Corn belongs to unpretentious crops that can be grown without specific experience and knowledge. However, to get a good harvest, you still need to know how to properly care for this plant. It is very important to choose the right variety to get the maximum yield. Note that some varieties grow best in the southern regions, and some varieties should be grown only in the northern regions.
Which grade to choose
To the most popular varieties include the following:
- “Dobrynya” is an early variety that is distinguished by large ears and a sweet taste. This variety is well resisted by diseases such as mosaic, rust and fusarium. Seeds of this variety are particularly popular as they have good resistance to fungal diseases.
- "Gourmand 121" - this sort of sweetness in no way inferior to "Dobryna". This variety of corn has a high yield and good immunity to various diseases. Cobs can be eaten, even when they are at the stage of milky ripeness. Such corn is great for conservation.
- "Early Gold 4011" - mid-season variety, the ears grow to 19 cm in length. Seeds of this variety can be planted directly in open ground. Care - minimal, just water and remove the weeds. Seeds can be planted even after a year of storage.
- "Spirit F11" - sweet corn, the first crop, which can be harvested within 2 months after the appearance of the first shoots.
Planting corn in open ground: soil preparation
Before planting, be sure to prepare the ground. Please note that the landing site should not be blown by the winds, and the water should not stagnate. Otherwise, the yield may be significantly reduced. Soil should begin to prepare in the fall. The preparatory work consists of the following stages:
- dig the ground, it is necessary for the root system to have the right amount of oxygen, as well as the necessary space for normal growth,
- apply fertilizer, pay attention to the fact that the soil is neutral or slightly acidic.
This culture is quite unpretentious to fertilizers, so you can use humus, nitrogen mixtures, as well as fertilizers based on potassium or phosphorus for feeding. Such supplements help speed up the growing season.
In the fall and spring the ground follows herbicide. In order to prevent the need to also carry out the treatment with fungicides and special insecticides. Such preventive actions should be carried out every year.
How and when to enrich the soil
Fertilizer is best after digging. For feeding you will need 0.5 buckets of humus or compost, 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate and 1.5 tbsp. spoons of potassium sulfate. This amount of fertilizer corresponds to 1 square meter.
During the growing season the plant should be fed with various organic fertilizers.
At the cottage, planting corn is needed not only to produce fruits, but also to create shade for other vegetables. And this plant can be a support for beans or beans. Pumpkin will be a good neighbor for corn, as its leaves will protect the soil from overheating and drought.
When to plant corn
Terms of planting corn seeds depend on the method of cultivation of this culture. In order to get good seedlings, seeds are sown in late April – early May, and already at the end of May – early June, seedlings can be planted in the ground after returning frosts.
With a non-seedling method, that is, direct sowing of corn seeds in open ground, planting is done when the weather is established on the street with a temperature of at least +10 0 C (mid-May).
It is clear that these planting periods may concern gardeners in the cold zones of the Urals and Siberia, and in warmer regions, planting usually occurs two weeks earlier.
Growing maize seedlings allows you to harvest 2 ... 3 weeks earlier than with direct sowing in the ground, but it is a more laborious process, so the choice remains for the gardener.
Some summer residents grow certain varieties using seedlings, for example, horsing, and others - in open ground, and thus stretch the corn season, gradually collecting and consuming the fruit.
Preparation of soil and tanks for planting
Nutrient substrate for corn can be bought ready (on the basis of peat) in a gardening shop, and you can prepare it from the improvised elements by mixing compost, peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1, respectively, with the addition of ash and complex mineral fertilizers. It is recommended to plant seeds immediately in separate pots, so you must first stock up with cups: plastic or peat. It is advisable to buy just the latter, since corn does not like transplant, and peat pots will go to the ground together with seedlings, and the plants will more easily endure stress. If, however, plastic containers are chosen, they must have a drainage hole at the bottom.
In each cup, with a finger or the back of a fork, they make a hole no more than 4 cm deep and spill. Then they are placed in the seeds and covered with earth. Once again, they spill and wait for the emergence of corn seedlings at a temperature of 20 ... 23 0 C. It is possible to plant in pots not one grain, but two or three, and after the appearance of two leaves, thin out by choosing the strongest and most powerful sprouts.
Care before planting in open ground
Although the seedlings will spend at home for about a month or less, it will still have to take care of its development. Corn in the early stages of development needs regular watering, and drying out of the soil has a negative effect on young plants. You also need to loosen the ground in pots, destroying the earth crust formed. One and a half weeks before landing in the ground, seedlings can be fed with a complex water-soluble fertilizer.
Planting corn seedlings in the ground
Planting is made according to the scheme of 35x70 cm, while the seedlings are buried 1 cm into the soil. Planting holes are pre-shed and planted corn one pot per well. At the same time, it is important to leave the earth ball whole and not damage the roots of the plants if the seedlings are in plastic cups. If peat, the seedlings are placed in the ground with them. After planting, the ground is slightly pressed by hands and well spilled.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
Corn prefers to grow in well-lit sunny areas with loose soils. In order for the ground to be sufficiently breathable, sand or vermiculite is introduced into it. In addition, it is desirable to add to the garden bed compost or humus, as well as complex mineral fertilizers. When choosing a place for planting corn, its height should be taken into account: since the plants are quite tall and powerful, they are usually planted along fences.
The operation of pre-soaking seeds before planting is similar to the seedling method. After that, the seeds are planted, maintaining the distance between adjacent plantings in a row and between rows according to the pattern of 35x70 cm, respectively. The depth of seeding can vary from 3 to 5 cm, depending on the soil. At the stage of emergence of eight planting sheets in corn, thin out if 2 ... 3 specimens were planted in one well.
Planting with cucumbers
Experienced gardeners grow cucumbers in the open ground next to corn, and this is not accidental: these two cultures form an excellent symbiosis: this neighborhood favorably affects the productivity of corn and cucumbers at the same time.
Firstly, corn closes cucumbers from strong winds, and secondly, it serves as a support for them: as a cucumber whip is formed, the grower wraps corn stalks around them.
Thus, cucumbers do not lie on the ground, which reduces the likelihood of their rotting. At the same time, corn does not feel any particular gravity under the fruits of cucumbers.
In general, this culture is taking root with many melon, but pumpkin whips, for example, corn is no longer a burden. With such a symbiotic planting, it is necessary to carry out timely feeding of crops, since competition for nutrients in the soil will still be actively pursued.
The planting scheme may be different, as an option, corn is planted in the middle of the garden, and cucumbers along the edges, and the distance between crops must be at least 30 cm. It is imperative that the corn overtake the cucumbers in growth.
Diseases and pests of corn
Like any vegetable crop, corn can be affected by pests and diseases. Most often, it undergoes various types of fungal diseases: root and stem rot, Fusarium and red cob rot, etc. All these diseases are caused by different types of fungi that can be brought in with untreated planting material.
In addition, corn can also be affected by the bacterioses of the cobs and leaves. They not only deprive a larger share of the crop, but also overwinter in the ground. Therefore, at the first signs of such diseases, powerful fungicides should be treated with them, and as a preventative measure of their appearance, seeds are usually soaked in their solutions before planting.
Corn also has a lot of pests: first, it is the wireworms, who belong to the particularly voracious comrades who can destroy the crop in a very short time. Moreover, if the land is not cultivated from them, then they will remain in it to live. Secondly, the caterpillars of the corn moth are very fond of planting maize, but if they are not left in the beds of debris after harvest, they freeze out over the winter. The fact is that this type of pest is able to spend the winter only in the remains of corn stalks. As a preventive measure, seeds before sowing are recommended to be treated with special preparations.
Specific dates of harvesting depend mainly on the method of planting (seedlings or in open ground) and the maturation period of the selected variety. In general, the maturity of the cobs is determined visually, focusing on the following features:
- the top wrap cob dried,
- the wrapper becomes light green in color
- stigmas dry up and get brown coloring,
- when pressed with a fingernail, milky-colored juice comes out of the grain,
- the grains themselves are bright yellow and tightly interconnected in rows.
The timely collection of corn is very important, since when it is delayed there are large losses of nutrients and varietal taste. In addition, the consistency of the grain is changing: when boiled, the corn will be hard and hard.
Corn is best stored at low positive temperatures of 0 ... + 2 0 C. In such conditions, the harvest is saved up to three weeks, and at higher storage temperatures deteriorates rather quickly. Therefore, most of the time, part of the harvest is quickly eaten, and the rest is sent for processing - canned or frozen. By the way, while corn does not lose nutrients.
How to collect your seeds
Corn for seeds was initially planted as far as possible from its common plantings, in order to prevent over-pollination. In order to obtain high-quality corn seeds, the healthiest and strongest plants are selected, and on them - the largest cobs without traces of rot and other diseases. It is better to mark them separately in some way, usually tied with a ribbon.
Here they wait for the moment of wax ripeness, and not dairy, as with standard harvesting, so they are left on the plant until the grains acquire bright yellow color and hardness (cutting of such cobs often occurs in mid-September).
After cutting, the corn cobs are sent for ripening for a couple of weeks, after which the seeds are removed and dried. Self-harvested corn seeds are stored for up to 5 years and at the same time have excellent germination.
In our time, productive varieties of corn with different ripening periods are quite large. A few of them with the best characteristics for planting in all regions of the country are listed below with brief descriptions:
Refers to the hybrid varieties of super early fruiting. The cobs ripen with a length of at least 20 cm, the grains have a delicious taste. The height of the stem reaches 1.9 m, the lower cob is laid at a height of half a meter.
Also hybrid variety. An interesting feature of this corn is a combination of purple grains and a pleasant taste. It is said that it is purple sweet corn that has a wider range of substances useful to humans, therefore, by planting such corn, you can not only decorate the garden with an unusual plant, but also get an extra dose of vitamins when consumed.
Place in the rotation
Corn has no requirements for its predecessor. Culture is not affected by common diseases with other vegetables, with the exception of Fusarium.
Beetroot, melons and legumes will be good predecessors for maize. With high-quality agricultural technology, corn can be planted in one place for several years. In the south, sweet corn is grown with a second crop after cabbage, green peas, and early potatoes.
Corn is an excellent precursor for most garden crops, especially for potatoes and root crops. Maize almost does not reduce soil fertility. The roots of the plants have an impressive size. Staying in the ground for the winter, they decompose and become a source of a large amount of humus.
How to plant corn in open ground
Answering the question of how to grow corn, it should be noted that the planting in open ground should be carried out when the soil warms to 12 ° C. The soil should be loosened just before planting.
In order for the seeds to sprout faster, their need to hold for 5 days at 35 ° C, and immediately before planting, they should be soaked in warm water.
How to care for corn in the country?
The plant should have regular watering, especially if the summer is dry. For feeding you can use different organic fertilizers. Perfect chicken or cow dung, superphosphate, and potash complexes.
Loosen the soil recommended no less than 3 times per season. Please note that if the stem is very high, then the depth of processing should be small. Otherwise, it is possible to damage the adventitious roots of the plant.
Corn should be stepson - remove the side processes. So, you will significantly increase the yield and size of the cobs. If the summer is cold, the pollination should be carried out independently. You can use the manual method or use a spray.
One of the most common diseases is loose smut. This disease occurs because of the fungus, which forms on the plant oval chumps. They can occur on stems, leaves, and on the cob. The affected areas should be removed immediately.
Sometimes there is such a disease as gelmintosporioz, which affects the ears. The reason for its occurrence is the lack of potassium. The presence of this disease is indicated by empty and light cobs. To prevent the occurrence of this disease, you should make potash fertilizers in time.
The following may attack corn pests:
To control pests should carefully dig the ground. When the pest larvae come to the surface, they die.
As a result, it should be noted that even an inexperienced vegetable grower will be able to grow corn. Planting corn is a simple matter, the main thing is to choose the right seeds and take good care.
Brief description of cultivation
- Landing. Sowing seed corn for seedlings is carried out in the first days of May, and in mid-June, the seedlings are transplanted into open ground. Sowing seeds in open soil is carried out only after it warms up to 10-12 degrees.
- Illumination. Needs lots of bright sunlight.
- Priming. Suitable weakly acid or neutral loamy, sandy or peaty soil.
- Watering. It is necessary to maintain soil moisture in the garden at a level of from 70 to 80 percent, while at one bush from one to two liters of water should be used for drip irrigation. After planting and before the 7 leaf plates form on the plants, it is necessary to water moderately, and then watering becomes more abundant and frequent. After the darkening of the threads on the cob begins, a gradual reduction of watering to moderate will be required.
- Fertilizer. Such a crop throughout the growing season until the seeds are fully matured requires nitrogen. However, most of it will need to be made during the formation of inflorescences. Potassium is needed by the plant from the beginning to the middle of the growing season, after which its amount in the fertilizer should be gradually reduced. Corn needs permanent phosphorus, but in relatively small quantities. She also needs zinc, copper, manganese and boron, with a solution of these substances you need to spray the leaves of bushes.
- Breeding. Seeds.
- Harmful insects. Wireworms, felds, moths, meadow and maize moths and oat Swedish flies.
- Diseases. Поражается фузариозом початков и всходов, гельминтоспориозом, стеблевой и питиозной корневой гнилью, красной гнилью початков, ржавчиной, пыльной и пузырчатой головней.
Сладкая кукуруза представляет собой травянистое сильнорослое растение, высота которого может доходить до трех метров и даже больше. Мочковатая система корней у кустов очень хорошо развита, и она уходит в землю на глубину от 100 до 150 см. Support air roots are sometimes formed on the lower nodes of the stems, they give the bush greater stability, and also feed it with water and the necessary elements and substances. The semi-erect, erect stem in diameter reaches up to 70 mm. Large leafy plates of a linear-lancet form can be about 10 centimeters wide, and up to 100 centimeters long. On one bush can grow from 8 to 42 leaf plates. Same-sex flowers. In the upper part of the stems, paniculate inflorescences grow, consisting of male flowers, while the female ones are on the cob, tightly surrounded by leaf-like wrappers, they grow in the leaf axils. Cob weight can vary from 0.03 to 0.5 kg, and length - from 0.04 to 0.5 m, in the diameter it can reach from 200 to 100 mm. On one bush, it rarely grows more than two cobs, from the wrappers in the upper part of which look pistillate columns, gathered in a bun, outwardly similar to a tuft of hair. Pollen from male flowers with the participation of the wind falls on these columns, which leads to fertilization, as a result large grains are formed, which are the fruits of this plant. On the cob of a cob, the weevils are placed in vertical rows, while they are very closely pressed to each other. The shape of the grains can be cubic or rounded. In one cob can form about 1000 grains, which may have a pale red, purple, yellow, blue and almost black color.
Growing corn from seed
Corn is grown exclusively from seeds, while there are two ways: seedless and through seedlings. It is possible to sow on a seedling such a plant in peat-shaped pots, 12 cm in diameter or in cassettes, and the cell volume should be 45 cm 2. To fill the containers using a substrate consisting of a well-structured turf soil, which is connected to rotted humus (1: 1). To increase the moisture capacity of the soil mixture, you can pour a little hydrogel into it, but it must be borne in mind that it can absorb up to 500 volumes of water. Thanks to the hydrogel, it will be necessary to water the seedlings 3–5 times less often, because the crystals that have absorbed the liquid, release the water gradually, while giving it to the substrate. Sowing of seeds is carried out in the first days of May, but they need mandatory preplant preparation. To do this, they should be placed for 5–7 days in moistened filter paper or cloth and left at room temperature for germination. Each cell must be sown in a pair of grains, and in a pot - 3 or 4 pieces. They are planted in the substrate to a depth of 30–40 mm, then the crops are watered with a warm solution of Fundazol (4 grams per 1 bucket of water), after which they are placed on a well-lit sill of southeast or east orientation.
Growing corn seedlings
Seedlings differ extremely slow growth. At the same time, experts advise, immediately after the emergence of shoots, additionally highlight them with a fluorescent lamp or phytolamp. During growth, shoots will need 1–2 supplements, for this you can use Terraflex, Kemira-hydra, Polyphide or Master. After the plants have 3 or 4 leaf plates formed, the seedlings must be thinned, for this, a pair of the strongest seedlings is left in each pot, and in the cells one by one, and all the excess plant must be cut with sharp scissors directly above the substrate surface. After they have formed 4 or 5 sheet plates, they begin to grow faster. When about 7 days remain before transplanting the plants into the open soil, they are hardened. To do this, shrubs every day transferred to fresh air, while you need to choose a shaded place. The increase in the duration of such procedures should be gradual, with a week later they should already be on the street around the clock.
Corn seedlings do not pick picking, as the seedlings react extremely negatively to this procedure.
What time to land
Corn seedlings are transplanted in the first half of June, while the threat of recurrent frosts should be left behind. You should also remember that if the air temperature drops to 3 degrees, it will slow down the growth of seedlings, or it may stop altogether. If the street is even colder, then it will cause the death of seedlings. Such a plant is distinguished by its thermophilicity; therefore, in order to grow it, it is necessary to choose a well-lit area that has reliable protection from wind gusts.
Best of all, such a crop grows in loose, nutritious, air- and moisture-permeable chernozem, while its best predecessors are: potatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, cabbage, beets, tomatoes and squash. Preparation of the site should be done in the autumn, for this purpose all weed grass is removed from it, deep digging is carried out, and rotted manure is introduced into the soil. If the soil is excessively heavy, then in the springtime it must be loosened, for this purpose sawdust or straw is cut into it, then the surface must be leveled.
Rules for landing in open ground
When the plot is prepared, planting pits should be made on it, and the distance between them should be about 0.5 m. Then, the seedlings should be watered well and gently rolled into the holes along with a clod of earth. Try to ensure that the clod of the land is not damaged during the landing, as this may cause the bush to take root poorly.
The planting scheme should use one that should take into account the peculiarities of the development of corn. Row spacing should be equal to 150 cm, while later they can be planted melon crops. In order to improve photosynthesis, bushes in the adjacent rows should be planted in a checkerboard pattern. In addition, this planting scheme is very convenient for using drip irrigation.
Inexperienced gardeners believe that corn is undemanding to care, and therefore they only water it and occasionally remove weed grass from the site. But if they take care of it incorrectly, this may cause a poor harvest, as well as a depletion of the soil in the area. Planted seedlings need to provide good care until it gets stronger, she will need systematic weeding, watering. And also it is necessary to spud it compulsorily, in this case, the bushes will grow powerful adventitious roots in the lower part of the stem, due to this they will become more stable, and their growth and development will also improve. In addition, the soil surface between the rows during the growing season must be loosened several times, while the corn must be fed in a timely manner, as well as provide protection from harmful insects and diseases, and there is a lot of them in such a culture.
How to water
This culture is moisture-loving. During the day, 1 bush can absorb from 2 to 4 liters of water, but avoid stagnant fluids in the soil, as in this case, the root system will not have enough air, which will lead to its death, the bush will stop growing, and its foliage a purple hue will appear. In this case, the crop will be at risk. The optimum soil moisture, which is recommended to be maintained at all times, is from 70 to 80 percent, which means that when irrigating 1 bush, it is necessary to consume from 1 to 2 liters of liquid. If it is not possible to water the corn systematically, then experts advise to carry out frequent loosening of the soil surface near the bushes, in this case the water will remain in the soil for a longer time. Perhaps that is why many gardeners loosening is called "dry irrigation." When the seedlings are transplanted to the garden, it will need to be watered moderately. However, when 7 leaf plates are formed on the plants, a gradual increase in the abundance and frequency of irrigation will be required, it should be stopped when the period of mass growth of panicles begins. After the darkening of the threads on the cob begins, a reduction in watering to moderate will be required, and this is also done gradually. Experienced gardeners recommend using a drip irrigation system, in this case a liquid, as well as those useful substances that are dissolved in it, will get directly to the root system of the shrubs to maintain optimum soil moisture in the bed with corn. Thanks to this, you can save not only water and fertilizer, but also time as well as energy.
When preparing the site for planting it is recommended to make all the necessary mineral fertilizers, as well as organic matter. But even if you do, then throughout the growing season the bushes will still need to be fertilized. This is due to the fact that in this plant the growth of green mass is observed during the entire vegetative period, in connection with this it is necessary to feed it from the spring until the autumn period. In addition, it must be borne in mind that corn needs certain nutrients in each growth period. If during the preparation of the site in the ground to make all those substances that the plant will need during the growing season, then because of their excessively large number of bushes can be very badly damaged.
Feeding with nitrogen is carried out until the seeds ripen. However, most of all bushes need this element from the moment of planting in open soil and before the formation of inflorescences. From the beginning to the middle of the growing season, the plant actively absorbs potassium from the soil, while in the second half of the bushes this element passes back into the ground. This culture needs a small amount of phosphorus, but throughout the growing season. Phosphorus in the ground begin to make already at the stage of preparation of the site, while after maturation of the grains it is stopped to do. In addition to the elements described above, this plant also needs trace elements, namely, zinc, manganese and a small amount of copper and boron. It should be borne in mind that in acidic soil there is very little calcium, and in alkaline soil there is a shortage of copper and boron. If the bushes lack micronutrients, they must be fed with a nutrient solution to the foliage.
The first time the bushes, as a rule, are fed up during the formation of 3-4 leaf plates, at the same time it is necessary to use a solution of bird droppings or slurry. The second time they are fed with potassium salt (per 1 square meter from 15 to 20 grams), ammonium nitrate (per 1 square meter from 15 to 20 grams) and superphosphate (per 1 square meter from 30 to 50 grams). If there is a shortage of any specific nutrients, the foliage of the bushes should be sprayed with a solution. If there is a delay in fertilization, this means that boron is necessary for corn, and if white stripes are formed on the surface of its leaf plates, this indicates a shortage of zinc.
Diseases of corn with photos and titles
Corn is affected by a very large number of diseases, and various harmful insects can also live there. Most often, such a plant is affected by fusarium of cobs and seedlings, gelmintosporiozom, stem and pedios root rot, red cob rot, rust, dusty and bubbly smut.
In agriculture, cob fusarium is very common, and if the weather is wet or rainy for a long time, then an epidemic of the disease can occur. The first symptoms of such a disease can be detected only in the stage of milky ripeness of the cobs, a pale pink color is formed on their surface, grains that are very badly affected, become dark, their luster disappears, they become loose and their destruction occurs. Those grains that the disease did not hit, can still be infected, so they are extremely undesirable to use as seed. In order to prevent seed before sowing should be pickled.
Also, quite often corn is also affected by fusarium seedlings. Pink or white bloom appears on the surface of diseased seeds, and if seedlings appear from them, they turn brown and die. However, some plants may not die, in which case they will lag behind in development and growth from healthy specimens, their root system will be weakened, the stem will be very fragile, and the leaf plates will dry. If such a bush does not die in the process of growth, then it still will not yield a crop. Such a disease is not treated, so it is important not to neglect preventive measures: before sowing, the seed material is treated with a solution of a fungicidal agent, while the sowing itself must be carried out in a timely manner after the soil warms up well.
Cobs and foliage can be affected by helmintosporioz, with the result that spindle-shaped specks of gray or brown color appear on their surface, while they have a dark edging. In some cases, in the middle of such spots, soot is formed. Spots, increasing in size, gradually merge with each other, forming a shapeless hearth, as a result the foliage dies, and a gray bloom appears on the surface of sick cobs, the grains become shriveled, a dark mycelium appears on their surface, and they begin to rot. The causative agents of the disease for a long time are able to remain on the plant residues of the affected bushes, as well as on the grains. In order to prevent the occurrence of such a disease, it is also necessary to observe some preventive measures: remember the rules of crop rotation, soil and seed before planting must be treated with a solution of a fungicide preparation, use hybrids resistant to the disease to grow, the plot should be cleared of plant residues and weeds.
Stem rot is widespread in those regions where frequent prolonged rains are observed, while in areas with a drier climate it can be encountered extremely rarely. When the disease begins to develop, dark spots appear on the internodes or on the lower part of the stem. Over time, the stem becomes soft, rot appears on it, and eventually it dies, while its core turns pink, and a large number of small perithecia forms on the surface of diseased tissues, reaching no more than 1 mm in diameter. In order to avoid damage to corn by this disease, it is necessary to adhere to all the same preventive measures, which were discussed in more detail above.
The corn rust pathogen is the most active in the second half of the summer period, while it continues to actively infect corn until the very end of the growing season. In the affected bushes, yellowish specks form on the inside surface of the leaf plates, with time they become darker, after which pustules appear on their surface, inside which spores of about 1 mm mature. Under the pustules, the leaf plate tissue gradually dries out and breaks, with the spores flying apart and affecting other parts of the bush, as well as new plants. In the fight against such a disease, only preventive measures will be effective, as well as pre-sowing seed treatment with a solution of a fungicide preparation.
An infectious disease such as loose smut affects all grains, and is especially common in southern regions. They are affected by the disease of the ears and buds of corn. Interestingly, the pathogen of this disease can accumulate in the ground for many years, while it does not manifest itself, but after the emergence of favorable conditions, it causes an epidemic that can ruin up to 40 percent of the entire corn crop. The affected inflorescences turn into a shapeless friable mass, and the ears become a dark lump. In an early stage of bush development, it is stunted, it thrives too much and differs markedly from healthy specimens. In some cases, the course of the disease is not so pronounced, but it still has a negative impact on the growth and development of the bush. In order to avoid damage by such a disease, it is recommended to choose those hybrids for cultivation that are resistant to smut, and it is also necessary to follow the rules of crop rotation, in this case pathogenic microorganisms will not accumulate in the soil.
Adding an article to a new collection
If you are just thinking about how to grow corn in the country and whether it should be done, we will tell you in detail about all the intricacies of this process, its pros and cons, as well as what to do with the crop.
Corn is used to be considered a southern culture. Of course, the warmer the region, the less hassle with it, but it is quite possible to grow corn in open ground in the Moscow region and areas with a similar climate. True, the result will depend not only on agricultural technology, but also on what kind of weather sets in your area in the summer.
Corn - the benefits and harm
Прежде чем сажать кукурузу, стоит разобраться – а можно ли ее вам вообще? Ведь если о пользе этого злака (да-да, кукуруза вовсе не овощ!) известно многое, то о противопоказаниях чаще забывают, хотя есть и они.
Итак, польза кукурузы в том, что ее зерна содержат витамины группы В, Е, Н, кальций, магний, фосфор, калий, натрий, железо, йод и т.д. Она благотворно влияет на работу кишечника, обладает желчегонным действием, способствует нормализации обменных процессов в организме.
But the disadvantages of corn are reduced to the fact that in the period of exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases it can aggravate the situation and is contraindicated for people with thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and increased blood clotting.
The best varieties of corn
The timing of sowing corn and the result obtained is directly dependent on the variety you choose. Offers on sale a lot, but among them there are proven options. If you are going to take up this crop for the first time and do not know how to plant corn in open ground, choose zoned varieties, focusing not on bright packaging with a promising picture, but on the experience of other gardeners.
In the middle lane good yields give varieties:
The shorter your summer is, the more precocious varieties you need to choose.
After that, plant corn
When growing fodder corn in the fields, it is stably planted after cereals and legumes, not alternating only with millet, since these grains have common pests. Well, in the country, where rarely anyone grows cereals in large volumes, corn will be an excellent "changer" for legumes, melons, potatoes or tomatoes.
However, you can sow corn in open ground around the perimeter of the entire plot, and then its tall stems will become a real hedge. And if you alternate the traditional varieties with decorative, corn can become a vertical component for flower beds and flower beds.
Planting corn seeds in open ground
Sowing corn in open ground with seeds can be enjoyed by residents of those regions where warm weather lasts at least 4 months in a row, and frosts are rare and unlikely. The soil for planting is prepared in advance, preferably in the fall, filling it with phosphorus and potassium, on a par with other parts of the vegetable garden.
At the time of planting the grains, the soil should warm up to 12 ° C.
In the spring on the eve of planting, the soil is dug up to a depth of at least 10 cm, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to it (at the rate of 20-30 g per 1 square meter). Seeds start preparing for sowing in a week. To begin with, they are heated for 4-5 days at 35 ° C, and then soaked in warm water for a couple of days.
If you do not know at what distance to plant the corn and at what depth to do it, then use the simple hint. Sow the seeds to a depth of 7 cm, and leave between the plants 40 cm (in a row) and 60 cm (between rows). In the fields of planting is usually denser, but this reduces the yield, because corn does not receive enough light.
If you plant corn with a wall and are afraid that some of the seeds will not rise and holes will remain in the hedge, sow 3 seeds in each hole, and after emergence of seedlings leave the strongest and remove the rest.
Growing Corn Seedlings
In regions with frequent return frosts or short summers, sowing corn into open ground is dangerous and irrational. However, she does not like transplanting, or rather even the slightest damage to the roots, so the seedling method has its own nuances.
It is possible to sow corn grains for seedlings already in early May, choosing peat pots as containers. Warming up and soaking the grains takes place as usual, and the soil for the seedlings needs to be prepared special. Mix 2 parts of humus, part of sand, part of peat in advance and add a glass of ash for every 10 liters of the mixture. Sow 2-3 seeds per container, and after germination, remove the excess.
Already after June 15 (the date is relevant for the middle band), you can send young bushes for permanent residence. But when planting seedlings of corn in the northern regions, you need to decide, focusing on the weather. Remember that the temperature must not be below 7 ° C, otherwise the plants will die. At the time of landing each bush should have 3 full leaves.
Plant corn into the soil a little deeper than it has grown before, pour it abundantly and grind it with any plant material.
How to feed corn
After planting seedlings or seedlings and the formation on the stems of 6 full-fledged leaves, corn must be fed. Excellent options - a 5% solution of chicken manure infused for several days, or a 10% solution of mullein. To feed the corn with organic matter is necessary after abundant watering, so as not to burn the plantings.
A couple of weeks after the organic dressing, you need to give the plants and additional mineral nutrition. For this purpose, 20 g of potassium sulphate or potassium magnesia and superphosphate are introduced into the aisle. In the first half of July, it is possible to carry out leaf fertilization of corn, preferring fertilizers with trace elements with the obligatory presence of nitrogen. Urea is well suited for this purpose (dissolve 50 g of fertilizer in 10 liters of water). It is necessary to spray corn in the morning or in the evening, and for the prevention of blanching of leaves, 30 g of magnesium sulfate can be added to the solution.
Corn harvesting and storage
The timing of harvesting corn depends not only on the selected variety, but also on what purposes you grow it. Young and juicy cobs are suitable for preservation, for drying those that have fully ripened on the bushes, and for freezing are both options.
In corn, there are two stages of ripeness - milk and biological. The first occurs when the grains are white and yellow, the leaves are still green, and the hairs on the cob are white with beige tips. The second is characterized by yellow grains, dry as parchment, leaves on the cob and brown hairs.
In industrial conditions, corn cobs are stored in piles at low temperature and humidity, and in households it is easiest to freeze corn. This is done with whole cobs, as well as with individual scalded grains. Ripe corn can be stored in the fridge for up to 2 weeks, but it must be periodically ventilated so that there is no rot from the increased humidity on the cob.
Now you know everything you need to grow this crop, but how to cook corn, we think, you yourself will understand.
The causative agent of cystic smut is basid fungus. In the affected plant, a large number of bubble formations appear on the foliage and on the cob. Panicles may also be affected, with the result that rough blooms are formed on the flowers, which have the form of sacs. However, the largest galls are formed on the cob, as well as the shoots. When harvesting, the large galls crumble and, hitting the ground, they winter there, and in the spring they hit corn again. The most active disease develops during the period of drought, as well as if the planting is heavily thickened. During the period of mass epidemics due to this disease, up to half of the entire crop may die. In order to avoid damage to the smut, hybrids that are resistant to this disease should be chosen for cultivation, and it is recommended to use a scheme developed by specialists for planting such a culture. Before planting, the seed must be treated with a solution of a fungicidal drug, and even after harvesting the site must be freed from weeds and plant residues.
Pythia Root Rot
Most often, the studious root rot affects those bushes that grow on heavy soil and with too high humidity. The causative agent of this disease affects the bushes during the emergence of seedlings, while their root system suffers in the first place, so that constrictions are formed on the roots, and the root hairs are not formed at all. As a result, the roots rot and dry up, starting from the tips, the whole bush dies over time. During the course of the disease in a mild form, the color of the leaf plates changes, and the growth of the plant slows down. To cure sick corn, it is treated with phosphonates or fungicides, these funds can be used for preventive purposes.
Red cob rot
Particularly dangerous is the red rot of cobs, as it contributes to a decrease in the yield of such a plant, as well as it is able to infect both animals and people, while at the same time they have damage to nerve cells. The first symptoms of this disease appear during milky-waxy maturity, so a reddish-white bloom can be found on the upper cobs, which spreads rapidly, affecting the seeds and the core. In a diseased plant, the seeds are destroyed, the wrapper turns brown, then it dries up, tightly covering the affected ear. The disease most actively spreads in wet weather at low temperatures during seed ripening. In order to prevent maize damage, the following preventive measures must be adhered to: remember the rules of crop rotation, grow hybrids that are resistant to such a disease, seed needs mandatory pre-sowing preparation, control the amount of nitrogen introduced into the soil, the site requires deep digging after harvesting the site must be cleaned of weeds, as well as from plant residues. Cure diseased bushes can be treated with fungicides.
Corn lobs of dark beetles (false conductors) and larvae of a click beetle (wireworms) love to eat corn, and they can also harm other vegetable crops (potatoes, carrots, beets, etc.). Such insects damage the underground part of the plant. If there are 90 or more pests per 1 square meter of a plot, then one fourth of the plants are destroyed, and in some cases, all can die. The pests are most active during long rains at low temperatures or on irrigated fields. In order not to allow pests to multiply, it is necessary to plow the land in the autumn, follow the rules of crop rotation, treat the seed with a solution of an insecticidal preparation before sowing, and during the vegetation period pheromone traps should be used against harmful insects.
Sheet-eating scoops can also harm the corn. They can be met everywhere, and they damage all aboveground parts of the bush. Cotton, winter and meadow shoots are considered the most dangerous for such a crop, as they can produce 2-4 generations for one season. The first as well as the second generation, as a rule, harms the leaf plates of the plant, while the third and the fourth damage the cobs severely, seriously injuring the reproductive organs, as a result of which the quality and quantity of the crop are significantly reduced. In the fight against shovels, as well as their larvae, agrotechnical methods show high efficiency, for this we must remove weeds in time, adhere to the rules of crop rotation, and after harvesting it is necessary to plow the land. To get rid of the larvae, it is recommended to use pheromone traps.
Swedish Oat Fly
Such a pest, like the Swedish oat fly, lives in a moderately humid climate: in the area of irrigated fields, and even closer to the forest-steppe zone. During one season, 2 to 3 generations are born that can harm a culture in the same way. In order to prevent such pests from damaging the bushes, the following preventive measures must be adhered to: in the autumn, the site is digging deep or plowing with the subsequent compaction of the soil, sowing the seeds and planting the seedlings must be on time, and weed should be systematically removed. When such a pest appears at the site, the bushes should be sprayed with an insecticidal solution.
The meadow moth is most often found in the forest-steppe, steppe and taiga areas. During the season, 4 generations of the pest appear, while the first thing that can hurt the bushes most is fast-breeding caterpillars. It should be remembered that the number of this pest manifests itself in cycles, as a rule, an invasion of moths occurs every 10–12 years, and there are so many of them that they can exterminate from 60 to 100 percent of the total harvest. Caterpillars exterminate shoots and leafy plates not only of corn, but also of legumes, sunflower, potatoes, hemp, beets, and parts of grain crops. In order to prevent the appearance of such an insect at the site, it is necessary to adhere to the same agrotechnical rules, which are described above. In order to exterminate the moths and caterpillars, you should use biopreparations.
Corn can also harm stem moth, it also damages soybean, sorghum, hops, pepper and millet. The development of such a harmful insect occurs in three generations, while on shoots and leaf plates of plants it arranges egg-laying, and even the most severe frosts cannot harm eggs. If there are moths on the bushes, then the leaf plates start to turn yellow, as well as their median veins. As the disease progresses, a rift occurs, the plate itself bends over and dies. The threshold of harmfulness of a stem moth is per 1 square meter of 6 pieces. To protect the corn from such a pest, it is necessary to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of this crop. When a pest appears, the bushes are treated with an insecticidal solution.
Dental corn (Zea mays indentata)
In varieties of corn belonging to this group, the kernels are elongated and large, on their upper plane as they mature, a recess appears, due to which the grains outwardly become similar to teeth. Plants in these varieties have strong stems, while they do not bush, and most of them have high yields, but are late-ripening. This feed crop is widely cultivated in the United States of America, while it is used as feed for livestock, and is also processed for alcohol, flour and cereals.
Starchy corn (Zea mays amylacea)
This variety of corn is one of the most ancient, while it is widely cultivated in the countries of America. Among all the varieties most late ripening, bushes are sredneroslye, they can be strongly and moderately bushy. The top of the kernels is convex, their surface is smooth and dull, and their interior is powdery and loose. These varieties are usually used for the manufacture of starch and alcohol.
Flour corn (Zea mays indurata)
These varieties are most common in culture. Glossy smooth weevil has a convex top, and its color can be yellow or white. These varieties are used to make corn sticks and flakes, as well as cereals. More popular are early-ripening varieties, characterized by high yields, while they turned out as a result of the crossing of dent-like maize and siliceous maize.
Corn bursting (Zea mays everta)
This species is also among the most ancient. The varieties included in this group have one peculiarity - the grains burst when heated. Grains in these varieties are smooth and glossy, and it is from them that popcorn is made. All varieties are divided into 2 subgroups, namely, barley and rice, they differ among themselves in the shape and taste of the kernels. A large number of relatively small cobs, which are densely packed with grains, grow on lushly leafy bushes. These varieties are cultivated in almost all countries.
Waxy corn (Zea mays ceratina)
This group includes modified American varieties. Matt and smooth grains on the outside cover a layer that is similar to solid wax. The inside of the kernels has a mealy and sticky structure. The most widely varieties of this group, which are relatively few, are cultivated in China.
Sugar corn (Zea mays saccharata)
In agriculture, as well as in amateur vegetable growing, the varieties of this group are the most popular. The main feature of these varieties is that a large number of water-soluble sugars accumulate in ripening grains with a low starch content. These varieties are used for canning. Bushes in this species are relatively low and bushy, while several cobs grow on them. Color grains may be different, and it depends on the variety. Among them is found maize red, gold and black. There is also an unpopular hybrid that does not have a high value — noisy or hot corn. There is also Caragua corn, which is cultivated in North America and is used to make silage.
The hybrids and varieties that are the best will be described in more detail below:
- Gourmand 121. This variety has a high yield and disease resistance, the growing season is from 70 to 75 days. The height of the plant is about 150 cm, cylindrical ears grow on it, the length of which is about 20 cm. The elongated and wide grains are very juicy and sweet. This corn is used for freezing, and even for boiling.
- Dobrynya. The height of such an early ripe hybrid with large ears of about 1.7 m, the grains have very sweet. For the cultivation of such corn is perfect any soil, and yet it is resistant to mosaic and rust.
- Pioneer. Such a hybrid is among the best relating to the flint corn. It is resistant to frost and very high yield, which is observed in all weather conditions. But in gardeners it is not particularly popular, since the grains are not very tasty and not too sweet. Такой кукурузой кормят скотину, а еще ее используют для переработки.
- Спирит. Данный гибрид отличается устойчивостью к вредным насекомым и болезням, а еще урожайностью. Такое растение прекрасно переносит обработки химическими веществами. Зерновки на вкус сладкие.
- Сингента. Этот австрийский гибрид отличается своей урожайностью, а еще он прекрасно растет в условиях средних широт. В зерновках зубовидной формы находится много питательных веществ.Such a plant goes to feed livestock, and even from it make cereals.
- Early gold 401. This variety has an average ripening stunted bushes. On the cob length of about 19 centimeters tasty grains grow. This corn is used to make canned food.
- Oerlikon. This variety belongs to the group of popcorn maize. Under the influence of high temperatures grains greatly increase, the result is a large elastic popcorn, characterized by high taste. Grains contain a lot of sugar, how it differs from other bursting varieties.
Useful properties of corn
Long since the person knows that corn possesses curative properties. In addition to starch, its composition includes phosphorus, nickel, potassium, copper and magnesium, vitamins D, C, K, PP and group B. And in the corn stigmas there is fatty oil, essential oil, saponins, comedy-like and bitter glycoside-like substances, steroids stigmasterol and sitosterol. The composition of the leaf plates includes esters of phenol carboxylic acids (for example, caffeic and ferulic acids), quercetin, flavonoids, rutin and some glycosides.
Experts believe that if corn rations are included in the daily ration, this will improve the metabolic processes in the body and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, stroke and diabetes. According to nutritionists, corn is useful daily for people of age, as it helps to maintain and improve vision, because carotenoids are included in the yellow kernels. For food it is recommended to use only dairy tender grains, and overripe corn is much worse absorbed by the body.
If you eat 1 large spoonful of corn oil in the morning and evening with food, this will be an excellent prevention of migraine, asthma and skin diseases, and it also contributes to the contraction of the walls of the gallbladder and increase its tone. This oil is valued for the fact that it contains unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic, arachidonic), they are involved in metabolic processes and the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. If people suffering from coronary sclerosis, regularly use this oil, it will significantly reduce the tendency to thrombosis. The oil contains a large amount of biologically active phosphatides, which have a positive effect on the work of brain tissues that regulate the amount of cholesterol in the body, and they also help to accumulate protein in it. If there are too few phosphatides in the body, this leads to an increased accumulation of fat, as well as to the deposition of cholesterol in the tissues. This oil is also used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, as well as for its prevention.
Genetically modified corn, which is resistant to harmful insects, has pollen, which consists of hazardous toxic substances that can destroy any insect. In this regard, there are such grains is not recommended until such time as experts do not understand whether they are a danger to humans. It should be remembered that if there are such “food mutants”, then the risk of developing obesity, allergies, and other consequences of metabolic disorders will increase many times.
Since corn promotes intestinal distention, it is worth refraining from consuming it when exacerbating gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. It is not recommended to include such a plant in your diet with increased blood clotting and thrombophlebitis, and even with low body mass, since corn reduces appetite. Corn oil can not be eaten by obese people, and even if there is an individual intolerance to the product.
Requirements for growing conditions
Corn loves warmth. It is mainly cultivated in the southern regions of the country. But culture can be cultivated in a temperate climate and even in much more severe conditions of Siberia. The main thing is to choose the right place for corn and ensure proper planting for planting. In the open ground, it grows best on the most illuminated areas. In the shade and with a lack of heat, the development of its bushes slows down, and the grain on the cob does not ripen to milky ripeness. Plants are sensitive to the effects of cold winds and drafts, so it is important to reliably protect the beds from them.
Sweet corn does not impose any special requirements on the quality and structure of the soil. Ideal for her - light fertile soil with low acidity, rich in humus and well drained. Planting corn bushes on the plot is better next to legumes, tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkin. Unsuccessful will be their placement near the beds with beets and celery.
Begin to prepare a place for future beds with corn in the garden in the fall. This is especially important in the cultivation of early ripening varieties. Ground carefully dug, choosing from it the roots of weeds. Correctly do it early, before the first frost. Then the plot can be poured abundantly so that weed seeds sprouted into it sprout, and then weed them out. If these recommendations are followed, spring garden preparation will be easier, and planting care will require less time and effort.
Sweet corn responds well to fertilizers. Preparing the soil for the beds, they are introduced twice: in the fall and spring. By winter, the area is scattered (1 m²):
- humus (5 kg),
- double superphosphate (0.2 kg),
- potassium salt (0.1 kg).
Close up fertilizer into the ground by digging to the depth of a bayonet spade. Spring preparation of the site is less intensive. Before planting corn grains, the soil is fertilized with nitrophosphate (50 g of the preparation per 1 m²), and then lightly puffed. Carry out the procedure for 2-2.5 weeks before the planned date of sowing seeds. Land with high acidity additionally lime.
Sowing corn in the garden
Planting corn with seeds is a simple and fairly effective way to grow a crop. Its terms are determined by the climate features of the area. To get friendly shoots, corn kernels are sown when warm weather sets in and the threat of frost is over. The thermometer should not drop below 10-12 ° C during the day. In Siberia, you can start planting corn closer to mid-May.
The result will be better if the seeds are prepared before being placed in the ground. Professionals advise soaking them. There is nothing difficult in this procedure, for it will be needed:
- a piece of gauze, burlap or any other fabric,
- some wood ash
- corn kernel itself.
Soak the seeds need for certain rules. The fertilizer is thoroughly dissolved in water heated to 22-25 ° C. Then corn seeds are dipped into this nutritional composition. For a long time they are not kept in it, 12 hours is enough. The gauze is made into an envelope, it is plentifully wetted with the prepared solution and the planting material is placed in it. The condition of the seeds is checked daily, providing them with an oxygen flow. If they have not yet hatching, they are mixed, if necessary, moistened and covered again with gauze. Finish these manipulations when the first shoots appear.
Sprouted corn grains are placed in a slightly loosened soil, preliminarily plotting grooves in the garden, the spacing between which is equal to 0.5-0.6 m. At a distance of 40 cm from each other in the row, dig holes of medium depth (6-7 cm) are dug. 3-4 seeds are laid out in them. The square-breeding planting pattern is optimal for corn: with this arrangement, adult plants successfully undergo self-pollination and yield increases. Then the hole is filled with moist soil, and a layer of dry earth is poured in as a mulch.
Sweet corn sprouts pretty quickly. If the seeds are soaked, then young growth will appear in 10-12 days. If you do without preparation, you will have to wait 5-7 days longer. When corn germs appear from the soil, only one is left in each of the planting holes - more powerful, and the rest are spit out.
For sweetcorn to bring a rich harvest, you need a little. Planting care includes:
- soil loosening
- weed removal.
Sweet corn likes clean beds and a light, porous soil through which its roots can breathe freely. It is especially important to observe these rules at the initial stages of the development of its bushes. During this period, loosening is indispensable, but they are stopped as soon as maize roots are formed. Then it is time for hilling, which will make the bushes more resilient. They will need to perform at least 1-2 times per season.
Corn on the plot is closely monitored, removing weak shoots and stepsons from the bushes. Break them out is not worth it, there is a safer and less traumatic stem method - carefully trim them with scissors. If this is not done, they will take away from the corn the forces and nutrients that are necessary for the corn to be poured and ripened on the cob. The formation of numerous stepchildren is a reason to wonder whether watering the beds is carried out correctly. So sweetcorn often responds to a lack of moisture.
But the plants will not benefit from the excess water either: losing the flow of oxygen, their roots may die. Determination of waterlogging is easy. Corn leaves acquire a purple hue, and the development of the bush slows down. As a result, the plant has dwarf dimensions, and its cobs do not fully ripen.
Watering and feeding
Watering planting once a week or even less - once every 10 days. The signal for the next moistening is the condition of the soil. It’s time to start the procedure if it dries to a depth of 5 cm. If corn is grown for grain, it needs abundant watering. The soil should get wet at least 10-12 cm. 1.5-2 buckets of water are spent on each well. Such a dosage is necessary to obtain tightly stuffed cobs of delicious grains.
During the flowering of corn, which begins closer to the middle of summer, depending on the timing of planting and the selected variety, it is recommended to slightly shake the brush located on the top of the stems. Carry out the procedure in the middle of the day. There is another way - do not touch the brush, but just gently knock on the base of the stem. Such care helps plants to pollinate.
High corn bushes, located in the open winds place, it is better to tie. The harvest will be more abundant if the planting is generously fed. During the season, the beds are fertilized with organic and mineral compounds at least three times. At the seedling stage, as soon as the young sweet corn releases the first leaves, the plants are watered with manure dissolved in water or droppings.
The second dressing is carried out at the stage of flowering of corn bushes. Do not be scared if this time has been missed. Mineral fertilizers containing many trace elements are then applied at a later date - during the formation of the first ovaries on corn. During this period, wood ash will benefit plants. It can simply be scattered on the ground surface. For the full development of corn enough 1-2 glasses of fertilizer. Further care involves the introduction of drugs, which contain a lot of potassium and phosphorus. Embark on it as the cob grows.
Corn growing technology is not complicated. With the knowledge and desire to get the long-awaited harvest of ripe cobs, even beginners in the garden business will be able to Their taste and usefulness was appreciated by the ancient Indian tribes - Maya and Aztecs. Despite the southern origin of culture and its tender love for heat, its zoned varieties are successfully cultivated in unfavorable conditions of the Urals and Siberia.
Corn kernels have a rich chemical composition. It contains many vitamins, minerals, amino acids, carbohydrates, proteins. It is nourishing and healthy, and neither adults nor children can resist the unique aroma of juicy freshly cooked ears. But also other parts of the plant will be used in the household. His livestock stems and leaves like to feast on livestock, so individual varieties of culture have long been grown for silage. The plant is also used in folk medicine: corn stigmas have a beneficial effect on the liver and help reduce appetite. Are there not enough reasons for growing corn in the country to be included in the list of mandatory cases for the upcoming season?
Sweetcorn does not develop at temperatures below 10 degrees and above 30 degrees. Seeds germinate faster at a temperature of 12-14 degrees.
Corn is thermophilic, but in the south and in the middle lane it can be sown directly into the ground. A few days before planting, the bed should be covered with black film to warm up the soil. Then holes are made in the film, into which seeds are sown, which have lain overnight in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate. This method of planting protects plants from frost and weeds.
Growing through seedlings
By the time of landing on a bed of seedlings should be about 20 days. In the middle lane, maize seedlings are sown in mid-March. Grown up plants are planted in the ground no earlier than May. The landing time must be adjusted so that the seedlings do not fall under the last frost.
What is better - growing seedlings or planting corn in open ground - it depends on the climate in the region. It often happens that the plants sown in the soil, catch up in the growth of seedlings and look stronger.
Corn can not be planted alone - it wind-pollinated plants. In group planting, pollination occurs better, which means that more grains will be able to coil on the cob. You should not plant several different varieties next to each other - the appearance and taste of the crop may disappoint.
Sweet corn can be distinguished from the usual seed. Sugar seeds have an irregular shape and a wrinkled surface.
The seeds of sweetcorn have less starch than normal, so they germinate worse, because starch is energy. The more sugar in the grains and less starch, the worse they sprout and less stored.
Corn for popcorn whimsical sugar, needs abundant watering. In poor conditions, for example, with partial shading, popcorn varieties do not have time to mature.
Harvesting corn is a delicate matter. The cobs are removed when the stigmas become brown and dry. If you slightly push back the wrapper and press on the grain, white milk juice will appear on the ripe corn. Clear cobs are not yet ready for harvest. If the juice is thick and bright white - this means that the cobs are overripe, and a lot of starch has accumulated in the grains.
On the cob, cut immediately after sunrise, sugar lasts longer. Cut off the cobs can be stored in the refrigerator, but they will be tastier if they are immediately boiled and eaten.
The main varieties and varieties of corn: a detailed description
Corn - an annual plant belonging to the family of cereals. It has a very strong fibrous root, which is quite widely distributed in the soil (1.5-2 m around). The stem of the corn is straight, with the presence of nodes, in height can reach several meters. On the lower nodes there are light aerial roots, which serve as a kind of stabilizer for the massive upper part of the plant where the fruits ripen. Corn leaves are rather large - about 10-15 cm wide and can be one meter in length. On the plant there are both female and male inflorescences (panicles). The latter are located in the lower part of the stem, and the first - at the ends of young cobs. Pollen from the panicles is blown by the wind and falls on the spikelets located at the ends of the ears.
Corn grain has a rich set of vitamins and minerals. Female flowers of corn remove bile, stimulate the pancreas and liver, as well as the digestive tract. Corn seeds contain a large amount of B vitamins, flavonoids, nicotinic acid, and others. Corn oil is a good vessel cleaner because it eliminates excess cholesterol.
To date, there are about ten major types of corn depending on the structure of the cobs and their use: sugar, tooth-like, siliceous, starchy, bursting, wax-like, etc. All these types, except the first, are used only for industrial purposes: for the production of starch, flour, alcohol, molasses, cereals, beloved corn sticks, etc.
Consider the varieties of sweetcorn that best adapt to unfavorable growing conditions:
- Sundance. Early variety with rather large cobs. On one plant ripens two fruits. Grain light yellow. Suitable for growing in cold regions. It is used in boiled form, but also great for conservation.
- Spirit. This variety perfectly adapts to almost any climate, so it can be grown everywhere in Russia. The hybrid is quite new, has cobs with bright yellow grains of delicate sweet taste.
- Dobrynya. Early variety. The cobs grow quite large, sweet in taste. Unpretentious to the ground on which it is planted, resistant to disease. Used in food in any form.
- Swift. Unusual variety. The plant is dwarf, with early ripening cobs, very sweet to the taste.
- Triple sweetness. Очень неприхотливый к условиям выращивания сорт. Как понятно из названия, початки отличаются исключительно сладким нежным вкусом.
Посадка растения в открытый грунт
Кукурузу можно высаживать в открытый грунт двумя способами: семенами и рассадой. Предварительно необходимо выбрать подходящий для выращивания участок. Место должно быть теплым, со свободным доступом солнечного света. To the soil corn, in principle, unpretentious, but still the best option would be a light soil with a shallow groundwater table.
It is necessary to dig the soil in advance in order to free it from its predecessor culture. This is done in early autumn, before the onset of cold weather.
Council If time allows, you can thoroughly water the soil in order to provoke the growth of the weed and then weed it thoroughly.
In anticipation of the winter cold, fertilizer should be added to the soil. Ordinary humus (5 kg) is perfect, also add double superphosphate (200 g) and potassium salt (about 100 g). All figures are based on one square meter. Then be sure to dig the soil (shallow - on the spade bayonet). In the spring, a couple of weeks before sowing, you need to add a nitrophoska to the soil - 50 g per 1 square meter and a little flush it.
Corn planting should be started only when the temperature stably stops at the level of at least 10-12 degrees. On the day of planting seeds need to loosen the soil a little. Seeds are pre-prepared by heating at a temperature of about 35 degrees (3-5 days), and then soaked in warm water. Sowing can begin in late spring - in early May.
It is necessary to sow seeds in rows, keeping a distance of about half a meter between them. Between the plants in the row must always be free space (about 40 cm). We make the wells about 6-7 cm deep and immersed in each of several seeds. Sprinkle on top of the wet ground, and then mulch is already dry.
When the first sprouts appear (in about 10 days), we leave only the strongest in each well, the rest are removed.
When planting corn by the seedling method, it is first necessary to grow seeds in land pots of no more than 200 g with the addition of peat or humus, sand (peat / humus ratio and sand should be 1: 1). You can also add some ash and nitrophoska. Seeds deepen by 2-3 cm and are covered with sand on top. Before germination, seedlings should be indoors, heated to 25 degrees. After the first sprouts appear, you can move the pots to a cooler room.
A week before planting in open ground sprouts need to be watered and a little feed. Somewhere in a month after the appearance of sprouts, you can transplant seedlings into the ground.
Top dressing and fertilizer of crops
Corn loves to "eat" very much, so feeding must be generous. During the entire period of growth and reproduction of the plant, fertilizer should be applied at least 3 times. The first time - when the first leaves appear - in the form of bird dung / droppings. The second time - during the flowering of the plant or when setting up the first cob - in the form of nitrophoska mixed with microelements (50 g per square meter). You can scatter a couple glasses of ash on the site. And finally, in the third - in the form of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (30-40 g per square meter).
Caution: pests and diseases
The most common maize diseases are:
- Bacteriosis This fungal disease can damage not only the cob, but also the plant itself (the stems and leaves). A diseased plant is subject to immediate destruction (it is advisable to burn it). To prevent the appearance of this disease, the seeds need to be treated with Trichodermine and add it to the water for irrigation.
- Gelmintosporioz. This disease is manifested when intake of potassium in insufficient quantities. Outwardly, this is manifested in the waviness of the leaves. The disease affects the cobs - they grow almost without grains. At the first signs of illness, the plant must be fed with potash fertilizers (40 g per bucket of water). For each plant - a pair of liters of solution.
- Aphid, bug, bug and other pests. Since corn is not treated with chemicals, to prevent the appearance of various insect pests of the plant (during the period of mass appearance of cobs) are sprayed with a solution of bioinsecticides every two weeks.
Combination of corn with other plants
The best precursors for corn will be winter crops, tomatoes, the pumpkin family, and sweet pepper.
Corn goes well with soybean, which, moreover, perfectly protects the young plant from the bugs of the bug-bug. Great combination, even a kind of tandem occurs in corn and cucumber. Corn, in turn, helps the cucumber to grow, protecting it from the wind.
We met with the process of growing and caring for corn in the open field. If you follow all the rules and basic recommendations given in this article, you can get a rich and tasty harvest.