in the direction of growth on the ground and secured with a film.

To minimize losses during pruning, it is recommended to carry out this manipulation, leaving cuts only on the inner side of the shoots. So they will grow much faster, restoring the normal process of sap flow, thereby ensuring the activation of the processes of growth and development of the plant.

In the middle zone of the country, planting of grapes by cuttings in the autumn, up to the onset of the first frost, is increasingly practiced. Due to the agrotechnical properties of the soil - to receive, preserve and accumulate solar heat over the summer, the process of rooting and the development of seedlings in the autumn season proceeds without pronounced stress for future grape bushes. The accumulated heat in the open ground is enough for the young roots of grape seedlings to quickly adapt and firmly rooted in the soil long before the beginning of the winter period.

The survival rate of cuttings and seedlings in the open field mainly depends on the development of the root system, since the roots are responsible for the development of a powerful above-ground part of the vine crop. It will be extremely difficult to form a strong root system using only warm soil, since the proper development of the root system also depends on the condition of planting material and soil, on caring for plants during the first growing season, and on the presence / absence of aeration and nutrients in the soil.

Preparing the soil for planting seedlings

2.5 months before the autumn planting of grape saplings in a dedicated area, a number of preparatory work is carried out:

  1. A dedicated area for planting grapes should be cleared of old plants, plant roots, predecessors, weeds, stumps and large stones.
  2. The surface of the site should be flat: sprinkle the pits with earth, and cut the bumps and mounds.
  3. To form fertile soil: if clayed soil is set aside for planting, to improve it, it is recommended to apply sand, crushed stone, turf soil and compost to the whole depth of processing, which will improve soil aeration and permeability.

Growing grapes: tips for beginners

If the soil is sandy, then in tillage, add chernozem and humus, which will make it possible to form a cohesive sandy soil.

  • Nutrient enrichment. Before digging, a thin layer of manure or humus is lined up on the soil surface. ".
  • Soil fertilizer with manure or humus at the rate of 40-50 kg per 10 m2

    1. Improve soil aeration. The root system of grapes is actively developing only when there is enough oxygen in the soil. Before planting, seedlings are recommended to carry out a plan (deep digging of the soil).

    Tip # 1. It is recommended to fertilize the soil 3 weeks before planting seedlings and cuttings of grapes. If planting is planned in black soil, the amount of humus is applied to 1 m 2 of soil - 2-2.5 kg.

    Growing grapes in the middle of Russia

    For the successful cultivation of grapes in the middle band, it is necessary to understand the peculiarities of the life of this southern plant.

    1. Grapes need sunlight. With his lack of good berries do not get.
    2. Grapes loves warmth. For normal growth and yield formation in summer, temperatures of at least 20 ° C are needed. The leaves of the grapes freeze at –1 ° C, and when the frost is stronger than -25 ° C, even perennial wood dies.
    3. Grapes - drought-resistant culture, but with justified watering, the crop increases several times.

    If earlier it was suggested to beginners in viticulture with the planting of Lydia or Isabella, now this advice even in the middle zone can hardly be called correct. Rather, the taste of Isabella, which goes only to the wine, you can discard from such an interesting occupation. And to grow many varieties with very tasty berries, especially early ones, is a little more difficult. With this cope and any novice grower who has basic skills in the garden.

    Isabella will grow up almost without care, but will bring a little pleasure

    Growing grapes in the middle of Russia

    The most common method of reproduction of grapes - from cuttings, it is quite realizable in the conditions of central Russia. Cuttings are cut from strong annual shoots during the autumn pruning of bushes. Shoots should be at least 5 mm thick, any length for autumn cutting: it is convenient to take 30–40 cm. Each should have 4–5 well developed buds. Until February, the cuttings are stored in a cellar or refrigerator in loosely tied plastic bags at a temperature of about 0 ° C.

    In February, they get cuttings and cut them into pieces with 2–3 buds. The upper cut is made straight, 2–3 cm above the kidney, the lower oblique 1–2 cm under the kidney. Cut the cuttings soaked for a couple of days in the water. After that, several longitudinal scratches are made in the lower part of the cuttings to facilitate root formation.

    Before planting, cut the cuttings so that they have three buds, and make the lower cut oblique

    The cuttings can be planted in any liter container with the substrate, but the most convenient is in plastic bottles with a cut off top and holes in the bottom for draining excess water. Any light soil (sand with soil, sand with peat, pine sawdust, etc.) is suitable as a substrate. The cutting is planted so that only one kidney remains on the surface. Poured over a pink solution of potassium permanganate and for the first time covered with a plastic bag.

    The containers with the cuttings are placed in a warm place (25–28 ° C). When the first leaves appear, the cutting is gradually accustomed to being without a package. At this time, you need a good light. After another 3-4 weeks, try to pull the stalk out of the substrate. If you hold tight, then the roots are already there.

    When several leaves appear on the cuttings, they may already have roots, but this should be checked

    Cuttings systematically watered with settled water, twice fed with complex fertilizer. Otherwise, the main thing in care is the observance of temperature and light conditions. The rooted cuttings by the summer will be ready for planting on a permanent place with a young seedling.

    In the sales network and in the markets, more adult seedlings, which have lived in the open ground for a year and have increased both above-ground shoots and a good root system, often sell. These seedlings are usually sold without a lump of earth, and when buying, you need to carefully monitor that the roots are alive and healthy.

    Storage of grapes saplings and preparation for planting

    The best time for planting two-year-old grape saplings in central Russia is the end of April. If they were bought with an open root system, but they cannot be planted right away, they must be properly preserved. At least, to wrap in a big wet sacking: so, in a wet rag, they will last for a week and a half. In the same condition, the seedlings should be taken to the cottage. If you have to wait a few days for planting, you can simply prikopat them into the wet ground.

    Before planting, remove all upper roots, if any, and leave the roots only on the heel itself, cutting and breaking. Saplings should be soaked for one to two days in water, and preferably in a weak urea solution: 1 tablespoon per bucket of water, placing both the roots and the vine in the solution. Immediately before planting, the roots are dipped in a mash made of clay, mullein and water.

    The saplings of the second year have very powerful roots, but before planting some of those on the trunk, it is better to remove

    If we are talking about planting self-grown seedlings in a container (pot, bottle, etc.), the conversation is somewhat different. They will have to be planted only at the beginning of summer, and before this time it is necessary to have time to temper, bringing to the balcony on not too cold days. Bring the pots of seedlings to the country should be on the day of planting, and just plant it well before planting.

    Planting and transplanting grapes in the middle of Russia

    It should immediately agree what sapling you have in your hands. If it is a two-year-old with powerful bare roots and still without leaves, it means that it is still early spring. It should be planted in the middle lane in April. If this is the sapling that was still a cutting in February, you yourself grew it at home, and it is in a container, all covered with leaves, then it will be necessary to plant it only in early June. Autumn planting of grapes in the middle lane is possible, but undesirable.

    Before planting grapes in a prepared pit, you need to try it on. He will have to be in the pit so deeply that only 1–2 buds can be seen from the ground. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-fill as much of the soil mixture with humus so that the seedling, placed with the heel on the bottom, looks out. In advance, you need to drive a stake for the garter of an intensively growing vine, as well as a piece of durable inch pipe, through which you need to water the seedling to the roots for the first 1-2 years. If there is enough rain in the region, and the soil is light, permeable, the pipe is not needed. Then pour a small mound and plant a grape seedling. If it is a strong seedling with an open root system, it is planted as ordinary bushes: set on a mound, spread the roots, the pit fall asleep and well watered. If it is a very young sapling grown from a cutting at home, you should try to plant it with a clod of earth, carefully taking it out of the home container. Such a seedling can be planted higher: so that several leaves could be seen from the ground.

    Sapling grown for spring from cuttings should be planted with a lump of earth, trying not to damage it.

    If it was necessary to transplant a grape bush, it is quite difficult to make it, and if it is more than 5 years old for a bush, it is almost unreal. Younger bushes in the middle band can be replanted, but only in early spring. The older the bush, the more lump of earth you should try to leave on the roots. The transplanted shrub must be well cut, and water it abundantly several days before digging, despite the fact that there is still enough moisture in the soil in the spring. The bush should be dug in such a way as to damage the minimum of the roots, that is, to dig a circular trench far from the center of the bush. Roots sticking out of the remaining coma, cut. A lump is wrapped with a strong rag from all sides, a strong sheet of any material present in the household is placed under the bottom and the lump is taken out. At the new place the bush is very well watered and mulched.

    Grape care, dressing and treatment against diseases and pests

    Planting grapes on the site in central Russia, we must realize that now there will be a lot of work. True, most of the troubles are quite accessible to an experienced gardener, but new knowledge will also be required. Not everyone can visit the site year-round, but there is work in the vineyard in winter. These are mainly warming measures: throwing snow on bushes covered for the winter. And the main work begins with the arrival of spring, in the middle lane - around the end of March.

    At this time it is necessary to open bushes wrapped up for the winter. If possible, make basic fertilizers by digging them into shallow pits. In mid-April, the vines can already be lifted and tied to the trellis. When the thermometer reads through 0, grapes can be sprayed with nitrafen or bordeaux mixture. In late April, tie up the vines, spreading them over the strained wires. In May, in the middle lane, the grapes begin to wake up, but the processes on it go very quickly: buds soon bloom, leaves appear, flowering begins. As soon as the intensive growth of young shoots has gone, the superfluous ones should be immediately broken out, not waiting until they grow large and shade growing berries. In late May, you can give the bushes a liquid top dressing.

    In the summer, as they grow, they tie up new shoots, remove the extra stepchildren and grapes. Be sure to feed the bushes during the growth of berries, which is most convenient to do by spraying the leaves with solutions of complex fertilizers. August feedings should not contain nitrogen. In mid-August, the harvest of early varieties is ripening.

    September is the main month of grape harvest. If the harvest was very large, foliar dressing with phosphate-potassium fertilizers is obligatory. If there are signs of disease, and the berries have not yet been collected, the bushes are sprayed with sulfur preparations or potassium permanganate. After the autumn frosts and leaf fall, you need to perform the main pruning. After pruning the vines are removed, tied in bunches and covered for the winter. In dry weather, water recharge irrigation is carried out. Shallow the soil around the bushes shallow, bringing rotted manure.

    Fertilizer grapes have to give systematically, starting with planting. Grapes consume a lot of potassium, so potash fertilizers, the best wood ash, can be used in maximum doses. In the autumn, manure, compost, to which superphosphate and ash can be added, are buried under the grapes. In the spring, apply any fertilizers, including nitrogen. And two or three weeks before the flowering begins, under a bush it is necessary to fall asleep several liter cans of ash, put them to a depth of 10–15 cm and water well.

    In the summer, foliar dressing is much more convenient, that is, spraying a bush with weak fertilizer solutions. They spend in the evening. The first such feeding is needed a week before flowering. For her use of solutions of complex fertilizers (for example, nitrophoska). The following feeding - after flowering, as well as the beginning of ripening berries. Solutions for dressing should be prepared strictly according to the instructions on the package.

    Sometimes fertilizing combined with spraying Bordeaux liquid to combat disease. In the case of a clear absence of disease, it is better to use wood ash as a preventive measure. During the day she insists in water (a liter of ash per bucket). After this is filtered, in order not to spoil the sprayer. If the grapes are clearly ill, it is necessary to study the special literature: here you cannot do without powerful drugs, but it is better not to bring illnesses to the table. Как правило, они появляются только на плохо ухоженном винограднике, где не уделяют должного внимания подкормкам, поливу, неправильно обрезают кусты.

    Обрезка винограда в условиях средней полосы России

    Обрезка винограда — искусство: научиться ему сложнее, чем искусству обрезки яблони или груши, и для этого надо изучить соответствующую литературу. Без знаний подходить к виноградному кусту с секатором нельзя. Разве что вырезать явно поломанные и погибшие побеги. Pruning can increase the harvest several times or, on the contrary, reduce it to a minimum, and the outcome depends on how skillful hands it was carried out. Trimming is not needed only in the first year after planting. The first few years can be pruned in early spring, and after entry into fruiting - only in the fall.

    Without going into details of the methods of forming bushes, it can be recommended to carry out only thinning pruning without experience: to cut out obviously superfluous, thickening shoots. Their number also depends on the grape variety: some varieties succeed more when a bush is formed in the image of a tree, while others give ten or more independent branches from the base. Pruning is done with a sharp shears, the wounds are not covered with anything. Sections are made at an angle of about 45 ° to 1–2 cm above the kidney.

    One of the most simple schemes for the formation of the bush

    To facilitate the work of pruning, it is necessary in the summer to constantly break out excess green shoots, while they are very small. The bush reacts almost painlessly to their break, unlike the cutting of a ripened vine. Green shoots are removed with their hands, breaking them off from the place of growth. Do not break through only during flowering.

    Proper pruning in the first 3-4 years should be aimed at getting the most lighted bush, allowing you to easily take care of yourself and giving a bountiful harvest of berries, each of which will have enough space and sunlight.

    Preparing for the winter of grapes in the middle of Russia

    In the middle zone of our country, almost all grape varieties have to be sheltered for the winter from frost. Without shelter can only exist semi-wild varieties that are usually grown for the hedge and in some cases for the preparation of simple wines.

    Shelter for the winter engaged in the end of October. Before the shelter, they carefully trim the grapes, removing the unripe shoots. After the first weak frosts, they break, or even fall off themselves. They should be cut to healthy mature areas. After that, the vines are removed from the trellis and tied slightly into bunches so that it is easy to lay on the ground. It would be nice at this time to whiten the vines, especially the lower parts.

    Most of the new varieties bred for the middle lane can withstand temperatures down to around -25 o C, so it makes no sense to wrap bunches of vines heavily. Nevertheless, many gardeners in the middle zone dig deep trenches for laying bushes and cover them in trenches with a large layer of earth. In most cases, this is clearly unnecessary. At the same time, a good owner should be envied if he dug a trench next to the grape, covered it with boards on the inside, puts the vines into the resulting box, covers it with boards, and fills the boards with fir branches. This is ideal, but it takes time and effort.

    If the enthusiasm is smaller, the bundles of vines should be simply laid out more compactly, and covered with sheets of slate, plywood, spruce branches, a thick layer of dry foliage, etc., on top. The main keeper of heat for the grapes is snow, and the shelter must be devised so that it copes with the frosts before establishing a powerful snow cover. Wrapping old blankets, jerseys and other rags is bad: the mice will start and bite the bark, the grapes will disappear. The spruce needles of the mouse are not exactly afraid, but they do not like to be pricked. Better yet, put a special treat for them - a poison. Wrapping the vines in a plastic film, as many gardeners do, is not necessary in the middle zone: unlike in Siberia, frost alternates with thaws here, and vybryanie bark during thawing is no better than frosting.

    Lapnik and snow - the most reliable shelter in the middle lane

    Reproduction of grapes in the middle of Russia

    Summer resident in conditions of central Russia can only recommend one method of reproduction of grapes - using cuttings, as was described at the beginning of this article. The guarantee that a good sapling will grow, provided that the rules are strictly followed, is close to 100%. And the difficulties in growing seedlings from cuttings are small. All other breeding methods are either more difficult or do not lead to guaranteed success. These are ways such as:

    • seed reproduction
    • reproduction by layering
    • grafting grapes on grapes.

    With seeds, too much hassle, saplings are not as fast from cuttings and not as powerful as from cuttings, and grafting on grapes is worse than on fruit trees.

    Ways to grow grapes in the middle of Russia

    Grapes - in fact, vine, and to ensure a normal existence, he needs strong support. True, in the dacha conditions he himself is lazy to climb on the supports, although most of the young shoots still cling to the structures close to them with their antennae. These facilities grapes on the site and need to create.

    Growing on a trellis

    Growing on a trellis is the main way to form a grape plant. It can be any structures consisting of vertical posts and horizontal supports. Recently, there are a variety of meshes with large cells on sale: both metal and durable plastic. They can also serve as such supports. But traditionally trellis suit, driving into the ground strong pillars or metal pipes. Different varieties of grapes bush of various sizes. There are very powerful ones, for example, one of the newer in the middle lane of the Fourchette varieties, for it the pillars can be three meters high, but usually, for convenience, they try not to create bushes. Therefore, the pillars must be of the appropriate size.

    Lanes can be constructed from any suitable material at hand.

    Between the pillars stretch several horizontal rows of wire. The lower tier - at a distance of 50 cm from the ground, the next - every 30–50 cm. In the spring, overwintered vines are tied up horizontally to the bottom wire. Powerful green shoots growing in summer are tied up vertically, while breaking out unnecessary ones. Depending on the variety, 20–30 shoots are left for an adult shrub, sometimes even up to 50. Both the number of shoots and the mass of the next crop are monitored in time, removing extra brushes.

    Growing in a greenhouse

    With the advent of frost-resistant grape varieties, greenhouse cultivation is slowly becoming a thing of the past, but it is still used often, including in conditions of central Russia. Of course, grapes are not tomatoes, and the arrangement of greenhouses for such a large plant requires considerable investment, but when you want to harvest early, they also go to this: most varieties ripen in the greenhouse two to three weeks earlier.

    The device of greenhouses requires money and in the middle lane is more suitable for industrial grape growing.

    Bushes are planted in the greenhouse more often than in the open field: 1–1.5 meters. The greenhouse protects grapes from hail, unnecessary rains, small frosts. This, of course, about the unheated version. In the greenhouse for the season, the grapes are watered at least three times, combining watering with additional food. They stop watering a month before the harvest, but they also under-winter water.

    In the summer you have to air the greenhouse, monitor the humidity of the air. Shelter for the winter and necessarily in the greenhouse.

    The advantages of greenhouse cultivation of grapes:

    • guaranteed harvest,
    • the extension of the warm period, allowing the vine to grow and ripen berries,
    • ease of care for grapes in bad weather.

    • high cost of harvest
    • the risk of diseases of the bush due to poor ventilation,
    • lack of natural lighting berries.

    Greenhouse grapes, of course, are also useful, but if you remember how we wait for the summer cucumber from the garden, although greenhouses are sold in stores all the greenhouse ... That's about it with any fruit and vegetables.

    Growing in barrels

    In the middle lane, you can grow grapes even in barrels, placing them on the glazed loggia. It is hardly worth growing barrels in the garden plots, although they do it in the northern regions. In the middle lane, the climate is quite favorable for growing grapes and “without frills”. And in barrels ... Barrel should be 250 liters. Place drainage on the bottom, then fertile soil. Vines are grown no more than 10 buds, that is, the crop is small. When grown in the dacha plots, the barrels for the winter with the vines are instilled in the open ground, and in early spring they are put in the greenhouse, where they are held until the berries are set. At the beginning of summer, the grapes are brought to the garden and placed in the sunniest place. In barrels, grapes can grow up to 8-10 years.

    Container Farming

    If there is no place for a huge barrel, you can try to use smaller plastic containers: liters by 50. Or you can just take a regular plastic bag with dimensions 50 x 50 x 50 cm. You can put a cutting into the fertile land and carry it all the way to getting harvest. Of course, the berries can only be tasted. Maximum - to collect another small crop, but after that the plant will simply start to lack the soil, and it will have to be transplanted into the ground (open ground or greenhouse), cutting the container.

    Smolensky method of growing grapes

    In the last decade, was born such a thing as the Smolensk Ridge. The technology developed in the Smolensk region, allows you to grow excellent yields of high-quality grapes, not inferior in sugar content to most southern berries. The essence of the technology is landing on high ridges. It allows the layers of the soil directly adjacent to the roots to warm up quickly in the spring, and in the fall, when the bushes need to go for the winter, cool down.

    Smolensk inventor Yury Chuguev near his garden

    As a result of planting on high ridges, berries ripen a month earlier than when they are planted in the usual way. With this technology is easier to care for the bushes. The slopes of the ridges are gentle, and the snow evenly and reliably covers them in winter. From accidental freezing in particularly harsh winters, the ridge is covered with corrugated cardboard.

    All the basic operations with grapes perform a little differently in comparison with conventional technology. So, shifted the time of harvesting cuttings and the technology of their rooting. For the second winter, very young saplings are transplanted into containers and withstand the winter at a low positive temperature. Planted in the ridges of containers already completely independent plants, which even in a year already give the first berries.

    Smolensk technology is very interesting, and there are undoubtedly those who want to use it. A detailed description is not difficult to find on the Internet.

    Growing on a long vine

    The term "growing grapes on a long vine" means only the method of planting grapes. Then the usual bush develops, which is cared for by forming on the trellis. Planting the usual cuttings in the middle lane of inexperienced gardeners is not always possible, and in this case, you can try another method of planting. For him, in fact, need a long vine: a piece of young shoots up to two meters in length. This shoot is cut off in the fall, soaked for a day, and then buried in the landing pit, rolling it up in a hole in a spiral and releasing only 1–2 buds from the hole. They are covered with earth, watered and left for winter, covered with spruce branches or spunbond.

    Often, more powerful roots are formed on a long vine, but an irrigation pipe is required that is buried in a hole: water is needed by the lower parts of the vine, from where roots will form.

    Girlish grapes

    The girlish grape is a decorative creeper, used mainly to decorate the plot, because it very quickly wraps around all the supports provided with beautiful shoots and leaves. In spring and summer its leaves are dark green, in autumn - red. Climbing shoots cling to any possible obstacles, can grow in height to 20 m. Dark blue small berries are completely inedible.

    Girlish grapes are used to decorate the plot

    Girlish grapes can grow anywhere, and in the middle band there are no obstacles to growing them. On the contrary, it often becomes very disturbing at the site, so you must first decide where to plant it. It can damage many of the structures encountered on its way.

    It can grow from seedlings, but it breeds well and is self-sown, in fact, being almost a weed. Demands leaving only in the first years: several waterings and loosening around young bushes. Then - just pruning interfering shoots. It is completely frost-resistant and does not require any shelter for the winter. Resistant to most diseases and pests.

    Standard Grape

    In the standard form, that is, in the form of a tree, in the middle zone of Russia, only the most winter-hardy varieties that do not hide for the winter can be formed. The formation of the trunk in trees occurs naturally, and in the case of grapes, it must be done by proper pruning. The height of the trunk can be from half a meter to two meters.

    Grape tree is convenient to maintain, but difficult to cover for the winter.

    The formation of standard grapes takes several years and is carried out strictly according to the rules that can be found in the special literature. Stamb culture allows a third to increase the total number of berries from the plant. Facilitated and care, and some operations become completely unnecessary. But the harvest on the standard grapes is somewhat late compared to the usual form of the bush. In addition, we need stronger supports. The main limitation, after all, is that it is impossible to cover the standard grapes for the winter, and therefore this form is more preferable for the southern regions.

    Growing grapes in central Russia is becoming commonplace. The climate of most areas is quite suitable for ripening many grape varieties, and caring for them is only slightly more complicated than in the vineyards of the country. Desire, effort and some new knowledge will allow to grow southern berries on any dacha.

    Selection of grape varieties for central Russia

    Grape varieties of modern breeding allow us to hope for a good harvest when grown in conditions of central Russia.

    If we consider the grape varieties, most of them are recommended for cultivation in the southern regions.

    However, there are a number of table varieties that can produce crops in any region of the Russian Federation.

    Dining varieties

    The main requirements for the grape varieties for the middle lane are frost resistance and the time of ripening of the crop.

    These varieties will provide you with a dessert, sweet and delicious berry. They will delight children and loved ones, as well as allow you to prepare fragrant grape juice.

    Among the early varieties should consider the following:

    • « Alyoshkin gift ". Vegetation period 110–115 days. White berry forms a bunch of up to 500 g, and increased resistance to disease will always be with the crop.
    • « Anthracite ". The berry is blue-black, large. Cluster to 600 g. Covering variety.
    • « Annushka ". White large berries are collected in clusters up to 250 g. Pleasant taste, quite resistant to disease.
    • Helios. Large berry pink color. Clusters of 500 g. Sweet, delicious, covering.
    • « Gourmet Krajnov ". Clusters can be up to 1200 g. Berry is large, pink, fleshy. Covering variety.
    • « Moscow steady ". The berry is white, small, but sweet. Cluster to 100 g. Disease resistance is average.
    • « Muscat Moscow ". Bunches up to 500 g. Berry is light green with a pleasant aftertaste.
    • “Anniversary of Novocherkassk”. Clusters up to 1500 g, average over 800 g. Berry is large, pink, fleshy. Productivity up to 270 kg / ha. Disease averages are average.

    A little neglected grape bush.

    Medium ripening

    • « Alexander ". Pink berry is not large. Cluster to 140 g. It is highly resistant to diseases.
    • « Bashkir ". The variety of the last century, and surely many people know it. Dark blue berry is collected in the brush at 120-130 g. It has good sugar content.

    Technical varieties

    Planting a vineyard, you need to think about wine, and the following varieties are suitable for this purpose:

    • « Aliyevsky ". Medium ripening. Blue-black. Clusters up to 200 g. Diseases are moderately affected.
    • « Ermak ". Early. Clusters of 200 g, sugary, disease resistant.
    • « Ryabinsky ". White juicy berries are collected in clusters up to 200 g. Sugar content is good. Disease resistance average

    Universal

    Universal grape varieties are not very capricious, and their berries are good both in processed and fresh.

    There are varieties, the berries of which are suitable for both dessert and as a raw material for wine production. Among these varieties:

    • « Katyr ". Blue, round, productive, frost-resistant.
    • « Scuin's dream ". Red-black berry. Clusters of 200 g. The disease incidence is average.
    • « Memory of Dombkowska ". The cluster is dense up to 400 g. The berry is black, juicy. The variety is disease resistant,
    • « Anniversary of Scuin ».

    From the presented list, you can choose your favorite variety and safely grow in the middle lane.

    Purchase of seedlings

    The ideal purchase of a sapling happens only when you come to the vineyard of an amateur or professional in the ripening season of a berry.

    Before purchasing planting material, it is best to see with your own eyes the development of a particular grape variety in your area.

    In this case, you have the opportunity to see for yourself what kind of variety you like to taste, to assess the degree and period of maturation, the strength of growth of bushes and resistance to diseases. You can order a seedling on the spot, or agree on the purchase of cuttings in the fall.

    Если такой возможности нет, то отдайте предпочтение питомникам и интернет-магазинам. Как правило, им нет смысла обманывать, профессионалы заинтересованы в том, чтобы вы и дальше обращались к ним за посадочным материалом.

    Особенности посадки и выращивания в Средней полосе

    Если вы приобрели одеревеневший саженец с открытой корневой системой, то корешки нужно чуть укоротить.

    On the handle you need to leave two buds rest shortened. If this is not done, then the upper buds will grow and thus the escape will be higher, which will make the shelter uncomfortable for the winter.

      The pit is better to prepare in advance. For spring planting - in the autumn, for autumn - in the spring. In this case, the soil will settle well. Pit sizes approximately 75x75x75 . Do not do less, since the planting of grapes provides for its cultivation throughout 20–25 years old .

    Dimensions of the planting pit should be sufficient for the free development of the root system of grapes.

    The level of the soil in the hole should be below the surface of the surrounding land.

    For a young seedling, you can make a wooden box and cover it with winter insulation.

    When planting you need to maintain the distance between adjacent bushes, and it can not be less than 2.5 meters. This distance will provide food for the grapevine.

    Ukryvna or not covering variety

    In the middle lane in the first winter all varieties of grapes require shelter.

    Among the varieties listed there are both covering and not covering grapes. However, growing grapevine is always necessary to carry out activities that warn against freezing.

    In the first and second year of life, all seedlings must be covered. This can be done using plastic film or disposable bottles with a capacity of 5 liters. In any case, the seedlings should be dry.

    Uncovered grape variety in winter

    Beginning winegrowers should learn that grapes freeze out not from high frosts, but from icing and strong temperature drops. . Therefore, having spent the shelter correctly, dryly, you can prevent bad wintering.

    Further, if the variety is not covering, it can be left without shelter, although experienced growers are always insured and cover the vine. Make it easy.

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