An interesting question that many people do not know the answer to is: how is kiwi growing? We offer to look at the photo.
Confidence in the benefits of this fruit, pushes on trying to grow it at home. It is worth knowing in more detail about the environment of growing kiwi and the necessary conditions.
What is kiwi
Kiwi is home to Aktinidia, where it grows on a tree-like liana. This fruit is usually attributed to fruit, but it is a berry and is popularly referred to as Chinese gooseberry.
The fruit is distinguished by a delicate pleasant taste. The plant blooms with small flowers, similar to a rose. Kiwi is covered with velvety skin, under which the flesh of emerald color is hidden, with small soft bones. Berry will come to the rescue with a bad heart, in the fight against excess weight and increased pressure.
Despite the external similarity of all fruits, they are of several varieties:
- Highward has a large size and juicy flesh,
- Abbot loves high humidity and yields high yields
- Monty contains high amounts of potassium and vitamins C,
- Bruno is in the greatest demand due to high yield, good transportability and other indicators.
Despite the demands of kiwi, many countries are engaged in its cultivation. The largest percentage of the harvest comes from New Zealand. There are about 3 thousand farms growing fruit for export.
Some countries also grow kiwi fruit, but often for local consumption. These include: Greece, Chile, Iran, Italy and China. In the United States, only California and Hawaii can boast of the harvest of these fruits.
Due to the high content of vitamin C, kiwi is used in the treatment and prevention of many diseases. The benefit of one berry is comparable to a bucket of apples with respect to the content of vitamins and beneficial microelements: vitamin A and B, the enzyme actinide, quinic acid, magnesium, calcium, potassium and phosphorus.
During pregnancy, the use of the fetus in food nourishes the body with calcium and magnesium, which are necessary for the proper development of the baby. In China, the berry has established itself as a means of prevention against cancer. This is due to the content of ascorbic acid, which suppresses the development of cancer cells.
How to choose
In order to get the most out of the kiwi, you need to learn how to choose it correctly. When buying, pay attention to the following indicators:
- bright fruit aroma
- the skin should be smooth and elastic,
- the berry should be soft to the touch,
- shriveled skin indicates loss of moisture and most nutrients
- on the peel should not be stains and cracks.
After bringing the kiwi home, put it in the fridge. There he can lie up to 4 weeks. If you have purchased an unripe fruit, put it in a sunny place and after a couple of days you will get a ripe, healthy berry.
Growing at home
In order to get fragrant fruit at home, follow these instructions:
- The seeds of the ripe fruit are removed and washed under running water.
- The change is immersed in clean water for a week until they germinate.
- After germination, the seeds are transferred to a damp cloth and covered with a glass or jar, creating a mini-greenhouse.
- When the first root appears, the seeds are transplanted into the ground.
- The first grown leaves say that the seedlings need to be transplanted with a large capacity.
- The pots are placed on the sunny side and carefully monitor the soil moisture. If weak seedlings are found, they are immediately removed.
Kiwi requires abundant watering, especially in the flowering period.
When growing kiwi use seeds and cuttings. For cultivation by the seed method described above, it is necessary to prepare a soil from a nutrient substrate mixed with sand. However, fruits obtained from seeds may differ dramatically from the parent plant, having lost their varietal characteristics.
Vegetative method involves the use of green cuttings harvested during the pruning of the plant in the summer. Cuttings with several buds are suitable for cutting. For the lower cut, an angle of 45 degrees is observed, and the upper cut must be even and 10 mm above the bud.
Next, the cuttings are placed in water, covered with a damp cloth and left for a day. To root the seedlings, peat soil is harvested in a layer of 30 cm. The cuttings are rooted to a depth of 3 cm, at a distance of 7 cm from each other. Strictly observe the level of humidity (not less than 95%) and temperature of the soil (minimum 3 ° C).
Waiting for the harvest
With proper care and compliance with all rules, the result will be positive. However, you should be patient with this, since the first berries will appear no earlier than three years. The worse the conditions, the longer this period.
Consider that kiwi is dioecious and therefore you will need male and female plants to produce fruits. Growing with the help of cuttings, will allow even during planting to fulfill this condition. Seed breeding method will reveal the floor of the seedling only during flowering, that is, no earlier than three years.
Despite the difficulties that you will encounter, the result will justify all your efforts and patience. And you can be proud of an exotic fruit grown with your own hands.
How to grow kiwi, see the following video:
The appearance of this plant is very similar to the tree, which requires support. In nature, the fruits of kiwi gather in clusters and ripen on the tops of the shoots. Throughout the season, Chinese actinidia changes its color of leaves from green to white, pink and crimson.. The people can also find another name for this tropical plant - Chinese gooseberry. Inside the fruit of kiwi is green sweet-sour pulp with a lot of small black seeds.
Some gourmets taste the fruit associated with strawberries, melons, gooseberries, apples or bananas. The average weight of a kiwi fruit is about 80 g. The fruits are very rich in vitamin C, which, by the way, is greater in kiwi fruit than, for example, in lemons or currants. In addition, the fruit contains a lot of potassium, which is also a vital trace element.
Growing kiwi at home
How does kiwi grow and is it possible to grow it at home? Growing kiwi at home is a very real, fascinating and effortless process. First of all, for growing kiwi at home, you need to get seeds. To do this, you just need to buy a ripe fruit at any grocery store. Currently, there are several types of exotic fruit lianas, each of which can be quite successfully grown at home.
Before you start growing kiwi in your home, you must take into account the natural conditions of its growth. Chinese actinidia is a sun-loving plant. Kiwi needs a certain place of content on the windowsill on the south side, where there is no cold and drafts.
The process of growing kiwi at home involves several steps:
- Seed preparation and germination,
- Sampling received seedlings,
- Basic care.
Let us consider in more detail each of the above steps.
First of all, it is necessary to remove the seeds from the ripe fruit, after which they are well washed under water from the remnants of the pulp. Since kiwi seeds are very small, it is most convenient to rinse them with a sieve or gauze. After that, clean seeds should be dipped in a glass of water at room temperature and placed in a warm place on the south side.
As a rule, after 1-2 weeks the seeds open. If this does not occur, it is necessary to replace the water, preventing rotting of planting material. Uncovered seeds need to be kept in greenhouse conditions with periodic airings.
In the water it is necessary to moisten a rag and spread out on a dish. On top of the rag, the seeds that are hatching are evenly spread out. In order to create greenhouse conditions, planting material must be covered with a transparent can and placed in a warm and well-lit room.
The resulting greenhouse effect is able to provide rapid germination of seeds, literally 4-5 days. Seedlings that have already germinated, produce microscopic roots. This suggests that they must already be planted in the prepared soil.
The soil for seedlings should consist of the following components:
The resulting substrate is ideal for growing kiwi at home.
Before landing on the bottom of the pot or planting container, it is necessary to lay a small layer of claydite drainage. A slightly moistened soil mixture is poured over the drainage. In order to facilitate further picking, seedlings of the plant are planted separately.
When the sprouts germinate, they must be laid out on the surface of the nutrient soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of substrate at 3 mm. Tanks with young plants should be put in a warm place and on a daily basis, spray them with a spray with warm water. Spraying can be eliminated if you equip the greenhouse from a transparent material. Thus, the condensate that will collect under the film will create the necessary humidity for the seedlings.
After the first shoots appear, the shelter must be removed. When the seedlings are already growing up, and one pair of leaves appear on it, it should be dived into separate landing tanks of a slightly larger size. By this time, as a rule, the plants reach a height of 12 cm. During the picking, the same soil mixture is used, which was used for sowing seeds, only with a smaller amount of peat. If you notice unnecessary and unpromising sprouts, they should be immediately rejected, choosing only the strongest and healthiest. Timely picking is a very important step in growing a tropical vine at home, since it depends on the further development and fruiting of kiwi.
In order to ensure full and active growth in the home, the plants need special care. Therefore, for tropical vines will have to create the necessary conditions that will be as close as possible to the natural environment of growing kiwi. Let's take a closer look at the rules of kiwi care at home:
- First of all, plants need moderate and private watering. It is worth noting that the kiwi does not tolerate a strong drought, as well as an excess of moisture. Therefore, in order to avoid such situations, the exotic vine must be moistened with a spray bottle. With the onset of winter, kiwis suspend their development, therefore, watering of plants should be kept to a minimum, it is recommended that watering be done no more than 3 times a month. In spring and summer, during the period of active growth of an exotic fruit, the plant needs frequent moistening. In this case, the kiwi must be moistened about 3 times a week. If the summer is hot, the plant will need frequent spraying of the aerial parts.
- This fruit, like many other exotic fruits, is notable for its active growth in conditions of a good long daylength. In addition, the plant will need a lot of heat. For this exotic liana recommended to be placed on the window sills of the south or south-west side. If you do not have such an opportunity, natural sun lighting can be replaced using artificial light lamps.
- If you want plants to fully develop, they must be regularly thinned out. At an early stage of growing young sprouts just need to pull out. It is much more difficult to extract sprouts from the ground, since kiwi rather quickly and actively builds up the root system. If there are any weak plants that thicken the planting, they must be clipped.
- In order for the exotic vine to be healthy and bear fruit, it needs to create conditions for good nutrition. Feeding kiwi can be done compost or biohumus no more than once a year. To do this, a shallow trench is dug around the plant, in which fertilizers are laid. Thus, during irrigation, fertilizers will seep deep into the ground, feeding the entire root system of an exotic liana.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that a fruiting plant like kiwi is quite rarely exposed to various diseases and pests, even while growing at home. Despite this, it is necessary to periodically inspect for the appearance of diseases or harmful insects. Such examinations will be useful.
If you organize a competent and good care of this exotic plant, which will be grown from seeds, then, as a rule, in the third or fourth year of your life, the kiwi will bloom and start fruiting in your home.
Basic requirements for growing
So, the process of growing is simple, but you have to show accuracy, care and patience.
How to grow kiwi
You can grow Kiwi:
- adventitious buds of the roots.
All methods have their own nuances, advantages and disadvantages, which we will explore later. However, there are a number of general rules that relate to the cultivation of kiwi.
Kiwi is a distant relative of grapes, and therefore it uses a similar cultivation technology. The described culture is warm and light-requiring, therefore it should be located in a well-lit place (preferably without drafts). It should be remembered that the direct rays of the sun can lead to burns of foliage, therefore, the light should fall from the side. An even better option is artificial lighting directed vertically.
In the process of development, the pots should be periodically scrolled clockwise (every two weeks by 10-15 °). This will provide the plants with a straight silhouette, and the crown will be thick and uniform.
Note! There are many varieties of kiwi, but, which is typical, almost all of them are suitable for growing at home.
It should also be remembered that kiwi is a dioecious culture, in connection with which one male and at least two or three female plants are required for normal fruiting. If kiwi is grown from seed, then about 80 percent of the seedlings are males, so there should be as many of them as possible.
Now consider the workflow itself.
Kiwi - growing at home
It is better to start growing kiwi in early spring, since then the highest germination of seeds is observed. This is a very important point, so do not tighten with the sowing. Also consider the fact that, by its nature, kiwi grows in regions with long and warm summer, therefore the conditions for the plant should be as comfortable as possible.
Traditionally, the process begins with the preparation of all necessary.
If you really want to grow kiwi at home, make sure you have enough free space.
Stage one. We prepare everything you need
To grow vines you must prepare:
- one ripe kiwi fruit,
- neutral or slightly acidic soil intended for citrus crops (can be purchased at any specialty store),
"Store" soil can be replaced with a hand-prepared soil mixture consisting of peat, sand and black soil (in equal proportions). By the way, when you swoop shoots in pots, this soil mixture is also well suited, only peat in it should be less.
Stage Two. Preparing seeds
Cut the fruit in two
Take a ripe fruit and cut it in half. You can eat one part, and take about 20 grains from the other. Clean the grain from the pulp (otherwise they will bend in the ground), but do it carefully, do not damage the shell. To simplify the procedure, you can throw the seeds into the water, mix them well and leave for some time to settle. Repeat the procedure two or three times - this minimizes the risk that the seeds will bend.
After that, spread the seeds on a napkin and dry for four hours.
Picking kiwi seeds
Stage Three. We sprout seeds
Step one. Place a piece of cotton wool in the saucer and pour boiling water over it. There should be enough water so that cotton wool is soaked with it, but the saucer should not be poured.
Step two. Cover the saucer with a piece of film and place it in the most lighted area of your house.
Step three. Every evening, remove the film, and return the next morning, pouring a small amount of water (wool should be wet all the time).
Step Four. About a week later, when the first sprouts appear (in the form of thin white roots), you should plant the seeds in the soil.
Stage Four. Transplant seeds into soil
As for the soil, it should be as specified in one of the preceding paragraphs. Pour it into prepared containers or pots (the bottom should be pre-covered with expanded clay drainage layer) and make small holes on the surface (depth should not exceed one centimeter). Place the seeds in the wells, lightly sprinkle with soil, but do not tamp.
Cover the container with film or glass and place in a warm place. As an option - you can put them in a mini-greenhouse. В дальнейшем ежедневно поливайте землю. Она не должна пересыхать, в противном случае ростки попросту погибнут. При поливе можете использовать пульверизатор, а можете разместить горшки в поддоне и заливать воду туда.
Note! When the first shoots are formed, proceed to schooling for fresh air. To do this, daily remove the glass / film, with time increasing the ventilation period.
Stage Five. Do a pick
About four weeks after planting the seeds, when there are several true leaves on the seedlings, perform a pick, i.e. transplant the plants into individual pots. The soil at this stage, as noted earlier, should contain a smaller amount of peat, while soddy soil can be used more. Act with this very carefully, because the root system of lianas is extremely delicate and located on the surface, which means that it is easy to damage.
Kiwi after diving
Why do you need a transplant? The fact is that this plant has rather wide leaves, which, as they develop, will shade each other.
Sprouts with large leaves
How to grow kiwi at home
Stage Six. Further care
To ensure conditions as close to natural as possible, you must adhere to a number of rules. Consider these rules in more detail.
Growing kiwi seed
Table. Key requirements
Note! In the summer, add an additional complex type mineral fertilizer. Do this about once every seven to ten days.
Features of vegetative propagation of kiwi
Saplings of this culture are grown using the same technology as described above. The only difference is that the sowing of seeds should be done in January. Two years later, a kiwi of one sort or another is grafted onto a sapling, which by then will grow and mature.
Saplings before planting in the soil
Inoculation can be done in the same ways that are used for other plants, in particular, it is:
- split by a green handle
- a similar process, but with lignified cuttings.
Then the liana can be planted in open soil. If the kiwi is grown indoors, as in our case, then you should take care of the capacity of sufficient depth (the roots should have plenty of room for further growth).
You can also grow seedlings from rooted cuttings. The disadvantage of this method is considered low germination in indoor growing - there are either few plants or no plants at all. As for further care, it is the same as when grown by seeds. When the cutting / sapling enters a period of active growth, it will no longer be afraid of the low temperature and will be able to easily adapt to any conditions.
Kiwi seedling planted in the ground
How to get a big harvest?
Lianu need to be properly placed. She needs a lot of space, so it is better to grow it on a warmed balcony. Also organize a support, on which the plant will rise, or make of it a beautiful and original framing of the balcony. The length of one liana, by the way, can reach seven meters.
Note! For fruits should take care of pollination. Under natural conditions, insects do this, but in our case, you have to do everything yourself.
If there are too many male lianas, you can plant “eyes” on them from female ones, which will allow to get the fruits. Ideally, the male plant should fall on five or six female, and if the proportions are wrong, then it is better to inoculate. “Eyes” take root well, thanks to which the harvest will noticeably increase.
Video - Graft Kiwi
Also periodically inspect the leaves of kiwi, and at once for two reasons.
- This will allow time to detect the fungus and clean the leaves.
- Liana can "catch" various pests from neighboring plants, so in addition to the inspection, try to place the Kiwi as far as possible from them.
With the onset of autumn, cut off the old shoots: it is recommended to remove those branches that have already been bearing fruit. So a place will be made for new shoots, and the vine itself will not age and will bear fruit for many years.
If the vine grows on the balcony, in the winter you will have to additionally protect it from frost. To do this, remove the shoots after the scapular and wrap them. When spring comes, they will more intensively give young shoots.
And finally, another useful tip. Cats for some reason love branches and foliage of kiwi, so if you have such a pet, then take care of protecting the plant - you can, for example, enclose it with a net. Otherwise, the kiwi may die.
How to disaccustom a cat to go on flowers? You can help ordinary toothpicks
Seedlings in a cage
You can not just pick out the seeds and stuff them into the ground. All this will safely rot and get thin compost instead of a beautiful vine. First, the seeds must be freed from the pulp. Making it with bare hands is not easy. There is an exit. Who ever collected his tomatoes for planting, he knows a very simple method of fermentation.
To do this, the mashed pulp is poured with a small amount of clean water and put in heat. After a day, a maximum of two mixtures will begin to ferment. In this case, all the flesh will remain at the bottom, and the seeds will emerge. Here they also should be collected. Spoon, strainer, piece of paper. Any convenient way.
Then they should be dried for about 2 hours. Everything, seeds are ready for the subsequent actions.
After our kiwi seeds gave tiny sprouts, they should be planted. No, not outside. And not even in the pot. For this, the shoots are still too weak. We will plant them for the present in wide low capacity.
Ordinary land for planting is not suitable. It is too thick and oily. We need a loose, light and at the same time a little nutritious mixture. To do this, we take the soil, fine peat and clean sand. We mix everything in equal proportions. Next, we disinfect the obtained substrate, because the black leg does not sleep. It doesn’t matter to you whether you planted ordinary tomatoes or exotic kiwis. She will ruin everything. Therefore, a good solution is spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate of medium strength and calcined in the oven at 110 ° C.
Now we take the prepared container 10 cm high (washed with potassium permanganate and dried), make drainage holes. Kiwi sprouts love to drink, but will not grow in the swamp. We fill a layer of the prepared earth about 3 cm. Under the scheme 1.5 by 1.5 cm we make small holes. Depth is not more than 5 mm. And carefully lay out the peeled kiwi seeds. Top poured no more than 2 mm of the soil mixture. You can say - priprashivay lightly.
Gently and without fanaticism sprinkle with clean warm water from a spray bottle, cover with glass. We put in a dark warm place. At night, we remove the glass so that cold condensate does not form, which can lead to diseases. In the morning again we cover the container. Instead of glass, you can use a plastic bag or a piece of transparent plastic.
After the seeds of kiwi come out, they need to be transplanted into more suitable containers. But not immediately, but only after the formation of a pair of true leaves. To delay with this is not worth it, because the kiwi very quickly develops a powerful root system. Slightly slow and then you have to tear tangled roots. And this will not benefit the plants. In addition, the leaves of kiwi themselves are wide and lush. They will have little space and light, so the shoots will be strong.
To avoid this, we plant a plant in a tank with a diameter of at least 10-12 cm. For two pieces, not more. We put on the lightest windowsill. This southern liana loves light very much. If you can not provide good coverage from 7 am to 9 pm, then throw the idea - you are not a gardener at all! Plant swede, it does not require special care. And give a kiwi a fluorescent lamp or additional daylight illumination. This gardener has such lamps always.
All this time, strictly monitor the moisture content of the earth mixture. It is strictly forbidden to allow the soil to dry out! Otherwise, why all these dances with sprouting and measuring the distance between plants, if you are going to kill them with drought? Better every day, a little bit spray the planting spray with clean lukewarm water. Moreover, Kiwi love to drink leaves. Of course, the shelter is removed. It is no longer needed.
Landing on a permanent place
After the kiwi grow 3 pairs of true leaves, they need to be planted in a permanent place. On the street or in the pot. At the same time, the soil should consist of fertile land and peat, 1 to 1. It is advisable to transplant the kiwi using the transshipment method so as not to affect the root system. That is, we take out a sprout from a container together with the earth, put it in a hole or a pot. Then we pour the soil from all sides so that the plant is firmly fixed and does not sway.
It is necessary to place kiwi in a well-lit place without drafts.
How to care for kiwi
Despite the exotic, care for kiwi is quite simple. Weeding from weeds, regular loosening. Be sure to monitor the soil moisture. In strong heat, kiwi well sprayed with clean water.
Feeding. From October to March, kiwis are fed with any available complex mineral fertilizer. About once every 12-14 days. Still, it is a vine, and for good growth it needs a lot of nutrients. Fertilizer solution is applied directly under the root of the wet ground.
Organics are fed from April to September, once a month. Carefully dig a groove around the perimeter, there lay a good compost or rotted manure. Only not fresh! Otherwise, burn the roots. After a few watering the plant will reach all the nutrients.
As for pests or diseases, they have not yet been found in the middle zone for kiwis, except ... cats. Yes, young plants of kiwi love to chew representatives of the cat family. Therefore, in the first three years it is better to put a fence. In the future, cats lose all interest in kiwi.
- Kiwi - dioecious plant. Therefore, one on the site or windowsill will not bear fruit. To learn whether it is male or female, it is possible only after flowering. By the way, it comes in the open ground for 3-4 years of growth, on the windowsill - only for 6 years. Male flowers are large, yellowish, they are usually very much. Female - snow-white, large with a big sticking out pestle. There are fewer plants.
- To get a consistently high yield of kiwi, planting plan for 4-5 women for one male plant. You can not wait for favors from bees or bumblebees and self-pollinate flowers.
- Pinch the crown of the shoots. So kiwi will grow in breadth, not length.
- For the winter, the kiwis are removed from the trellis (the vine) and covered. Moreover, it is better not to put vines on the ground. Put the boards or lapnik. Arcs are placed on top, then covered with three layers of greenhouse film. Between them, you can lay a single layer of dense non-woven material. In winter, it is desirable to cover the shelter with snow.
- With the onset of March, the film is periodically opened for a while. This is done to ensure that the vine is slightly cooled and does not go to growth ahead of time. After all, the March pranks are very treacherous: in the daytime the sun is warm, and at night frosts happen. Therefore, a little suspend the biological cycle of kiwi short-term ventilation.
- By the way, it happens that return frosts, even short ones, can completely destroy the entire above-ground part of an adult plant. Do not rush to uproot the roots. During the summer season, a completely independent plant will grow from them.
How to grow kiwi at home? It turns out very simple. Follow the recommendations above and every year you will enjoy your own grown berries. Now, when the guests will gasp when they see your plant, you can disregard it with words - yes this is kiwi, they found something to be surprised, it grows on my own.
What will we plant?
You can get your own kiwi creeper in two ways: plant a cutting or grow seedlings from seeds. Each method has its pros and cons, but in general it is not so important which one you choose.
+ The growth process will go somewhat faster than when planting seeds.
- It is necessary to find a branch for planting, which can be a problem even in the southern regions of the country.
The branch is cut into areas with 2-3 buds, cuttings are kept in water for 4-5 cm until the roots are formed for 1 day, then another day - in the root forcing solution, and then they are planted in open or closed ground.
+ You can get planting material from any store fetus.
- It is necessary to wait longer until the seedlings reach a sufficient size for planting in the ground. Care for fragile shoots is more complicated, and the number of manipulations with the plant increases dramatically.
Seeds are germinated in a warm place in a mini-greenhouse, for which you can use a bowl, a damp cloth and a film. After spitting, 2-3 seeds are planted to a depth of 1 cm in a box for seedlings, covered with a transparent plastic lid or film. Do not forget to periodically open the lid or remove the film for airing! When the plants sprout, what happens after 6-8 days, they need to be thinned out in order to get rid of weak specimens, and upon reaching the sprout length of 10-12 cm they are transplanted into individual pots or into the open ground.
Kiwi seeds are the most convenient and quickest to extract from the fruit with tweezers, but if you are afraid of damaging the planting material, you can crush the flesh, put it in a glass and wait a bit: the flesh will settle to the bottom, and the seeds will float.
Plant at home or in open field?
Yes, the kiwi liana, put on the metal frame of the gazebo in the country, would have shocked your house guests, but, unfortunately, you can ensure proper care in the open ground without a greenhouse in our country except in the south, and not everywhere such a plant deigns to settle down due to some other factors. But to grow a house vine is not a question.
You have probably already understood that kiwi is a heat-loving plant (and what else can we expect from tropical vines?), But with heat and sun in most parts of our country everything is not very rosy. At home, the situation will be corrected by additional lighting and central heating, although in winter a cold window sill with drafts may become a problem, and in summer - burns from direct sunlight. But the outdoor plant, even in the south, will have to wrap up or even clean up the premises for the winter because of the cold and even in the spring and autumn because of the temperature drops that the kiwi does not like much more than frost.
By the way
Most of the varieties of kiwi that you find in the store tolerate temperatures as low as -15 ° C and sometimes as low as -20 ° C, but this does not mean that at this temperature the plant will feel comfortable.
The right soil is another problem of growing kiwi on the street, because it likes nutrient aerated soil, and the soil in your area may not fit this description. Here, the problem can be solved by self-harvesting the soil (the root system of the kiwi is quite superficial, so it is quite realistic) and fertilizers: it is best to use organic matter for kiwi. There are no problems with home planting here: the substrate from the store is fine.
Despite the love of aerated soils, loosening kiwi does not like. In addition, it is also dangerous for him: it is almost impossible to break through the soil and not to touch his root system.
And in the open field in the country, and in a decorative pot at home, you can regulate yourself: 2-3 times a week for the warm season and 1 time in 2 weeks for cold when growth slows down - sufficient moisture for this plant. True, there is such a nuance: just like indoor flowers, kiwi recommend watering only with settled water. But with the issue of water stagnation, which is destructive for kiwis, everything is somewhat more complicated. Yes, you can put clay in the pot, but it is unlikely that kiwi will make friends with clay open soils.
In the heat, spraying is added to kiwi care with a spray gun, regardless of whether the plant is in the house or on the street.
It turns out that the cultivation of kiwi in the open field is possible, but not for the lazy: only an interested gardener with some experience will be able to provide comfortable conditions for the plant and wait for its fruiting. But to grow a kiwi in a pot may even be far from gardening people.
When to wait for the harvest?
If you can provide favorable conditions for the growth of kiwi, you can count on a harvest. True, the minimum waiting period for the first fruit is about 3 years, and with each violation of the rules of care it will become more and more. So, in middle latitudes, even experienced gardeners sometimes wait for their first crop of 8-10 years! At home, flowering can also linger a little.
But the main thing is not to miss this: kiwi is a dioecious plant, which means that for fruiting you need to have female and male plants. When planting cuttings you will know the floor of the seedling and you can plant several female and a couple of male plants. But when growing from seed, you will not recognize the floor until the first flowering, which only happens in 3 years. It turns out that you have to leave maximum lianas in order to increase the chances for the detection of male and female among them, and wait until the gender signs in the form of different flower shapes will not manifest themselves.
So you have a chance to feast on kiwi grown by yourself, although this will require some effort and patience. But if one day you can say: “I raised this kiwi myself!”, Then it is worth it.
Kiwi at home
В природе киви (растение известно ботаникам под названием актинидия китайская) – это древовидная лиана, предпочитающая тропический или субтропический климат. На верхушках побегов вызревают целые гроздья крупных плодов, по виду похожих на очень большие ягоды крыжовника. В зависимости от вида они могут быть гладкими или шершавыми на ощупь.
In nature, the kiwi liana reaches 7–10 m in length
In principle, there is nothing difficult in creating a microclimate for kiwi that is close to optimal. But the plant belongs to the category of dioecious. This means that for fruiting it is necessary to have at least two copies - male and female. You can distinguish them only during flowering. The first, acting as pollinators, lack a pestle, but there are many stamens. One male plant is enough for pollination of five or six women. The only self-pollinating of the existing varieties of kiwi is Jenny. But even in this species, the presence of a number of male plants has a positive effect on yield.
The presence of a male plant is useful even if the variety is self-pollinated
Video: How to determine the gender of the Kiwi plant
Amateur flower growers of kiwi is valued not only for fruit bearing, but also for flowering, long and abundant. Large five- or six-petal flowers gradually change color from snow-white to yellow-cream, lemon or lime.
Fruits at home, as a rule, ripen less than the promised description of a particular variety of kiwi. But in terms of the content of vitamins, macro- and microelements, taste, they are not inferior to those grown in the open air. Ripe fruits are easily separated from the vine. Store them in the refrigerator, the approximate "shelf life" - one and a half to two weeks.
"Homemade" kiwi small, but very tasty
With the receipt of kiwi seeds at home there are no problems. They can be taken from any berry bought in the store. But seedlings grown in this way rarely inherit the varietal traits of the "parent", and the taste of the fruit leaves much to be desired. Therefore, they are most often used as a stock, and any kind of seedling of a certain type, acquired in a specialized nursery, is used as a graft.
Viable seeds can be obtained from kiwi fruit, which can be bought at any grocery store.
The harvest from kiwi grown from seeds will have to wait long enough. As a rule, such plants bloom for the first time not earlier than six years after planting.
Planting material is desirable to obtain from mature and healthy-looking fruit.
For the proper development of kiwi vital heat and sunlight. Therefore, the pot is placed on the lightest place in the apartment, for example, on a southern or south-western window sill, periodically (every 2–2.5 weeks) turning it so that the heat is distributed evenly. Cold drafts are strictly contraindicated. No less important are regular fertilizing (preferably organic) and proper watering.
In nature, kiwi is a vine, so you need to take care of it in advance.
For some reason, actinidia juice has an effect on cats (and, to a lesser extent, on cats) that is similar to that of valerian tincture. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the pot where the cats will not get to it, or to surround the plant with a grid.
Leaves and shoots of kiwi cats do not eat, but can severely damage the plant, trying to get to the juice, to which they are for some reason very indifferent
Kiwi variety for this does not matter. The main thing that the fruit was mature and healthy in appearance. Identify ripe berries can be a characteristic delicate aroma. Each kiwi contains over a thousand seeds.
Seeds are prepared for planting as follows:
- Kiwi carefully washed, cut into 4-6 parts. Peel the skin, gently knead the pulp with a fork, turning it into a puree
- The resulting slurry spread in a deep plate or bowl, pour water at room temperature. Constantly stirring, separate the seeds with your fingers. To completely get rid of the pulp, water will have to be changed 4–5 times. At the end of the procedure only seeds should remain in the tank. You can wrap the gruel in several layers of gauze or put in a sieve with small cells and rinse under running cold water.
It is very important to completely separate the seeds of kiwi from the pulp - its remnants can provoke the development of rot
Pre-germinated seeds of kiwi sprout faster
The seeds are wrapped in wet gauze, put it on a saucer, which is covered with plastic wrap. Every day at night it is removed. In the morning, gauze again moisturize and restore the "shelter". After about 7–10 days, the seeds will germinate and can be planted. Another variant of preplant preparation is stratification. Seeds for 2-3 weeks are placed in the refrigerator. Then they are kept for 10–12 days in the warmest place in the apartment.
For convenience, you can use special bags with a clasp - it is easier to remove the "cover" from the gauze, without risking to scatter the seeds
Sometimes a different method is recommended - during the week day the kiwi seeds are kept warm, at night - in the cold.
Preparing for landing
The root system in kiwi is quite developed, strongly expanding in width, but superficial, fibrous. Therefore, it makes no sense to acquire a deep pot, shaped like a bucket. The best option is a bowl that looks like a bowl or a salad bowl. Prerequisite - the presence of drainage holes. From materials it is necessary to give preference to natural ceramics - it lets the air through better, not allowing moisture to stagnate.
A pot in the shape of a bucket can greatly inhibit the growth of the vine, so the best option is a wide and shallow pot, so that the roots have where to turn
Kiwi soil prefers light and loose, but nourishing. A mixture of peat chips, coarse river sand and chernozem in a ratio of 1: 2: 3 is well suited for it. You can add 8–10 g of sifted wood ash and powdered eggshell for each liter of the finished substrate. Another type of soil is vermiculite or perlite, peat and humus in approximately equal proportions. If you don’t want to cook the soil yourself, you can search in specialized stores for substrates intended for any tropical vines.
Peat - a necessary component of soil for kiwi
Planting seeds in the ground
There is nothing complicated about the procedure itself. But there are some nuances that need to be read in advance.
- At the bottom of a clean pot, claydite or other drainage material is poured, creating a layer at least 3-4 cm thick. On top is a disinfected substrate, filling approximately 2/3 of the capacity. To sterilize, it can be treated with steam, heat or cold.
- The soil is well moistened, sprinkling from the spray gun, and leveled. When water is absorbed, seeds are sown as evenly as possible. Some growers recommend leaving them on the surface, others are advised to fall asleep with a thin (1–1.5 mm) layer of fine sand.
- Planting once again moderately moisturize, cover the pot with glass or tighten with plastic film to create the effect of a greenhouse. To accommodate the tank, they choose the warmest place in the apartment (the temperature is not lower than 25–27 ºС). A light day lasting at least 12–14 hours and lower heating is also desirable. To avoid condensation, the greenhouse is opened every day for 3-5 minutes for ventilation. As the soil dries, it is sprayed from the spray gun. It should always be slightly wet, but not wet.
- Shoots appear massively and quickly. 2-3 weeks after this landing, thin out the seedlings, getting rid of the weakest seedlings.
- When kiwi seedlings reach a height of 10–12 cm (in 4–6 weeks), they are seated in individual containers. Such plants already have 2-3 pairs of true leaves. A suitable soil is a mixture of peat, sod land and sand in approximately equal proportions. In the process of picking, you should try to injure the roots of the plant as little as possible. They seedlings are very delicate and fragile. At the same time you need to take care of support. If you stick it in the pot afterwards, again there is a risk of damaging the roots.
Kiwi seeds are distinguished by good germination, but then many shoots can die, it depends on their conditions
Since the kiwi vine is different in its growth rate, and the purchase of pots for growth is not recommended for any indoor plants, young specimens will have to be replanted quite often every 5–6 months. For the first few weeks after the procedure, it is recommended to rearrange the plant from the window sill, removing it to a place where direct sunlight will not fall on it. For adults, kiwi heat is quite comfortable, but young vines can slow down in growth.
Kiwi transplant is carried out as needed. As a rule, it is enough once every two years. The diameter of the pot is increased by 3-5 cm. It is carried out by the method of transshipment, trying to destroy the earthen clod as little as possible and injure the roots. They are very fragile plants.
Home-grown kiwis (especially young specimens) need frequent transplantation - the vine grows fast enough
How to plant a Kiwi stalk
Most often, kiwi plants grown from seeds at home are used not to get a harvest, but as a stock for “cultivated” varieties. Only seedlings aged three years and older are suitable for this. To instill kiwi can be any way. The results in each case are quite good.
The lignified kiwi stalk is a part of the annual runaway, cut from an adult vine of a particular variety in winter. For plants such pruning - a mandatory procedure. Green cuttings are obtained by cutting off the tops of the shoots formed this season in summer.
It is very important to securely fix the entire structure during the vaccination process.
The optimal length of the cutting is 8–12 cm (2–3 pairs of leaves), the thickness of the shoot from which it is taken is 7–10 mm. It must be completely healthy, the bark - smooth, monotonous, supple and intact. The best time of day to cut cuttings in the summer is early morning.
To obtain a planting material, a sharply sharpened disinfected instrument is used - scissors, knife, pruner. The last option is most preferable, since it minimally injures the escape tissue, the crust does not crack and does not wrinkle. The lower cut is made at an angle of approximately 45º, the upper (straight) is 8–10 mm above the last kidney.
The easiest way is graft splitting. In this case, the cuttings are harvested in the fall and are buried in the snow for the winter. The procedure is carried out in the middle of spring.
- The bases of cut cuttings are placed for about a day in a container filled with water at room temperature. Their tops covered with a damp cloth or plastic film. In 24 hours, cuttings from water are transferred to a solution of any root stimulator prepared according to the instructions. After 18–20 hours, they are ready for vaccination.
Parts of shoots should be submerged in about half
Seedling stock shortened to a length of 3-5 cm, making a flat horizontal cut. In the middle, a slit 2.5–3 cm deep (the so-called cleft) is cut perpendicularly with a scalpel or razor blade.
It is necessary to ensure that the cleft is not too wide - the cutting must enter it with some effort.
A cutting 12–15 cm long, whose thickness approximately coincides with the thickness of the rootstock shoot, is cut from the bottom from two sides at an angle, forming something similar to a wedge 3–3.5 cm long. It should start as close as possible to the lower bud.
The wedge shape is necessary for the most convenient entry of the scion into the stock
The graft is inserted into the cleft on the stock. Part of the cut on it should remain outdoors. The cut part of the cutting contributes to a more rapid accretion of the scion and rootstock.
It is very important to do the procedure with clean hands, otherwise you can infect the cut
The junction of the shoots is wrapped with polyethylene tape in several layers. When callus appears, the winding is removed.
Insulating tape or food film will help protect the junction from the negative impact
Video: how to graft properly
Another common method is budding. In fact, this is the same vaccine. The difference is that in this case not a whole cutting is used, but only one growth bud removed from it along with a thin layer of wood. The simplest option is budding in the application. The kidney cut from the plant-graft is combined with the bark-free area on the vine-stock. Some flower growers argue that in order for the parts to grow together, a cross cut 2-4 mm deep is generally sufficient.
The budding procedure is essentially no different from vaccination.
Kiwi liana is different growth rate, so pruning for her - a mandatory procedure. Such plants look much more aesthetic and neater, more fruitful. If the growth of creepers is not limited in any way, it can stretch to 7–10 m in length. To keep such a plant in the apartment is absolutely impossible.
Seedlings grown to a height of 25-30 cm, pinch the tip, removing 2-3 last buds. This stimulates the plant to more intensive branching. But an overabundance of green mass is harmful to the plant - all its forces are spent on its nutrition, so the fruits are not tied up at all or fall off long before ripening.
An adult kiwi plant at home should consist of 5-7 shoots, starting at a distance of about 45-50 cm from the base of the stem. On them the dense growth is constantly formed, which will have to be shortened during the whole vegetative season. It is inexpedient to preserve it, since only the lower 5–6 “eyes” of each one-year-old fruit bear fruit.
There is no sense in keeping very long shoots on the kiwi vine: only the lower 5–6 buds bear fruit
Old branches are gradually removed, replacing them with replacement shoots. Usually rejuvenating pruning need kiwi once every 5-6 years. If you carry it out correctly, the productive life of the vine is stretched to 40-50 years.
Particularly important pruning in the presence of several plants located next to each other. If it is not carried out, one of them can simply “strangle” the neighbors. Also, the removal of excess foliage and weak shoots improves the air exchange of the crown, minimizing the risk of spreading diseases and pest attacks.
A different method of formation is more often used when growing vines in the open air, but at home, such plants look pretty.
- The one-year sapling is shortened to a height of 30 cm.
- A year later, up to the point of growth, all lateral shoots formed except for two (the so-called shoulders) are pruned.
- When they reach a length of 1 m, their tops pinch. 3–4 lateral branches, located at approximately equal distance from each other, are left from all the overgrowths formed on the “shoulders”. They are shortened, cutting after the fifth or sixth kidney.
- During the active growing season, all the shoots on these branches and the new side shoots on the “shoulders” are immediately removed.
- After harvesting, the fruitful shoots pinch so that 6-7 new leaves remain over the last berry. Branches on which there was no fruit, shorten to the fifth leaf bud.
- The branches at the age of three years are cut to the point of growth. Soon a new shoot will begin to form from it, which is pinned after five leaves form on it.
A pruner, like any other tool used for trimming kiwi, must be sharp and disinfected.
Strongly neglected or old kiwi vine can be rejuvenated by spending a radical pruning in the spring. Unlike most houseplants, kiwi normally respond to the loss of a significant part of the green mass, quickly recovering and starting to grow after such a "stress."
Creating a suitable microclimate
The most important requirement of vines - sufficient lighting. The pot is placed on a windowsill facing south or southwest. In winter, natural light is not enough, so you have to use fluorescent or special fitolamps, extending the light day to 12-14 hours. It is better to arrange them so that the light falls on the plant in a horizontal plane.
Kiwi is vital a lot of light, with this in mind, and pick a place for a pot
In this case, the kiwi in the hottest hours should be protected from direct sunlight. They cause severe burns, especially if the vine was watered shortly before. Pretend kiwi can be tulle, paper screen, several layers of gauze.
When there is a shortage of light, the stems of the vines become ugly thinner, the leaves turn pale and shallow, the gaps between them increase. Flowering and, especially, fruiting in such conditions can not wait.
To any changes in the conditions of the content of kiwi, is likely to react negatively. Especially the plant does not like sudden changes in temperature and cold drafts. Therefore, the place for him is chosen once and for all, approaching this procedure with full responsibility.
Care for kiwi at home is simple. Basically it comes down to regular watering and feeding. Этого вполне достаточно, чтобы лиана хорошо себя чувствовала и плодоносила.
Из удобрений киви предпочитает натуральную органику. Лучше всего чередовать её с минеральными удобрениями. Сил на рост и формирование плодов лиана тратит довольно много, поэтому подкормки вносятся каждые 12–15 дней, начиная с середины марта и до октября.
Биогумус — абсолютно натуральное удобрение
The very first top dressing is biohumus, humus or rotted compost (nitrogen source). In the pot around the plant they make an annular groove and apply fertilizer there. During the season, nutrients with water will gradually flow to the roots. Then you can alternately use the complex mineral fertilizer and infusions of nettle leaves, dandelion, wood ash, bird droppings.
Kiwi needs frequent and abundant watering, but at the same time it does not tolerate the stagnation of moisture in the pot categorically. To avoid this, after 30-40 minutes after the procedure, it will be necessary to drain excess liquid from the pallet. Conduct watering at least once every 3-4 days. At the same time moisten earthen room evenly as possible. It is best to use for this watering with a nozzle-divider.
A watering can with a spreader helps to evenly soak an earthen ball in a pot of kiwi
In strong heat, in addition to watering, it is advisable to spray the vine from a fine atomizer. Water in both cases is used heated to room temperature. You can also use a special humidifier. Or simply place the pots with cool water next to kiwi, organize a “company” liana from other houseplants, place a wet clay, sphagnum moss in the pot.
Sphagnum moss retains moisture well, which is very useful for indoor plants in the heat
In winter, the vine drops leaves; this is a natural process for it. As soon as this has happened, the feeding is stopped completely, and the number of waterings is reduced to once per 10–12 days. For the time of “hibernation”, it is desirable to transfer the plant to a cool, bright room, where the temperature is maintained at 12–16ºС.
Kiwi, like most fruiting tropical plants (lemons, pomegranates, pineapples) sheds leaves in the winter
Kiwi-threatening diseases and pests
Like any actinidia, kiwi rarely suffers from diseases and pests. This also applies to home-grown specimens. But you should not neglect the regular inspection of vines. The earlier the problem is noticed, the easier it is to deal with it.
Often, the florist himself is to blame for the deterioration of the appearance and condition of the kiwi. His mistakes in care provoke problems with the plant.
Table: how kiwi reacts to improper care
Due to the lack of light, the kiwi vine is drawn ugly - this applies to both adult plants and very young seedlings
In addition to the so-called non-infectious diseases, the symptoms of which most often disappear when the microclimate is normalized and proper fertilizing is carried out, kiwi can also suffer from fungal diseases. Most often, when overmoistening, different types of rot develop. Also, the plant does not overlook such "universal" pests of houseplants as aphid and shchitovka. They differ rare "omnivorous."
Kiwi Cultivation Reviews
Chinese kiwi or actinidia is another culture successfully cultivated by amateur growers. If she creates optimal conditions or conditions close to them, this liana feels rather well in captivity, delighting its owner with its growth rate and regular fruiting. It suffers from diseases and pests extremely rarely - this is an undoubted advantage of the plant.
27 years old, higher legal education, broad outlook and interest in various topics.
Almost all flower growers seeking to improve their own skills, at one point decide to grow fruit-bearing crops, such as citrus fruits, coffee, or lianas. And many are interested in whether it is possible to start growing kiwi at home. In fact, this is entirely possible, but certain requirements must be followed in the process.
How did the Kiwi: an interesting fact
Kiwi is a representative of fruiting vines, also known as Chinese gooseberries. And in order for this culture to start producing fruits, it is necessary to simultaneously grow two types of plants — male (required for pollination) and female. If you plan to grow seeds, then get ready for the fact that you have to wait for the flowering period, because that's when you can determine the sex of the vine. In most cases, kiwi blooms in the sixth year of life.
We grow kiwi at home
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