Cabbage - is one of the most ancient vegetables known to the whole world. It is widely used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes, it is relatively easy to grow, and if desired, its fruit can be obtained a total of two times from one bush. However, not everyone knows how to plant cabbage in open ground.
Cabbage is a plant belonging to the family of plants with the same name, but sometimes the family is called cruciferous. Few people know, but the plant belongs to the flowering department. Therefore, during the flowering period in cabbage, you can see your yellow flowers about 5 cm in diameter. The most famous representatives of the genus are garden cabbage, radish, radish, turnip and others. There are currently about 50 species of this biennial plant.
Initially, vegetable culture was widely distributed in the Mediterranean, eastern Asia, in Central Europe. In America, the culture was brought from Europe. Some sources indicate that cabbage was known as foodstuff and was actively grown 4 thousand years ago among the Egyptians, Romans and Greeks. Even then, people knew how to plant and grow vegetables.
Cabbage was brought to Russia from Western Europe in the early times of Kievan Rus - closer to the thirteenth century. Over time, the agricultural crop so caught on among the Russian people that traditions appeared in honor of this plant. So, after the feast of the Exaltation, which takes place on September 27, winter stocks were made of salted cabbage, while arranging folk games.
From the point of view of a “botanical” and in many ways boring description, cabbage is a biennial plant with grayish or pale green leaves, with a high deciduous stem. The lower leaves are large in size, fit snugly to each other, due to which the shape of the head is formed. Above the leaves are longer. Cabbage seeds are large (about 1.7-2.3 mm in length), dark brown shades, spherical shape.
The healthy trace elements contained in cabbage have a rather long list.: mineral salts, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, vegetable components in the form of fats and fiber, almost the entire list of vitamins. Presumably, modern "Russian" varieties originate from the Colchis lowland. According to experts, the garden cabbage includes the following main types:
- cabbage with a red head,
- Peking and others.
Growing and sowing cabbage
The plantation of cabbage in the open field is quite simple, it can be divided into three stages:
- sowing seeds (planting cabbage in the ground seedlings).
- care for seedlings.
At an early stage of growing cabbage, you need to determine:
- vegetable variety,
- the appointment of a vegetable (for long-term storage in raw form, for salting, etc.),
- more importantly, plant the plant qualitatively or quantitatively,
- growing cabbage for yourself or for sale.
From these points depends on what seed material is preferable, and the timing of the landing. This, in turn, affects the harvest season - early or late harvest. The well-known borscht is usually prepared on the basis of white cabbage. From the conditions of its cultivation depends on the purpose of the vegetable, as well as the optimal period of consumption in food.
For example: early varieties more suitable for eating in the summer, mid-season - for use in raw form and for salting, late varieties are excellent for long-term storage, and therefore for sale. The period from sowing to planting seedlings in open ground lasts 1.5-2 months. For each variety there is a “own” time for sowing. Planting of early cabbage occurs from early to mid-March, mid-season varieties are better to plant from late April, planting of cabbage in open ground occurs from early to mid-April.
Before planting cabbage in the garden, you need to select and purchase the desired variety, and then prepare the soil. It is better to do this before the onset of frost. It should not be previously used, even if it was taken from under the same cabbage crops. Otherwise, the seeds risk picking up various diseases (not directly, but through pathogens and "catalysts"). The chance of defeat depends not on how successful the last crop was, but on the fact that the soil was used by another plant.
The recipe for preparing the seedlings for the seedlings will be as follows:
- 0.5 kg of humus
- 0.5 kg of sod land (must be mixed well with humus),
- 1 tablespoon of ash per 1 kilogram of the above mixture.
Ash is needed as an additional disinfectant component that can protect cabbage seeds from the negative effects of harmful substances and trace elements. When preparing the right ground, the main points are good breathability and fertility. Therefore, another composition based, for example, on peat, will also come down.
Before direct landing experienced gardeners advise hardening the seeds. This is done using water procedures: at a temperature of 50ºC, seeds are soaked for 20 minutes, then placed for 5 minutes in a container of cold water. This practice allows future seedlings to withstand the harsh climatic conditions (if they will). It also enhances the overall immunity of the plant, which contributes to successful defense against fungal diseases.
After such a "bath" seeds for a few hours placed in a growth stimulator solution. Such elixirs can be purchased at the same store where the seeds are sold. Before direct planting seeds need to water the soil. Seeds are sown to a depth of 1 cm. The top should be covered with a transparent vessel. This, firstly, will create a greenhouse effect and protect the plant from drafts. The transparency of the vessel will allow observing the plant shoots in order to swoop in time. After the first watering, further soil moistening is not recommended. For good and high-quality plant growth, an air temperature of about 20ºC is needed, but only before the first shoot.
Around the fifth day after planting, the protective transparent dome can already be removed, because the plant needs more air. But drafts can still harm the seedling, so the room itself must be half-closed. The temperature is lowered to 10ºC (maybe a little less) and support it until the first leaf appears. It usually takes about a week.
After the appearance of the sheet, you need to raise the temperature to 16ºC during the day and leave the same 10ºC at night. Smoothly, but quickly you need to accustom the plant to the abundant light. The daily rate is up to 15 hours, which is problematic for some regions. Fluorescent lamps can help here as additional lighting.
At this stage the plant needs a little feeding. It is prepared according to the scheme: 10 liters of water for 3 grams of potassium permanganate (can be replaced with a non-concentrated solution of copper sulfate). The soil needs to be kept loose. This is to prevent rotting of the roots. In this form, the soil will dry out quickly, but this is a plus in this case, since it will be necessary to water the soil often. And this, in turn, favorably affects the seedlings.
Next comes the pick and planting cabbage seedlings. At this stage, we are planting cabbage in open ground. Plants are transplanted a week and a half after they have the first leaves. An hour before the “flight” the soil should be watered well, and the seedlings should be taken along with a lump of earth. In this case, the roots are cut off by about a third. The procedure is optional if the plant is initially grown at the right place.
Planting cabbage in open ground
Early varieties are planted when the plant has already 5 leaves. The total height should be up to about 20 cm. The area for growing cabbage should be sunny.
When choosing a soil, emphasis is placed on loam and sandy soil for early varieties. Mid-season and late varieties suitable loam and clay soil. Absolutely unsuitable for sauerkraut cabbage. Between the beds there should be enough space so that the plant gets as much light as possible. But for high-quality cultivation it is sometimes necessary to cover the plants from too bright light.
Before direct planting, it is necessary to prepare the wells and fill them with nutrient slurry in the following proportion: a handful of sand + a handful of peat + 2 handfuls of humus + 50 g of wood ash + 0.5 teaspoon of nitrophoska. The remaining space is filled with water. Then the plant is planted in this hole and sprinkled on top of the ground. After three weeks you can do hilling. After another 10 days, the procedure is repeated.
Proper care of the cabbage will allow you to grow a good crop.
How to prepare the wells so that the seeds come up?
Quite often, gardeners using seedless cabbage sowing methods face such difficulties as poor seed germination. Of course, the cause of this problem may be poor quality seed. However, in most cases, cabbage does not sprout due to the fact that during sowing the technology has been broken. After all, the seeds are very small, and if they are simply poured into the hole, then with watering they can seep into the soil with the water, from where it is almost impossible to get up to the sprouts.
Therefore, the wells for seeds is better to do with a small bottle, rather than glanders. To this end, the bottom of the bottle is deepened into the soil, turning it over so that the earth is tamped down.
Sow cabbage seeds should be immediately after the rain. If precipitation is not expected, the bed should be well shed beforehand.
Features care for seedlings
Under the hood, the seedlings of cabbage will be up to the time when they are sufficiently grown and they become cramped. Until this time, seedlings should be regularly ventilated by opening the holes in the cups or unscrewing the caps in the bottles.
If all the seeds in the hole come up, you need to leave the strongest sprout, and cut the rest with scissors. Under no circumstances should it be pulled out, otherwise there is a risk of damaging the roots and the remaining plant.
As for watering, it is enough to moisten the ground around the hood. It is not necessary to remove it, because the water in any case penetrates under the bottle and reaches the roots of the plant.
For a start it is worth saying that cabbage loves moisture, so it is worth planting a plant in a valley. In addition, the plant loves light, so the landing is better to carry out in an open area to ensure the ingress of sufficient sunlight. In the case of growing on a darkened area instead of a head of cabbage, you get excellent elegant foliage.
In addition, cabbage is a favorite plant of a large number of insects. Therefore, in case of untimely pest control, yield loss is possible.. Getting a good yield will depend on the crop rotation procedure, which dictates the next planting not earlier than in 3, but not later than in 4 years.
Correctly determine the area where the cabbage will be planted in open ground, implies a first step to obtaining good yields. In the process of choosing the beds, it is taken into account which vegetables grew on it.
Digging the soil should be deep. The work is carried out at the beginning of September and only when the ground is wet, so that earthen lumps do not begin to disintegrate. The soil does not need to be leveled, irregularities and drops contribute to greater penetration of moisture in the spring.
In the spring, the main thing is not to lose time. The land should be dried, but not overdried, it must be leveled with a rake to reduce evaporation of moisture and to ensure rapid heating of the soil. Beginning to grow weeds are removed by a rake. For planting cabbage seedlings in open ground, it is necessary to make holes that have a depth and width sufficient to accommodate the root system of the plant.
Seed preparation and planting
Presowing treatment of cabbage seeds of different varieties is the same.
- First you should spill the seeds on a triple bandage or gauze layer. For their disinfection, they are placed in hot water with a temperature of + 50 ° C for 15 minutes, after which they are treated with cold water for a minute.
- Then the cloth with seeds is placed on a saucer. where it is maintained throughout the day. It should be noted that it is necessary to maintain a constant moisture content of the fabric.
- Then the swollen seeds are removed. on the bottom shelf in a cold box for hardening during the day.
- After that, the seeds must be dried to flowability and sift. The important point is the quality of the soil. It is necessary to check it for the presence of pathogens of fungal diseases, which is very dangerous for germination. It is best to start to get a special soil to seedlings of cabbage was successful. You can send the soil in the oven and ignite it for 15 minutes.
- The cooled ground is poured into a clean box, where will be planted cabbage seedlings on the surface previously treated with soap. Spills the soil with a solution of manganese 1%. Seeds are sown at a distance of 2 cm from each other and again covered with 1 cm of soil. After this, the box is closed with a transparent film and put away in a warm place.
Care for sprouts cabbage
After the cabbage has been planted and taken normally in the soil, you can breathe a little: 50% has already been done. However, this does not mean that the care for cabbage should be finished. Watering is required 2-3 times a week, and later a one-time weekly watering is allowed.
Experienced vegetable growers recommended watering by sprinkler irrigation, as this will also cause the air around the plant to be saturated with moisture.
In addition, once every few weeks is to loosen the ground near the cabbage.
It is necessary to constantly monitor the cabbage in the open ground for the presence of pests. Today, a fairly large number of chemicals are sold that are designed to combat certain insects and diseases.
Feeding is carried out several times.
- The first is held a couple of weeks after disembarking to a new place. Mostly enough fertilizer with phosphates, dung or chicken manure.
- The second dressing should be carried out after a few weeks, it is necessary to make the same components. Allowed to add potash mixtures. Future feeding is carried out as needed.
Given the resistance to cold base cabbage, it can be cut and after frost. The important point is the exact timing, because with early harvest, vegetables may wither and later cracks appear in the head.
Hot dry weather provokes the appearance of cruciferous flea. To preserve a young plant, it is powdered with sieved ash from the wood.
In wet weather, the main pest of cabbage is slug. It can be fought in the case of growing cabbage in the open field with the help of folk remedies and chemicals. In the latter case, the land under cabbage is sprinkled with special pest control agents. As a folk remedy, it is allowed to use soil dusting with mustard or ground black pepper. Hand picking slugs is allowed.
Cabbage butterfly larvae cause no less damage to cabbage. Therefore, seedlings are planted in the early stages, while there are no flying insects. You can get rid of insects with the help of infusion, which is prepared from 10 g of white mustard powder dissolved in 1 liter of water. The liquid is infused for 2 days, immediately before spraying the concentrate should be diluted with water in a ratio of 5: 1.
Preparing the soil
Technology land preparation for planting cabbage may be different. It all depends on the characteristics of the region of residence, cabbage varieties, and how you want to plant it: seeds or seedlings. If you plant cabbage at the place where some plants were previously grown, it is also important to take this into account. So, the best saplings of white-vegetable will take root in the soil, which was previously intended for potatoes, tomatoes, various types of legumes, carrots or beets.
These plants have similar land requirements, so the cabbage harvest will be as good as possible. It should also be borne in mind that varieties of early ripe vegetables should be planted only in sufficiently heated soil. And for the middle and late cabbage the most fertile land is perfect.
When analyzing the composition of the soil should also pay attention to the presence of calcium, potassium and nitrogen: they must be in large quantities. If the soil has a small amount of humus, it is necessary to further enrich it with a large amount of fertilizer. In the same case, when there is a lot of humus, you should slightly reduce the number of applied supplements. We list the main types of fertilizers that are suitable for different types of white cabbage:
- peat compost,
- ammonium nitrate,
- potassium chloride.
But this is still not a complete list of fertilizers for the soil under the cabbage. For example, if the acidity of the earth is increased, then crushed chalk or lime should be added to it. Пропорции данного вещества зависит от типа почвы: 3 кг на м2 – для супесчаных и легкосуглинистых, 4-5 кг на м2 – в средне- и тяжелосуглинистых.
Неопытные садоводы полагают, что органические удобрения, суперфосфат и хлористый калий следует положить прямо в лунку при высадке овоща, однако, это заблуждение. Nutrients must be distributed throughout the soil immediately after the previous harvest is harvested. Lime must be placed in the ground in the early autumn period.
During the spring, immediately after the ground thaws a little and dries, it is necessary to carefully dig the whole earth in the garden. This will help eliminate the amount of wet vapor from the bottom layer of soil. This type of preliminary action is called "moisture closure".
When the street is thoroughly warmer and the soil becomes sufficiently loose, it is necessary to dig up the ground, reaching a depth of at least 15 cm. Then re-drill and level the surface of the plot with a rake. Only after that you can begin to plan the location of seedlings on the site. This markup is easy to perform using an ordinary cord.
It is important that the distance between the rows is at least half a meter.
This preparatory work with the land ends. Will only properly water the soil for 1 day before planting.
Varieties of varieties
Variety selection is the most important task when planting cabbage. After all, it depends on him the yield of plants, storage features, requirements for soil and fertilizer. And before you decide on a variety, it is important to understand what kind of vegetable you want to get. For example, if you want to enjoy fresh cabbage salad at the beginning of the summer season, then we recommend to make a choice in favor of early ripening varieties such as “Kazachok”, “Kazachok F1”, “Juneskaya”, “Dietmara”, “Gift” and others .
The mid-summer varieties that will delight you with a harvest in mid-summer include “Tuscany” and “Keil” kale. In general, this type of vegetable deserves special attention. Cabbage "Cale" has a very unusual appearance. It is also called curly kale, because its leaflets curl slightly at the edges. This plant is extremely rich in vitamins and microelements, and is also excellent for growing in Siberian regions.
Among the varieties of late-ripe cabbage, the variants “Wintering 1474”, “Kolobok”, “Geneva” and “Iceberg” have especially proven themselves. The latter variety is often confused with the salad of the same name. This is due to the fact that the vegetable has a similar appearance. However, in its taste and requirements for growing it differs from the salad.
Early cabbage varieties are great for fresh consumption. They make healthy salads, soups and pastries. While for salting and marinovka late-season types of vegetable are best suited for winter. These include the varieties "Amager", "Glory", "Belarusian".
When choosing the right variety, be sure to consider the climatic conditions of the region and the type of soil in your area. Carefully study the characteristics of the variety, to be sure that the harvest and the quality of the vegetable taste will suit you.
There are several ways to optimal cabbage planting. Someone used to calculate the date, based on the position of the moon. Such information is often presented in a special gardener's calendar, which indicates favorable and unfavorable days for planting seeds. It is also important to take into account the particularities of the climate, the approximate time of crop emergence, as well as the speed with which the seeds of the selected variety grow.
For example, in the southern regions can be planted cabbage in open ground after April 1, and sometimes in March. In the northern regions, it is important to understand for sure that there will be no more frosts after the landing, otherwise all works will be in vain. However, there are approximate terms on which you can navigate when choosing the time for planting such a vegetable:
- March 20-28 - for early cabbage,
- March 25 - April 20 - for mid-season cabbage,
- April 1-30 - for late ripening varieties.
If you plant a vegetable at the wrong time, the harvest may be low, unstable to diseases or not ripen at all. Also, it is impossible to drag a long time with deadlines, otherwise only the crop that appeared will ruin the first autumn frosts.
It would be more reasonable to plant not all seeds at once, but gradually, with a break of a couple of days. Then you can “stretch” the amount of ripe cabbage for a longer period.
Depth and distance
Pre-prepared and slightly dried seeds are planted in special grooves to a depth of about 1 centimeter. The distance between the seeds in the grooves must be at least 1 cm. And between the grooves themselves - 3-4 cm, so that the shoots have where to grow. After the seed is in the ground, it is necessary to sprinkle it with loose soil and ram a little. Already after about 7 days you will be able to see the first shoots.
Each variety of cabbage has its own characteristics of planting. Early ripe vegetables should be planted in rows, the distance between which should be at least 40 cm. And between cabbage itself - 20-25 cm. If you have planted the plants, but after germination, you see that they are cramped in this way, you can simply plant them over a longer distance . At the same time for mid-season cabbage the distance between heads should be about 30 cm, between rows - up to 60 cm.
Cabbage can be germinated in 2 ways: immediately by seed in open ground or seedlings.
The seedling, in turn, can be grown by different methods, we will analyze the main ones.
- The boxes. Ordinary wooden boxes are inexpensive, they are easy to move to another place, besides the rectangular shape helps to efficiently use the free space. In addition, you can make such a capacity on your own, according to the size of your window sill. If you decide to make a box with your own hands, choose any boards for this, you can use construction scraps.
It is necessary to additionally cover the inner surface of the container with polyethylene, as well as to build a pallet to prevent water leakage during watering of the seedlings. The disadvantage of this option is a lot of weight and inconvenience of pulling out seedlings.
- Peat tablets. Modern stores have a large amount of similar gardening material, which is in great demand because of its convenience and efficiency. The size of this material can be up to 5 cm, while tablets tend to increase significantly in size after contact with water. Using this technology is quite convenient and simple. The plant in such a system develops much faster and better. However, the cost of such tablets is very high. In addition, it is important to always closely monitor the level of humidity in them, avoiding drying out.
- Peat cartridges. Cassettes consist of a cardboard base and peat itself. The advantage of this material is that it does not have to remove seedlings, and therefore the risk of damaging their root system is excluded. In addition, this method saves your time and effort. You can grow a vegetable without land and get a large crop. However, such a plus may be a minus. Cardboard may deteriorate due to large amounts of water during watering seedlings.
- "Snails". So called a certain type of packaging, which requires the formation of a skill. But at the same time, the snail has quite a few advantages: it will not be necessary to dive the seedlings, the roots are well ventilated, shoots appear quickly, space and soil are saved.
- Polystyrene cassettes. Containers of this material do not contain harmful synthetic impurities, so you can grow vegetables in them without fear. The plant in such containers feels great and develops quickly. The design of the cassettes eliminates the accumulation of excess fluid and fertilizer in them, which means that rotting of seedlings is not allowed. Polystyrene containers have small weight, they are easy to carry from one place to another. In addition, seedlings are conveniently removed from the cassettes for further planting in the ground, without damaging the root system in the process. So, and the harvest will be great.
In order for the plants in the cassettes not to block each other from light, it is necessary to arrange them in a checkerboard pattern.
- Tanks with self-moistening function. Despite its name, this invention will cost you a mere penny. At the same time, it will be incredibly convenient and functional. To make such containers yourself, you will need a regular plastic bottle, a thread of wool, an awl, a cork.
To begin, divide the bottle into two equal parts by a cross-section. Then make a small hole in the cork with the help of awl and pass the wool thread there. It is necessary to do this in such a way that on each side of the cork the thread hangs down about 10 centimeters.
Now it only remains to pour a little water into the bottom of the plastic bottle, and put a cork with thread on the top. It is required to place the top of the bottle in the bottom. Then simply place the nutrient and the ground in a plastic container, and you can sow cabbage seeds. This option is perfect for those people who always forget about the seedlings or simply can not allocate much time to care for her.
For maximum efficiency, it is better to grow seedlings under cover material or in diapers. If you do not have the listed materials on hand, you can make containers from ordinary polyethylene, cardboard, foil, juice bags, paper cups and any other available tools. Some even manage to grow seedlings in an eggshell!
How to plant seedlings?
The scheme of planting cabbage seedlings is similar to the scheme of planting seeds. Experienced gardeners recommend planting sprouts in the evening, preferably in cloudy weather. The distance between the seedlings should be the same as between the seeds. Only for seedlings it is necessary to form not grooves, but holes.
It is important to thoroughly irrigate the well with water, at a rate of 1 / 2-1 liter per 1 well. Wait until the water is completely absorbed, then plant the seedling in the hole in such a way that the first leaves touch the soil only slightly. The first few days you need to keep the seedlings in the shade. And after about a week, you need to carefully inspect the planting and identify the dead and non-engrafted seedlings. They will need to be transplanted to new ones.
Grow seedlings usually at home on the balcony or on the windowsill. Then the cabbage needs to be grown at the cottage in the greenhouse or in the beds under the film or agrylom.
What to plant next door?
It is best to plant cabbage alongside, but not on the same garden bed, along with tomatoes, onions, garlic, potatoes, strawberries or beets. Some even plant cabbage among watermelons and get a wonderful harvest.
Secrets of care
We list the main rules of care for cabbage, without which it is impossible to do, if you want to achieve the best possible harvest.
- Maintain optimum moisture levels. The most important thing here is regularity. You can not forget about the plant for a week, and then compensate for this abundant watering. It is necessary every day, sometimes even several times, to water the crops thoroughly.