Gloxinia is a representative of flowering perennial herbs from the Gesneriaceae family. This beauty came to us from the deciduous forests of South and Central America. And thanks to the work of breeders, a large number of varieties of the most varied color appeared. Dark violet and red, pink and lilac, two-color and monochromatic, speckled and with a unique pattern on the petals. Single and bundle flowers rise from the central part of the outlet. The number of buds and flowers on one plant can be from 8 to 40 pieces. Gloxinia leaves velvety, green, up to 20 cm in length.
The plant does not require special conditions for growing, so it is great for beginners florists.
Features of growing in a pot
Buying Gloxinia for home cultivation, you need to know that this is a tuberous perennial. After a period of flowering, all its aboveground parts dry out, only the root remains alive. This feature of the flower should be considered beginning flower growers. Many of them take the loss of leaves for the death of the plant and simply throw it away.
After the above-ground part of the gloxinia dries completely, it is cut, leaving a stump of 1-2 cm. The pot is removed in a dark room where the temperature is no higher than 12-14 ° C. All winter the land should be semi-dry. As spring approaches, the tuber will start to wake up.
Gloxinia care at home
The appearance of tiny sprouts prompts the florist about the need to create favorable conditions for development. Caring for gloxinia begins with transplanting a plant.
Even in a dark place, at rest, the tuber feels the approach of spring. In late February or early March, small processes appear on it. To develop them fully, the tuber must be placed in a new ground. (The pot can be left unchanged, but it should be thoroughly rinsed with soda water and potassium permanganate added.)
The tuber is taken out of the ground, washed and carefully inspected. If rot or other damage is found, they are cut out. This place must be cleaned to a healthy tissue and covered with pounded coal. This will protect the pathogens from entering the tuber. If additional processing of planting material is planned, then coal is used after it.
Old roots also need to be removed. Then the tuber is placed in a weak (pale pink) manganese solution, and then in a solution with a root stimulator.
The awakened tuber is transplanted into a shallow, but rather wide pot. From the edges of the tuber to the walls of the vessel should be at least 5 cm.
How to fill the pot with the substrate?
- Drainage. The layer of drainage material at the bottom of the pot should be at least 1-2 cm.
- Soil mix. It should be poured so much that it was possible to deepen a tuber by 2 /3 its height. The surface of the tuber, where the shoots appeared, remains open
- Watering. The ground around the tuber is watered, avoiding the ingress of water on the non-covered part.
- Adding soil. A complete shelter of the tuber is made after the sprouts come into effect. Dust the required amount of earth, and the surface gently level.
Tuber transplantation is carried out every spring, regardless of its size and age.
Gloxinia refers to plants that need a long period of coverage, about 14-16 hours per day. But at the same time the plant has a negative attitude to direct sunlight. Under their influence on the leaves burns, which appear as gray spots. If even a single burn is not harmful for gloxinia, then a few - significantly affect the metabolism and significantly reduce its decorative qualities.
Therefore, on the southern windowsill Gloxinia can be grown without fear until May. Then pick a more suitable place. If all the windows in the room are facing south, then during the hot hours the plant should be applied.
The location of the plant on the northern windowsill will lead to the pulling of the stems and poor flowering due to lack of light. Also, this factor affects the timing of flowering and can lead to its complete absence.
The best option - the south-western and south-eastern windows. And for uniform illumination of all parts of the plant, the pot on the windowsill must be turned every week with the opposite side to the glass.
During the period of active development of the leaf apparatus, gloxinia requires regular and abundant watering. In this case, the water should not fall on the stems and leaves.
Water for irrigation gain in advance. She needs to stand for several days in an open container for chlorine to evaporate. (If water is drawn from the water supply system.) When using rainwater or thawed snow, it is passed through a water purifier. Present sediments are sinful content of harmful impurities.
The temperature of the water should be slightly higher than room temperature and be 25-27 ° C.
When it is time to water the gloxinia, the water is gently poured over the entire surface of the pot. If water is collected in the pan, it must be drained. Excessive moisture, as well as dryness, adversely affects the state of gloxinia.
Spraying the plant is not recommended, although high humidity is exactly what gloxinia prefers.
To create a plant comfortable conditions for development, you can spray the air near the flower or set it on a pallet with wet clay. Water evaporation will increase the humidity around.
Needs flower and fresh air. Ventilation of the room is a necessary component of care.
In conditions of low humidity and lack of oxygen, gloxinia is more susceptible to fungal diseases.
For the development of the tuber, t = 25 ° C is favorable. An adult plant feels great and blooms well with a thermometer reading of 20-22˚С. Increasing the temperature to 30 ° C leads to slower growth of gloxinia and overheating of the tuber. In addition, high temperatures can cause diseases.
Undesirable for the flower and low temperature. There is a blackening of the leaves, abscission of buds and flowers, decay of the root system.
It is impossible to achieve lush flowering of gloxinia in the soil that does not contain sufficient nutrients.
After planting the tuber, the first dressing is made with nitrogen fertilizer. It will stimulate the development of stems and leaves. Then nitrogen fertilizing is replaced by phosphate. They enhance flowering. And already blooming Gloxinia give potassium with a full complex of microelements.
Feed gloxinia need no more than 1 time in 14 days. During the work it is necessary to ensure that the solution does not get into the outlet, as well as on the stems and leaves.
Conditions for flowering
With proper planting of the tuber, moderate and regular watering, sufficient lighting and the required temperature, gloxinia will bloom from spring to the end of summer. Often this factor depends on the plant variety. But if you wish, you can cause re-flowering of gloxinia, which early shed flowers. For this you need:
- cut faded flowers with stems
- remove the top leaves, leaving one or two pairs of bottom sheets
- feed the plant with nitrogen fertilizer
Soon processes will appear in the sinuses - the so-called stepchildren. Weak need to pinch (can be used for rooting), and for the development of the remaining to make phosphate-potassium fertilizers.
The second bloom of gloxinia is not so long and less abundant, but also pleases the eye of the owners.
Gloxinia care after flowering
After flowering gloxinia do not touch. The aboveground part of the plant dries out on its own, the plant prepares for rest. During this period, it is necessary to reduce the number of irrigations and eliminate feeding.
After full drying of leaves and stems, the flower is cut at a height of 2 cm from the soil and removed for storage.
Storing the tuber in the soil in which gloxinia was grown. For the pot choose a cool place with a temperature of 12-14? You should not worry about the lack of lighting during the rest period: it will be comfortable where it is dark and humid. Only occasionally a tuber needs a little moisture to maintain viability. One watering per month will be enough.
It happens that sprouts appear prematurely during dormancy on a tuber. They must be removed so that the strength of the plant is restored.
This method of storage differs from the previous one in that after cutting the stem, the tuber is removed from the ground. Clear from sticking, dried roots and placed in a plastic bag, in which poured an equal amount of vermiculite and fresh soil. The package is tightly closed (tied) and cleaned in the fridge, in the vegetable compartment.
A mixture of vermiculite and soil can be replaced by river sand.
Plants that were grown from seeds are left to overwinter in a pot and sometimes watered.
If there is no gloxinia in the house, then it is necessary to purchase seeds in a specialty store and start sowing. This should be done at the very beginning of March, otherwise you can not wait for flowering in the same year.
So, it is necessary to prepare a small and not very deep capacity and nutritious soil. Everything must be thoroughly disinfected. You can use the purchase of soil for violets, and you can collect the mixture yourself.
You should take two parts of turfy soil and peat, add one part of the sand and mix all the components thoroughly. The substrate should be light and loose.
Seeds are placed on the surface of the soil, and since they are very small, it is advisable to mix them with a small amount of sand. So they are distributed more evenly. Sowing seeds gloxinia surface - this means that they are not covered with earth. Then spend spraying from the spray and cover with glass. You can put the container with crops in a plastic bag and place it in a warm and bright place. The required temperature for germination is 23-25 ° C.
Crops need daily airing, and spraying is carried out only when necessary.
- After two weeks, the first shoots will appear. They also need airing and watering from a spray bottle.
- A week later, from the appearance of germs, the shelters are removed from the containers and more closely monitor the condition of the soil.
- The more often shoots have turned out, the earlier they will need to be transplanted. Based on this, the first dive is carried out with the growth of 2 leaves. The distance between the plants is 2-3 cm. During the second transplant, the interval is increased to 7-10 cm.
It is convenient to transplant seedlings in separate cups or special cassettes.
As young gloxinia bushes grow, they are provided with a separate pot.
Flowers grown from seeds have a high viability, although they require some effort and knowledge.
After half a year, or a little more, an amazingly beautiful and delicate flower, gloxinia, will appear on the windowsills of the florist.
Reproduction gloxinia leaf cuttings
This method does not give the grower a lot of trouble and gives good results. The leaves that will be used for rooting, take in the period of active vegetation of the flower. The most favorable period for budding. The leaf must be completely healthy and have a petiole of at least 2-3 cm.
The selected sheet is cut from the mother bush with a sharp knife or blade at the very base and placed in a vessel with water. The water level should not be greater than the petiole itself, which means that the condition of the planting material must be monitored and fluid must be added in time.
After about three weeks, the roots will begin to appear, and it can be planted in the ground. Put the leaf in a small pot, which is filled accordingly: a mandatory drainage layer and nutritious soil. In the ground should be only a stalk with roots, and the edges of the sheet should be flush with the outer edge of the planting capacity.
The rooted leaf is watered and the greenhouse is constructed. It can be a glass jar, turned upside down and placed over a plant or a plastic bag (it holds its shape better). Miniparnik transferred to the bright window sill, but do not allow direct sunlight.
The time of the appearance of children can last from one to two months. And after they grow up a little, they are separated and transplanted into separate small pots.
The cut sheet is kept for half an hour at room temperature. During this time, the cut dries slightly. Planting is carried out directly into the ground according to the technology described above.
If during reproduction by leaf cuttings the formation of babies does not occur, it is recommended to pinch the upper part of the leaf, leaving 2-3 cm from the ground level in the pot.
A healthy sheet of gloxinia incised along the lines of the vein and laid backside on the ground. Light pressing to achieve contact between the sheet and the soil. Construct a mini-pot and wait for the appearance of young shoots, and when they appear, divide and transplant into separate pots.
It should be noted that leaf propagation produces smaller shoots than during leaf propagation.
Propagation of peduncles and stepsons
Almost all parts of gloxinia are suitable for reproduction. And if there is a need and a desire for this, then it is possible to root both cut flower stalks and stepchildren, which are redundant with repeated flowering.
The requirements for the soil are the same for all breeding methods: it should be light and loose - this will save the grower from many problems
Reproduction gloxinia by dividing the tuber
This method is used much less frequently than the above techniques. There is a danger of being left without a flower.
Tubers are suitable for dividing. They formed 2-3 shoots at the time of awakening. It is cut so that each separated part has at least one sprout. Delenki left on the day in the air, during this time, the bare fabric dries and will not lose moisture. If planting is planned immediately after dividing, the sections are treated with crushed charcoal. In the absence of such, you can use activated from the home kit.
Planting part of the tuber is produced in a small container, preferably transparent - this will allow to monitor the development of the root system. The process of planting itself is similar to planting a whole tuber: it is pressed into the soil and watered moderately. Waterlogging can lead to decay of planting material.
After 2-3 weeks, sprouts will appear, and as soon as the root system begins to fill the planting capacity, the gloxinia is transplanted to a permanent place.
Once again it is worth recalling that for reproduction it is necessary to take perfectly healthy leaves. Even small blotches can cause illness of a young plant.
Gloxinia diseases and pests
The change in the color of the leaf plates, their deformation, and the depression of the whole plant indicate the occurrence of diseases. Most often this happens as a result of improper care.
This disease is manifested in the formation of brown spots on the leaves. Over time, they "crawl", infecting the stems and adjacent leaf plates.
The cause of anthracosis can be high acidity of the soil, excessive air moistening or lack of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
If the leaf plates are significantly damaged, they are removed and processed with fungicides. For this purpose, copper oxychloride or the preparations “Oxyhom” and “Kuprosat” are used.
If the initial stage of development of anthracosis was missed, then the flower must be destroyed. Otherwise there will be a threat of infection of all indoor plants.
The high humidity of the place where gloxinia is located, even in combination with low temperature, are the most favorable conditions for defeating the flower with powdery mildew. Also, the reasons for the occurrence of fungus include excessive nitrogen content in the soil and excessive watering.
The disease can affect all parts of the plant — the stems, leaves, and buds — on them powdery powder is formed.
The treatment is effective only at the initial stage, gloxinia is sprayed with fungicides every 7-10 days. This treatment should undergo all the flowers located nearby.
Launched plant is better to destroy.
This insect finds itself appearing on the leaves of small blotches, spots and stripes on the outside of the leaf. Brown spots are formed from the back side. The edge of the sheet plate is deformed. Thrips can harm the entire above-ground part of the flower.
They are fought with the Intavir, Fitoverm, Aktara or Karate intexicides. You must spend at least 3 treatments with an interval of 7-10 days.
For flowers growing in a room with dry air, there is a high probability that this pest will settle on them. It is necessary to constantly inspect the plants and if a cobweb is found between the leaves, then Gloxinia is in grave danger. Slightly yellowish dots appear on the affected leaves, and then they become patches of brown. Leaves, deprived of vegetable juice, first become discolored and then dry.
Для уничтожения клеща требуются акарициды. Обработку глоксинии необходимо провести 2-3 раза с разницей в неделю.
Почва в горшке также подлежит обработке, там могут находиться личинки клеща. Для этих целей подойдут химические средства «Темик» или «Алдикабр». Также необходимо повысить влажность воздуха в зоне пребывания цветка.
Проблемы выращивания глоксиний
Buying gloxinia tuber or already an adult plant, you need to be prepared for some difficulties. They can occur at any stage of cultivation.
- Tuber did not wake up after a period of rest. As is known, in the gloxinia, for the rest period, the entire above-ground part of the plant dies off, and the tuber is kept in a dark place and in a semi-arid state. With the arrival of spring, he should wake up and sprout. If this does not happen, it is necessary to check its integrity.
Remove from the ground (package) and inspect. If the tuber looks wrinkled, then most likely it has died. Check it out by making a cut. The tissue of a live tuber should be slightly pink or yellowish. Brown indicates that it is not viable.
- Young shoots gloxinia pulled out. This usually happens in early spring when the plant enters a room where it is too warm and there is not enough sunlight.
It is necessary to increase the humidity of the air, sprinkling the space near the flower, conducting wet cleaning or install a flower pot on a tray with wet clay (sand, pebbles, moss). To increase the illumination to organize the exposure to fluorescent lamps.
- Growth retardation Gloxinia can halt its development due to low ambient temperature or poor-quality soil.
You can not leave a flower in the same soil two years in a row. The solution to this problem can be transplanting plants to a new land and increasing the temperature in the room.
- Buds do not open. This happens if the plant has thrown away a lot of flower arrows, and the root system is unable to feed them. The cause can also be the presence of drafts.
To help the flower in this situation, feeding is needed. During the formation of buds - phosphoric, in the flowering phase - potash.
If gloxinia is at the intersection of air flow, then it is better to remove it to a protected place.
- Spots on the leaves. The causes of spots on gloxinia are many. This may be a sunburn or damage by pests and diseases.
It is necessary to rearrange the flower in a place without direct sunlight, and if this is not possible - to shade in the midday heat.
Small specks of various shapes and colors indicate the appearance of a disease or an insect pest. If you do not start treatment with insecticides or fungicides, the size of the lesion will increase, and this can lead to the death of the entire plant.
- Gloxinia does not bloom. The delay in the timing of flowering or its complete absence may be due to an excess of nitrogen in the soil.
If the dressings are ok, but there is still no flowering, it is possible that the plant lacks lighting. From the very beginning of the development of the flower, it should be given the brightest place in the room.
- Short rest period. For full bloom Gloxinia tuber must be at least four months of rest. A shorter period may also affect flowering quality.
- Leaves fade or dry. If this happens during the growing season, then maybe you forgot to water it? Another thing, when the leaves wither with regular watering. Hence, the problem lies in the tuber - it is rotten.
Immediately dig it up and remove any damaged areas. Process and re-plant with complete replacement of the soil and disinfection of the pot. Gloxinia does not like watering at the root. The flower is moistened along the edge of the pot or provide ascending watering.
But these problems should not arise if favorable conditions are created for Gloxinia. Light, heat, moderate soil and air humidity are the main requirements of the plant. In return, the grower will receive a bright and abundant bloom of an amazingly beautiful gloxinia.
The tropical beauty received it in honor of Wilhelm Sinning, a gardener at Boston University, who “fell in love” with a flower and devoted much time to its selection and hybridization. The name Gloxinia comes from the German "Glocke", which translates as a bell. Indeed, the shape of the flowers in the plant is very similar to the bells.
Gloxinia-synningia is a perennial tuber plant with a short stem and thick dark green velvety leaves. Flowers, as mentioned above, have the form of bells and come in a wide variety of colors and shades.
Some species of gloxinia have bright, prominent specks on the inner surface of flowers, while others surprise with the beauty of their flimsy edge of a flower painted in a contrasting color. Depending on the variety, the gramophone flowers can be simple or double.
Gloxinia home care
Gloxinia - a plant undemanding in the care and even an inexperienced grower can grow it. The flower loves a lot of light, but without direct sunlight, as they can cause burns on the leaves. The optimum air temperature is 18-21 degrees in summer and 10-15 degrees in winter.
Gloxinia in the care at home in which she is very "afraid" of spraying and drafts. From spraying water on its leaves, dark spots and rotting on leaves and flowers may appear.
To provide the necessary moisture, plants are placed on a tray with pebbles filled with water. Water evaporates and will humidify the air around the flowers.
Gloxinia is watered with soft warm water so that it does not fall on the leaves or the flowers. You can pour water into the pan and leave the plants "drink" for half an hour. The remaining water after the procedure is removed.
During the period of growth and flowering, watering of Gloxinia is carried out 2-3 times a week, and during dormancy, no more than once a month. When watering the flower, Gloxinia should be monitored so that there is no excess moisture, as the plant may rot and die.
Gloxinia rest period
Gloxinia pleases with its flowering from April to September, and then comes a period of rest. At this time, the aboveground part of the plant dies and the tubers “fall asleep” for several months (3-4). After the complete die-off of the upper part of the plant, it is cut off, leaving about 1 cm above the ground.
The pots with the “asleep” tubers are moved to a dry, dark and cool place, making sure that the soil does not dry out. Accordingly, occasionally watered. You can not take out the plants, but just fall asleep over the ground with a thick layer of clean and dry sand and leave it in the room.
Some flower growers, 2-3 weeks after the death of the above-ground part, dig up the tubers and, after clearing them from dead roots, store them in sawdust or peat in a dark, cool place. Tubers periodically inspect for drying or high humidity, which eliminate as needed.
Gloxinia after rest period
Gloxinia begin to wake up somewhere in January-March. If the flower has wintered in a pot, then it is dug, cleaned from the soil, remove diseased and dried tubers. If rotted spots are found, they are cut out with a sharp knife and powdered with a cut of powdered charcoal. After these procedures, the tuber is left to dry for a day.
Gloxinia tuber planting
Before planting a gloxinia tuber, it is advisable to soak it for 30 minutes in a solution of a fungicidal agent (for example, Funzadol, Maxim) or a solution of dark pink manganese to prevent the formation of rot.
The pots are selected such that they are 1–1.5 cm in diameter more than the previous ones, since, once in a too large pot, gloxinia will begin to grow the tubers, and it is not possible to wait for flowering. Planting is necessary in such a way that the upper part of the tuber slightly "peeking" over the soil.
Soil for planting can be purchased at a flower shop. "Saintpaulia" or "Violet" will do. You can also prepare the mixture for planting yourself. To do this, mix in the ratio of 1: 4: 4 sand, humus and leaf earth. It is necessary to ensure good drainage. The transplanted gloxinia are placed on the window sill and watered once a week.
Fertilizers for gloxinia
Be sure to fertilize the plant. When using liquid complex fertilizer, this is done every two weeks. If you use fertilizer in the form of sticks, then one such stick is enough for about 2-3 months.
Gloxinia from seeds at home
Gloxinia can be propagated using seeds, leaf cuttings and division of tubers. To get seeds at home is almost impossible. Easier to get them in the store.
Sowing is carried out in November-February in low boxes, which are filled, taken in equal quantities and thoroughly mixed, with sand, peat and leaf earth. Seeds are simply sown on top of the ground, not powdered, and put in a well-lit place.
Spray regularly with warm water and maintain a temperature of 24-26 ° C. Shoots can be expected no earlier than 2 weeks. With the growth of seedlings and the appearance of 2 leaves, they are seated at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other, and with the appearance of the third pair of leaves, the distance between the plants is increased to 5-7 cm. The pots are transplanted during the period when the plants begin to touch each other its leaves. The diameter of the pots should be 10–12 cm.
Planting and care for gloxinia (in brief)
- Bloom: from March to late summer.
- Lighting: bright diffused light at 12-14 hours light day.
- Temperature: during the growing season, it is usual for living quarters, while at rest it is about 10 ˚C.
- Watering: during the growing season - regular, but moderate, the method of lower watering, since August, the plant is preparing for the rest period, and watering should be less.
- Air humidity: increased, but spraying the leaves is not recommended, it is better to keep a container with water around the plant.
- Top dressing: during the active growing season once every 10 days with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer for flowering houseplants.
- Pruning: in May or June, after the end of the first flowering, and in the fall, before the dawn period begins.
- Rest period: from the end of October to the end of February.
- Transfer: at the end of the rest period.
- Breeding: seeds, leaf cuttings.
- Pests: thrips, cyclamen and spider mites.
- Diseases: gray rot, viral infections.
Gloxinia flower - growing features
Room gloxinia is a tuberous perennial with a short stem and rich, velvety leaves of rich green color. The same velvety bell-shaped flowers, simple or double, pink, red, white, purple, speckled, frilly or two-colored, reach 5 cm in length and 7 cm in diameter. The many seeds of gloxinia are very small. Of the 25 species existing in nature, only gloxinia royal and gloxinia are the basis for selection work.
Gloxinia royal (Gloxinia regina)
It is a flower with thickened stems up to 10 cm tall. Dark green pubescent leaves, with silver streaks on the upper side and reddish from the bottom, wide oval, located opposite to 4-6 pieces, from 15 cm to 20 cm long. Peduncles long, bell-shaped, drooping flowers of dark purple hue reach a length of 5 cm , and in diameter of 7 cm.
Gloxinia beautiful (Gloxinia speciosa)
- herb with wide oval, narrowed to the base evenly green leaves on long cuttings. Flowers of various forms, depending on the variety, including terry gloxinia, white, red, purple, blue, pink, purple, are forms with a white rim on the edge.
Like any plant, gloxinia has some special features:
- - after flowering, the aerial part of the flower dies off, and it is important to wait until this process spontaneously ends,
- - before the dormant period, gloxinia requires fertilizing with fertilizers that do not contain nitrogen — potassium monophosphate, for example,
- - Gloxinia pot requires a decent size, for an adult plant - at least 15 cm in diameter,
- - if you want your gloxinia to bloom all year round, arrange for them a shelf or a warm shelf with additional lighting for 14 hours a day.
How to care for gloxinia at home.
If you decide to grow gloxinia, provide it with a spacious place where bright diffused light will fall: it needs twelve-fourteen hours a day, so during the long nights be ready to arrange additional lighting for the plant. There is a simple way to find out if the flower is light enough: if the dark green leaves are arranged horizontally and the stem is short, you should not worry, but if the leaves and the stem are pulled up, then the plant lacks light. However, remember: care for gloxinia involves primarily protection from direct sunlight, which is destructive for the plant.
And one more important point: no drafts! If you decide to keep the flower on the windowsill, you will have to forget about frequent airing. And the humidity of the air, which gloxinia needs, will have to be increased artificially by placing containers with water around the flower, since the plant does not like moisture on the leaves and flowers, which cannot be avoided when sprayed.
As for the temperature, during the growing season, Gloxinia will be satisfied with the usual room temperature for this time of the year, but during the rest period it needs coolness - about 10 ºC. Watch the plant, and it will tell you what changes in the care it needs: from the overheating, the leaves of the gloxinia stretch upwards, but if the leaves are below the edge of the pot, the flower will freeze.
Gloxinia is fed in the period of active growth once a decade with a full complex fertilizer for flowering plants. In mid-August, feeding is stopped. If we neglect the application of fertilizers, there may be problems with growth and flowering: growth slows down, the buds are made smaller, the color of the flowers fades, causing decorative plants to suffer, the flowering period becomes much shorter. Sometimes the plant suffers from a lack of boron. This becomes noticeable in the summertime at the maximum light bottom: deep notches appear along the edge of the leaf plate. In this case, foliar feeding of gloxinia with a 2% borax solution is necessary. And let me remind you that the excess fertilizer is much more dangerous for the plant than its lack, so try to observe moderation in this matter.
Each year, at the end of the rest period, Gloxinia is transplanted into a new pot. The soil mixture is the same as for begonias and violets. It can be purchased at the store, but you can make it yourself from two parts of leaf, one part of humus soil and one part of sand. So, in February, gloxinia tubers are removed from the pot along with a clod of earth and rolled into a new pot, slightly larger than the previous one, into which a drainage layer is pre-laid, and on top of it is a soil layer. Then gradually add the substrate and tamp it. As a result, the tuber should be only half-embedded in the substrate. The same principle is carried out and the initial planting gloxinia.
Gloxinia has faded - what to do?
When gloxinia has faded (usually in May-June), cut off the stem and almost all the leaves, leaving only 2-4 lower leaves on the plant, in the axils of which the stepchildren will soon appear, from which you will leave a couple of the strongest and remove . At this time, it is desirable to fertilize the flower with fertilizers for growth, and after a month, when the buds appear, you need to introduce fertilizer for flowering. The second bloom, most likely, will not be as lush as the first, but this is normal. Sometimes gloxinia blooms all summer, and the question of re-flowering disappears. When gloxinia ottsvetet finally, you need to gradually reduce watering and stop feeding, wait until the leaves turn yellow and dry, then trim the tops, leaving a stump over the tuber of 1-2 cm.
Gloxinia in winter
To the question "How to store gloxinia after flowering" There are two answers:
- Gloxinia, cut for the winter, is stored in a dark, cool place until the end of February. Gloxinia is moistened in winter only 1-2 times a month so that the tubers do not dry out. Wintering gloxinia can go under the bathroom or in a heated loggia,
- the second method of preserving gloxinia during the rest period involves removing the tuber from the pot, and since in late January or early February you still have to transplant gloxinia into a new pot with a new substrate, so why not get a tuber from the pot in the fall? The removed tuber is cleaned of residual soil, placed in a plastic bag with a lock, vermiculite and substrate are added to the bag in a ratio of 1: 1, the lock is fastened and the bag is placed for winter storage in the vegetable section of the refrigerator. Now you do not need to worry that a tuber in three or four months of rest can dry out without watering.
You do not have to worry about how to preserve a young gloxinia grown from seeds in winter: they leave it in a pot and moderately watered so that a small, still weak tuber does not die during the winter.
Gloxinia from seeds.
A rich assortment of gloxinia seeds in specialized stores inspires optimism to those who want to test themselves as a breeder. But do not expect too much from this experiment. Growing gloxinia from seeds begins with the purchase of seed - thank God, today it is not a problem - and it is better to purchase granulated seeds. На упаковке обычно указывают срок прорастания 4-6 месяцев, а то и 9-10, но это в том случае, если вы будете сеять зимой или осенью. Если же вы займетесь этим в марте, то процесс пойдет значительно быстрее.Purchased greenhouses can be used for sowing, or you can make a greenhouse yourself: in a plastic deep container with a lid, place it freely and soak the peat tablets, onto which you can spread the granules without putting them in the soil. Make a few holes in the cover for ventilation. Place the greenhouse in a bright warm place with a temperature of approximately 22-23 ºC and gently moisten the soil for one and a half to two weeks as needed and wait for the emergence of shoots. When the sprouts germinate and get stronger, plant them along with peat tablets in disposable cups, and after a while in permanent pots.
Reproduction gloxinia leaf.
No matter what they say, vegetative propagation is usually safer than seed, and if you do not have a special reason to grow plants from seeds, use the vegetative method, and we will tell you how to grow gloxinia from a leaf cutting. Since the leaves of gloxinia are rather large, take either the smallest leaf or divide the big leaf into fragments. It is necessary to cut the sheet plate across, parallel to the transverse veins, the leaf stalk is also cut, leaving no more than 2 cm. Use a sharp tool for cutting, otherwise it may cause the edges of the sheet or its fragments to rot. Seed the fragments in pots with a light, slightly moist substrate and place them in a greenhouse or cover with a plastic bag - for a month you will not have to water the soil, or ventilate the greenhouse, and after a month the rooted fragments should be gradually accustomed to life outside the greenhouse, opening the polyethylene for a short while . Keep the greenhouse with rooting parts of gloxinia need in a well-lit warm place.
Gloxinia pests and diseases
Unfortunately, gloxinia, like other flowers, suffers from diseases that are usually the result of improper care. Gloxinia affects gray decay, manifested by brown spots on the leaves. It is necessary to fight it by treating the plant with a fungicide, after removing all the damaged areas. But most often the plant is sick root rot: the roots become dark brown, the stem rot at the base and the plant dies. This happens because of constant waterlogging of the roots or watering the plant with too cold water. In addition to these diseases, take care of gloxinia from late blight, blackleg, powdery mildew and fungal diseases. For prophylactic treatment, use phytosporin, for treatment - foundation.
Viral diseases also will not bypass the Gloxinia side, especially if it has thrips, cyclamen or spider mites, so try not to let it happen. The cyclamen mite can only be seen under a microscope, with the naked eye you can only find a large collection of mites that look like a layer of dust on the underside of the leaf plate, but if the leaves of the plant began to deform and thicken, and wrap down the edges, if the stem is twisted, the buds wilt , the flowers have deformed petals, and the tops of the shoots dry, which means that the flower was occupied by cyclamen mites. The spider mite is also almost invisible, it also settles on the underside of the leaf and feeds on the plant sap. Understand that you are dealing with a spider mite, you can by the white dots, which later turn into yellow-brown spots, or by a thin web, if the infection is already in a very strong stage.
The presence of thrips is detected by bright dots, strokes and spots on the leaves and a silvery shine of the intact areas of the leaves, which eventually dry, turn brown from the bottom, and the edges begin to wrap up. Thrips larvae go into the soil, so to fight the pest you will have to change the top layer of the substrate, and it is better to replace it with a new one, but before that, carry out a triple treatment of the plant with insecticides (aktar, karbofos, fitoverm, actellik) at intervals of a week. The same measures are effective in the fight against ticks, but the soil will not have to be changed.
LIGHTING AND TEMPERATURE
To obtain a free-flowing plant, you need to put a flower on the east or west side of the house. For the formation of a uniform bush, it is necessary to turn the flower to the sunlight on the other side once a week. Gloxinia is a thermophilic plant, so the appropriate temperature varies around + 22-24 degrees. During the germination of the tuber, the temperature should be about +25 degrees.
- Plant long daylight.
- For a strong, richly blooming specimen, you need good lighting in diffused light.
- When kept in the sun gloxinia suffer from heat, there are burns on the leaves, so shading from direct sunlight is necessary on the southern and eastern windows.
- On the northern windows of the Gloxinia, the stem and peduncles longer than normal and second flowering, as a rule, may not occur.
- To form a uniform bush, the gloxinia plant should be turned to sunlight the other side once a week.
Gloxinia belongs to the thermophilic plants, so the optimum temperature for growing gloxinia is 18-22 ° C.
During the germination of the tuber, the air temperature should be slightly higher - about 25 degrees, which contributes to faster growth of young shoots.
At a higher temperature (over 28 degrees), the plant ceases to grow:
- root system overheating occurs,
- leaves lose turgor,
- buds do not bloom,
- flowers fade quickly.
In this case, it would be better if the plant is rearranged to a shaded place.
With a decrease in temperature, the growth of gloxinia slows down, possible overcooling and rotting of the root system, yellowing of leaves, blackening, and abscission of buds.
Reproduction gloxinia cuttings
Gloxinia at home is easy enough to propagate using cuttings. To do this, select large and healthy leaves, cut them obliquely with a sharp knife and placed in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate for 8 hours. Then the leaf cuttings are placed in cups of clean water, which is changed weekly.
With the appearance of roots, future beauties are planted in cups with soil or on peat tablets and covered with plastic bags. Packages are taken once a day for a few minutes to ensure ventilation. After the formation of tiny tubers at the ends of the cuttings, the bags are removed completely, and the grown plant can please the owner with its flowering in the same year.
SOIL AND FEEDING
The soil should be nutritious and loose. You can make the soil from a mixture of leaf earth and river sand. You can also buy ready-made mixture for flowering plants. The pot for Gloxinia should be wide. For normal development of the plant, the distance between the tuber and the wall of the pot should be about 5 cm. Fertilizing plants produce from spring to autumn, every week. Fertilizer should contain a large amount of potassium and phosphorus. In order not to burn the roots of the flower, fertilizing is best done after evening watering.
Please note that weak or just transplanted plants, feeding is not recommended.
- Top dressing begins approximately from April - until the beginning of August, weekly.
- Special fertilizers are used for flowering houseplants containing a sufficiently large amount of potassium and phosphorus than nitrogen.
- An excess of nitrogen can lead to the formation of powerful intensely green leaves and small ugly flowers.
- Gloxinia is very responsive to the introduction of humic acids.
- Spray only when absolutely necessary.
- Do not apply fertilizer and fungicide at the same time.
- You can use fertilizer and growth stimulants at the same time.
To calculate the concentration of fertilizers, the rate indicated on the package should be divided by the number of supposed additional feedings for the same time, and it is better to slightly reduce the concentration.
Phosphoric fertilizer should not be abused, you can get an early and abundant, but fleeting flowering.
In order not to burn the roots of the plant, fertilizer should be applied only in moist soil. It is better to feed gloxinia more often, but with a weaker solution (in half the concentration indicated on the package). Weakly or freshly transplanted plants, as well as newly rooted cuttings, should not be fed. After awakening, in preparation for the rest period, as well as during the rest period, gloxinia is not fed. In overfed plants, buds more often rot, cuttings worse root.
Soil and dishes
When growing gloxinia, they use rather wide pots of small height, since their root system is superficial: it develops not so much in depth, but in width.
- Dishes are selected in proportion to the size of the tuber: the larger the tuber - the larger the pot.
- Usually, for the normal development of a large tuber, the distance between the tuber and the wall of the pot is 4–5 cm, the small one — 3–4 cm.
- The soil should be nutritious, loose, moisture and breathable, have a weak acid reaction.
- The soil consists of a mixture: 2 parts of leafy land, 1 part of peat or greenhouse land, 1 part of river sand. You can use the purchased mixture "Violet", etc.
- Good drainage is required.
- When transplanted, the tuber is only half-buried.
CARE FOR GLOBE AFTER FLOWER
Caring for Gloxinia after flowering is pruning the stems, you need to leave only a few lower leaves. During this period, the flower Gloxinia should be fertilized with fertilizers for active growth, and after the appearance of buds should go on top dressing to improve flowering.
Re-bloom will not work so bright and plentiful, but do not worry, it happens very often. The following year, the plant will give a more beautiful flowering. Sometimes it happens that Gloxinia can bloom all summer and there will be no second flowering, this situation is also considered normal.
After gloxinia ottsvetet (May-June), the stem can be cut off, leaving only 2-4 lower leaves.
- In the bosoms in a few days the stepchildren will spawn.
- Leave one or two stronger ones and trim the rest.
- At this point, you need to feed the flower fertilizer for growth.
- A month later, the shoots will begin to pick up the buds, after which you need to feed fertilizer for flowering.
- The second bloom will not be so stormy, the flowers of Gloxinia will not give the original color and shape. This is normal.
- The following year, she will repeat the desired flowering.
- If the plant has a growing point, you can not cut, flowering will be repeated in a month.
Sometimes by the end of flowering sprouts sprout from a tuber, they can be removed and rooted, or left, while cutting (at the end of flowering) the main stem. It happens that gloxinia blooms all summer and the second bloom does not occur, this is normal. You do not need to trim it, she will go to wintering herself, as she gathers the necessary strength.
Care in the dormant period
Gloxinia - a plant with a pronounced period of rest. In the fall, when gloxiniaes bloom a second time, watering is reduced, fertilizing is done once every two or three weeks.
- When the leaves of gloxinia begin to turn yellow and dry, the plant is pruned, leaving a stump of 1-2 cm, and put to rest.
- You can put the tubers in a container with wet sand, and it is better to store in pots in a room with a low temperature (15-12 degrees), while covering with plastic wrap.
- If there are no such conditions, it can be stored under the bathroom or near the balcony, covered with something so as not to spoil the interior.
- It is necessary to water the tubers once or twice a month so that the tubers do not dry, and in small doses so that the tuber does not rot.
- In January, when the ground is ready, it is necessary to transplant gloxinia from the old land to a new, more nutritious one.
Sometimes from the ground in a dark place ahead of time there is a shoot up to 1.5 cm in height and above.
If the tuber is large and strong enough, it is better to pick a sprout, as with further growth the plant will lose its compact shape of the rosette and will be greatly elongated. Tuber will give after a while a new shoot.
Gloxinia care in autumn and winter
After a long flowering, and it happens from May to September inclusive, the plant must rest for several months. Care for gloxinia after flowering is simple, but also responsible. From the moment the plant begins to wither the leaves, watering is reduced, gradually reducing it to zero. That is, when the aboveground part of the Gloxinia dries up, it is not only unnecessary to water it, but even impossible.
How to care for gloxinia during this period?
- It just needs to be taken out to a cool room, where the air temperature stays around +10.
- If you keep Gloxinia in a cooler room, the flowers will fall off at the time of the next flowering, before they open.
- Watering the plant in the winter is also necessary so as not to dry the tubers.
- Only this is done no more than 1 time per month.
- The amount of moisture should be very moderate.
- If you have a small gloxinia from seeds in the fall, she probably has not had time to grow the tuber to a sufficient size. Therefore, it is impossible to arrange her wintering.
- This plant should be left warm and continue to be watered.
- You can send wintering only such gloxinia, which managed to grow at least 6 pairs of leaves.
You can otherwise take care of the gloxinia after flowering. To dig up her tuber from the ground (it will not be replaced in the spring anyway) and place it in a transparent cellophane bag of soil and moss, which are pre-sprinkled with water. This package tie. The moss will provide sufficient moisture for gloxinia tubers, and a transparent bag will make it possible at any time to control whether the tuber has begun to germinate.
Care for gloxinia in spring
If gloxinia spent its rest period in the “native” pot, in the spring it is put on the windowsill and gradually increase the watering. Soon there will be new gloxinia sprouts.
If the tuber was dug out for the winter, it is planted out again in April in the month.
How to care for gloxinia during this period?
- So that she would rather wake up from a winter sleep, the pot can be covered with a plastic bag.
- Before planting a tuber, it should be examined on the object, whether there were any sores on it during the winter, for example, rot.
- If such areas are found, they are removed, and the wounds are disinfected with any antiseptic.
- To ensure that all putrefactive bacteria are killed, it is possible to hold the whole tuber in the solution of potassium permanganate.
- If the root is very dry, the plant may not be revived.
- Also, the gloxinia tuber bought in the store may not start growing.
- If you have doubts about the condition of the winter-over-gloxinia tuber, it should be cut.
- If the cut is yellowish or pinkish, then everything is fine.
- Sections are disinfected, and parts of the tuber are planted as future independent plants. If the cut is brown or black, then the tuber has died.
But if suspicious dark spots have affected only part of the tuber, you can try to save gloxinia. To do this, all the blackness is cut, the wounds are treated with an antiseptic, and the tuber is planted in a good calcined primer. Also in the care of the gloxinia in the spring includes dressing. The first may contain nitrogen, which helps build green mass. In subsequent nitrogen should be much less than potassium, phosphorus and magnesium.
Transplanted Gloxinia 1 time per year, after a period of rest. Signal for transplant will serve small shoots on the tuber. Such processes appear at different times, but usually from February to April.
Before planting, the plant is removed from the old pot and cut off all dry roots. Then it is necessary to wash the tuber with warm water. If there are damages or rotten places on the tuber, they should be cut with a sharp knife, and the cut must be treated with crushed coal. Before planting the tuber, a drainage of small stones is poured in the first layer of the pot, then the prepared soil. The tuber is planted in a small hole and the earth is poured on top of it to cover two thirds of the height of the tuber. After transplanting it is necessary to water the plant. Watering should be only on the edge, so as not to fill the entire tuber.
Reproduction of Gloxinia at home is carried out with the help of seeds, cuttings or division of a tuber.
Experienced growers believe that the most healthy and blooming specimens are obtained from seeds.
Growing Gloxinia from seed is best done in the period from November to February. Seeds are sown in wide bowls, with nutrient, breathable soil. After sowing, flat dish needs to be covered with glass, a can or a plastic bag and grown at room temperature. The shelf life of seeds should not exceed 3 years, the time of emergence directly depends on it. Usually the first shoots appear in 2-4 weeks. When sprouts appear strong 2 leaves, plants can dive into the dish.
The second pick is made when several pairs of leaflets appear. The third picking is done when all the leaves are already well developed and the seedlings are transplanted into a bowl at a distance of 12 cm from each other. When the plants begin to touch each other with leaves, they can already be seated in separate pots. With proper care, flowering occurs within 7 months after sowing.
Размножение Глоксинии с помощью черенков самый распространенный способ. Черенок должен быть не более 4–5 см. Перед посадкой черенок опускают в теплую кипяченую воду, для образования корней.
Для укоренения черенка нужен рыхлый грунт. В середине горшочка проделываем лунку диаметром не более 4 см и насыпаем туда влажный песок. Черенок высаживают в песок и накрывают пленкой или стеклянной банкой. Most effectively, the roots will be formed by soil heating, so the cutting can be put on the sunny side of the house. The jar can be removed when the tubers start to form on the cuttings. Usually the tubers begin to appear within a month after rooting.
Reproduction using tubers produced in the spring. An overgrown tuber should be divided into several parts with a sharp knife. Each part must have 1-2 processes.
Tuber slices should be sprinkled with crushed coal, and parts of the tuber should be planted in separate pots. After planting the tuber, the flower is not disturbed for several days and is not watered. This breeding method is quite risky if you are going to grow a very valuable variety. There is a possibility that delenki will not take root, because fresh cuts most often entail fungal diseases.
Reproduction leaf cuttings
The most common and easy way to reproduce gloxinia. For this suitable young leaves, taken in the period of budding.
- The scape should not be very long (3-4 cm).
- If the sheet got in a sluggish state, then it can be allowed to "swim", briefly immersed in water - turgor will be restored.
- Leaf easily gives roots in boiled water at a temperature of 20-25 ° C, and can be rooted in a suitable substrate.
- For rooting, they take loose nutrient soil, make a hole in the middle of the pot with a diameter of about 3 cm and fill it with the same depth and wet river sand.
- Stalk is planted in the sand and covered with a jar.
More efficiently, the roots are formed by soil heating, so the rooting cutting is kept on a sunny window sill, covering the leaves from direct sunlight. A jar can be removed when nodules begin to form at the ends of the stem, this usually occurs one month after the beginning of rooting.
Reproduction by division of the tuber
In the spring they take a heavily grown tuber and cut it into pieces with a sharp knife. Each part should have 1-2 shoots. Tuber slices are sprinkled with crushed coal, and parts of the tuber are seated in separate pots. At the same time after planting the tuber of his day two do not water. This method is quite risky when breeding valuable varieties. There is a possibility that delenki will not survive, as fresh sections are the gateway for the penetration of fungal diseases.
Reproduction shoots (stepchildren)
In the spring on one nodule quite a few shoots can form. Usually 2-3 of the strongest are left, and the rest are removed.
After repeated flowering, the emerging stepchildren can also be used for breeding. All these sprouts are rooted in the usual way in water and planted in separate pots. The shoots and stepchildren bloom in the same year.
Seeds are sown in November - February in broad bowls, covered with leaf earth, it is possible to coniferous, heather mixed with sand. Sowing is not thick, not buried in the soil and not sprinkled with earth. The dish is covered with glass and kept at a temperature not lower than 22 degrees.
- Seed germination depends on storage time, it should not exceed 3 years from the time of collection.
- Shoots usually appear 2 weeks after sowing.
- When the first 2 leaves become clearly distinguishable in a sprout, they dive into the flatbed at a distance of 2 cm from each other.
- The second pick is made when the seedlings have a third pair of leaves, they are seated at a distance of 5 cm from each other.
- The third pick is done when three pairs of leaves are already well developed, while the seedlings are also planted in a common box at a distance of 10 cm from each other.
- When young bushes begin to touch each other with leaves, they can already be seated in pots with a diameter of 12 cm.
The flowering of young gloxinia with proper care can begin as early as 7 months after sowing.
Possible problems with the content of gloxinia
Gloxinia can be affected by whitefly, mealybug, thrips, spider web and cyclamen mite, nematode. And also the development of fungal diseases, rot can occur.
The greatest problems in the care of gloxinia are fungal diseases, which are caused by rapid temperature changes, dampness in the room, excessive watering, contaminated planting material and equipment. With the defeat of the stems and leaves on them appear dead or watery spots, the stem darkens, becomes soft. In this case, it is necessary to remove all the affected parts of the plant, process the plant and the soil with special solutions of "Trichodermine", "Maxima", "Fitosporin".
When the tuber decays, a loss of leaf turgor occurs in the plant; At this stage, you can try pereoboreni top or leaves of the plant. The tuber must be dug, inspected, removed the affected places, kept in the “Maxim” solution according to the instructions and dried well. After that, the tuber can again be planted and watered very carefully.
Gloxinia are often susceptible to various diseases. Consider the most frequent diseases and their causes.
- Tuber softens and begins to rot. The reasons: cold water, too abundant, no drainage. Need to: reduce watering, use warm water for it, ensure good drainage.
- Leaf blades crinkle, the tips become brown. It happens with dry air and too high temperature. Need to: increase the humidity by more frequent spraying or put a pan with water.
- Buds do not open. The reasons: dry air or constant drafts. Need to: increase humidity, find another place for a flower.
- Leaves turn pale, the edges are turning brown. Cause: insufficient lighting.
- Growth and development slows downi, the leaf blades go down. Cause: lack of heat, temperature below 17 degrees.
- Too raised leaf blades. The reasons: lack of lighting or hot air.
- Appearance of brown spots on leaf blades. Cause: watering with cold water.
- The appearance of gray bloom on the plant. Cause: powdery mildew or gray mold. It is necessary: to remove the affected leaves and flowers, process the plant with a fungicide.
- Leaves curled, dry, cracks and streaks appear on the cuttings. The reasons: Fusarium caused by too much watering.
- Red leaf blades. Cause: phosphorus deficiency.
- Discoloration of leaves. Cause: lack of magnesium.
And for those who like to know more, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with a detailed video about the care and reproduction of gloxinia.
DISEASES AND PESTS
The most dangerous are fungal diseases. The development of the disease contributes to a sharp temperature drop, drafts, dampness and very abundant watering. With the defeat of plants on the leaves spots appear, the stem may darken.
In the event of a disease, you should remove all the affected parts of the flower and process it with a special solution "Fitosporin". When the tuber decays, the turgor of the leaves is lost. In this situation, you can try to re-root the flower. Tuber should be dug and inspected, then remove the affected places. Then the tuber is kept in a solution of "Maxim" and well dried.
First cycle: rest period
Unfortunately, the whole year you will not be able to contemplate not only the magnificent flowers of this plant, but also its leaves. In the autumn, in October-November, the owners begin to notice that gloxinia, which was taken care of in high-quality conditions, ceases to consume water intensively, the leaves gradually dry out. This indicates the beginning of the dormant period, which is observed in tuberous plants.
At this time, watering will have to stop, the pot with gloxinia is moved to a dark and dry place (with a temperature of about 12 degrees) and wait until the stem and leaves dry and fall, then remove them.
- On the tuber, which now needs to be cleared from the ground, after that there remains a small “stump”.
- Planting material should be treated with antiseptic and stored in a dark dry place with a temperature of up to + 12, well poured vermiculite or other similar means.
- So gloxinia, whose home care is temporarily suspended, will last from one to three months.
- Previously, it is not recommended to allow germination of a plant, otherwise it will grow weakened, and certainly will not bloom.
During the dormant period, the plant also needs to be taken care of - a couple of times a month spray tubers with a fungicide dissolved in water, up to a third of the depth.
Second cycle: planting tubers
In February, the tubers are taken out of the boxes, and the next stage of the life cycle begins - the growth of ground parts. The nodules are pulled from the place where they were stored, and then planted in the soil, distributed in small pots, whose diameter is 9-14 cm. Do not forget to process the future flower so that the harmful rot does not destroy it. Planting material should not be submerged into the soil by more than a third.
Tubercles are immersed in the ground no more than 1/3 of the depth
Gloxinia gradually begins to wake up in the earth.
When a gloxinia tuber, home care for which requires adherence to a multitude of conditions, begins to sprout, it is necessary to remove the weak copies and leave the 3-4 strongest ones. After this procedure, we wait a day and cover the nodules with soil, pour them over and leave in place with suitable lighting.
Third cycle: bloom
When several pairs of leaves appear on a fresh stem, buds should be formed. The number of future flowers depends on the quality of care. Under all conditions, gloxinia can bloom and twice a season.
What soil to plant gloxinia?
Gloxinia, the photo of the care for which you can see in various illustrations, is not very demanding on the composition of the soil, but you cannot do without controlling acidity with this plant.
Acidic soils do not fit a delicate flower, the pH should be from 5.5 to 6.5.
A mixture of peat, leaf soil and sand is well suited to gloxinia, and home care will be easier for her if the soil where she is planted is loose, well penetrated by air. A suitable ratio of components in this case is 1: 1: 0.5.
Humus or manure will also not be redundant in this soil. Add 200 grams of these natural fertilizers for every 5 liters, and you get a strong and beautiful plant quickly enough.
The soil must be sanitized.
Do not forget the drainage and take care of the width of the pot for the Brazilian beauty. The roots of the flower grow in breadth, so the best solution will be an option with a margin that will allow the plant to develop fully, and you will not be forced to transplant.
Young tubers should be planted in pots with a height of 7-10 cm, planting material larger than 11-15 cm deep will be suitable for planting material. The material can be natural (clay) or artificial (plastic).
How to get from gloxinia second for the flowering season
If you really want gloxinia to bloom again, and this allows for the time of year, you can make the plant blossom again. To do this, cut the leaves, leaving the plant 2, a maximum of 3 pairs. After such a “operation,” gloxinia begins to build them up again, and at the same time throws out new flower stalks.
The recovery process lasts about a month and a half. This is important to take into account, because gloxinia must necessarily have time to re-bloom and retire, which should last four months.
Gloxinia leaf reproduction
Reproduction of gloxinia and one leaf blade without a cutting is also possible. To do this, cut a healthy leaf and incise it along the central vein between the branches.
Next, the sheet is laid cuts down on the moistened peat or sand and cover with a package. "Cubs" gloxinium formed from notches on the sheet. Repot them in pots with the appearance of more than 3 true leaves.
With proper care, the tropical beauty gloxinia can live up to 10 years, delighting its owners with colorful blooms. Moreover, the older and more developed the plant, the more flowers it will have on it. Sometimes their number reaches 50 pieces!
- Gloxinia leaves on brown spots - this indicates water ingress on them, as well as the use of too cold water for irrigation.
- Gloxinia leaves turn yellow - a sign of over-dried or too humid air, direct sunlight or an excess of fertilizer.
- Gloxinia leaves curl - this occurs when excessive feeding and when exposed to drafts.
- Elongated pale leaves - a sign of lack of lighting.
- A bloom of gray on the flowers and leaves - this indicates the defeat of the plant gray mold.
- The flowers remain hidden under the leaves - this happens when the light day is short or the temperature is too low.
Types and varieties
Gloxinia is a tropical perennial herb. In its wild form, the flower grows in Mexico and South America, from where European colonizers brought it to the Old World in the second half of the 19th century. The peculiarity of its root system is the presence of a pronounced tuber, which during the wintering period can even be dug up and kept cool until spring, like potatoes. The leaves growing from the root in the form of a rosette are soft, fleshy, covered with small hairs. The stem is short but thick. Gloxinia flowers vary depending on the variety.
The most common types of gloxinia:
- Royal (purple flowers),
- Avante (white petals),
- Tigrin Red (bright red),
- Hollywood (dark purple),
- Yesenia (pink velvet flowers),
- Kaiser Wilhelm (black and purple flowers with white border),
- Blanche de Meru (flowers elongated pink)
- Shahane (domestic variety with bright purple small flowers),
- Anfisa (pink petals with white spots).
Requirements for soil and pot
Plant a flower in the soil, composed of 1 part turf land, 1 part leaf humus, 1 part simple garden soil and 1 part sand, preferably coarse-grained river. If it is not possible to provide such a variety of substrates, then the soil taken from the meadow, from under the linden or birch, as well as the purchase composition, which is best diluted with ordinary earth in the ratio of one to one, will do. Sometimes adding a small amount of sawdust or perlite to the mixture is justified. The decision on making baking powder is made on the basis of the consistency of the obtained soil. It should be light, breathable and crumbly.
An important condition is to ensure good drainage. In the bottom of the pot must be a hole. At 15-25% of the height of the pot should be filled with pebbles, rubble, fragments of pottery, or at least small stones.
Ideally, the water should wet the soil well, be easily absorbed and easily flow out of the drainage hole.
Watering, fertilizing and fertilizer
In terms of fertilizers, gloxinia is not too demanding. Theoretically, it can not be fertilized at all, but then it is unlikely to please the owners with abundant flowering. During the spring and summer, it is possible from time to time, but not more than twice a month, to apply universal complex fertilizers for indoor plants. Feeding should be stopped in mid-August, which is associated with the approaching cold season.
As for watering, it is important to respect the measure. Young plants, the root system of which has not yet fully covered the earthen room, are prone to root rot and fungal diseases. However, even adult specimens often suffer from the Gulf. The best way to avoid this is to lay a drainage on the bottom of the pot and correctly make an earthen mixture, which will be discussed further. If possible, it is better to water the flower with warm water.
Optimal conditions of detention
Another feature of gloxinia: unlike many other indoor plants, it does not need spraying, although moist air loves and grows somewhat faster if there are many sources of moisture evaporation around it. Unfortunately, the benefits of a few pots of water are almost imperceptible. It is better to put Gloxinia on the window sill, where other indoor plants are already placed: green leaves emit moisture well. If desired, you can add moss in some large pots.
Gloxinia prefers light not diffuse, but rather intense and long-lasting. A great option is to put the pot on the south, east or west window for a very thin or mesh curtain. Long-term exposure to direct sunlight, especially when coupled with careless watering, can leave sunburn on the leaves. For this reason, try to water under the root, rather than sprinkling.
Do not place the plant where drafts are possible. When supercooling leaves become lowered, as if sluggish. If at the same time they lose their saturated green color, then this may indicate either overcooling of the root system or processes of decay that began in the soil.
If buds do not bloom, the cause may be drafts and cold water.
If it is possible, then it is better to keep gloxinia in the winter months in a cool, bright room with a temperature of + 10 ... +17 degrees. This will allow the tuber to rest, gain strength and "shoot" in the spring, which increases the chances of abundant and beautiful flowering. Just do not be afraid of falling leaves when moving the plant in the cool: with the retreat of winter from the tuber will grow new shoots.
Trimming and transplanting
Вопреки ошибочным утверждениям, не стоит срезать практически все листья – в этом просто нет смысла. Утверждается, что после радикальной обрезки из клубня начинают расти пасынки, которые в дальнейшем должны обильно цвести. Это не совсем так. Пасынки, конечно, вырастут, но можно обойтись без этих жертв. Зато чрезмерное удаление листьев чревато загниванием корней, которым нечего станет питать. By the way, towards the end of summer it is often possible to achieve the second wave of flowering, which, however, is not as intense as the first.
When transplanting the size of the dishes are selected under the volume of the root system. Freshly rooted leaves are planted in the smallest pots. Older plants are selected capacity, the volume of which is equal to or slightly more than the volume occupied by straightened roots. Intensively growing specimens roll over into a slightly larger container each year at the beginning of the growing season.
Remember: too large pot is a risk factor in terms of flooding and root decay!
Gloxinia bloomed, what to do next?
Blossoms from March to August. Gloxinia flower holds about a month, after which the shriveled pedicel can be safely cut. When gloxinia disappeared, not everyone knows what to do next. The first thing you need to do when flowering is over is to remove the remains of flowers, weak and too “fat” leaves. The latter, by the way, can be used for breeding.
What to do if mistakes are made in the care of gloxinia? With progressive signs of baying and rotting of the roots, the flower needs to be transplanted. It is necessary to get it out of the pot, clean it from the ground, remove rotten roots and leaves that are too weak and plant in a new light soil. "Resuscitation" soil composition should contain more coarse sand and baking powder than the standard. After that, the plant is watered moderately, tightly covered with a transparent plastic bag and stored in partial shade until it grows. Air mini-greenhouse can be 1-2 times a week. With a favorable outcome, it can be gradually removed.
How to calculate rotten roots? They are diagnosed on several grounds, and let's start with the most obvious. If the spine easily detaches from the taproot, then it is 100% rotted. If it does not come off completely, but as if it exfoliates, then this is also a sure sign of his death. This root is cut either to the healthy part, or to the branch point. Less obvious signs are black or dark brown root color and putrid odor. Healthy portions are light brown or even white. In advanced cases, the root system is so rotten that nothing is left of it. The only course of action in this case is to take the preserved leaves and try to root them.
This method is the most difficult and risky, since there is a danger of rotting a tuber after its cutting. It is recommended to divide dormant large tubers without rot and damage. It is better to cut them in no more than two pieces. Places cuts sprinkled with coal.
You can propagate gloxinia and stem cuttings, only this method is complicated by the fact that their length is very small. Therefore, it is rarely resorted to. The technology is the same as when rooting leaves: the stalk is placed in coarse-grained wet sand and tightly covered with a mini-wig. The appearance of the first roots can be expected in a month.
Pests, diseases and treatments
Gloxinia is rarely affected by pests. Sometimes it is attacked by a red spider mite. These insects look like small red dots on the surface of a leaf plate. They should never be allowed to breed! First, you can try to bring the tick to Fitoverm, but if it turns out to be too much, you will have to resort to more powerful tools: Omayt, Oberon, Sunmite.
Of the diseases, gloxinia often suffers from root rot. It is treated by replacing the earthen coma and watering the plant with a weak solution of Fitosporin.
In general, the cultivation of gloxinia on the windowsill does not cause much trouble. This is an excellent ornamental plant with beautiful flowers, which, with proper care, have a more saturated color. Gloxinia is always happy to pay for a good attitude towards itself with abundant and lush blooms.
Lighting conditions for growing Gloxinia and caring for it.
Like all members of the family, home gloxinia loves an abundance of light, but direct sunlight does not have the best effect on the condition of the plant. Quite dense pubescent castings can dry out, the flowers wither much ahead of time. Therefore, caring for the gloxinia, she chose a place according to the season and climatic zone.
For example, in spring the flower grows beautifully and picks up color on the southern window, but on summer days and at the peak of flowering here it will need shading. In the heat, it is optimal to place pots with gloxinia on the east or even western windows, where the maximum intensity of the sun appears only in the evening or morning hours.
In this case, we must not forget that the lack of light in the care of gloxinia threatens:
- pulling interstitial,
- loss of decorative foliage,
- reduction in the quality of flowering or complete abandonment of budding,
- pale foliage and drop-down colors.
To make the plant comfortable in the conditions created, it is provided with a light day lasting 12-14 hours.
It is especially important to observe this rule during the period when the tuber is just rooted and leaves appear above the substrate surface. Special lamps for illumination will help in this.
Microclimate for the care and cultivation of gloxinia
Rooting of the tuber takes place at a temperature of 24–25 ° C. When gloxinia forms the first leaves, the temperature is reduced to 22 ° C during the day.
Night air can be even 4–5 ° C cooler. If the room is hotter and the plant lacks light, which often happens when the buds are picked at the end of winter, even with proper care, gloxinia is drawn out, losing some of the decorativeness, flowers and leaves on long petioles become smaller.
The lower temperature limit for gloxinia is 18 ° C. In colder air, the plant slows down the growing season, and if you do not adjust the care of gloxinia at home in time, it can die. It is just as detrimental for a plant during the growing season and flowering a prolonged rise in temperature above 28 ° C.
In addition to the temperature in the room, the gloxinia is important air humidity in the range of 60-80%. About the discomfort associated with excessive dry air, say lowered down, slightly tucked leaf plates.
How to care for gloxinia, if the room has heating and air humidity much lower than the recommended values? The pubescent leaves of a plant do not tolerate spraying, often used to humidify the air. Therefore, in this case it is better to put the pots with plants on wet clay, or use household humidifiers.
If it is necessary to irrigate the crown, it is better to do it in the bathroom at night, so that in a closed dark room the leaves dry out and gloxinia gets to the window completely dry.
Planting gloxinia tuber and caring for it
Depending on the storage conditions, Gloxinia tuber starts to grow from February to March. At this time, its important:
- get from last year's substrate, clean off the remnants of old roots and soil,
- for half an hour, hold with a weakly pink solution of potassium permanganate or process with any available systemic fungicide,
- immerse in a solution of heteroauxin or another growth stimulator for 12–24 hours so that the growth point in the recess is not exposed to the drug.
Most often it is at the planting stage and the subsequent, as in the photo, care for gloxinia at home, there is the greatest risk of losing tubers. This happens because of their decay. Therefore, in the pot they must make a drainage not less than 3-4 cm thick, and the tuber itself is sprinkled with soil no more than a centimeter.
Pot gloxinia choose depending on the size of the tuber. A capacity of 7–9 cm in diameter will be suitable for the young specimen, and a long-flowering tuber is planted in a pot up to 15 cm wide.
A mixture of two parts of leafy ground, the same amount of peat and one share of washed sand can be recommended as a substrate. It is useful to sterilize the soil, as well as add a natural antiseptic to it, for example, a little crushed coal or sphagnum.
The planted tuber is covered with a film or a package and put in heat on a well-lit place. In such a shelter, the plant remains for several days, during which, apart from regular airing, special home gloxinia care is not required.
Irrigation mode in the care of gloxinia at home
Watering the care of the gloxinia and growing it from a tuber is best done through a pan or along the very edge of the pot.
It is extremely dangerous if the moisture gets on the core of the tuber, or on the young fragile foliage. The sun can leave irreversible burns, and the cool air in combination with water leads to the appearance of foci of rot.
Water for irrigation should be separated and 2-3 ° C warmer than indoor air. When moisture is absorbed into the soil, after half an hour, its remnants are removed from the tray under the pot.
The interval between irrigation is selected so that during the passing of time the soil lump almost dried. At the same time, during a cold spell or a long period of rain, it is possible to moisten the substrate while caring for the gloxinia flower at home much less often.
Top dressing in the care of gloxinia
The rapid growth of foliage and lush flowering is impossible without additional support. Gloxinia every two weeks alternately fed organic and mineral fertilizers. It is best to carry out this procedure in the evening or during the day, as well as in cloudy weather, so that the sun does not damage the growth zone and foliage of the plant.
Before the appearance of buds, besides organic matter, the plant feels the need for nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of green mass. But after the formation of buds, nitrogen entering the soil is restricted and transferred to phosphorus-potassium supplements. They enhance flowering, and trace elements help maintain a high decorative plants.
When the mass flowering is completed, within the framework of regular care, gloxinia in two weeks, fertilize twice with potash-phosphorus agent. This measure will help the tuber to prepare for "hibernation."
Gloxinia care during rest
The completion of the growing season of gloxinia falls in the middle of autumn.
When the above-ground part dies off, the tuber gradually goes into a state of "hibernation", ceasing to develop and consume moisture. At this time it is important to first reduce and then completely stop watering.
For the entire period of rest, as in the photo, care for gloxinia at home is changing. First of all, the tuber is important to ensure safe storage. Do this in one of two ways:
- the pot is transferred to a cool room where the air is no warmer than 10–15 ° C, and sometimes moistened to prevent the tubers from drying out,
- after the extinction of the leaves, the tubers are removed from the ground, cleaned and poured with sand or sawdust are placed in the cold.
In the second case, the storage temperature of gloxinia tubers is 5–8 ° C, and the substrate in which they are located must be dry or barely wet, otherwise rot and mold will not be avoided. This storage method is convenient because the planting material does not take up much space, and the care of gloxinia is reduced to inspecting sleeping tubers.
What does care for gloxinia include?
Care includes several aspects. The organization of temperature and light conditions, watering, feeding, transplanting - all this for each flower individually. Growing gloxinia at home is not particularly time consuming or difficult. However, it has certain features that the florist needs to know about. Especially if you only learn to grow indoor plants.
Many abundantly flowering plants are light-loving. In this regard, gloxinia is no exception. She loves an abundance of light, and only under this condition gives a lot of buds. However, there is one condition: the light from the sun should not be direct. In no case should you keep the plant pot in the window on the south side. More suitable diffused light. This requires a light curtain, which will not pass all the sun's rays, or a place where direct sunlight does not fall. Windows on the east or west side of the house would be ideal. Also suitable rack with artificial lighting.
The plant is quite moisture-loving. However, just pouring a lot of water is not the best way to care. Water gloxinia need, following the four rules.
- Watering is carried out only when the top layer of the soil has become dry.
- In no case should water be poured onto the plant itself, but only along the edge of the pot.
- An even better option is to simply pour water into the pan. Through the holes in the bottom it will moisten the soil. After a few hours, if the water still remains in the pan, it must be drained, since the excess can cause harm.
- More active watering requires a plant during flowering.
In addition, additional moistening of the ground part is necessary so that it is healthy and juicy. Use for this spray, as with some other plants, it is not necessary. Drops on the leaf surface may harm them. Better place a bowl of water near the pot. You can use wet clay in the tank.
The most beautiful gloxinia bloom is cap-shaped, when the bells form an abundant large cap. However, this is not always the case. Good flowering plant will be only with the right light, good soil and timely feeding. If all conditions are met, then from spring to autumn, gloxinia will be pleasing to the eye with its opening buds.
The beginning of flowering occurs in April-May. Usually in April, when the buds are laid and flower stalks form, nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers are needed. And already in the period of rapid flowering - only phosphate. However, it is often not necessary to feed, just one or two times a month.
Care of gloxinia during flowering is, in addition to feeding, in the right watering - abundant, but without surplus. And also in the good organization of lighting. Light day should last at least 14 hours.
Gloxinia blooms all summer. If, with proper care, for some reason the flowering stopped, you can stimulate the plant. To do this, you must perform five steps.
- Cut the leaves, leaving only a couple of the lowest.
- After a few days, swollen buds will appear in the axils, and then sprouts.
- Choose one or two of the most powerful, pinch the rest.
- Feed nitrogen fertilizer to enhance growth.
- Wait until the buds appear, feed with phosphorus to improve flowering.
During the rest period
After completion of flowering, in deep autumn, a dormant period begins, which lasts until the end of winter. When the foliage begins to turn yellow, you need to reduce watering. After complete drying of the ground part, it is completely stopped. There are two ways of wintering the tubers - in a pot and with digging. The procedure for preparation and storage is described in detail in the table below.
Table - Description of wintering methods for gloxinia tubers
If during the winter the tuber has enough heat and moisture, it can sprout. Here you need to evaluate how strong the root is. If powerful, sprout must be carefully removed. If weak and small, the removal of a sprout can ruin a plant. Then it is better to plant it in the ground and let it grow.
Selection of soil and capacity
It is better to choose a ready soil. The most suitable labeling is “For violets”. However, it is necessary to bring it as close as possible to the needs of Gloxinia. Therefore, it takes a little baking powder - a handful per liter of soil. Vermiculite, perlite or sphagnum can act as a disintegrant. You can make a soil mix yourself. It should include several components.
- Earth (three parts). This is the foundation of the soil. It is desirable to take it from under any street trees, except for oak.
- Sand (two parts). Promotes better penetration of moisture, prevents caking.
- Peat (three parts). Makes the mixture more friable, convenient for the plant to obtain nutrients and moisture.
- Humus or rotted manure (100 g per 2-3 liters of mixture). Will serve as fertilizer. You can not make this component, but then a week after disembarkation, you need to start feeding. According to the reviews, it is best to take fertilizer for flowering plants.
"Moving" to the new pot
In January-February, new buds appear on the tubers. If this does not happen, the plant should be placed in a warm, lit room. Even if the plant wintered in a pot, but not in a package, it needs to be transplanted with the start of the next season. A new soil and, possibly, a new tank is needed if the old one has become small. Transplant gloxinia need in seven stages.
- Wait for the first shoots to appear. Then get the tuber from the ground or a package of sawdust, shake off the remnants of the soil, remove the old root shoots. Wash under running water.
- Rotted, dried out cut places. A sharp knife is used. Sections should be sprinkled with coal dust. If most of the root has deteriorated, it is better to throw it away.
- Prepare a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Water should be warm. Put there tubers for half an hour.
- Place the planting material in the ground. Sprinkle lightly with earth, cover with foil. The soil mixture in the pot should be about two thirds of the volume.
- Daily clean film. About an hour. It is important for airing.
- Remove the film completely. When there will be two good strong leaves. Cover the ground so that the tuber is well covered.
- Поливать умеренно и осторожно . Не допускать попадания воды на листья и клубень.
Все описанное необходимо учесть и тем, кто не знает, как ухаживать за глоксинией после покупки. Если растение было приобретено во время периода покоя, но перед наступлением весны, нужно его «разбудить» и посадить. Если же куплена цветущая глоксиния, то ухаживать следует по всем правилам до осени. Replanting a flowering plant is not necessary.
Gloxinia is also good because it can be propagated in several ways: leaves, cuttings, parts of the tuber, seeds. Ways are unequal in terms of complexity and effectiveness, but they provide an opportunity to choose the most convenient option.
- New plant from the leaf. It is believed that to propagate Gloxinia leaf easier. Choose a sturdy leaf with a stem. Carefully cut off at the root. Put in the water for about a week or immediately planted in wet ground. Roots will start to appear from the bottom of the stem. In either case, the new plant is covered with a film when it is planted in the ground, the container is placed in a warm, lit room. New sockets may not appear soon - in about a month.
- With the help stem stem. Requires the upper part of the stem of the plant. Approximately 3 cm it will be immersed in the soil, preferably the presence of several leaves. With these requirements and cut the cuttings. Planting material is placed in a moistened primer. If the tip is cut from a powerful plant, then a medium-sized pot is needed, about 10 cm in diameter. After planting, the sprout is covered with a package, it is removed after about a month. All this time you need to remember about moisture and airing.
- Reproduction by seeds. Grow gloxinia from seeds is not easy. Usually the method is used when they want to get a new variety. To do this, pollinate flowers from different plants, waiting for the seed box. As soon as it starts to burst, cut off the box, dry it in a small container. At the end of winter prepare the ground. Seeds are mixed with sand or scattered over the surface. Cover with foil. Moisten with a spray. You need enough heat and light. Sprouts appear in two to four weeks. A month later, the plants dive, planted at a distance of 1-2 cm. After another month and a half, the seedlings are planted in separate pots.
- Division of the tuber. Use it when there is no other option. For a plant it is quite traumatic, the flower can get sick for a long time and take root. The division is carried out when there are sprouts of at least 2 cm. It is necessary that at least one germ remains on each part. Cut the tuber with a sharp disinfected knife. Sections are sprinkled with coal dust. Place the tubers in a moist soil. There should not be an excess of moisture so that the plant does not rot.
The reasons for which there are no flowers
It's a shame when the expectations of a beautiful abundant bloom are not met. There may be various reasons. Gloxinia usually does not bloom due to five errors in care.
- Wrong care. Too cold or lack of moisture in the soil and air. With a deficit of light, flowering may also be absent.
- Old plant If the tuber is many years old, you need to water it more abundantly.
- Soil infestation by pests. It is necessary to replace the ground.
- Draft. Or low temperature. The flower reacts to this not only by the absence of bells, but also by twisting the leaves.
- Unsuitable capacity. Too big, as well as a deep pot may require much strength from gloxinia to grow. They are not left to bloom.
In addition to the lack of flowering, the growth of gloxinia may cause other problems. Let us dwell on the five most common.
- Dry buds during flowering. The reason is a lack of moisture. For the same reason, the plants dry leaves. It is necessary to put wide cups, bowls of water next to the flower pot, more often splash out of the sprayer near the gloxinia.
- Buds wither and turn black, flowers do not bloom. The reason may be in the abundance of buds. The plant simply does not have enough strength, and it sheds flowers. It is necessary to feed it with a complex composition with the presence of phosphorus and potassium. Redness of the leaves also points to the lack of these elements.
- Leaves lose color, become faded. This is a lack of magnesium. It is necessary to use fertilizer with this element.
- The leaves turn yellow. The reason may be excessive watering, as well as the need for nitrogen. Need to use the appropriate means.
- Brown spots appear on the leaves. Most likely, this is the effect of a draft or cold water. It is necessary to rearrange the plant, water only with warm water.