In order to get a good harvest of plums, you first need to choose the right variety. Those today there are many. One of the most interesting and popular varieties is the plum stalley. This variety is very good for growing in the southern regions of Russia. For example, in the Krasnodar Territory.
The story of the plum "stenle"
This variety was bred in the United States. In our country for the first time in the State Register it was brought in 1983. At the same time he was assigned to the North Caucasus region. The variety is popular not only in our country, but throughout the world. At the moment it is he who is most often used in the production of prunes.
Plum "stenley": description of the variety
This variety is not a very tall tree with a fairly compact and at the same time rounded and sparse crown. The trunk of this plum has a dark gray color, straight and slightly flaky. To cracking wood with growth is not inclined. The shoots of the tree gives a straight, slightly ocholchёnnye.
The leaves of the plum of this variety are round, with a blunt end, differ in medium size (7 cm in length, 4 cm in width), almost flat, not hairy on top. Bottom plates along the veins are covered with small fibers. The concavity of the leaflets is average, and the tissues are fairly loose.
Flowering plum "stenlya" white flowers. Petals they are not pressed against each other. The stamens and pistils are quite long. The first grow to 7-12 mm, the second - to 11 mm. There are usually many stamens in a flower - up to 28 pcs.
Fruits plum variety "stenley" is large, neat. They can reach 53 mm in length, 40 mm in width, and 37 mm in thickness. Their average weight is 50 grams. The shape of the fruit is ovate, unequally. Their abdominal seam is very pronounced, but they are not prone to cracking. The wax coating on the fruit of this variety is clearly visible and practically hides the very dark purple color of the skin. The latter is separated from the pulp with difficulty, has an average thickness and a loose consistency. The pulp of plums is sweet, fibrous, of a medium degree of juiciness, it is distinguished by a yellow color. The tip of the fetus is rounded, the base is elongated. The funnel of the stem has an average depth. Stone is quite large, elongated. Its weight is about 3.3% of the pulp.
Plum "stalley", the characteristic, the yield and pollinators of which will be discussed below, gives the fruit containing the following substances.
In addition, the plum fruit of this class contains: ascorbic acid 8.9 mg / 100 g and polyphenols - 460 mg / 100 g
Variety plums "stenley" refers to partially self-fertile. However, it will still be nice to plant other plums nearby. Especially good for this purpose suitable varieties of "president" and "express."
Characteristics of a variety
Plum "stenlya", the description of which was given above, has a very good yield. This variety produces fruit regularly and very abundantly. It blooms around mid-April. The fruits ripen late - in late August and early September. Belongs to a variety of hardy. For fungal diseases, resistance is no different. Rarely infected with polystigmosis and sharq. Unfortunately, monilioz is not very stable. The first plum harvest can be obtained as early as the third year after planting.
Plum "stenly", the characteristic of which allows to judge it as a very good grade, is recommended for cultivation on personal plots of land, and on an industrial scale.
Opinion from gardeners about this variety is pretty good. Its high productivity is especially noted. Up to 60 kg of fruits can be harvested per year from a single tree. However, it is recommended to plant this plum only in areas located in warm regions of the country. Although this variety is claimed to be winter-hardy, it suffers quite badly from the cold of central Russia. Positive feedback is also available on the quality of the fruits themselves. Very well they are suitable both for fresh consumption and for canning. In addition, they can also be dried. With regard to transportability, in this regard, "stenley" also earned quite good reviews.
Plum "stenle", the description of which we have presented to your attention above, is liked by many gardeners also because of its unpretentiousness. The fact is that it can grow on almost any type of soil. However, at the same time experienced gardeners do not advise to forget to water "stenley". Drought resistance, unfortunately, this variety is no different.
How to plant
Plum "stenley", reviews of which, as you already understood, are mostly positive, can be planted in the soil both in spring and in autumn. However, in the first case, the trees will take, most likely better. The seedling is placed in a pit with a depth and diameter of the order of half a meter. The excavated soil is thoroughly mixed with humus in a 1: 2 ratio. The pit is filled to half. The operation to prepare the hole in this way should be done about a week before disembarking. During this period, the soil will settle down. The seedling is sunk into the hole so that its root collar is level with the ground surface or 4-5 cm above it. Roots sprinkle with ordinary soil without fertilizers, which need to be slightly tamped in order to get rid of voids.
After planting around the trunk make the radical circle and watered the tree with 3-4 buckets of warm water. At the final stage, mulching is done with dry leaves, humus or straw.
Signs of moniliasis
The plum "wall", the characteristic of which allows one to judge it as unpretentious, is nevertheless not very resistant to fungal diseases. Symptoms of gray boneless rot are as follows:
- Browning shoots and branches.
- Appearance of gray small growths on the cortex.
- Fruit rotting. At the same time on their surface appear small gray, chaotically located growths. This gray mold is different from the fruit. When infected last growths have the shape of concentric circles. First of all, lesions occur in places with mechanical damage.
- Cracking old branches. At the same time, gum emerges from faults with the formation of nodules. With the development of the disease, these branches die off.
Prevention of Moniliasis
As already mentioned, the plum "wall", the reviews of which are mostly positive, is not very resistant to gray rot. In order to prevent infection with this disease, a number of measures should be taken. First of all, when harvesting, you should try not to damage the fruits and branches. It is also very important to carry out preventive measures aimed at preventing the damage of trees of various kinds by pests - caterpillars, moths, etc. The fact is that moniliosis spores can spread not only through the air, but also on insect legs. In late autumn, headquarters and skeletal branches are desirable to whiten.
Of course, draining the “walls” (a photo of this variety can be seen on the page) can be spared from this disease. The causative agent of this disease overwinters on the affected branches and fruits. Therefore, they must be removed. The treatment is done by spraying the soil and the trees themselves. You can use iron or copper sulphate, 1% Bordeaux liquid, oleocuprite or nitrafen. Spraying these drugs is carried out in the spring, before the flowering of plants. Water the plants and the soil should be quite abundant.
Repeat this procedure with such a variety as plum "stley", carried out after flowering. It also uses Bordeaux liquid, vitriol, fungicides (kuprozan, captan, phthalan or zineb solution). Pre-worth monitoring spray. It is necessary to ensure that the drug does not burn the leaves. In this case, select several control branches and produce spraying. After a few days they are looking to see if there are any burns. They represent a grid on the fruits and necrotic spots on the leaves.
Other popular varieties
Of course, the wall is not the only late-ripening variety popular in our country. The summer residents also speak very well about:
- Plum "president". This variety is taken to plant next to such as plum "stley". Pollinators are very good for each other. In addition, the "president" also has a good yield, winter hardiness and large-fruited. For the year from one tree can collect up to 100 kg of fruit. “Stanley” for the “president” is also a good pollinator. The main distinguishing feature of this variety is that the flesh of the fruit - even fully ripe - is thick and crunches during the meal. At the same time it tastes very sweet.
- Plum "hagant". This is a German variety, which gives abundant harvests. Its main distinguishing feature is unusually large fruits - up to 60-80 grams. Not too sweet, they are just perfect for canning and baking.
As you can see, the drain of the wall can simply become an excellent choice for the summer residents of the southern regions of our country. High yields, unpretentiousness and good resistance to diseases make its landing on suburban areas more than reasonable. Especially good to plant her next to the same late-ripe "president."
History of the variety
At the beginning of the 20th century, Professor at the Department of Horticulture at Cornell University Richard Wellington experimented with crossing the famous French plum Pryuno d’Agen and the American Grand Duke. The result of selection was the Stanley variety created in 1926. From the delicate “mother” of the French, he inherited the excellent taste and bright aroma of the fruit. From the “father” of the American - resistance to the freezing of flower buds.
French plum Pryuno d’Agent
Today, Stanley plum is planted with vast areas in temperate zones around the world. Almost all European and American prunes are made from it. In Russia, Stanley has been cultivated since the 1980s. Despite the fact that the variety is recommended for the southern regions, it can be found far to the north - in the Central Chernozem region, the Moscow region and even in Siberia. However, where frosts occur in September, it is better not to risk it. Stanley - late plum plum, may not have time to ripen before cold weather.
The shoots are red-purple, slightly ocholchёnnye, without pubescence. The length of internodes is about 3.5 cm.
Leaf stalks have anthocyanin pigmentation. On the lower side of the leaf plate - on a pair of yellowish aromatic glands. Stipules lanceolate, light green.
The generative buds are located on the sprouts of annual growth and bouquets of twigs. Each bud forms 1-2 flowers.
The flowers are white, up to 3 cm in diameter. The petals are slightly closed, not corrugated, with a wavy edge. Pedicle length - up to 2 cm.
Fruit - odnosostochkovaya drupe, very large. The average weight is 45 grams. Covering color is dark purple, the main - green. The shape of the fetus is obovoid (top round, elongated neck), with well-defined abdominal suture, uneven. Peel - without pubescence and strokes, with brown subcutaneous points and wax coating, poorly separated from the pulp.
The flesh is yellow, with a strong aroma, dense. The taste is sweet with light sourness (tasting score 4.8 points). Stone separates well.
Drought resistance is average. With a long absence of irrigation drops fruit.
Highly resistant to polystigmosis (red spot) and sharq. It is affected by gray rot and aphids.
Fruit transportability is very good.
Pros and cons of plum stenley
Summing up all the characteristics of this variety, it is possible to draw conclusions about its advantages and disadvantages.
Of the advantages:
- excellent fruit flavor and versatility,
- frost resistance
- high and stable yield,
- good indicators of lightness and transportability,
- resistance to the ball and red spot.
Of the disadvantages:
- gray rot instability,
- demanding of soil fertility,
- low drought tolerance,
- late maturity
Plum Stenley grade description
Stanley is a late-ripening vintage variety of homemade plum grown by American breeders in the early twentieth century, but not lost its appeal to gardeners today. This variety was bred at the experimental agricultural station in New York (Ontario, Geneva) by crossing the American Grand Duke variety with the French famous D’agen variety. The author of this variety is the American breeder Richard Wellington. Synonyms of this name in the Russian language are considered - Stanley, Stanley.
In Russia, this unique variety has been cultivated since the 80s of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that Stanley plum is recommended for cultivation in the southern regions, this variety can be found far to the north.
- Plum trees up to three meters high, of medium height, with a round crown. The trunk is a straight dark gray color, has a medium degree of desquamation. Young shoots not hairy, have small spines, crimson-purple color. Vegetative buds of a cone-shaped form with a slightly pointed tip, small (0.21–0.3 cm), spaced.
- The leaves are bright green in color, medium size (length - 7.5 cm, width - 5.4 cm) have a roundish shape. The base of the sheet is rounded, and the tip, slightly pointed with medium-sized cloves. The lamina has a glossy surface with a friable consistency and is slightly concave. The underside of the leaf is slightly pubescent, fleecy along the center line and lateral veins, and the upper part does not have a nap at all. Stipules of lanceolate form, of medium length (0.8–1 cm) have a pale green color. 1–2 flowers grow from each bud.
- Flowers are saucer-shaped, large in size, up to 3.1 cm in diameter. Flower petals have an ovoid shape with wavy edges and a rounded top, slightly closed, white. On each flower are numerous stamens (28 pieces). The pestle, 1.1 cm long, has a straight column (1 cm). The stigma of the pistil is located below and above the anther, which has a yellow color. Ovaries are not pubescent. The bell-shaped calyx is also not pubescent. Sepals without serrations, oval. Very long pedicels up to 2.1 cm.
- On last year's growth and on the bouquet branches, the formation of fruit formations occurs. Fruits of a grade of Stanley have the large size, the weight of separate copies can reach 50 gr. In shape, they are non-equilateral, with an elongated base and a rounded tip. The green color of the fruit is considered the main one, the color of the covering is dark-violet. The peel of a friable consistence, average thickness, is covered with a wax dense raid and a small amount of subcutaneous formations of a brown color. Peel from the pulp is separated with difficulty. The average abdominal suture does not crack, although it is expressed very well. The stem, up to 2 cm long, has a thickness of 0.25 cm.
- Large bones have an elongated oval shape, with an elongated base and a slightly pointed tip. The surface of tuberous pits with medium dimples is colored light brown. The central rib is moderately pronounced, and the lateral edges are well marked. From the pulp bone is separated well.
- The pulp is granular-fibrous consistency, dense, yellow. The taste is aromatic pulp, sweet with a slight sourness, medium juiciness. The chemical composition of fresh fruits includes: sugar - 13,%, solids - 21.6%, acid - 0.72%, sugar acid index - 19.17%, pectin substances - 1.02%.
The fruits of Stanley plum are suitable for canning, drying and, of course, for fresh consumption. Plum blossom begins in mid-spring. But the full ripening of berries occurs only in early September, so this variety is considered late ripening. Fruiting trees begin at 4-5 years of life. When planting and cultivating Stanley plum in fertile soil, its yield reaches up to 60 kg per tree.
Since the variety is self-fertile, high yields can be achieved without pollinators. Still, the best varieties of pollinators for Stanley plum are considered to be Empress, Bleufry, Chakak Lepotika and many others. I want to say that the Stanley variety itself is an excellent pollinator for many other plum varieties that bloom at the same time.
The merits of the Stanley plum variety
The main advantages of Stanley plum can be considered:
- Universality of use of fruits. Housewives with great pleasure add Stanley to various pastries and preparations for the winter (jam, compote, jam). Plum is also widely used in winemaking, and most North American and European producers use this variety as a raw material for prunes.
- Good transportability and beautiful appearance. When transporting Stanley plum over long distances, it does not lose its beautiful appearance and its good taste.
- High yield and fast fruiting. Gardeners begin to receive the first crop from the tree already in the fourth or fifth year after planting. The yield of the variety is high, up to 50–60 kg from one tree.
- Frost resistance. Без существенных повреждений слива Стенли способна переносить несколько месяцев мороз – до -25 ℃. А также были случаи успешной зимовки этого сорта при понижении температуры – до -34 ℃.
- Дерево устойчиво к поражению оспой, самой опасной болезнью для всего сада. Also, this variety does not suffer from red spot and perforated spot.
- The variety is partially self-fertilethat is considered an important advantage that does not require to obtain a good harvest, the cultivation of other varieties of pollinators plums.
Disadvantages of Stanley Plum
There are also gardeners and some drawbacks of growing Stanley. They can be described in several points:
- Increased moisture requirements in the soil. If during the dry season the plum is not additionally watered, then the fruits become tasteless and begin to fall massively.
- High demands on soil quality. This variety of plum, with normal growth, extracts a lot of nutrients from the soil, which must be periodically replenished by additional feeding of the soil. With a lack of nutrients, the plum loses its taste and becomes much smaller.
- And also a disadvantage is considered poor resistance of plum stanley to gray rot and ease of defeat plum aphid.
Planting a seedling plum Stanley
According to the climatic peculiarities of the plum cultivation region, the planting time is selected. In warm regions, it is better to plant in spring, and in places with a more severe climate, it is advisable to carry out this work in early autumn.
Sunlight and heat are vital for normal development and increased yield of the plum. Therefore, it is advisable to plant the plant in a place where the light shade occurs mostly only in the morning or in the evening. Any barrier should not obscure the place where the drain is growing, but protect it from drafts and gusts of cold wind.
Moisture plum prefers only in the soil, so the planting of this plant is preferably carried out on a hillside, which is oriented to the south-east or south-west. If it is not possible to create ideal conditions for plum planting, then you can even arrange an artificial hill with a height of at least 60 cm and a diameter of up to two meters. Such a tree planting site will further avoid rotting of the root system.
For good nutrition, a plum needs about 9 m 2 of soil, therefore, when planning a plum orchard, it is necessary to withstand at least three meters between trees, and up to four meters between rows. The landing hole should be 65–70 cm in diameter and 40–50 cm deep. It is advisable to prepare the hole two weeks before planting.
The description of the principle of plum planting is similar, as is the planting of any fruit trees. It is more convenient to plant a seedling together. Procedure:
- Two days before planting, the seedling's root system must be placed in a container with water at room temperature, after having dissolved in it any root stimulant and potassium permanganate.
- A few hours before planting, the roots of the plant should be dipped in a slurry of powdered clay and fresh cow manure. The mixture, cooked properly, should be the consistency of the cream, while not dripping from the roots.
- After moistening the fossa, a support for the tree is fixed next to it, which should be 35–40 cm more than the height of the seedling.
- Next, put the seedling in the hole, gently straightening roots, downward. Small portions of the earth fill the hole, while periodically the earth is compacted hands, trying not to damage the root system.
- Having filled the landing pit with earth, be sure to check the position of the root collar. It should not be lifted too high above the ground, in any case not to deepen the neck into the hole. The optimum location is the root collar 5–7 cm above the ground.
- Then be sure to pour plenty of water with Stanley sapling (at least three buckets). And you need to water in small grooves dug nearby, and not under the root system. After moisture is absorbed, sprinkle the tree with dry peat, chopped straw or freshly cut grass.
- The last step, you need to secure the sapling, carefully tying it to the support. And cut the shoots, shortening them by 1/3 of the length.
Further care of the plant is not a big deal, since the Stanley variety is considered picky in cultivation. But, most importantly, do not forget about regular watering, periodic pruning of the plant and its proper feeding.
Watering plums should be regularly, while it is necessary to control the moderation of this process, since Stanley absolutely does not tolerate excess moisture in the soil. When watering it is necessary to soak the soil 40–45 cm deep. Deeper watering is considered unprofitable, since the root system does not fall below.
It is necessary to water a tree once a week, and an adult (over 5 years old) needs 10 liters of water after sunset and early in the morning. After the formation of ovaries, the need for plum in moisture increases, so during this period it is necessary to water every two days. 12–15 days before harvest, the frequent irrigation process can be stopped.
It is better to use fine dispersed special sprayers for irrigation, which have the ability to simulate natural precipitation. If this is not possible, water can be poured into the annular grooves prepared in advance.
The landing pole provides a sapling with nutritious material for the first year, after disembarkation. Therefore, the process of feeding the plum should be started from the second year of the tree in the open ground. Feeding process:
- In the spring, after warming the soil, the soil must be thoroughly plowed, while adding to the ground rotted manure (10 l / m 2), which is mixed with urea (25 g), potassium sulfate (70 g), superphosphate (100 g). From the means of natural character add wood ash (500 grams). For trees over the age of 5 years, the amount of all fertilizers, except for phosphate and nitrogen supplements, is increased by half the norm.
- Before flowering potassium nitrate (40–45 g each) and urea or the same solution in 10 liters of water should be sprayed on the tree itself.
- At the end of June you need to conduct additional feeding, similar to the previous scheme, but instead of potassium sulfate add Nitrophoska.
- At the end of the harvest potassium sulfate and superphosphate must be added to the soil (30–35 g each). Once every two years, humus is added to the soil, in the same proportion as in the spring.
Pruning and crown formation
This variety of plum grows with a not very thick crown, so to begin the formation of a beautiful and well-fruiting tree in the first three years of life. In the future, the main thing is not to leave the procedure of sanitary pruning. The main measures for the qualitative formation of the crown are carried out in the spring. First of all, you need to carefully examine the tree and remove all the branches that suffered from the winter frost or broke under the weight of snow.
The main stages of trimming the crown:
- Immediately after the landing process seedlings, all branches need to be shortened by about a third of their length.
- After a year you need to choose five healthy and strong shoots, which are located at the same distance from each other around the trunk and at the same height. These branches are shortened by a quarter, and the rest of the shoots are cut to the point of growth.
- Similar method make the cropping of the second tier of the crown of 3-4 shoots.
- The third tier will be the last, its formation is carried out from two or three shoots. The main thing is that the length of the branches, gradually decreased from the bottom up. Thus, the correct shape of the crown, pyramidal form.
In the autumn, after shedding foliage, it is necessary to remove all the shoots affected by bacteria, fungi and harmful insects. At the same time, 7–10 cm of seemingly healthy wood must also be cut, since spores of pests could get there.
Remember that all tree care procedures must be regular and of high quality. This is the key to a good and healthy growth of the plum and, as a result, getting an annual good harvest of tasty and nutritious fruits.
History of the variety
The cultivated variety was renowned professor Richard Wellington at an agricultural station in the USA.
In the XX century, he conducted experiments on the crossing of different garden and vegetable crops. In one of the experiments, Wellington used the famous French variety Pryuno Dagen and the American Grand Duke as “parents”.
The result of the study was the plum of the Hungarian group, bred in 1926. It inherited a sweet-sour taste and refined aroma from the French variety, and frost resistance, a bountiful harvest from the American variety.
The variety is called "Stanley", less often it is called "Stanley".
In Russia, it was introduced in 1983.
History of breeding plum varieties "Stanley"
Sort "Stanley" is from the USA. At the beginning of the 20th century, Professor Richard Wellington crossed the French plum Pryuno Dagen and the American Grand Duke. In 1926, as a result of breeding, the variety "Stanley" appeared. The "Stanley" variety received an excellent taste from the French plum, and the resistance to freezing of flower buds from the American variety. In Russia, the Stanley variety was brought to the State Register in 1983. This variety of plum is popular all over the world. It is "Stanley" most often used for the production of prunes.
Description varieties with photos
Grade Stanley winter-hardy and high-yielding.
After planting the seedling fruiting Stanley plum comes in the fourth year. Flowering occurs in mid-April. Harvesting plums produced in late August - early September.
Stanley high-yielding plum. About 60 kilograms of plums are removed from one tree.
Fruits are formed on last year's shoots or on bouquets. Fruit weight 30-50 grams. One side is more pronounced than the other. The shape is obovate, the base is elongated. the upper part of the fruit is rounded. The main color is green, the cover color of the plum is dark purple, solid. The thickness of the peel is medium, the texture is loose. Subcutaneous points brown. Wax coating thick. Stone from the plum is easily separated. The bone shape is oval.
Pulp is granular-fibrous, yellow, dense. The taste is sour-sweet, moderate juiciness. Aroma pronounced. The average taste is 4.7 points. The quality of plums is high. Fruits easily carry transportation.
Trees grow to 3 meters. Crohn rare, rounded shape. The trunk is straight, dark gray, slightly cracked, the degree of desquamation is average. The shoots are crimson-violet color, neopushhennye, slightly okoledchennye.
Flowers are white, large, reach 3 centimeters. Peduncle without hair, about 2 centimeters long.
The size of the vegetative buds reaches 0.3 centimeters. Buds separated, conical, pointed tip.
The length of the leaves reaches 7.5 centimeters, width 5.5 centimeters. The form is rounded, the top of the leaf is dull-pointed, the base is round, the edge is serrated, one-sized. Color foliage bright green. Leaf plate glossy, moderately concave, friable consistency. The upper part of the sheet is smooth, the lower part has a slight pubescence. Petioles anthocyanin coloration, Dina reaches 1.9 centimeters. About 2 leaves are formed from one bud.
Trees withstand a strong decrease in temperature (up to -34 degrees).
The drought resistance of the variety is average. Scarce resistance, high polystygosis, moniliosis - moderate. Trees without preventive treatment may be exposed to plum aphid invasion.
Features of growing and care
The main requirements for the yield of the variety is considered to be soil fertility, proper planting and competent care.
When choosing a site for landing, you need to take into account the degree of coverage and air flow through the winds. The place should be bright and protected from gusty wind. This may be a plot near the wall, fence, commercial building.
Heavy clay soil for plum planting is not suitable. The soil should be fertile, sandy or loamy, with a moderate degree of acidity and good drainage properties. Flooded places, places with a high water level during the landing of plums are artificially increased. Half meter elevation avoids rotting and death of the tree.
Saplings with an unprotected root system can only be planted in spring. Land for landing is prepared in the fall. The land is cleaned, the digging and fertilization are thorough.
A mixture of horse's humus (10 kilograms), potassium sulfate (100 grams), superphosphate (120 grams) is added to the soil per square meter.
If it is necessary to normalize the acidity of the soil, ash, dolomite flour (0.5 kg per 1 meter) is added to the soil.
The pit for planting is prepared a couple of weeks before planting the seedling. Dig a hole 50 to 70 in diameter and 60 centimeters deep.
The distance between the rows and the trees should be at least 3 meters.
Before planting, a bucket of humus, 250 grams of superphosphate, 150 grams of potassium sulphide is introduced into the pit. The ratio of fertilizer to the land is 1: 2. For tying a tree into a hole, a one and a half meter stake is driven in. When falling asleep, the root neck should remain at a height of 7 centimeters above ground level. After planting, it is watered with warm water.
The care of Stanley's plum includes: watering, weeding, loosening, mulching, dressing, pruning, treatment from diseases and pests.
It is necessary to water plum once a week for 10 liters per tree.
Forming pruning is done before the first harvest, then the plum goes through an annual sanitary pruning. All branches that are not located correctly and that are in contact with other branches are removed during the entire period of tree growth. The total number of cut branches should not exceed 25 percent.
After watering is loosening the soil.
Mulching of the basal circle allows you to retain moisture, protect the tree from pests, diseases, weeds and excessive amounts of root shoots.
Tree feed starts from 2 years after planting. For feeding in the spring, compost, humus, superphosphate, potassium sulphide, urea, and wood ash are used. In the summer, urea and nitrophoska are applied. In the autumn, humus, superphosphate and potash salt are introduced under the tree. The amount of fertilizer increases after the tree starts fruiting.
To protect the roots from frost, for the winter they are covered with humus, compost, straw.
To protect the tree from pests, diseases, preventive works are carried out in the form of spraying with special protective equipment. At defeat of trees and fruits, medical actions are made.
All these procedures allow to obtain a bountiful, annual harvest.
Self-fruited variety. To improve crop yields, pollinating varieties are planted next to a tree: Voloshka, Empress, Blyufri, President, Chachakskaya Best and Lepotika. In addition, the Stanley variety is an excellent pollinator for many varieties that bloom in the same period.
Stanley plum variety is versatile, used fresh, for freezing, drying, juices, blanks and desserts.
Plum Stanley: video
I planted this plum variety more than five years ago. The first harvest hit the size of the plum, taste, aroma. Fruits in a cold place are stored for a week. For freezing Stanley fits just perfect.
The variety of Stanley in my area has been growing for a long time, the plum is very good, but we must not forget about the preventive spraying, otherwise a plum aphid will appear. The fruits are large, with a strong, pleasant aroma, very tasty.
Description and Characteristics of Stanley Plum
The tree is medium tall or tall, with a straight stem. Rounded-oval crown spreading and rare. The shoots with interstitials of medium length (30–35 cm) have a small opulence. One or two large white flowers develop from one bud.
Plum tree Stenley quite vigorous, with a variety of rare crown
Fruits are large, their average weight is 40 g. It can be very large, up to 60 g. There is information that with good care individual fruits weighed 100 g. The shape is elongated, oval or elongated, ovate, elongated neck. The depth of the funnel is average. The fruit is not equal, with well-pronounced, non-cracking abdominal suture. The color is dark purple, under the skin there is a moderate amount of brown subcutaneous points. The wax coating on the fruit is thick.
The fruits of the Stanley plum are large, elongated-egg-shaped, their skin is dark purple in color with a wax coating
The dense granular pulp has a yellow color, as well as a cavity. The skin is not very thick, it is characterized by friability and poor separability from the flesh. The stone is oblong, not very large (3.3% of the mass of the fetus), with a pointed keel of medium size. The separation of the bone from the pulp in ripe fruit is good, in the unripe it is average. Transportability is good.
The dense pulp of the fruit of the plum Stenley yellow, the bone separates easily
The direction of use is universal. Fresh fruits have an excellent sweet taste, tasting score - 4.7–4.8 points. Sugar content is 13.8%, acids - 0.72%. Fruits can be dried (prunes), frozen, and also used for canning (compote, juice with pulp, jam, pickles). The tasting score of prunes and a variety of canned food is high, from 4.5 to 5 points. Stanley and his “descendant” variety Amers are the leaders in the production of prunes in Europe and the USA.
It is believed that real prunes are obtained only from Hungarians, which have the necessary balance of sugar, fruit acids and pectin. Hungarians knew about this feature in the XIX century. Для сохранения полезных свойств свежих слив они оставляли созревшие плоды на дереве, и дожидались, чтобы они перезрели, подвялились и сами упали на землю.
Из плодов сливы Стенлей получается отличный чернослив, его дегустационная оценка — 4,5 балла
Плоды созревают довольно поздно, в середине сентября. Деревья цветут в середине апреля. Плодоношение чаще всего начинается на 4–5 год и происходит регулярно. Сорт урожайный, взрослое дерево может дать до 60 кг плодов. However, such productivity can only be on fertile soils with a good agricultural background. Partial self-fertility.
With a high level of agricultural technology, the yield of Stenley plum is high, up to 60 kg from one tree
Winter hardiness increased, the frost resistance reaches -34 ° C. To drought, the variety is moderately resistant. Stenlei is immune to polystygmosis (red spotting) and Sharqa viral disease (smallpox), relative resistance to cholesterol and susceptibility to moniliosis. And also the grade is amazed plum pollinated by aphids.
The advantages of the Stanley plum are high productivity, winter hardiness, large size and excellent marketability of fruits, as well as the versatility of their use. A significant drawback of the variety is the reduced immunity to certain diseases and pests.
Pollination plum Stanley
According to the description, the Stanley variety is partially self-fertile. Experts say that the majority of representatives of fruit crops are cross-pollinated, so even partial self-fertility (in which 5–15% of fruits from the total number of flowers are formed) is an essential advantage of any variety.
Stanley can produce a crop without pollinators, however, if you plant a number of blooming at the same time with him varieties, productivity will increase markedly. The following varieties are best suited for cross-pollination of Stanley plum:
- Chachak Lepotika,
- Chachak best.
As well as Stanley plum itself is known as an excellent pollinator of varieties that bloom in terms similar to it.
The variety Stanley has a sufficient level of self-fertility and can bear fruit without pollinators, but their presence increases the yield
Features of growing varieties
Stanley requires a high level of agricultural technology. When growing it is necessary to take into account all the characteristics of the variety, otherwise its merits will not be fully manifested.
In the southern regions, it is possible to plant a Stanley plum both in autumn and spring. In the middle lane, the saplings planted in autumn, before they get stronger, can freeze in winter. The place chosen is traditional for plum: sunny, flat or with a slight slope to the south or south-west, and also protected from cold winds. Plum grows poorly in low-lying areas where moisture accumulates. The groundwater level should be at least 1.5 m.
The variety Stanley is demanding on soils, therefore fertile, humus-rich soils with permeable structure are preferable. The optimum acidity will be close to neutral. A sufficient supply area (at least 9 m 2) is required for a Stanley plum. Since the trees are quite vigorous and sprawling, the planting pattern is recommended at least 3x4 m. The depth of the landing pits is 60 cm, diameter is 80 cm. On poor soils, the pits are dug deeper and wider (100x100x100 cm) to put more fertile mixture in them. When planting, 7–10 kg of humus or compost, 100–150 g of superphosphate and 20–30 g of potassium salt are introduced (it can be replaced with a half-liter jar of wood ash). On poor soils, the dosage is doubled. The rest of the landing process is standard, without features.
Crown formation and other types of trimming
It is best of all to form the crown of Stanley variety in the standard rarefied-longline form, which is used for tall fruit trees.. Perform such a formation will be available to the gardener without experience, there is nothing difficult in it. Immediately after planting, the one-year-old sapling is cut at a height of 70 cm. The following year, 3-4 shoots are left above the trunk (50 cm), the rest are cut on the ring. Then, for another two years, the second tier is laid, consisting of 1–2 branches at a distance of 30–35 cm from the lower tier (its upper branch). If necessary, you can create a third tier of 1-2 branches. In total, by the fifth year, 6–8 skeletal branches should turn out.
Sparsely-longline forming will be most suitable for the strong-growing, having a rare crown, the stenley plum tree
And also carry out other standard types of trimming:
- sanitary (cutting dry, sick and damaged branches),
- regulatory (thinning),
- supportive (shortening to stimulate fruiting).
With intensive growth of young shoots (more than 40 cm), only thinning is carried out. When the growth decreases, the branches are shortened. The smaller the growth force, the shorter the trim.
Watering and feeding
Since the variety is unstable to drought, trees should be watered without waiting for the soil to dry out. The irrigation rate for plums is 50–60 l per square meter of crown projection, the soil should get wet no less than 40 cm. The lack of moisture will negatively affect the yield of Stanley plum: it will shed the ovary. However, waterlogging also should not be allowed.
In the spring there is enough moisture in the soil, there is no need for watering. Usually watered plum in the following terms:
- during the formation of the ovary,
- 10–14 days before picking up the fruit,
- after harvesting
- water recharge irrigation in October.
It looks like the minimum schedule of watering in the dry season watered more often.
Stenley Plum is drought tolerant and needs regular watering.
Feeding also need to pay special attention, as the productive variety Stanley requires a lot of nutrients for the formation of a full crop. Trees are fed annually with mineral fertilizers.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Considering all the characteristics of the Stanley plum variety, one can draw conclusions about its advantages and disadvantages.
- tasty, sweet, high-quality fruits,
- the versatility of the destination of the fruit,
- high yield,
- good winter hardiness
- good fruit transportability.
- affected by pests and fungal diseases,
- low drought tolerance,
- demanding to fertile soil,
- late maturity
Dates and choice of place for landing
Plum varieties "Stanley" is better to plant in the spring, before the sap flow. When planting in the fall variety takes root worse. Place for planting plum "Stanley" should be sunny and well protected from the wind. This variety of plum loves moisture, but will not tolerate stagnant water. Therefore, planting a tree in a valley is not recommended. Plum is very demanding on soil fertility. For planting tree suitable loam, slightly alkaline or neutral sandstone. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to conduct liming. The area for planting plum "Stanley" must be at least 9 square meters.
Grade Stenley - from sapling to harvest
To grow Stanley in his plot, you will need general knowledge of the rules of plum cultivation and a little patience. When choosing a seedling you need to take into account the peculiarities of your climate. If you plan to grow Stanley in a warm region, you can buy own-rooted seedlings. If the climate is cold, it is better to take a stock.
Place for landing Stanley need to choose the warmest and sunny. Well, if it is protected from drafts. The tree will feel great on the south side of the gentle slope or at least behind a low fence, if it is not too obscured.
For plum by stenley the most favorable warm and sunny place
Stanley is a moisture-loving variety, but does not tolerate stagnant water at all. Therefore, the lowlands, swampy areas and places with a high standing of the subterranean waters of this drain will not work.
It should be remembered that this American guest likes to "eat". It is necessary to take to her a fairly fertile piece of land with an area of at least 9 square meters. The best options are weakly alkaline and neutral sandstone or loam.. The acidic soil will need to be deoxidized with dolomite flour.
Stanley's plum is best planted in early spring before the start of sap flow. Practice calls for that during the autumn planting this variety gets worse.
Preparing a landing pit for plums
The landing pit should be prepared in the fall, before the onset of frost. In this case, the soil will have time to settle down. The size of the pit and the method of laying depend on the fertility of the soil.
The bottom of the landing pit is digging.
The removed upper layer is mixed with humus in a ratio of 1: 1 and poured a mound to the bottom of the pit.
Mix 2 buckets of well-rotted manure, a liter ash can and shredded turf.
The mixture is placed on the bottom of the pit.
Up to half the depth, fertile soil from another place is filled with a mound.
Planting seedling Stanley has no technological features. It is carried out by the general rules:
- Slightly away from the top of the hill a support stake is driven in at the bottom of the landing pit. The height must be calculated so that the top of the support is slightly lower than the first lateral shoots of the seedling.
- Landing pit well shed water.
- Sapling put next to the support and tie. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is above the ground.
- Roots spread over the hill and gradually sprinkle with good earth, tightly trampling.
- Again check the location of the root collar. Ideally, it will be three fingers above the ground.
- Back down about half a meter from the clamp and chopper or flat cutter circle the groove. Pour about three buckets of water into it.
- To mumble stem circle.
Immediately after planting, the sapling must be “cut”. The plum produces large annual increments, so the sooner the crown formation begins, the better. In the annual seedlings, you must pinch the apical bud in order to grow lateral shoots. They will form the future skeletal branches of the tree. In a two-year-old sapling, the central conductor and the side branches should be shortened by one third.
In the first season after disembarking, Stanley requires a lot of attention.. Water the seedling should be regularly. Several times over the summer, you can spill a solution of "Heteroauxin" at the rate of 2 tablets per 10-liter bucket of water. Weed pristvolny circle is not worth it, so as not to disturb the injured roots. It is better to mow the grass.
In the second year it's time to start feeding. Their scheme will depend on the phase of plant life.
Site preparation and seedlings for planting
For planting trees and further care for plums need to properly prepare the site. So that the soil has time to settle, the preparation of the landing hole begins in the autumn, before the first frost.
Preparation of the pit depends on how fertile the soil is. If the soil for planting the Stanley plum is fertile, then the pit should be 80 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep. The top layer of soil should be removed and mixed with humus, observing a 1: 1 proportion. bottom.
If the soil for planting is not fertile enough, the depth of the landing pit and its diameter should be 100 cm. First you need to remove the sod, chop it and mix it with two manure buckets and a liter jar of ash. This mixture is placed on the bottom of the pit. Then they take fertile soil from another place and fill it with a mound to half the depth.
Before planting the stench of plum "Stanley" you need to have a good look at its roots. Damaged and dry removed. Krona seedlings cut to one third, thereby stimulating its development.
The process of planting young seedlings
Planting young saplings of plum varieties "Stanley" special technology does not require. Landing is carried out by the general rules:
- At the bottom of the landing pit need to drive a supporting stake. The height should be such that the top of the support is slightly lower than the first lateral shoots of the young tree.
- Pit well shed water.
- A young seedling is placed next to a support stake and tied up.
- Roots distribute over the mound and fall asleep with the ground, well trampling.
- From a trunk recede 50 cm and around a chopper make a groove. Three buckets of water are poured into it.
- Mulch pristvolny circle peat or compost.
Terms of seasonal care for plums "Stanley"
Care for plum varieties "Stanley" need all year round. In the summer of plum trees must be watered and fed. Caring for plums in the fall includes warming trunks, sanitary pruning. In winter, you need to control the state of "insulation" on the trunks and shake off the snow from the branches. Spring care for plum consists of whitewashing the trunk, feeding and treating with means of pests.
Prevention and protection against pests and diseases
One of the diseases of the plum "Stanley" - moniliosis (gray rot). It is a fungus and looks like a brown spot. It grows very quickly and is covered with "fluff". In the spring in order to prevent, before the start of leaf blooming, trees should be treated with a fungicide. If the plum is sick, you need to cut off the infected branches and burn them.
A dangerous pest for plums is aphid. These small insects damage shoots and leaves. To prevent a strong affection of the tree with aphids, you can plant marigolds around the plum tree. They attract ladybirds, who are enemies of aphids. If the damage is severe, you need to use insecticides.
Plum loves moisture, but will not tolerate stagnant water. Watering need regular - once a week in the morning or in the evening, using one bucket of water for each tree. If the summer is dry, you can water more often. During the period when fruits are formed and ripen, watering is increased 5 times. The most important thing is that the soil should not dry out. To plum is worse than extreme cold.
In the second year of life, the plum tree needs to start feeding:
- Every spring, during digging, you need to make compost or humus (10 kg), add superphosphate (100 g) and potassium sulphate (100 g), urea (30 g) and wood ash (400 g) to it.
- Every three years the same fertilizer is used in the fall.
- In the fourth - the fifth year of life, when the tree begins to bear fruit, the proportions of fertilizers increase by half, except phosphorus and nitrogen.
- Regular mulching using compost or peat helps to retain moisture and protects against root growth.
- Before flowering carry out the next stage of feeding. Urea and potassium sulfate are introduced.
- During the pouring of the fruit fertilized with urea and nitrophoska.
- After harvesting make a mixture of superphosphate and potassium salt (30 - 40 g).
Competent pruning and crown formation
Pruning pruning "wall" spend the spring. Old plum trees are pruned to prolong fruiting. Cut the dried, diseased branches and those that grow inside the crown. The first anti-aging pruning is carried out three to four years after planting a tree. This procedure is repeated every four years.
Young saplings in the first year of life are pruned, leaving a trunk of 60 cm in length. In the summer they observe the development of the tree. If some branches grow incorrectly, in the fall they prune and remove them. In the second year of life, seedlings are pruned 40 cm along the main trunk. Be sure to remove the upper kidney under the cut. All side branches, except the lower ones, are shortened by a third. The lower shoots are cut, leaving a length of about 7 cm. In the third year of plum cultivation, the lower branches are removed completely, and the skeletal leaves are left 6 to 8 pieces, choosing the strongest and most conveniently located ones. The best distance between the branches is 10 - 15 cm. On the remaining shoots no more than four buds are left. Plum crown form in the form of tiers. The tree, which is correctly cut, has a compact crown with 8 to 10 main branches. They are evenly spaced around the main trunk.
Preparing for the winter
Despite the good winter hardiness of the Stanley plum, need to carry out some actions to protect the tree.
For the shelter of a tree trunk use kapron. It protects the plum not only from cold, but also from rodents, while allowing air and moisture to pass through. Also from rodents, you can use a special mesh in the winter. The root system for the winter is covered with a layer of mulch from compost or humus.
Harvesting and storage
The ripening of the fruits of the plum "Stanley" falls on the end of August - the beginning of September. This variety is high-yielding. About 60 kg of fruit can be harvested from one tree. The crop ripens gradually. You can collect it for two or three times.
To harvest the plum you need to choose a dry day. Fruits are harvested as soon as they are fully ripe. If transportation is planned, the crop must be harvested five days earlier. Plums that are not collected in time, become soft, with an unpleasant taste and they crumble. To collect the fruit you need to prepare boxes or baskets.
Begin to collect plums from the ends of the lower branches, moving towards the center. Fruits need to be touched as little as possible, so as not to erase wax. The Stanley plum has fragile wood, therefore it is not recommended to shake the tree and tilt the branches. It is better to use the ladder if the fruits grow too high.
The fruits of plum varieties "Stanley" fresh stored for about six days in the refrigerator. For long storage, you can use the following methods:
- Frost. Plums should be washed and decomposed into special bags for storing food in the freezer. You can keep the fruit for about seven months. At the end of this period, the plums do not deteriorate, but simply become sour.
- Canning. From a grade of "Stanley" excellent jam, jam, jams, compotes turn out. And also you can make tincture, liqueur, plum wine.
- Cooking prunes. Plums should be kept in a hot solution of food salt for no more than half a minute. Then rinse and place in a slightly open oven for three hours at 50 degrees. When plums cool down, they are dried for another five hours at a temperature of 70 degrees. And then another four hours at 90 degrees. Prunes are stored in a cool place in paper bags, wooden boxes or glass containers.
Слива "Стенлей" - отличный выбор для дачников. Высокая урожайность, зимостойкость, хорошая устойчивость к заболеваниям - качества, которые делают её высадку более чем целесообразной.