To rejuvenate the apple tree, create new varieties, gardeners spend the process of planting a tree. This is one of the crucial events that requires a maximum of skills and certain knowledge from the summer resident. Inoculation of apple trees in the spring allows increasing yields, increasing plant resistance to adverse climatic conditions. How to do this work will be discussed in detail below.
Why is the procedure performed?
Inoculation of apple trees in the spring in the Urals or in the southern regions of our country is a mandatory procedure, which has several advantages. It allows you to increase the life expectancy and abundant fertility of the plant. On such a tree will be able to ripen fruits of different varieties and in unequal period. This will allow you to have a harvest over a long period.
Particularly interested in grafting fruit trees gardeners, who have a very limited area. In order not to plant several trees of different varieties, you can attach several different cuttings to one trunk. They will grow over time, will give a harvest. It is even possible to graft a pear on an apple tree in spring. At the same time it is necessary to strictly adhere to the rules of agricultural engineering. This will create an interesting, original tree with several varieties of fruit.
The graft also allows you to rejuvenate the old tree. In this case, apple trees can be propagated in this way. This spring vaccination has several advantages. The process of ripening apples is accelerated, and new varieties are being developed. The vaccination allows to increase the resistance of the plant to adverse environmental factors. This is especially important for the northern regions of our country. The tree becomes resistant to frost, drafts, etc.
Another advantage of spring vaccination is rejuvenation, renewal of apple crown. At the same time, all species qualities of the grafted plant are preserved in full. This technique is applied everywhere. It allows you to solve many problems when growing fruit trees. At the same time, it is possible to get a good harvest for all to envy.
To perform the vaccination, you will need to familiarize yourself with the features of the procedure. Only with the implementation of all the rules, you can achieve high results.
When do vaccinations begin?
When to inoculate an apple tree in spring? This question is often asked novice gardeners. Indeed, it is very important to choose the right time for such work. The fact is that this procedure can be performed at almost any time of the year. During the cold period, vaccination is performed indoors. However, in the spring the probability of getting a high result will be higher.
Also experienced gardeners claim that the procedure can be carried out in the summer, in case of failure in the previous period. Therefore, in the spring to vaccinate more correctly. This greatly increases the chances of a successful outcome of the operation.
The best time to start grafting an apple is the period of active movement of the juices in the trunk of the tree. At this time, night temperatures no longer fall below zero. The timing of grafting apple trees in the spring may vary depending on the region and climatic features. In the southern regions, this procedure is performed in March or early April. In the middle climatic zone of Russia, this process is begun only from mid-April. Sometimes the vaccination needs to be done no earlier than at the beginning of May.
Then you can see a video about grafting apple in the spring, time and time.
It is worth considering that small and infrequent frosts will not be able to harm plants. Graft cuttings can withstand such effects. Experts say that doing this kind of work is best before the buds start to blossom on the trees. Otherwise, a liquid will appear on the stem and cuttings, which reduces the resistance of the plant to low temperatures. At the same time the tree will not be able to develop harmoniously. It is best to work in dry weather. However, it is best to have an overcast outside.
How to inoculate an apple tree on an apple tree in spring? This process does not cause much difficulty. Experienced gardeners recommend to get acquainted with the features of the vaccination. Otherwise, you can make a mistake. First you need to prepare the necessary materials and tools.
First you need to properly prepare the cuttings. They will need to be properly cut and stored for some time under certain conditions. Also for work you will need a knife. His blade will need to be sanitized. The knife must be very sharp.
Next, you should prepare the material for tying the vaccination site. This can be electrical tape, as well as strips of lavsan or polyethylene. Their width should be 1 cm, and length - 25 cm. You should also purchase a thin hand saw, a small and sharp ax. For putty wounds on the tree used garden var. Also it is necessary to prepare a vaccination pruner in advance. If several seedlings are planted at the same time, they must be marked.
All cutting tools must be disinfected. Otherwise, an infection can get into the wound of the tree. Cuttings will not be able to settle down. Also it is necessary to choose the right place to instill a new variety. This procedure can be carried out in different parts of the trunk. If it is necessary to inoculate the wilderness of the apple tree in the spring, to replace the entire grade of rootstock, you must install cuttings at a height of 30 cm from the ground surface. To replace just a few branches, graft new material at a sufficient height. At the same time, it is necessary to remove all the branches that hinder the development of the plant, blocking the sunlight.
Procurement of cuttings
There are several recommendations on how to prepare apple cuttings for spring grafting. This procedure should be taken very responsibly. If you make a mistake, the graft will not be able to settle down on the stock. This procedure will be a waste of time.
Harvesting material for vaccination should be in early December. From the tree cut several pieces of branches. Next, they need to be linked together. After that, bunches of cuttings are stored in a basement or other cold room.
If several different types of branches are cut, they must be labeled. For this, a tag with the name of an apple tree is fixed on each cutting. To properly collect the material for vaccination, you need to follow the advice of experts. Cuttings are cut only from young and healthy trees. Apple trees, which give the inoculum, should develop well. Their yield is also estimated. She must be tall. Only from such trees can one gather material for a graft.
Preparation of cuttings of apple for vaccination in the spring should be carried out according to the rules. They should be 3 healthy kidneys. The best for the preparation of cuttings is the escape, which is not more than 2-3 years. In this case, the upper boundary of the oblique cut must fall on the extreme kidney.
Keep cuttings need all winter. They are immersed in wet sand. If there is no cellar or other suitable premises, cuttings can be stored in a large snowdrift. Snow will also save material for grafting. Some gardeners keep cuttings in the fridge. However, this is not the most effective way.
Simplicity is characterized by the standard instruction for grafting apple trees in the spring for beginners. This procedure is suitable for a young tree. At the same time, the graft and the rootstock must be of equal thickness.
The tree to which the cuttings will be planted should be one or two years old. Its thickness should not exceed 1.5 cm. The graft should be the same. It is important to make a cut. Standard copulation requires that it be made at one angle for both the scion and the stock. We need to make one clear, strong movement. Therefore, it is better to practice before the procedure on other branches.
Master the cut - the most difficult moment in the method presented. If the gardener has mastered this technique, the rest of the process does not cause difficulties.
The presented method is applied from April to early June. In this case, grafting apple cuttings in the spring involves performing a series of simple actions. You will need to wipe the barrel in the place where the cut will be made. Toward you, you need to make a clear movement on the tree with a knife. The result is a cut, the angle of which will be sharp.
Further under the lower bud on the handle you need to create the same incision. After this part of the scion and rootstock combine. Their cambial shells must match. After that, in the place of their connection, you need to fix the selected material. Each turn of the dressing should overlap with overlap. The upper cut of the stalk needs to be protected. For this, a garden plow is used.
One of the most popular methods of carrying out the presented process is the grafting of an apple tree in the spring into cleft. It is characterized by a high percentage of plant survival. This method is used if the tree is already quite old. New cuttings allow you to rejuvenate the apple tree or grow new varieties of it.
A similar procedure has been carried out since mid-April. Vaccination does not cause difficulties. It is used by novice gardeners. At the same time, even with small mistakes of the summer resident, good plant survival rates can be expected.
To perform a graft splitting, you will need to cut one branch on an apple tree. Its diameter should be at least 5 cm. The media should be cleaned thoroughly with a sharp and disinfected media. Get a smooth stump. It will require a split. To do this, a sharp object (for example, a hatchet) is cut into the wood in the center. The cut will be in the form of a letter V.
Next, the graft is cleaned. It should fit in the created hole. Before installing in the splitting cuttings, it must be treated with garden pitch. The same composition is processed groove on the stump. After this, the cuttings are inserted into the cleft. The junction is firmly wound with the selected material at hand. This method will allow to rejuvenate the old tree.
Considering grafting apple trees in the spring, beginners need to pay attention to another possible way to carry out this process. He is called okulirovku. In this case, only one bud from another apple tree is grafted onto the tree. For the scion suitable material collected in the fall or winter last year.
It is best to conduct this procedure in mid-April. However, it is necessary to take into account the particular climate. In some regions, this procedure should be carried out somewhat earlier or later. At this time, the bark will peel off well. Also survival rate of the cutting will be higher. Cambium will be intensively increased, contributing to the healing of wood wounds.
It is necessary to perform a number of procedures. First, prepare a tree trunk, wipe it. In the prepared stalk you need to cut the kidney with the base. On the stock bark must be cut in the shape of the letter T. This is done in the area of internodes. The edges of the bark need to bend. The kidney with the base must be pushed into the formed space.
The junction is treated with a garden bar. Next, it is tightened with twine or appropriate material. This technique will be appropriate only when establishing a stable warm weather. At this time there should be no frosts.
There is another way to inoculate an apple tree on an apple tree in spring. It involves the installation of the cutting in the side cut on the bark of the tree. This method demonstrates the rapid survival of cuttings and the healing of wounds on the apple.
This technique is used to rejuvenate the crown. She becomes thicker, more beautiful. The plant in this case can cultivate. Also, this method allows you to cultivate wild varieties of fruit trees. It is necessary to carry out such an inoculation before an active sap flow begins in the trunk. This can be easily verified by paying attention to the kidneys. They should not yet swell. Most often, this process falls in the middle of April.
Need to adhere to a clear sequence of actions. First, at the bottom of the cutting prepared in advance, a wedge-shaped cut should be made. To do this, it is cut at an acute angle from both sides. On the place where the graft will be installed, you need to prepare a place to install the cutting. To do this, make a sharp cut. Its length should correspond to the surface of the scion. At the same time it is necessary that the cut affected not only the bark, but also some wood.
After the necessary preparatory steps, you need to install the stalk on the stock. The junction is treated with a special compound. The junction of the graft and stock is wrapped in plastic wrap. You can use the tape for this purpose. Shank need to be shortened after this. It is cut above the second kidney. Slice covered with garden pitch. This method is often used to instill in the wilderness of the desired sort of apple.
Grafting of apple trees in spring can be done in other ways. In some cases, used garden pruner. This is a simple and effective way. It is better to perform the vaccination procedure at the end of April.
With the help of this tool is cut on the apple. Also pruning shears cut on the prepared handle. The shape of the scion and rootstock should be inverse to each other. After that, the stalk is applied to the apple and smeared in a brewed junction. Next, you also need to tighten the cutting film or twine.
You can also use the ablaze method. This method allows you to save a tree that has been mechanically damaged or pests. You can also use ablation if other methods did not produce the desired result. In this case, do not make a cut. The stalk is simply applied to the stock. This vaccination is performed in May. It grows together for 3 months. On the stock you need to make a cut. Apply a handle to it. The cambium layer must match. After 3 months you will need to remove the winding, remove shoots from the branch.
Grafting apple trees in the spring for a beginner can be a real challenge. However, following the advice of specialists, following the sequence of steps in the procedure, you can achieve high results. It is also important to study the common mistakes that gardeners make during the grafting process.
Experts say that budding on the southern side of the tree does not allow the cutting to settle well on the rootstock. Also, do not perform a similar procedure during the rainy season. It also negates all the efforts of the gardener.
You should also use only prepared petioles. If they have been cut recently, they will not survive well on the tree. For carrying out such work is suitable material that is at rest.
You also need to ensure the tree after vaccination proper care. Voids that are formed between cuttings and cleft, you need to fill the pitch. The tree is watered periodically. You can also make the soil bait. A year later, a new shoot is shortened.
It is necessary to remove the winding in a timely manner. It can restrain the further development of the cutting. If shoots start to appear below the graft site, they all need to be removed. Under the graft should be a smooth trunk. Also, shoots that develop above the junction of cuttings with an apple tree should be restrained in growth. This is done until the substances necessary for life begin to flow into the new branch.
Having examined in detail the technologies that allow you to graft apple trees in the spring, you can achieve good results in this matter.
Why plant apple tree
Apple trees are grafted for different purposes:
- saving space on the site: a variety of varieties can be planted on one apple tree,
- obtaining bonsai,
- replacing an unnecessary or lean crop with a desired one,
- inoculation of seedlings, "wild" cultural variety,
- replanting damaged tree crown,
- grafting gentle varieties on winter-hardy skeleton-forming variety.
Timing of vaccinations
It is best to plant the apple in the spring. With the establishment of warm weather in trees, sap flow begins. Vaccinations performed at this time, take root well.
In the middle zone, an apple tree is grafted with cuttings already from the end of March - in April. A reference point for you will be the onset of plus night temperatures. To carry out budding - instill an apple tree "eye" - you can until early May.
The main condition for successful vaccination - sleeping graft cuttings. To do this, the cuttings are harvested in advance and stored at a low temperature close to 0 ° C.
By the time of bud break, vaccination work needs to be completed - since then, vaccinations have gotten worse. If the spring vaccination has not taken root, it is possible to make a budding at the end of the summer.
Harvesting rootstocks and grafts
The rootstocks for grafting apple trees can be grown by yourself, you can buy or dig up wild plants in a forest belt. Vaccinations will be durable on seedlings of reliable frost-resistant varieties, for example, Antonovka ordinary, Moscow pear. It is not necessary to instill winter varieties in the Chinese: they do not match the growing season.
Я делаю так: осенью выкапываю ямку, в неё закладываю опавшие яблоки, перемешанные с песком и листвой. Весной из них появится щётка сеянцев, самые крепкие из которых можно пересадить на постоянное место в плодородную почву.
Через 1-2 года они достигают толщины карандаша и становятся пригодными к прививке.
Gardeners plant apple trees in different ways: by copulating, budding, lateral cutting, behind the bark in splitting, half-splitting, and others. The grafting method depends on the purpose of the operation and the age of the tree.
One-year and two-year-old seedlings, as a rule, are grafted by copulating with a cutting. Inoculation on an old tree is more often carried out "in splits" on skeletal branches or in the tree crown.
I will list the tools that you need:
- garden hacksaw for cutting branches of stock,
- sharply sharpened graft knife,
- insulating tape or polyethylene strip for wrapping the vaccination site,
- garden pitch,
- clean napkins or a cloth for wiping a knife.
Relatively recently, models of special grafting secateurs appeared on the market. They allow you to make a shaped cut on the handle and stock, connecting them as parts of a puzzle. Such a tool is advisable to purchase if you plan to plant a large number of seedlings.
A beginner will need some practice: practice grafting a house on cut branches.
The grafting is done on young saplings, the thickness of which coincides with the diameter of the cutting or slightly exceeds it. On the scion and stock, diagonal sections of the same length are made for better survival. The most reliable vaccine is fixed by the method of improved copulation with the tongue.
Step-by-step copulation technique:
- Prepare tools and cuttings with 3-4 buds, from the middle part of the branch.
- On the stock, follow with a sharp knife a flat oblique cut with a length of at least 3 diameters of the cutting.
- Follow the same oblique cut on the handle.
- Carefully cut the cuts in the upper third of the scion and rootstock - you will get "tongues".
- Connect the cut of the scion and rootstock, clinging tongues.
- Wind the graft with flexible tape, starting from the bottom.
- Top cut slice smear garden pitch.
- Put a plastic bag on the stem to ensure moisture inoculation. In hot sunny weather, an inoculation is additionally attached with a cap of thick paper.
- Tie off the vaccination remove after 3 weeks - one month after the awakening of the kidneys.
The vaccination will grow successfully if you combine the green film - the cambium on the graft and the stock, at least on one side. It is the cambium cells that are responsible for splicing the vaccine.
Young trees and apple tree skeletal branches are grafted in the cleft. The thickness of the rootstock should not be more than 3-6 centimeters, otherwise the wounds will overgrow for a long time.
- Carefully cut the branch and level the cut with a sharp knife.
- With a strong knife or a sharp hatchet, split the cut to a depth of 10 centimeters.
- Cut the cuttings on a long, sharp wedge, on one side leave a strip of bark.
- Auxiliary tool (screwdriver, awl) spread the edges of the split.
- Insert the cuttings along the edges of the cleft, aligning the bark.
- Remove the spacers and tie up the stem with tape and twine.
- Cover the butt and the stock slot with plasticine or garden pitch.
Vaccinations in the half-split and behind the bark are performed in a similar way. In the first case, wedge-shaped cuts are made along the circumference of the hemp instead of splitting the stem. In the case of grafting, only the bark of the stock is incised, a cutting is inserted behind it.
These methods allow you to plant several cuttings on one stock. However, their disadvantage is weak mechanical strength, tendency to breaking off.
Visual sequence of actions will show you the following video lesson:
Grafting an adult apple
If you intend to re-plant an adult tree in your garden, you will need to stock up more than one handle. Grafting on an old tree is undesirable, since large-diameter saw cuts overgrow for a long time.
Therefore, it is not grafted into the trunk, but into the crown or skeletal branches. The procedure is stretched in time for 2-3 years. Begin with the upper central part of the crown, ending with the lower branches.
If one stalk is grafted onto a branch, it is placed on top so that it will settle down better and not break off.
The joints on thick saws can be left tied until the next spring.
Care after vaccination
After the operation, your apple will need caring care:
- Removed shoots that appear below the vaccination site. Eliminate all shading or interfering branches.
- Binding weaken as the scion grows, then removed completely.
- In dry hot weather, the tree must be watered.
- In the spring and at the beginning of the summer, nitrogen fertilizer is added to the irrigation water. Since July, priority is given to potash and phosphate fertilizers for better aging of wood.
Trying to plant an apple tree yourself, you will see that this is not a very complicated procedure. And the reward will be the pleasure of the crop grown by your own hands.
What gives vaccination tree and gardener
Grafting is a practice-proven breeding method that allows you to change the appearance and condition of the tree. Before proceeding to the study of the methodology, it is important to understand how it benefits:
- With the help of grafted twigs or buds, you can rejuvenate the old plant and increase its yield. This method helps gardeners in case of need to save a rare variety or just a “favorite” tree.
- The positive result of a properly performed vaccination is the formation of the crown of the tree. If the apple variety is tall, the plant can be made more squat, from the crown of which it will be easier and safer to harvest.
- For gardeners who have small families and small plots, it is very convenient to grow apples with different taste in one tree. And you can pick up varieties so that they will be of different ripening times. This will allow to get a fresh crop from the beginning of the period of fruiting of early varieties until the end of the growing season of late ones.
- With the help of vaccinations save injured plants.
- Before the beginning of fruiting of the newly planted tree passes 5-6 years. When grafting another variety, the crop is obtained for 3-4 years.
How to choose a vaccination time
Vaccination of apple trees, can be done year-round. But each species and variety has its own vegetation peculiarities, therefore, recommendations for each season have been developed.
Winter vaccination is performed at a positive air temperature: in a heated room. Because of the specifics, it is often called the "desktop". Winter vaccination is relevant for young plants that plan to plant in the spring. To perform the method has its own rules:
- the optimal time is from January to March
- you can not plant plants two weeks before planting,
- the graft must be removed from the donor before the onset of frost, at a temperature not lower than - 8 ° C,
- until grafting, the graft and stock should be kept at 0 ° C,
- two weeks before the procedure, the stock is transferred to a room with a positive air temperature,
- rootstock transferred to a warm room for 2-3 days before the start of work,
- Grafted plants before planting stored at positive air temperatures.
Winter grafting of an apple tree is troublesome. Therefore, experienced gardeners prefer to perform this procedure at other times of the year.
The period of preparation for the winter, accompanied by a slowdown in sap flow, is not the best time for grafting apple trees. It is at this time, rather forced than necessary. It is performed in situations where there is a rare variety of graft and it is not possible to keep it until spring comes.
Rules for autumn grafting of apple trees
- It is carried out in warm windless weather.
- From the beginning of September, the best way is budding.
- Until mid-autumn, it is permissible to plant apples in ways “in a split”, “behind the bark”.
- During the work, the air temperature should not be below -15 ° C.
The highest probability of rooting grafts in young stocks.
Summer vaccination is well tolerated by plants. But it is desirable to perform it, starting from the second period of sap flow, from the first decade of August. In regions with a warm climate, this is the optimal time for budding with a “sleeping” eye. Acceptable performance and other methods of vaccinations.
Adding an article to a new collection
Many novice gardeners think about how and when to plant an apple tree correctly. With the right approach, vaccination can be done all year round. We offer detailed instructions.
Sooner or later, the gardener is faced with the need for grafting an apple tree. Why do this? There may be several reasons.
- Apple trees on your site produce a poor harvest, and you would like reprigued their - replace the crown of old trees with a more valuable variety.
- You are driven by the desire to experiment and try grow on one stock at once several varieties apples.
- Do you want to save space on the plot (instead of two apple trees, you can do with one, on which two different varieties of apples are grafted).
- Did you decide grow apple seedlings themselvesand not to buy it in the nursery (to “elevate” the wilderness with a cultural graft).
- The tree is badly damaged (for example, rodents), and you want to save it by re-vaccination.
- More "delicate" apple varieties need to be planted on the winter-hardy stock to increase their frost resistance.
- Do you want to grow a dwarf apple tree.
The vaccination allows you to grow two or more varieties in one tree, which means that you save space in the garden
The procedure of grafting an apple tree is akin to a surgical one, but with the exact execution of instructions, even a novice gardener can handle it.
Grafting an apple tree in the fall
In general, autumn is not the best season for vaccination. However, in warm weather in early September budding apple tree "eye".
In September-October, you can also try vaccination in other ways (in split, in priklad, behind the bark). It should be borne in mind that at this time, grafts on young rootstocks take root best. Autumnal grafting can be harmful to an adult plant.
Ideally, grafting with a budding or bark method should be completed 2-3 weeks before the average daily temperature drops to 15 ° C. However, if you live in southern latitudes, where the first frosts come not earlier than the end of October - beginning of November, you can try to plant an apple tree in the middle of autumn.
Grafting apple trees in winter
Vaccination in the winter is possible only indoors, therefore it is often called desktop vaccination. This method is relevant for vaccination of seedlingsthat you plan to land in the spring.
As a rule, seedlings are planted from January to March, but no later than 15-20 days before planting in open ground.
Winter vaccination is carried out indoors and is used for grafting seedlings.
It should be borne in mind that harvesting seedlings should be in the fall before the onset of frost, when the soil has not yet frozen. The grafts are cut off, not waiting for the onset of severe frosts, but when the air temperature begins to drop to - 8 ° C.
The success of the winter vaccination largely depends on the proper storage of rootstocks and grafts. Seedlings and cuttings are kept in the basement at a temperature of about 0 ° C. 1-2 weeks before the vaccination, the rootstocks are transferred from the basement to a room with a temperature of 15-18 ° C. Cuttings transferred into the room for 2-3 days before the procedure.
The best ways to graft an apple tree
There are many ways to vaccinate an apple. The most tested, which show the best results:
- budding (kidney vaccination),
- graft splitting
In addition, other less common methods of grafting fruit trees can be used:
- in semi-split,
- behind the bark
- in the side cut,
- a bridge (for trees with damaged bark),
- ablatizatsiya (vaccination approach).
Consider that the grafting of an apple tree is some kind of “operation”. Before starting the procedure, wash your hands and tools and try to touch the cut points on the tree as little as possible.
Grafting Apple Tree
This method of vaccination is suitable for grafting rootstocks, shtamb or skeletal branch of which is about 2-5 cm in diameter (usually these are trees of 3-6 years).
It is best to vaccinate apple trees in splitting in early spring, from March to April (depending on the climate), when frosts slept, or from July to August, during the second flow. In warmer latitudes, this method of vaccination can be applied in the fall, from September to early October.
During the graft splitting on the shtamba or the skeleton branch of the scion, a split is made and a cutting stock is inserted into the resulting slit.
Step-by-step description of the vaccine read link.
If the diameter of the rootstock is more than twice the diameter of the scion, several scions can be inserted into the split at once: two or four. To plant four cuttings at once, it is necessary to make a cross-shaped incision on the stock.
The best stocks for the apple tree
The ideal rootstock for apple cuttings can be considered seedlings of cultivated varieties of apple trees or mature trees. The seedlings can be grafted on young "dickey" that you dug in the forest or grown from seeds.
What else can I plant in an apple tree? There are several alternative options for rootstocks:
- aronia (black ashberry),
When planting an apple tree on “non-native” rootstocks, it is worth considering some nuances:
- Such vaccinations not very durable compared to the classic grafting of an apple tree onto an apple tree.
- Apple tree grows worse on chokeberrythan rowan red (ordinary).
- Rowan rootstock gives the apple hardiness, but thanks to this "relationship" fruits may shrink. The same problem concerns apple trees grafted on hawthorn, viburnum and quince.
- Apple on quince can be grafted as an experiment, since the likelihood that a graft will take root well and will bear fruit will not be very high.
- Pear survives well on the apple rootstock, but she herself “takes” the grafts of the apple tree worse. Therefore, this vaccine should also be considered as a gardening experiment.
Despite all the "but", grafting of apple trees on alternative stocks is often used by gardeners. Especially when there is a choice: to cut down unnecessary mountain ash or try to plant a valuable apple tree on it.
Planting an apple on a quince and a pear is possible only as a gardening experiment.
It is best to plant an apple tree on such stocks in the following ways:
- improved copulation
- in split,
- in the side cut,
- behind the bark.
Caring for a grafted apple tree
Regardless of the method of vaccination later 10-15 days, you need to check whether the graft caught on: whether the kidney on the handle has not dried, if the wound has healed, in the case of budding, whether the petiole is easily separated from the scute.
If the vaccine has not taken root, the wound needs to be covered with garden pitch, and the vaccination is repeated in spring or summer.
An important nuance in the care of a grafted apple tree is to loosen the dressing at the vaccination site in a timely manner so that it does not become too tight and does not damage the branch. If you plant an apple tree in spring or summer, the tape can be removed after 2-3 months. In the autumn graft bandage is left until spring, until the snow melts.
Not less important remove shoots that grow below the grafting site. They must be timely cut with a sharp knife, otherwise they will limit the nutrition of the grafted cutting. You can not break off the shoots, as they begin to grow with a new force.
If you plant an apple tree in the fall, preferably well before the onset of cold weather spud and water a treeso that the vaccine does not freeze in winter. It is also necessary to protect freshly grafted apple trees from the sun. If the weather is hot after vaccination, it is recommended shade the side of the treeon which the "operation" was carried out.
After the vaccine has taken root and the kidneys have awakened, it is necessary pruning. If shoots from several buds appear at once, leave only one, the strongest of them (it is preferable to leave the shoot from the upper bud). The bottom shoot should be shortened, and the side ones should be cut to the ring (almost to the skeletal branch of the stock).
When young shoots of grafted cuttings reach a length of 20-25 cm, their recommended to tie. The second garter is carried out when they grow to 40-50 cm. This needs to be done, since the first 2-3 years after vaccination the mechanical connection of the scion and rootstock is not very strong.
During the first years after vaccination is especially important. water the trees in hot dry weather and feed in time their. Do not forget that the tree is a living organism, and after the "surgical operation" it, like all living things, needs restoration.
It is important to regularly loosen the dressing at the vaccination site so as not to damage the tree.
As you can see, with the strict implementation of instructions, successfully planting an apple tree is not so difficult. Good luck in your gardening experiments!
Goals and benefits of grafting
Thanks to this uncomplicated, in general, the process has already bred more than 10,000 new varieties of apple trees. To this day, both experienced breeders and ordinary amateur gardeners continue to experiment with the creation of new subspecies.
Thanks to the vaccination, breeders achieve the following goals:
- Breeding new varieties
- Improving characteristics such as frost resistance, taste of apples, increasing yields, adjusting the ripening time, acclimatization of a variety in a strictly defined region, height and size of tree crowns,
- Increased resistance of apple trees to common diseases and pests,
- Simplification of growing conditions and the collection of fruits.
And often professionals achieve their goals, and gardeners use the results of their work, growing high-yielding apple varieties on their plots.
The benefits of vaccination are as follows:
- Не всегда есть возможность купить саженцы понравившегося сорта. А благодаря прививке яблони весной можно значительно расширить ассортимент плодовых культур вашего сада.
- Vaccination is the only method by which it is possible to regionalize apple varieties intended for growing in different climatic conditions,
- Low yields, poor taste of fruits, one-sided crown - these shortcomings can be corrected by grafting.
- Old, diseased trees can always be reanimated with a vaccine.
- Thanks to this simple procedure, it is possible to combine up to five varieties of apple trees with different tastes and different ripening terms on one tree, which helps to save space in a limited space.
- Vaccination is a limitless field of activity for those who like to experiment.
Planting an apple tree in spring is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. It is important to remember that many gardeners equate this process with surgery. That is why you need to follow the recommended deadlines and tips for getting a great result.
The question of why it is worth learning how to plant fruit crops will be answered by the video author:
When to plant: spring or autumn
In most cases, experienced gardeners vaccinate apple trees in the spring. And this is due to the peculiarities of the development and growth of trees during this period. With the onset of a thaw, all nature awakens, buds swell, and active sap flow begins in the trunks and branches of trees.
Grafting apple trees in spring is more justified because during the summer a weak sapling has enough time to get stronger and gain strength, adapt to local climatic conditions, and subsequently calmly endure the winter cold.
Another advantage of spring vaccination of apple trees is the ability to evaluate the results of their work as soon as possible. After all, literally after 2-3 weeks, it will be clearly visible whether the graft has taken root. When grafting cuttings at other times of the year, you will have to wait several months.
The timing of grafting apple trees in spring is ambiguous. The climatic conditions of each region are different. First you need to focus on the state of the kidneys. It is advisable to finish all work in the garden before the buds bloom.
On average, active sap flow is gaining strength by mid-late April. In the southern regions, the optimal time for grafting apple trees come a little earlier - in late March - early April. And sometimes gardeners have only a few days, during which they need to have time to prepare cuttings, stock, tools, and to vaccinate the apple tree in the spring.
Preparation of tools and materials
Before you can plant an apple tree in the spring, you need to take care of the tools and material in advance. After all, suitable for vaccination time is very limited. And in the spring, all summer residents have a lot of work.
In order to carry out this procedure as quickly as possible, and to reduce the risk of possible failures, prepare in advance the following tools and materials:
- Pruner, garden knife, saw (if you are going to plant on old apple trees or thick branches). All tools must be sharp. They must be treated immediately before vaccination with an alcohol solution.
- Insulating material for fixation. The material must be dense, moisture-proof. Ideal for this purpose electrical tape, or chopped polyethylene and twine.
- Garden var for processing cuts and alignments.
- Without a good graft and suitable stock, too, can not do.
Wash and sanitize your hands before grafting on an apple tree in spring.
Graft is a cutting from an apple tree, the variety of which you would like to have on your plot. For successful grafting it is important to choose and cut the grafts properly.
It is advisable to cut the cuttings immediately before planting an apple tree, that is, in spring. The optimal amount of material harvested is very easy to calculate. How many cuttings you have time to plant in 3-4 hours, so much should be prepared.
You need to cut material only with a healthy, fruiting apple tree. Sick, damaged branches are not suitable for vaccination.
It is undesirable to use the so-called tops - empty shoots as a scion. It is very simple to distinguish them from ordinary shoots - the buds on the tops are small and less often located than on the twigs, which are guaranteed to give a harvest.
On average, the lengths of apple cuttings should vary within 15–25 cm, and their thickness is 0.8–1.3 cm. When preparing a suitable material, note that there must be at least 3-5 healthy, well-developed buds on each shoot.
One shoot can be divided into several cuttings, the main thing is that they have the necessary number of buds. Immediately after cutting, place the shoots in honey water. Dilute honey in water in a ratio of 0.5 tsp. 0.5 cups of water. This will help save cuttings and increase the chances of survival.
Very good, when the apple tree with which you want to cut cuttings, is next. And what if the original tree is far away, or is it not possible to cut off and immediately plant a sprout? In this case, you can keep the shoots in a plastic bag in the refrigerator or basement, at temperatures from - 1С to + 5С.
The author of the video will tell you how to prepare cuttings for the subsequent spring grafting of apple trees:
Preparation of stock
Stock - sapling, stump or tree, to which a prepared cutting is grafted. A suitable stock should be taken care of in advance.
Terms for carrying out spring work are very short, so the basis for future fruit crops is selected in advance, in summer or autumn, and in spring only grafting is carried out.
The ideal rootstock for apple trees are young, 2 or 3 year old seedlings. You can also use as a stock wild game - young shoots of apple trees growing in the wild. These seedlings are grown in local climatic conditions, and are highly resistant to diseases and pests.
You can grow your own stock. Planted apple seeds, and after a couple of years you will have a lot of seedlings suitable for vaccination.
Long-term practice has shown that old trees can also be used as a stock. It is important to remember that only healthy, without any signs of disease and rotting trees are suitable for grafting apple trees in the spring. It is also undesirable to plant on an apple tree that is damaged by insects.
In the absence of a suitable stock, you can graft apples on third-party crops - pear, quince, viburnum, mountain ash or hawthorn. But in this case there are frequent cases of poor survival of the scion, as well as a gradual decrease in yield, the fruits eventually become small and lose their taste.
In order to be 100% sure as a result and consistently get a good harvest of apples in the future, preference should be given to apple rootstocks.
Which way to choose
At the moment, there are many ways to graft the apple in the spring. However, most of them are complex or require experience. Therefore, at the moment there are three methods that are so simple in execution that novice gardener will be able to cope with them:
- Vaccination for bark,
- Graft Splitting
The most common and easy way of grafting an apple tree in the spring is copulation. Shoots are grafted using this method if the graft and the rootstock are approximately the same in thickness. If the diameter of the seedlings and cuttings are very different, then it is better to plant "over the bark" or "in cleft."
It is necessary to plant apple trees in the spring in cloudy, but not rainy weather. If spring spoils with warm days, then postpone the vaccination in the morning or in the evening.
And do not forget that in no case should you touch the open cut with your hands. All actions must be fast and clear.
Whatever method you prefer, it's time to learn how to graft the apple tree in the spring. Video for novice gardeners will help you get acquainted with several ways of vaccinations, learn the lessons, and put them into practice.
Aftercare for fruit trees
Apple trees vaccinated in spring, regardless of age and method of vaccination, need attention and care. Weekly need to inspect the grafted seedlings.
The fact that the grafting of the apple tree in the spring was successful, and the scion took root, you will tell the state of the buds. After 1.5-2 weeks they should swell. And soon the first leaves will appear on the shoots.
If, after 3-4 weeks, the kidneys remained in the same condition, did not swell, but, on the contrary, dried out, it means that the “operation” ended in failure. In this case, do not despair. Vaccination sites need to be freed from the insulating material, grafts are removed, and the open areas covered with garden pitch.
In order to ensure good results, experienced gardeners during grafting an apple tree in the spring implant not one or two, but several seedlings. In case all shoots are taken, the weakest ones are removed, leaving only the powerful ones.
If all grafts have taken root, removing the bandages until the next spring is undesirable. A year later, with the advent of the thaw, the insulating material should be gradually weakened. In spring, young twigs grow not only in height, but also increase in diameter.
For good growth and ensuring the supply of nutrients in sufficient quantities, you need to promptly remove the numerous shoots and shoots growing below the grafting.
Do not forget about the standard measures for the care of seedlings - watering, fertilizing, loosening, mulching.
In order to grow a young, fruiting tree, it will take several years. Each summer resident wants to have several varieties of apple trees with different ripening terms on the same plot. The cost of seedlings every year only grows. Grafting apple trees in the spring is a great opportunity to save money and gather only the best varieties in your garden. It will take only 3-4 years, and you can enjoy the fruits of your labor in the literal sense.
Video tips on how to plant an apple tree in summer
Spring is the best time for grafting not only apple trees, but also many other trees and shrubs. At the beginning of the season, the plants begin to move juices, their immunity increases, the periods of healing and recovery pass without complications. This applies not only to the rootstock plants, but also to those that act as donors.
Many gardeners in their work prefer to focus on the lunar calendar. In this respect, the best time to work with plants is the growing moon.
Spring vaccination rules:
- The air temperature must be positive, the weather must be windless,
- the best time of day is morning or evening.
What is required for the work
To perform all the manipulations with grafts and rootstocks, you will need a set of tools that are in every gardener's arsenal:
- a knife with a short sharply sharpened blade,
- grafting knife
- abutment knife
- hacksaw or pruner.
It is recommended to purchase and specialized graft pruner. This tool has a special blade shape. Different models can be equipped with knives with a different cut method, including figured ones.
Features and benefits of this tool:
- less traumatic than normal
- allows you to make curly cuts so that the articulation of parts of plants was perfect,
- performs thin and precise slices for budding.
There are different models of graft pruners. Costly are characterized by higher quality steel from which the knives are made.
Such a novelty, as a vaccination pruner and knives, included in its packaging, caused a lot of negative feedback. Therefore, it will be easier for inexperienced gardeners to start learning different methods of grafting using a standard set of tools: grafting or eyeblading knives, garden shears.
Materials for work
To prevent damage to the injured places by pathogenic bacteria and insect parasites, as well as for the purpose of rapid healing, they use garden pitch. He has other, "popular" names: "garden resin", "garden putty". This viscous mixture tightly cover the injured part of the plant.
In the application of garden war there is one feature. Manufacturers of this product are trying to make it universal, suitable for use in regions with different, including harsh climates. Thus, companies seek to expand the market.
This approach affects the quality of products. In some climatic zones, the standard garden var cracks or after some time drains from the place of processing, exposing the injured area.
If the drug purchased in the store was useless, you can make your own, high-quality. There are several recipes for self-made garden pitch. In haste, you can make one that is called "village":
- Take 1 part of liquid cow dung and fatty resin. Mix thoroughly.
- Add for density down and small hair of domestic animals.
The result is a sticky and viscous mass with good healing properties.
To strengthen the scion on the stock, strapping is necessary. For this purpose, use narrow tape, cut from a plastic bag. Some gardeners use tape, winding it around the branch so that the sticky side is facing out.
How to choose the graft and stock
The result of vaccination depends on how well the donor plant and stock are selected. For success of the event are guided by the recommendations:
- plants must be healthy, without visible damage to the trunk,
- if the purpose of vaccination is to change the growth and crown of the tree, the optimum age of the plant stock is up to 3 years,
- The best stock for this climatic zone will be the variety that consistently produces good yields in these climatic conditions,
- graft is desirable to harvest from apple trees, fruit-bearing at least two seasons.
The effectiveness of vaccination works depends on the affinity of varieties. The closer they are, the better the result. But the choice of related varieties is not a prerequisite. It is possible to instill wild apple trees, thereby cultivating them.
How to prepare cuttings
An important point in the procurement of cuttings - the choice of wood. It must be healthy and over a year old. It is desirable that the donor tree showed its yield, and the gardener knew the taste of the fruit in this variety.
Rules for harvesting and storage of cuttings:
- optimal harvesting time is the second half of autumn,
- air temperature should not be below -10 ° C,
- wiped off the branch selected for grafting,
- during operation do not touch the cutting plane,
- if the cutting fell on the ground, wipe and update the cut,
- the selected stalk is wrapped in a damp cloth and placed in a cool place (in the cellar, basement, on the lower shelf of the refrigerator,
- branches set vertically, cut down the ends,
- if there are several cuttings, they are placed in a container with sawdust or sand, which must be kept wet.
If there is no basement or cellar, choose another storage method. Before the onset of cold weather, the cuttings are wrapped in wet sacking and placed in the coolest place in the house. After snow falls, the burlap is replaced with a plastic wrap so that the upper part of the branches is free.
Next, transfer the graft into a snowdrift and set it so that the branches protrude from under the snow. This is important so that they "do not suffocate." With the onset of spring take measures to preserve the snowdrift, slowing its melting. For this, a layer of sawdust or sand is poured onto the snow. After the snowdrift has melted, the cuttings are again placed in sacking and moistened.
Requirements for the quality of cuttings:
- on the branch chosen for engraftment there should be 3-4 full-fledged buds without visible damage,
- the best part for cutting is the middle one,
- the upper section of the graft should be even and diagonally
- The lower cut of the scion is done as required by the rules for performing the chosen method of grafting.
Methods of grafting apple trees
Among the following types of grafting apple trees are often and rarely used. The most effective ways:
Regardless of the method chosen, several requirements must be observed:
- prepare the instrument by disinfecting it and degreasing it,
- wash hands thoroughly
- during work, try not to touch the cutting planes on the cuttings and rootstocks.
Grafting in the lateral incision is a lot like a budding, but it is done with a cutting. For work using a special grafting knife, which is sharpened on one side only (with the one on which the chamfer is located).
Stages of work:
- At the harvested cutting once again cut the bottom tip: update it.
- They select a branch on the apple tree for engraftment of the scion and retreat from the place of its adhesion to the stem 200-250 mm.
- Bring the knife to the selected place and set it slightly tilted down.
- Precise and fast movement makes the cut to a depth of 5-8 mm.
- Carefully insert the cutting into the incision.
- Cover the injured place with putty.
- Cover with plastic wrap.
Vaccination for bark
This type of grafting is optimal for trees older than 3 years. It is optimal for acclimatization and increasing the yield of apple trees that are reluctant to develop in this region. This method refers to the category of complex and requiring precision movements and skill. Прививку выполняют только весной, так как в это время года кору проще отделить от волокон ветки. Одновременно можно прививать до 4-х черенков.
Этапы выполнения работ:
- Выбирают на яблоне место, находящееся на расстоянии 1-1,2 м от земли.
- Рассекают ножом древесину, выполнив надрез длиной 4-5 см.
- Gently shift the bark.
- Cut the lower end of the cutting.
- Get him behind the bark.
- Perform strapping with polyethylene.
Novice gardeners often make one mistake: when preparing a cutting, they do not take into account the direction of growth of the kidneys. Therefore, sometimes they nourish the branches, whose eyes are directed downwards and not upwards. You need to be careful when performing each stage of work.
There is one more thing that determines the success of the procedure - the speed of its implementation. Those who have no experience, it is desirable to practice on unnecessary branches of other trees.
Apple inoculation is a procedure involving the use of traumatic instruments. In order to To minimize the risk of self-harm, follow a few simple rules:
- Work is performed in dry windless weather.
- During the procedure, try not to be distracted.
- Make sure that when performing the cutting of branches, the left hand is not under the blade of the knife.
- Before you make a cut with a knife or split with an ax, mentally trace the trajectory of the tool.
- When cutting the butt of the cutting, the movement of the knife should be directed “away from you”.
Reasons for the failures
In novice gardeners, the effectiveness of vaccinations is usually low. The main problem is the premature drying of cuttings and kidneys due to the slow accretion of graft and rootstock. This nuisance is caused by a loose fit of the slicing planes, which are made incorrectly, have waves or notches.
Another reason for poor survival is insufficient protection against bacteria and pests. Therefore, it is necessary to perform high-quality treatment of injured places with garden barb. It can be replaced with clay (less desirable) or clay.
Errors in the preparation of the scion and its attachment to the rootstock to some extent can be compensated by the installation of plastic bags. They are immediately put on the ends of grafted branches. In order for the bags not to interfere with the growth of the graft, the length of the bags must be at least 15 cm.
If there is no suitable polyethylene on hand, you can use thick paper. It is rolled up with a roll so that a hollow cylinder 10-15 cm long is obtained. The roll is set on a graft and the paper is attached with a string.
After the graft takes root and becomes a full-fledged part of the stock, in the first season all leaves and shoots are removed from the young twigs. This is necessary for her to gain strength. Also ensure that the neighboring branches are not shaded graft.
If a novice follows all the recommendations of experienced gardeners, he will quickly master the art of grafting apples. And will be able to grow several varieties on any fruit trees.
How to plant an apple tree: what is it for?
Experienced gardeners are always ready to help beginners. useful tips. For those who are just beginning to take care of fruit trees, such an operation may seem rather difficult. However, in fact, nothing complicated in vaccination is not, and the skill comes with experience.
In this age of developed information technology, numerous videos with step-by-step instructions will come to the aid of a gardener. Carefully reviewing the video and reading the comments on the video, any gardener will be able to quickly and accurately make a vaccine, even if he has never done it before.
Many gardeners are wondering: how to plant an apple tree and should it be done? It is necessary to instill in the spring. This is mandatory event for the care of apples, pears and other fruits, because:
- She rejuvenates
- With it, you can get a new variety,
- Due to the timely vaccination, you can correct the visual defects of plant development,
- If a culture sapling is grafted into a wild apple, it will “cultivate”.
If a gardener wants to improve fruit trees in his garden, one cannot do without vaccinations. If the trees are not touched, the variety can gradually degenerate, and will no longer be as fruitful as before.
Vaccination is necessary if a crown is formed incorrectly or a trunk develops incorrectly. If you plant a new seedling in an old tree, rejuvenating The procedure will certainly have a positive impact on the general condition of the tree.
Gardeners often vaccinate in order to “reanimate” sick trees. Also, this procedure is fond of those who are trying to bring in their summer cottage new varieties. Inoculation in essence is an event in which a young plant is attached to a fruit bearing (apple or pear). This seedling takes root and has direct influence on development.
When an apple is planted, this procedure stimulates intensive growth and helps the old tree to restore vitality.
Many gardeners rightly believe that the timely inculcation of young seedlings is of great benefit, because:
- By instilling new varieties, you can completely change the taste of apples,
- You can also change the size of apples, they can become larger (if you plant a variety with larger apples), or smaller (if the gardener wants to make an apple-tree from an ordinary apple tree),
- Thanks to regular rejuvenation, you can significantly increase the yield,
- With the help of grafting young saplings a gardener can independently develop new varieties. This is an unusually fascinating process, allowing every gardener to at least briefly feel like Michurin.
Thanks to this, you can fix the most serious defects. For example, you can make a same sex crown symmetricaland also reduce or, on the contrary, increase the number of branches.
To bring a new, especially high-yielding variety in his dacha can every gardener. To do this, you need to take an apple tree, which does not have a high yield, and plant a stalk to it from the most productive tree Location on.
If the procedure was carried out correctly, the new shoot will quickly take root, and in the near future the apple tree will be pleased with a good harvest. Cuttings for vaccination can be taken from your own garden or from fellow gardeners, as well as purchased in nurseries. Ibid nurseries and specialty stores competent staff will be happy to tell you about it. What should be done? When choosing cuttings, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that they look healthy, strong, without signs of rot and bacterial infections.
Many amateur gardeners have learned at home to cultivate apple varieties that are resistant to pests and parasites. To do this, conducting an inspection, you need to choose a tree that is more affected by pests and parasites, and then, on the contrary, to identify the most healthy tree.
A sapling of a healthy tree should be planted to the “patient”, and the resistance of the apple tree to pests and parasites will increase significantly. If you carry out such a procedure systematically, you can gradually make the apple more resistant to the codling moth, rot, cancer and other diseases.
The grafting of an apple tree is most often carried out in the spring, although in some regions it can be done in the summer. Spring is chosen for this procedure because the spring is warm, but there is no bright scorching sun. If summer prevails in the region warm but not hot weather, you can plan this important event for the summer.
In the spring, a tree is planted when it has not yet begun to bloom. It is recommended to carry out the procedure either in the morning, before noon (about eight to ten hours) or in the evening (five to six hours), but before the sun sets. The ideal weather for vaccination is a fine, clear, cloudless day. You need to hold the event in the following sequence:
- Remove dirt from the grafted apple tree from dirt, dust, debris to make it easier to work,
- To clean from dirt, dust, traces of pests and parasites, the surface of the branch to which you want to apply the cutting,
- Combine the graft with a twig of an apple tree. The graft should be located about one and a half meters from the ground,
- Split at the end of the branch with special garden tools and place a young cutting in this split,
- Check that the cutting is grafted smoothly, not crooked,
- Insulate the vaccination site with ordinary insulating tape, which is sold in hardware stores.
After grafting a tree, you can water and feed. When the cutting is rooted, the gardener should regularly monitor its growth and development. It happens that sometimes the vaccine does not survive.
This is usually due to the fact that the gardener incorrectly performed this procedure, for example, loosely insulated the place of inoculation. But there is another, quite common reason: an inexperienced gardener has planted a variety that does not grow well in his region.
Before purchasing vaccine material in specialized stores, you need to carefully to study the information on the package: features of the variety and care for this variety, frost resistance, yield. You should not purchase cuttings that were stored in inappropriate conditions. Such cuttings can be easily recognized by the traces of rot or mildew, as well as by the presence of the characteristic unpleasant smell of mildew.
When an apple tree is planted, scars inevitably appear on the tree. If the vaccination is done correctly, the tree will not be injured However, if you carry out this procedure in violation of elementary safety, the tree can be seriously injured, and this will adversely affect the yield.
Any scars that remain after vaccination should be a gardener. immediately treat with garden pitch. Garden var - an indispensable substance in the care of fruit trees. It protects fresh scars from aggressive external influences and, in addition, contributes to the rapid tightening of scars and wounds.
In no case should not be vaccinated, if the sun brightly bakes. When fresh scars remain on the tree, the apple tree can be severely burned. In addition, under the hot sun, the stalk may die without being rooted. The intense heat makes the graft a pretty strong stress on the apple tree.
When choosing a vaccine material, it is necessary to pay attention to frost resistance. In order to increase the resistance of the apple to the cold, it is necessary to graft a cutting from a more frost-resistant variety to the tree. The tree and the young stalk, at least, should have the same frost resistance. To graft the cutting of a heat-loving apple tree into a cold-resistant tree is a gross mistake. After this procedure, the tree, which previously was not afraid of frost, will change for the worse and will suffer greatly from cold weather.
Many gardeners, having remembered this feature, specially Northern varieties are planted on their trees so that the apple trees can no longer be afraid of the cold. However, this vaccination is not always sufficiently effective. It all depends on the compatibility of specific varieties with each other.
Before planting, the grower must decide what exactly he wants to achieve by vaccination. Based on the goals, you can choose a vaccine.
If you constantly use the cuttings of your own apple trees as a graft material, this will lead to a gradual degeneration of the variety: trees that “boil in their own juice” will produce less and less fruit every year. In connection with this gardener must periodically use vaccine material from other sources: you can borrow cuttings from your neighbors, or you can buy them in the store.
If the gardener harvests the cuttings on their own, they must be properly stored. In the room where cuttings are stored, there should not be fungus, rot and harmful insects, therefore the basement is not always suitable for these purposes. If the storage conditions are suitable, the cuttings can safely lie through the whole winter until spring without any signs of deterioration.
If the cuttings are not grafted, and the tree looks like a weakened, lifeless after grafting, it is advisable not to disturb such an apple tree for several years. Conversely, if this procedure benefits the weakened tree and makes it stronger, regular vaccination must be logged in. It all depends on the state of health of the tree and how it reacts to the artificial introduction of the cutting. Some varieties are more susceptible to vaccinations, and some less susceptible. All this can be learned through experience, as well as through the reading of specialized literature.
Grafting an apple tree is a very important procedure, which is very useful for most fruit trees. The technique of grafting apples and pears is about the same. If you hold this event carefully, observing basic precautions, the apple tree will certainly thank the gardener for taking care of a good harvest.
In time made vaccination allows you to revive even the oldest, ugly and weakened trees. In order for this procedure to bring the desired effect, you need to properly care for the tree and use the most suitable grafting material.
Explanation of terms
A stock is one plant, to the stem of which another plant is grafted, called a graft.
To avoid confusion in terms incomprehensible to beginners, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with them in more detail:
- Rootstock - this is the tree to be grafted, i.e., attach a graft to the stock.
- Graft - this is a cutting or even a bud of an apple tree that will be planted on a tree selected as a stock.
- Application of cuttings when performing vaccinations called copulation .
- If one kidney is planted, then it’s about budding .
Timing for vaccination
For budding gardeners, grafting apple trees in the spring is the best option. The spring procedure shows better results than a vaccination carried out at other times of the year.
The onset of bud swelling is the best time for spring grafting of an apple tree.
When is it better to plant an apple tree in spring, in which month does the vaccine take root well? Turnaround time individual for different regions of Russia, they depend on the weather and the general condition of the tree.
The optimal time - the beginning of the swelling of the kidneys which corresponds to the start of sap flow. This is usually April. If you stick to the lunar calendar, then the vaccination work is best done on the growing moon.
The day of the work should be sunny and windless, without precipitation.. The air temperature should be above zero and be at least 7–10 ° C. At noon, it is better not to carry out the vaccination; for the procedure, choose morning and evening hours.
Reasons for vaccinations
With the help of vaccination, you can rejuvenate the garden and expand the range of fruit crops.
There are objective reasons why an apple orchard needs vaccinations:
- getting a new treecorresponding to the characteristics of the parent. The apple tree sprouted from the seed does not preserve its varietal qualities, therefore vaccination is required,
- vaccination procedure opens up unlimited possibilities. For example, for saving space in the garden, 4 different stalks can be grafted onto one stock, having received several species at once on one tree,
- a damaged tree needs to be grafted . Inoculation of cuttings from another apple tree will help to restore fruiting in a timely manner.
Required materials and tools
The procedure will require well-sharpened and disinfected garden tools. For cutting large branches using a saw, a hacksaw, for trimming thin shoots - a knife, and better pruner.
First you need to prepare a good tool.
Insulating tape or polyethylene most often used to connect and fix the vaccination site.
Slicing is done in advance prepared garden pitch .
On sale are available special pruners different from the usual blade shape.
The graft pruner allows perfectly flat cuts.
Grafting tool allows you to:
- make a shaped incision with a groove, where the cutting will be installed,
- trim the cutting so that it connects tightly to the shaped groove,
- carry out budding.
Ingredients and Garden Cooking
For the preparation of the mixture at home using various components: paraffin wax, beeswax, wood tar, rosin, lard, vegetable oil.
For the preparation will require paraffin, rosin and vegetable oil in the ratio 6:3:2 .
All materials are likely to be found in the household.
- The wax is melted in a water bath and crushed rosin is added to it, brought to a boil and oil is poured.
- Cook at least half an hour.
- After cooling, knead until smooth.
- Store the composition in a lockable container. In this recipe, paraffin can be replaced by beeswax. Cooking technology is the same.
Pitch can be collected from old cherry trees.
- Would need 0.5 kg wood resin, which should be melted in a water bath.
- Then add 1 a glass 70% alcohol and 2 tbsp. l flaxseed oil.
- For storage use hermetic capacity.
The choice of scion and rootstock
As a stock, choose apples that are adapted to this climatic region. For a graft, an adult fruit tree of at least 2 years old is used.
Closely related varieties of graft stock will provide better engraftment. But this requirement is not necessarily fulfilled. Vaccination can be done on the game .
Experienced gardeners specially grow apple wilderness to always have at hand material for the stock.
- Черенки вырезают из веток, которым больше 1 года . На выбранных побегах не должно быть повреждений коры или любых признаков болезней.
- Черенки подготавливают в зимнее время , когда наступят первые морозы. It is believed that when -10 ° C branches become more hardened and take root better.
- Cuttings stored in the basement until spring , they are placed in a container with sand. If there is no basement, use a refrigerator for storage.
When pruning cuttings adhere to the following requirements:
- the length of the shoot must be such that it appears on it not less than 4 intact kidney,
- It is best to cut the stalk in the middle of the branch. Its top is cut obliquely and the bottom in accordance with the grafting method chosen.
Existing types of vaccinations
Each gardener has a favorite method of grafting trees, which is best obtained. Some people advise you to implant in a side cut or in a butt, others find it easier to inoculate for bark or splitting. Some people think that the easiest method is copulation or vice versa, budding. To understand what to choose, you need to familiarize yourself with the technology of each operation in more detail.
For spring, the most acceptable methods of vaccination are: copulation, splitting and butt.