Currant is a very useful berry, most often it is used to prepare various compotes and juices, and it is also included in various jams and preserves.
To grow such a plant at the dacha is quite simple. Also, red currant rather unpretentious plant.
How to grow red and black currants?
In order for a red or black currant to develop well and bring abundant and annual harvests, it is necessary to choose the right place for planting so that the shrub is comfortable:
- currants are not recommended to be planted on the places where the old bushes of this crop or the gooseberry were growing before,
- the groundwater level should not exceed 1.5 meters, otherwise the root system may rot or even die,
- It is also not recommended to plant currants in low-lying places where rainwater or snow melt accumulates,
- Shrub health and yield directly depends on the amount of sunlight. In the absence of these indicators, the plant begins to hurt and ceases to resist pests, the berries become less or disappear altogether
- gusty winds have the same effect on currants, so the place should be not only not shaded, but also protected from the north and east winds. For the cultivation of the bushes do not need a special agricultural technology. Everything can be done by hand.
Currants grow well in almost any soil, exceptions are:
- sandy soil
- rocky ground
- swampy areas.
Also, this culture prefers neutral soil, therefore, in the presence of acidic soil, it is necessary to preliminate it. To do this, 400 grams of crushed limestone or 300 grams of hydrated lime are added to one square meter of land.
Juicy and ripe clusters of black currant
Terms for landing at the dacha
Currants can be planted in the spring (late March - early April), and in the fall (mid-September - early October). But experienced gardeners recommend to perform exactly the autumn planting, because it has a lot of advantages:
- Seedlings have time to take root before the onset of cold weather and tolerate winter frosts. And during the spring carrying out of this procedure, the shrub actively develops the root system, but also spends energy on growing foliage and leaves to spend the winter in a weakened form, which is why it can not tolerate frosty weather and simply die,
- Also, the plants planted in autumn move faster to grow and, accordingly, begin to bear fruit faster.
The initial stage of planting currants is the timely preparation of the soil:
- During the autumn planting, the pit is prepared approximately 3-4 weeks before the procedure itself., and during the spring planting the pit must be dug in September. Preliminary preparation is needed to make the soil more fertile,
- Given the biological structure of the root system of red currants, the depth and width of the pit is usually 40-50 centimeters,
- During excavation of the pit, the lower layer is folded separately from the top. Then the fertile (upper) land is mixed with:
- 2 buckets of compost, humus or rotted compost,
- 100 grams of superphosphate,
- 90 grams of potassium sulfate.
- In this form, the planting pit is left until the seedling is planted.
With such planting currant brings the greatest amount of crop and lives much longer than with other methods. Experienced gardeners recommend planting plants at a distance of at least two meters from other trees and shrubs.
This method is suitable for those gardeners who want to collect the maximum number of berries from the minimum areas. Usually ordinary landing is used in commercial cultivation of red currants. The only disadvantage is the rapid deterioration of plants and, accordingly, their rapid death.
Using this method, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of each variety and shrubs with a lush crown to plant at a distance of 120-150 centimeters, and plants with a more compact arrangement of shoots at a distance of 70-110 centimeters.
The technology of planting black currant is as follows:
- It is best to have a seedling in a hole at an angle of 45 degrees, but vertical seating is also possible, which is much simpler and more familiar,
- The root neck should be 5-6 centimeters deep in the ground,
- when digging a hole, periodically shake the seedling to avoid the formation of air pockets between the roots of the plant,
- At the next stage, the ground must be carefully tamped.
- For a plant to stick well in a new place, it is not enough just to plant it correctly. It is necessary to provide proper care for a young bush:
- Immediately after planting, a small groove is dug around the currant, into which you need to gradually pour in a bucket of water. Such a procedure will not only moisten the soil, but also improve the contact of the roots with the soil,
- After the water dries, the groove is filled with humus, peat or just dry earth,
- Also, the ground around the shrub can be mulched to a height of 5-10 centimeters,
- In order to accelerate the formation of the crown of the shrub and to avoid the appearance of weak gains immediately after planting, all branches of the plant are shortened to 2-4 buds.
Proper planting procedures are the key to success in growing a healthy shrub and getting a rich harvest.
In order for the shrub to give as much harvest as possible, it is necessary to properly care for it and not to neglect even the most insignificant at first glance procedures.
The earth around the shrub needs to be periodically loosened so that the root system receives the required amount of moisture and oxygen. In the root zone, loosening is carried out to a depth of 5-6 centimeters, gradually increasing to a depth of 15 centimeters as it recedes from the base of the plant.
Currants can tolerate short-term droughts, but to obtain abundant crops, it is necessary to maintain 80 percent soil moisture. To test this indicator, you can dig up the earth, located at a depth of 30 centimeters, it should retain its shape when squeezed.
During watering, you need to soak the ground with water for 40-50 centimeters, for this young shrubs need 2 buckets of water, and an adult 4-5. There are several ways to water:
- you can dig a groove around the plant and gently pour water into it,
- for large landings, they pull out a trench and install a hose with water in it.
In order for the bushes to start a bountiful and large crop, it is necessary to timely make a variety of top dressing that feeds the soil. It is not necessary to fertilize the ground during the first 2 years after planting., the plant will have enough nutrients introduced during planting.
Crop of ripe black currant
Disease and pest prevention
To avoid the appearance of diseases and pests, it is necessary to process the shrub with special preparations and carry out sanitary and thinning pruning.
- Currants are watered once in early May, but if winter was a little snowy and spring was dry, then this procedure is postponed to April,
- Immediately after the snow melts it is necessary to thoroughly gnaw the earth,
- In the spring, the tree is treated for diseases and pests with the help of special preparations or Brodsky fluids,
- During this period, it is necessary to carry out thinning pruning, removing all frozen, damaged or excessively thickening crown branches.
At the beginning of the leafing currants fertilized with 50 grams of urea and 500 grams of wood ash. Scatter feed dressing under a bush, and then gently bury. It is worth remembering that moisture is needed to dissolve fertilizers, so if the ground is dry and no precipitation has occurred for a long time, the procedure should be carried out after abundant watering.
During flowering, red currants are fertilized with complex mineral fertilizer and bird droppings.
Also in the spring, the shrub needs to be fed with organic fertilizers (humus, compost, manure, etc.). On fertile soils, this procedure is carried out 1 time in 3 years, but on poor lands it will have to be repeated annually.
- In summer, the shrub needs to be watered as the soil dries, in normal weather and no drought, the procedure is carried out 1 time in 2 weeks,
- Experienced gardeners recommend slightly loosening the ground after each watering,
- Also in the summer, you need to monitor the purity of the root zone and remove all weeds.
- During the formation and pouring of fruits currants can be sprayed with growth stimulants, but the most safe and effective method is the introduction of liquid fertilizers after flowering. Such fertilizers include liquid fertilizer with extract of mullein, bird droppings or slurry.
- Many gardeners use infusions prepared on the basis of various herbs, fruit peels, etc., as summer feeding. These tools can be used continuously and make with each watering.
In the fall:
- In the autumn, the amount of watering is reduced to zero, it will be mandatory to add copious amounts of moisture in preparing the shrub for winter,
- Also in the autumn it is recommended to break through the ground so that the roots receive as much oxygen as possible in the winter,
- It is very important to carry out sanitary pruning in the fall, during which all dry, diseased and damaged branches will be removed. This is necessary in order to get rid of diseases and pests,
- After harvesting under the shrubs make:
- 50 grams of superphosphate,
- 20 grams of potassium sulfate,
- Organic fertilizers (on fertile soils 1 time in 2 years).
Preparing for winter in the country
Although the black currant is a rather winter-hardy crop, it still needs additional protection in winter. To do this, you can use one of the following methods:
All branches of the shrub need to be carefully bent to the ground and you need to put on top of the number of bricks that will serve as a load. When carrying out such a procedure is very important not to harm the branches of the plant. Snow is a natural defense against harsh temperatures, so the use of this method is possible only during a snowy winter.
You can also wrap each branch of a shrub in a special agrofibre, while it is desirable to add insulation in the form of mineral wool. Such a tool perfectly helps with severe frosts or at a time when there is no snow cover.
Red and black currants are a wonderful berry, juice or compote from which can easily quench thirst on a hot day, and jam made with the use of these fruits has a pleasant and unusual sourness. Currant brings abundant crops, and growing it in the country will allow to collect a huge amount of ingredients for processing from one bush.
And at the end of a small video on how to grow currants:
Seasonal bushes care
Red currant - one of the favorite fruit gardeners gardeners. Its berries are not only tasty, but also very useful, they contain a huge amount of vitamins and biologically active substances. Fruits are actively used in canning, jelly, marmalade, compotes, etc. are prepared from them.
Caring for red currants is easier than black currants, and this has become an additional reason for its popularity. Selection work has been carried out for many decades, and today gardeners can choose a variety of varieties that are resistant to adverse factors.
General description of red currant
Red currant is a widespread shrub in height from 1.2 to 2 m. The bush includes several well-developed branches, the leaves on them grow along the entire length. At the base you can see young basal shoots with small leaves. The lamina plate has a characteristic shape with a serrated edge; apparently, it differs little from a black currant leaf.
This plant belongs to the number of long-lived: with proper fertilizer, red currant is able to bear fruit for more than 20-25 years.
However, like other berry crops, currants very quickly take nutrients from the soil. If you do not take care of the timely application of fertilizers, the berries will be small, and the harvest will not be abundant.
Bushes are winter-hardy, they are able to endure even severe frosts. In addition, they are resistant to various pests.
- Red currant begins to bloom around mid-May; small buds have yellowish or reddish petals.
- Flowering lasts two weeks, the ripening of berries begins in mid-June.
- The berries are clusters on light green stalks, their diameter can be from 8 to 12 mm, which depends on the variety.
In Russia, more than 10 varieties are now grown, which differ not only in the size of the berries, but also in the time of ripening and the taste of the fruit. In order to achieve a good harvest, it is recommended to grow several bushes of different varieties on one site, which allows using cross-pollination and obtaining the highest quality fruits.
Growing conditions for red currant
Red currant belongs to the light-loving plants, so it is preferable for her open, well-lit places. With a lack of light, berries ripen much more slowly, and they will not be so sweet.
These are quite compact plants, so they can be planted along a wall or fence, and each bush does not need too much space.
Previously, they were grown not as fruit, but as ornamental plants because of the pleasant beautiful foliage. Hedge of currant bushes will be an excellent decoration for the garden, which in the fall will bring delicious and healthy fruits.
Other important conditions for obtaining a good harvest:
- Red currant prefers well aerated soil, it is desirable to place it on loose sandy or loamy soil. If the soil is wetted, the shrub is planted in a raised bed, this allows you to avoid rotting of the roots. In addition, chips or small branches can be placed at the bottom of the pit to create a drainage layer.
- For good fruiting, slightly acidic soils are more suitable, the optimum acidity level is 6.0-6.5.
- It is necessary to follow the schedule of fertilizer application: in the fall, half a bucket of compost is mixed into the soil, and 20 grams of superphosphate is mixed with it. In addition, fertilizers include potassium sulfate - 25 g per square meter. In the spring, ammonium nitrate is added to the soil in the amount of 25 g per square meter. meter. After flowering, additional organic fertilizers are added: this is a diluted mullein (1:10) or bird droppings in proportion (1:25).
When planting, care must be taken that there is a distance of at least 1-1.5 m between seedlings.
Otherwise, the bushes will grow too often, and they will suffer from a lack of light. This leads to a decrease in yield, so you have to thin out the landing, removing unnecessary branches. The distance to the trees should be at least 3 meters, otherwise the bush will constantly close the shadow of the crown.
Planting red currants
For the reproduction of currants, cuttings and cuttings are used, the method of dividing the bush is also often used, in which the rhizome is cut into several parts with a shovel.
Red currant saplings are not difficult to get because of the wide spread of this plant, it is important to pay attention to their quality and variety.
Seedlings are transplanted into the ground in early autumn, and you should not be late: the plants should have enough time to prepare for the winter season. Even an inexperienced gardener can handle the planting; it is carried out as follows:
Preparation before landing:
- It is necessary to prepare pits in advance, the depth of which is 40 cm, and the width - up to 60 cm. This is necessary in order for the soil to settle.
- Organic fertilizers must be applied to the ground: these are 8-10 kg of humus with peat, and superphosphate wood ash can be added to them.
- If the ground is too dense, it is diluted with sand.
- The seedling can be planted in a hole directly, but more often it is placed obliquely: this contributes to a more rapid formation of lateral roots.
After planting, it is necessary to water a sapling well: water consumption is about 5 liters per 1 bush. At the same time the ground around him is not trampled down, it must remain fairly loose. The roots are mulched with peat, you can also use humus.
The branches are cut: the height of the aerial part should be 10-15 cm, at least 3-4 buds should remain on the branches.
When choosing a seedling you need to pay attention to its roots. They should be lignified and durable, the total length is not less than 20 cm. Before planting, seedlings are advised to put them in a container with water to which they add clay for a few hours so that the roots are well saturated with moisture. This will accelerate the survival rate of the bush and allow you to quickly give new roots. In the selection of top dressing, it is important to consider that red currant does not like chlorine, and it should not be part of the fertilizer.
Description of red currant
Efficient, comfortable and sooooo fast. When you need to lose 3-4 pounds per week. Read more here.
Red currant is a high-yielding and early ripening crop. Растение принято считать многолетним листопадным кустарником.
- Кусты ягоды имеют меньший размер, чем черной смородины, они более компактные. Форма саженцев немного вытянута и сжата по бокам,
- Молодые побеги культуры имеют желтоватый оттенок, а со временем приобретают зеленый цвет. The bush of red currant in height reaches 1 - 2 m,
- Shrubs have a lot of fruit buds, from which in the future a great harvest will turn out,
- The emergence of berries in culture occurs later than in black currants. That is why the plant is resistant to frost,
- The taste of currant berries juicy and sour. The diameter of the berries is 1 centimeter, formed by brushes on the bushes. Color depends on the variety, they can be:
- Dark red
- Light red
Emaciated Stepanenko: I weighed 108, and now 65. At night she drank warm. Read more here.
Culture - long-lived. A shrub can grow in one place for 35 years.
Red Currant Varieties
- Gazelle - medium early variety. The berries have a medium size and sweet-sour taste,
- Versailles red - an early ripe grade with high level of productivity. It is particularly popular in the Baltics. Shrubs culture stunted with wrinkled leaves. Big berries have a slightly sour taste,
- Dutch red - unpretentious and long-lived variety of currants. Shrubs can grow in one place for about 30 years. The Dutch red berry has an average yield,
- Houghton's lock - mid-season and frost-resistant grade of currant. Bushes grow strongly and have brown shoots. The berries are sweet-sour in taste and large in diameter,
- The Red Cross is a medium-yielding English variety that was popular in the USSR. The variety is resistant to cultivation in the climate of Kazakhstan. Sprawling bushes with large bright red fruits,
- Natalie is a high yielding mid-currant variety.
Tip! For beginners who first decided to plant this crop, you can read the description of any variety and see the photo, what the future harvest will look like.
How to save red currant saplings before planting?
After three weeks have passed, before direct planting, the roots of the shrub need to be shortened, and the plant should be buried by 8 centimeters, slightly higher than the root collar and buried. This planting has a positive effect on the growth of basal buds. Basal buds serve as the formation of a lush bush.
It is very important to plant a bush in the upper layer of soil, and not in the fertilized. Otherwise, shrubs will begin to actively grow, which will lead to a slowdown in fruiting. Planted bushes need to pour water and make pruning shoots. Shorten the stems at a height of 25 cm from the ground with 3-4 buds. The land around the plant should be mulched with straw, peat or fallen leaves.
After planting, when the soil begins to freeze, the bushes should be spudded with humus to protect the root system from accumulated moisture.
Rules that should be followed when planting red currants:
- Landing should be done in early autumn,
- Dig a hole measuring 40 * 60 centimeters,
- Add two buckets of humus,
- Make mineral fertilizers,
- Shorten the roots, leaving 30 cm,
- To deepen and bury the bush,
- Plenty of water,
- Cut the stems, leaving a length of 25 cm,
- Make mulching
Red currant care
If you comply with all the necessary requirements, you can collect a decent crop of currants for 25 years.
After planting currant care should include weeding, watering, mulching and loosening the soil.
Important! Red currant tolerates drought well, and therefore does not need regular watering.
It is necessary to maintain a constant level of moisture in the soil. To do this, quite rarely, but plenty of water and mulch the bush.
Fertilizers that will be applied during planting will allow the bush to not need nutrients for two years. After depletion of the soil will require re-feeding. Fertilizer should be applied in the autumn. Often use chicken manure or manure, diluted in water in a ratio of 1:20 and 1:10. Rain and melt water will help fertilize the soil. Fertilizer based on mineral fertilizers should be made in spring. Enough 80 grams of ammonium nitrate per plant.
Why do you need pruning red currants?
For red currant, pruning is important, which forms a bush and also increases resistance to diseases. In addition, competent pruning allows the berries not to shrink every year.
Shrubs crops do not have a clear pobegoobrazovatelnoy ability. Bouquet branches can bear fruit for 10 years. Therefore, shrubs need a radical pruning. In order to form a bush berries, it is important to leave the thickening, and remove all unnecessary shoots. Leave a few branches to rejuvenate the plant.
Watch the video! Currant pruning: when and how to do it
If we are talking about growing currants in shtambu, then you need to remove all zero branches. All shoots that are beginning to grow, you need to pinch the top for the formation of a large number of fruit shoots (annuli). Regularly pruned shoots are needed only when it is necessary to remove damaged and thick branches.
It is important to remember that if we neglect the pruning procedure, it is possible to reduce the number of future crops several times. In addition, there is a high probability that pests will attack the bush.
You should do a constant inspection of the bush and cut the shoots that are infected. For prevention, it is recommended to spray a bush with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. The procedure should be carried out 2 weeks after flowering and after the crop is harvested. An excellent means of pest control is lime milk with iron sulfate 4%. Treat bushes with such a solution in the spring before the buds bloom.
Fight against diseases and pests
In order to save the plants, it is necessary to periodically spray the bushes. For such purposes, it is recommended to use copper sulphate. Treatment should be carried out in early spring. Such preparation as Karbofos is widely used. They need to spray during flowering and the formation of berries.
Diseases of the red currant:
- Fungal disease Anthracnose. The disease affects the foliage of bushes. In order to fight use Bordeaux liquid or fungicides,
- To eliminate the powdery mildew, it is recommended to use such drugs as Captan and Fundazole,
- Fungal disease - rust. For the treatment of this pathology used special drugs
- Terry - a serious disease that is not treatable. Therefore, as soon as signs of a terry-cloth appear, it is necessary to remove the entire bush. The main symptom of the disease - the appearance of narrow purple petals.
Red currant pests:
- The spider mite is capable of infecting the foliage of a culture and covering it with a spider web. In order to fight you need to use insecticides, such as Malathion,
- Leaf gall midge - is represented by small mosquitoes that destroy the foliage of a bush. Only special preparations effectively fight mosquitoes,
- Ognevka is a butterfly, the caterpillars of which eat the fruits of currants, as well as entwine with the spiderweb. To destroy the pest, it is necessary to use drugs, for example, Aktellik and Aktar, Karbofos,
- Gooseberry moth, aphid, glass bowl, kidney moth are also pests for red currants. To combat using solutions of insecticides.
If you follow the basic rules of farming, you can grow on the summer cottage excellent yield of red currants. Do not forget that the berries of the culture are full of vitamins and have a beneficial effect on the human body. The advantages should also include the moment that culture can be grown in any region of the country, like in the Urals, Siberia or the Moscow region.
Watch the video! Red currant - growing, harvesting and storage
Why do we need red currant in the garden
This shrub must be on every summer cottage. The gardener's main concern is to plant red currants, the rest of the care is simple, it can be entrusted even to teenagers and retirees. This is one of the earliest and long fruiting berries. If you choose the right varieties for ripening, the plants will supply you with tasty berries from June to autumn.
Due to the rich set of vitamins, biologically active substances, antioxidants and trace elements, red currant is widely used in traditional medicine and cosmetology. During colds, doctors recommend eating lemons and other citrus fruits. We do not know how exotic fruits were grown and stored, what chemicals they were treated with. At your fingertips, a wonderful substitute is a useful and vitamin sweet and sour berry.
In the refrigerator at a temperature of about + 2⁰ fruits can be stored for 2 weeks or more, it all depends on the variety. In the summer, you can make refreshing compotes from the berries, and make lots of blanks for the winter. Juice with sugar without any thickeners turns into jelly. Prepare as much of this delicacy as possible, in the winter a few teaspoons of thick mass will saturate your body with vitamins, and in the spring you will not feel any traditional blues. Natural red currant marmalade will replace the kids with candy sweets saturated with palm oil, preservatives and other harmful ingredients. For adults, you can make excellent natural wine from the berries.
Unpretentious vitamin berry
Red currant fell in love with gardeners for delicious early berries and simple care for a long-lived shrub. Carefully choose a place for planting, the plant can bear fruit for up to 25 years, and it will be a pity to destroy it if you plan to build some kind of construction on this site. Do not believe the assertions that the old bushes berries are small and the harvest is small. This happens with summer residents who forget that the nutrients themselves are not formed in the soil, they need to be constantly introduced. Feed your green pets, in gratitude they feed you.
The bush is not afraid of frosty winters, with the right approach, it is possible to grow in all regions. In the red currant contains volatile production, it is resistant to many diseases, and the pests do not really complain. The antibacterial properties of the berries are known to many housewives, they often put ripe brushes in various pickles and marinades for better preservation of the contents of the cans. In order not to get problems with the bushes, provide them with easy care and do not forget about preventive measures.
Already in June, fruits begin to ripen. Depending on the type of berries are large and small, sour and sweet. Do not plant the entire plot with one favorite species; create diversity. With cross-pollination and the harvest will be richer and the quality of the fruit is better.
Here are some varieties of berry culture, the cultivation of which is recommended for central Russia.
- Natalie. The variety has been recognized by northern gardeners for frost resistance and high yield. Berries weighing up to 0.5 g ripen in July.
- Ronde. Drought-resistant variety with large late-ripening fruits. The fruits are not showered for a long time, they are well stored. Disadvantage: cuttings shrub breeds badly.
- Dutch red. Plants are resistant to drought, give good yields. The bush is compact, growing in height. Medium sized berries ripen at the end of July.
- Versailles Red is famous for large berries - up to 1.5 g. Fruiting in July.
- Rolan Gives up to 7 kg of fruits from one plant. Already in the third year reaches full yield. Does not require thinning. Each brush has up to 30 berries with an average weight of 0.7 g.
- Rosette The bush grows very quickly. Shoots are directed vertically, do not occupy a large area. Perhaps growing on the trellis. The fruits ripen late, in the second half of July.
Advertising publications spread a sensation about the Eye of the Dragon variety. Shrubs without shelter withstand temperatures down to -50⁰, spring frosts to -15⁰ do not harm the ovaries. Fruits the size of a cherry can hang on the bushes for a long time, do not crumble. The plant is not affected by disease. Comments indicate that breeders obviously flattered themselves, this species does not have any special advantages.
When a new variety is advertised with remarkable qualities, do not rush to purchase it, gardeners often write in reviews that they have not noticed the promised merits. This is due to the deception of the sellers, and due to the fact that the plant is not suitable for the conditions of your area. Ask your neighbors and acquaintances before buying what varieties they like.
What conditions like red currants?
If you want to feast on sweet berries, the cultivation of red currants should be carried out in sunny areas. The soil should be light and loose. Good loam and sandy loam. The reaction is desirable weakly acid, but if the acidity is increased, lime should be added to the planting. The plant does not tolerate groundwater; on wet areas it is necessary to build a mound or make a drainage. Droughty heights are not terrible to a plant, its thick roots with a set of long shoots will find moisture.
Do not like the bushes cold north and northeast winds. The best geographical location for it is the southern slope of the hill. On flat terrain, protection can be buildings, fences or high dense stands. Often, red currant feels great where others cannot grow.
Red currant is convenient because it is easy to find a place for it. The bush does not occupy a large area, a number of plants can be planted on a narrow strip of land next to buildings or a fence. The culture is suitable for landscape design: bright coloring of leaves with clusters of red berries will enliven any dull landscape. You can use plantings for hedges or as a background for a bed with light colors. Initially, the cultivation of this culture was carried out not for fruit, but for decorative purposes.
The distance between the bushes should be not less than a meter, then they have enough light and space. If redcurrant grows on the north side of tall trees, the crown will close the sun. Plant it no closer than 3 m from tree species. This rule must be observed when planting shrubs along buildings and fences.
Saplings can be bought in nurseries or specialized centers. If you like red currants from neighbors or friends, you can get planting material yourself using cuttings or cuttings. If you want to root an already developed plant, separate a part of the bush. Use a sharp spade to cut off a fragment of rhizome with shoots and transplant it to a new place. Until the plant takes root, provide the mind with more attentive care.
Planting red currant begins in early autumn, it is better in September, so that by the cold the seedlings have time to take root and grow stronger. You can plant in the spring, but you need to have time to swell the kidneys. For a fortnight before planting, dig holes with a diameter of 0.6 m and a depth of 0.4 m. Put about 10 kg of humus on the bottom with ash. Put sand in heavy soil. Put a layer of earth on top. If the roots are laid directly in the fertile composition, the leaves will be too much - to the detriment of fruiting. The device pits need to hold in advance to the ground had time to settle.
In the morning, place the root system of the bush in the clay mash and hold it there for several hours. The underground part is saturated with water and will quickly start up new processes. The seedlings are better placed obliquely, then they will quickly begin to develop the lateral processes of the roots. Do not trample the ground and do not ram, pour 5 liters of water into the well, the liquid itself will compact the soil. If the roots become bare during watering, add ground. Cut the branches of the seedling so that there are 3-4 buds on them. Grub the hole with a thick layer of sawdust or peat, then caring for plants will become much easier.
Cut the healthy twigs into the ground at a depth of 3 buds. Most of the cuttings will take root and become the basis of new bushes.
Berry culture care
Shrub care is uncomplicated, black currant requires more attention than red. Watering is needed only in dry weather. Do not moisten the soil only from above; there will be no benefit from this. The correct option - about 5 buckets of water under the plant. If there is no rain during the flowering and fruit development period, pour 2 buckets of water under the shrub each week. To freshen the leaves, spray them in the evening with a spray bottle. If you are too lazy to mulch the hole, in the summer you have to fight with weeds and loosen the ground.
When a shrub grows in one place for many years, it pulls nutrients out of the ground. With proper dressings, there will be no yield reduction. In the fall, add 0.5 buckets of compost for each bush, adding 25 g of superphosphate and potash fertilizers to it. In the spring, throw 25 g of ammonium nitrate under the plants. After flowering during the formation of the fruit feed organic matter.
When choosing fertilizers, pay attention to their composition. If chlorine is present there, the currant preparation is not suitable.
In order for the bush to produce a good harvest in summer, you need to provide it with comfortable conditions. As soon as the earth thaws, spend spring care of plants:
- remove last year’s leaves and other garbage from the hole,
- loosen the ground
- cut dry, broken and diseased branches,
- under the large processes, install the supports so that they do not lie on the ground, but stretch upwards and are well lit by the sun.
In the autumn you need to prepare the bushes for the winter. Remove excess shoots so that the bush is not too thick. The optimal number - 10 trunks. If the growth is too thick, the number of berries will decrease. Old branches are considered after 7 years, they need to be removed. Не трогайте молодые ростки, на следующий год на них появятся ягоды. После отпиливания слишком толстых веток обработайте срезы садовым варом.
Перекопайте землю на небольшую глубину и слегка окучьте основание куста. Как только выпадет снег, насыпьте на растение сугроб. Хотя красная смородина – морозостойкая культура, утепление ей не повредит. In the coldest regions you need to wrap all the shoots with straw, spruce branches or covering materials. In the spring, all defenses and mounds should be removed.
Diseases and pests of red currant
Good immunity and phytoncides protect red currants from diseases and pests, but sometimes there are problems with it. Often this happens with bushes that are not provided with proper care. In order not to engage in complex treatment and insect control, do not let them develop. Inspect the bushes and immediately remove all suspicious branches. All cut fragments must be burned to kill the infection. Disinfect tools.
One of the preventive measures is to remove extra shoots in time so that the bush is well ventilated and illuminated by the sun. Prevent weed growth; they block air flow and serve as a cover for pests. A layer of mulch not less than 5 cm thick will eliminate this problem. When mulching do not forget to ensure that the root neck is not under the ground.
Each chemical product has its own requirements for the period from processing to harvesting. In order not to water the already tied berries with harmful solutions, pour the bushes immediately after removing the damaged branches.
- 10 g of colloidal sulfur, dissolved in 10 l of water, will help from a kidney tick.
- From currant aphid and powdery mildew - a solution of nitrafen in a concentration of 8%.
- From anthracnose in the spring, pour over the bush and the ground with fungicides.
Do not blindly trust advertising claims that the variety you choose is resistant to anthracnose or powdery mildew, they do not always correspond to the truth. Do not forget to inspect the plants and carry out preventive measures.
Do not forget about the biological methods of protection. Honey plants will attract predatory insects to the garden. Calendula between bushes will drive away ticks. Infusions of Hogweed, mustard, garlic, tobacco can be used against infections and pests, without fear that the fruit will absorb toxic substances.
The most convenient for growing in the country berry culture - red currant. Compact bush does not take up much space, does not impose special requirements to climatic conditions and soil. Add simple care, longevity and high yield, and you will realize that you simply need this plant.
The sweetness of the berries depends not only on the variety, but also on the lighting. The more sun, the more good sugars. To the bushes enough strength to develop a large number of fruits, do not forget about feeding. Roots cannot draw in dry fertilizer. Supply the currants with enough moisture and a rich harvest will be guaranteed.
Berries are not only tasty, they are filled with useful components and vitamins. In winter, red currants will saturate the body with ascorbic acid, in the period of colds and epidemics will protect against infection. Cook jelly, marmalades, stewed fruit, you can rightly say about this berry: eat for health!
How and when to plant red currants
Red currant is sun-creeping and tolerates drought much better than excess moisture. This is explained by the presence of a powerful, branched root system. The plant is planted where most of the other fruit crops do not take root: on gentle slopes or hills, in areas open to the sun.
Currants do not like strong winds, especially cold, so it should grow in the area, protected from strong east or north wind. For this good fencing or construction.
Currants will take root on loose soil - loamy and sandy. If soil acidity is increased, limestone or dolomite flour is added to it before planting. In the lowlands, the plant survives, but grows stunted and low-yielding.
Growing plants begins with the planting of seedlings. It is recommended to choose two-year-old saplings with three skeletal roots. Planting takes place from mid-September to late October. In early spring, planting is allowed, but it must be done before the juice begins to move.
- Under the condition of high acidity of the soil, the site is dug up and lime is introduced into the soil in the amount of 300–800 g / 1m². Depth - 20−22cm. In the case of high waterlogging, drainage is arranged.
- Pits under bushes are dug: size - 45 × 55 × 55 cm.
- One or two buckets of humus, approximately 100 g of superphosphate and 0.5 liters of chalk and dolomite flour, are poured into the bottom, if there was no digging. Instead of chalk, you can use ashes, where a tablespoon of potassium chloride is added.
- Fertilizers are poured with a layer of 7−9 cm.
- Landing is done in two weeks, since the earth should settle. Before planting store seedlings they need to hold in the water for two hours.
- A hillock is made in the pit, watering is done, the seedling is positioned so that the root system is flattened, then everything is covered with earth.
- The seedling is placed with a slope of 45 °. The root neck should be approximately 5 cm deep.
- The shoots are shortened to 15−20 cm, so that they have 3-4 buds. Segments can be planted in moist soil - three buds under the ground, almost certainly they will take roots.
- When watering a bush, half a bucket of water is left; after watering, the bush is mulched with hay, peat, or dry foliage so that the soil does not lose moisture. If the roots are watered during irrigation, they are sprinkled with earth, but they are not compacted.
In winter, when the soil begins to freeze, the bushes are spud to protect the still weak plant from the cold. In the spring currants razukochivaetsya.
For red currants do not need a large plot. Usually requires about 10% of the area for berry crops. For the cultivation of the bush, which would give the maximum yield, nothing complicated is required. Currant unpretentious.
- Planting is done in the ground, not in the humus, and the pits, therefore, are dug in advance, or at least it is necessary to compact the soil over the humus before planting. If the roots are immediately in the humus, in the spring will grow green mass, but the bush will bear little fruit.
- Usually the bush no longer requires trimming and hilling. Currants tolerate frost down to -15 °. Replacing shoots (growing out of the ground) are removed. Side shoots are also recommended to shorten, so as not to interfere with the main branches to develop.
- The bush propagates by cuttings. Lignified shoots in autumn are cut, cut to the first bud, and shortened if necessary: 20–25 cm should remain. Then they are planted vertically in the soil so that 3-4 buds remain above the ground level.
It is not necessary to grow currants to the maximum pomp and height. On a well-bearing bush of the main branches about ten. Crop will be less with an excessive amount of green mass.
Reproduction by layering
The simplest and most effective way of reproduction. Choosing a young bush 3, 4, 5 years. The soil looses under it in early spring, fertilizes, grooves 8–10 cm deep from the center are made in the soil, reaching from the center, well-developed one-two-year shoots fit into them, fixed in several places with metal hooks, the middle part of the layers is filled up so that their top remains on the surface. When the shoots developing on the layering, the height will be 10−12 cm, with an interval of two twice 2-3 weeks spud moist, loose soil. In the summer, the layers are watered abundantly, and the area around them is mulched with organic matter.
In the fall, the rooted cuttings that gave shoots are separated from the mother liquor, are separated in length into separate plants with roots, and they are transplanted to a permanent place. After 2-3 years, the most developed begin to bear fruit.
Reproduction by cuttings
Faster rooted lignified cuttings from annual shoots that have grown from the root on the branches aged 2−3 years. The cutting should be no thinner than 8 mm, and its length should be 18–20 cm. Planting material is harvested in the autumn, then the cuttings are laid in a box with wet sand to form roots. In the box they keep 2.5−3 months at a temperature of 2−3ºC, then placed under the snow or in the vegetable box of the refrigerator before planting in the spring. In open ground planted in early spring, 20 cm apart under glass jars or plastic bottles.
The stalk should be submerged in the soil so that two buds remain above the ground, and the rest submerged in the soil. Soil around is compacted and watered, after it dries, the site is mulched with fine peat or humus. In September, rooted cuttings are transplanted to a permanent place.
Reproduction by green cuttings is possible, although they form the root system for a long time to the detriment of the ground part. Because of this, they are planted in a permanent place not earlier than in a year, and they begin to bear fruit later than woody cuttings.
Propagation by division of roots
By this method resorted when you want to transplant a bush to another place. First of all, old, diseased and broken branches are removed from the bush, then it is dug out, divided by a sterile sharp instrument into pieces, each of which must have developed shoots and roots. Then is the processing of the incisions with crushed coal and rassazhivaniya delenok in the wells 5-7 cm deeper uterine hives. Shoots after planting are shortened to 15−20 cm, watered abundantly, and the soil continues to moisten until parts of the bush take root.
Caring for red currants in spring involves a number of standard activities:
With proper care, the bush grows and bears fruit up to 20 years.
Pruning. The branches are replaced after 7−8 years. Pruning is carried out in late autumn or early spring, before the movement of the juice. This removes the low branches and those that intersect too far. Also damaged and old branches are deleted. Cuts of thick stalks are processed by garden pitch. Side shoots are shortened. In July-August, nipping of unnecessary tops is done, so that the bush can shoot out with a large number of buds.
Top dressing. Fertilizers applied before planting, lasts for 2−3 years. Further feeding is repeated. Fertilizers are applied under the bush so as not to damage the branches. The rest of the soil is dug up. Autumn digging is required. Leaves at the same time buried in depth.
- Fertilizers are prepared at the rate of half a bucket of compost, 20 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m². After applying a dressing under the bush, mulching is performed. Top dressing is made late fall or early spring.
- Potassium chloride is used only in the autumn period, because the roots are sensitive to chlorine. In the spring, nitrogenous fertilizers are added: urea - 15 g / 1 m², or ammonium nitrate - 25 g / 1 m².
- After flowering, a liquid top dressing is applied: 1 kg of litter and mullein per 30 liters of water.
For light soils, a continuous liquid feed is recommended. For this purpose, annular grooves are made around the bush, and watering is done with a solution of fertilizers. The liquid should enter the earth by 40 cm.
Currant perfectly tolerates heat, but during the period of the ovary and maturation it needs watering. If the winter was snowy, in the spring the bushes do not water. With little snow in winter and dry spring water as needed. Water is better to use warm. During the period of the ovary, the bushes are watered once every 5 days; one or two buckets of water are used. Water pours so that the leaves fall on her minimum amount. The soil should be soaked for 30−40s m. If there was little rain in the fall, podzimny irrigation is carried out - a bucket on a currant bush. Often watering and dressing is done simultaneously.
After the plant goes into hibernation, and this happens in late September - early October, be sure to prepare the currants for wintering.
For this, it is necessary to remove the leaves, prune old and non-fruiting branches, and perform a trimming shrub. The last feeding is not carried out in the fall, but it is necessary to ensure good watering before frosts in order to protect the root system from freezing.
Red currant belongs to frost-resistant crops, but in a snowless winter the roots can be damaged. A good cover will provide a layer of mulch or sawdust poured at the base. Top can be covered with a thick film or tarpaulin.
This should be done before the first frost, but not in warm weather, which can cause the accumulation of excess moisture at the roots.
Pruning a bush
For the formation of a beautiful and fertile shrub, sanitary and shaping pruning of shoots is necessarily carried out. Currants do not like thickening, because this reduces the yield and size of berries. Pruning is carried out only at rest (in early spring or in the middle of autumn) in order not to injure the plant.
The currant bush is formed as follows:
- The annual increase is 2 - 3 young shoots. In total, an adult bush should have about 15 to 20 branches of different ages.
- Do not leave the old non-bearing shoots (for red currants, the "respectable" age is 7 - 8 years).
- Removed all the shoots growing inside the bush. This prevents thickening of the bush and lower yields.
- In the summer, it is best to pinch the tops of the bush. This stimulates the active growth of replacement shoots.
The tapestry method of growing red currants showed itself perfectly. To do this, the bushes are planted in a row with a stable fence. Binding of shoots is carried out according to the method of the vine, and all shoots that grow not in the direction of the trellis are subject to mandatory pruning.
Few people know, but red currants can be formed in the form of a stem tree. To this end, in the first year of life, all root shoots are pruned, leaving the central trunk.
For stability, it can be tied to a vertical support. In the future, you need to cut off all the shoots at a distance of 30 - 50 centimeters from ground level. The tops pinch to trigger the growth of side branches.
Any of the proposed options has pros and cons, each gardener decides for himself what method will be optimal for his site.
Top dressing and watering
Regular watering will ensure a stable crop of currants. For this it is necessary to use well water at room temperature. On one bush - no less than a bucket of water, the frequency of watering depends on the weather, but at least once in 10 - 12 days.
In the heat, you can water the bushes every other day, exclusively at the root, so as not to knock down the color and ovary. Mulching the root area will help to retain moisture longer, as well as provide additional feeding.
Mineral fertilizers are applied in three stages:
- In the spring Nitrogen fertilizers (ready-made complexes or organic) are used. It stimulates the growth of shoots and leaves. Calculation of dosage: per 10 liters of water 50 g of urea. In the case of ammonium nitrate, the dosage is reduced to 30 g / 10 l of water.
- Before flowering Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are used to make the fruits better tied. For one adult currant bush using 50 grams of potassium and 80 grams of superphosphate. You can use wood ash at the rate of one glass diluted in a bucket of water.
- After the main harvest is harvested, it is necessary to feed the plant with diluted manure or chicken manure. Infusion must be prepared in advance. To do this, dissolve 2 - 2.5 kg of cow manure or 1 kg of chicken manure in a bucket of water. The resulting mixture is left in a warm place for fermentation. A week later, the fertilizer is ready, but in order not to burn the roots, it must be diluted at the rate of 0.5 l per bucket of water.
During the season, you can use folk remedies plant nutrition, as well as regularly update the mulch under the currant roots. Fertilizing is not recommended in the autumn, so as not to provoke the growth of shoots.
In addition, it is worth noting that the first feeding is carried out only in the second year after planting. Until this time, the plant is quite enough minerals made during planting.
Major Diseases and Pests
To eat juicy leaves and vitamin berries are not averse to many insects. The main pests of the red currant are frequent uninvited guests at any garden plot, so experienced summer residents know how to deal with them.
The main diseases of red currant:
Fungal disease that occurs in adverse, too damp and cold weather. Outwardly it looks like small brown spots, which over time increase in size and cover most of the leaves.
To combat this disease, fungicides are used; prophylactic sprays with Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate have proven themselves well. These drugs are also suitable for treatment, it is only necessary to increase the frequency of treatment (every week instead of ten days).
A thin white “cobweb” appears, which gradually entangles the entire bush and fruit. Spraying with this 3% solution of ferrous sulfate will save spam from this scourge. The soil under the bush can also be treated using a special preparation "Nitrofen".
Yellow-orange bulging spots appear that quickly spread through the leaves and the stem, affecting the flowers and fruits. Effective treatment methods have not been developed, and for prophylaxis sprays with 1% Bordeaux mixture are used.
In the direction of the veins on the leaf of the plant are duplicated bands of orange or brown. When detected in the early stages will help remove the affected leaves and spraying fungicidal agents. В противном случае необходимо выкорчевать весь куст, а место посадки продезинфицировать.
Считается, что красная смородина менее подвержена заболеваниями, нежели ее черная разновидность. Вместе с тем, при загущенных посадках нередки случаи заражения кустов белой пятнистостью (септориозом), махровостью (реверсия) и бактериоз.
При выращивании красной смородины могут возникнуть трудности не только у новичков дачного дела. Often, the bushes are affected by root rot or aphid attacks, even with quality care. In order to prevent the spread of infection and to protect the plant from serious damage, it is necessary to respond to the following alarming "symptoms" in a timely manner.
What problems can be encountered:
- Defeat aphids. Characteristic signs are developmental delays, wilting and wrinkling of leaves. Red bumps are formed on the surface of the sheet. Colonies of aphids are usually on the back of the leaves.
- Ognevka. This pest leaves the characteristic traces of its stay - a thin web that surrounds the shoots and fruits. You can also notice small caterpillars that destroy the green parts of the plant.
- Yellow sawfly. Delays the larvae, which systematically eat the leaves and young shoots of currants.
- Spider mite Cringing and withering leaves, as well as sticky web on the stems is a characteristic sign of the presence of this pest.
- Kidney tick. Tolerates a dangerous disease - mossiness, which is considered incurable - the entire hive is removed at once. Signs of damage are considered anomalies of plant development: the shape of the leaf changes, color and ovary are absent.
- The moth. Voracious caterpillars, completely devouring the leaves of berry crops.
- Zlatka. The larvae of this pest prefer to eat the juicy flesh of the shoots.
These pests can be controlled with special preparations (Karbofos, Fury, Fufanon, Aktellik, Aktara, Bankol, Konfidor Tanrek, Confidant, Commodore, Biotlin, etc.) and folk remedies (sprinkling with soap or garlic solution, sprinkling with ashes). Affected leaves must be removed from the bush and burned. In case of severe damage, it is more expedient to uproot the plant as a whole, rather than allowing other bushes to become infected.
The popular garden culture is red currant, it does not have a capricious character, but requires careful attention. In order to have a good harvest, it is necessary to provide active watering, regular pruning and feeding of bushes. The main subtleties of red currant care are discussed in our information.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. Planting in the fall
- 3.3. Landing in spring
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Spring care
- 4.2. Summer care
- 4.3. Autumn care
- 4.4. Treatment
- 4.5. Watering
- 4.6. Top dressing
- 5. Trimming
- 5.1. When to trim
- 5.2. Spring cropping
- 5.3. Pruning in the fall
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. How to multiply
- 6.2. Reproduction by layering
- 6.3. Cuttings
- 6.4. Division of roots
- 7. Pests and diseases
- 7.1. Diseases
- 7.2. Pests
- 8. Grades
- 9. Properties
- 9.1. Beneficial features
- 9.2. Contraindications
Planting and care of red currants (in brief)
- Landing: in September or from the middle to the end of April.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: slightly acid or neutral chernozem, forest soil with a high content of humus or loam.
- Watering: regular and sufficient, especially in the period of active growth and formation of ovaries (in early June), as well as in the period of berry filling (in late July or early August). Consumption - 20-30 liters of water per m²: the soil should be soaked to a depth of 30-40 cm.
- Top dressing: in April, urea is introduced into the soil, in June - slurry or a solution of bird droppings, although it is possible to fertilize the soil with a mineral complex. In the summer, on cloudy days or in the evenings, foliar dressing is carried out on the leaves with trace element solutions - boric acid, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, manganese sulphate and ammonium molybdate. In early October, the soil around the bushes is dug up with organic matter, potash and phosphorus fertilizer.
- Pruning: in early spring or after leaf fall.
- Breeding: layering, dividing the bush and cuttings.
- Pests: a plant can be affected by blackcurrant fruit, gooseberry yellow and pale-footed sawflies, currant gall midges, stewpots, kidney and spider mites, leaf gall and gooseberry sprout aphids, gooseberry moth moth, gadfly and biannual leaf worm.
- Diseases: anthracnose, white spotting, European powdery mildew, double-skinned (overgrowth, reversion), non-salted drying of shoots, striped mosaic, goblet and columnar rust, gray mold.
Red Currant - description
Bushes of red currant reach a height of 1 to 2 m. The root system of the red currant is quite powerful. Her shoots are yellowish or gray, the wood is green with a light heart. The leaves of red currant are three to five-lobed, smooth and shiny on the upper side, and on the lower one a lighter shade and sometimes pubescent along the veins. The unpretentious red-brown or yellow-green flowers which are dismissed in May are collected in brushes. The fruits of red currant - juicy and sour-tasting red berries with a diameter of 1 mm, collected in clusters. Red and black currants are close relatives. White currant and gooseberry are also related to them. In our gardens red currant is grown as often as black currant, strawberry and raspberry, and much more often than just starting to learn amateur gardens, blackberries, blueberries and blueberries.
Red currant blooms much later than black, so less likely to suffer from recurrent frosts. It is easier to tolerate drought, and with proper care gives richer yields. Lives bush red currant 30-35 years. Almost all varieties are self-fertile.
In this article, you will learn how to plant and care for red currants - how and when to water it, how to feed it, how to cut red currant, how to treat it from diseases and pests, and whether it is possible to grow red currant in areas with a cool climate. In addition, we will give you a description of the varieties of red currants, and you will probably be able to choose the excellent varieties for your area.
When to plant red currants.
The optimal time for planting red currants is September. If for any reason you did not manage to plant red currants in the fall, you can move the planting in the spring - in the middle or end of April.
Since redcurrant is very light-loving, it should be grown on a well-lit and ventilated southern slope. The best soils for it are black soil, forest soils with a high content of humus and loam with a neutral or slightly acid reaction. For planting, choose one or two-year-old seedlings of red currant with an extensive and healthy root system of about 20 cm. Before planting, remove all the leaves from the seedlings and hold their roots in a bucket of water for 2-3 hours.
Red currant treatment.
In early March, red currant bushes need to be awakened from a winter sleep - pour water from the watering can, heated to 80 ºC. After that, the still dormant buds are used for preventive treatment of the bushes for diseases with copper sulphate or Nitrafen. The following prophylactic treatment of red currants from fungal diseases with the same preparations is carried out 10 days after harvesting.
During the period of prophylactic budding, red currants are treated for insect pests with Actellic, Karbofos or Rovikurt. Re-processing is carried out after harvest.
Watering red currants.
Despite the fact that red currant due to its well-developed root system is much more resistant to dry conditions than black, lack of water retards its growth, and during the formation and pouring of fruits often leads to their grinding and even shedding. Therefore, regular and sufficient watering of red currant during active growth and formation of ovaries, that is, in early June, as well as in late July and early August, when the berries are poured, becomes especially important.
Watering is carried out at the rate of 20-30 liters per m² plot to infiltrate the soil to a depth of 30-40 cm. Water is poured into circular grooves 10-15 cm deep, done at a distance of 30-40 cm from the bush. You can arrange an irrigation platform around each bush by enclosing it with an earthen roller 15 cm high. When the soil is well-moistened, it dries out, loosen the area so that a crust does not form on its surface. If you gave yourself in the spring of labor to mulch the land on the plot with humus, decomposed peat or rotted manure at the rate of 10-15 kg per bush, and water the plot, and you have to loosen it much less often.
Top dressing red currants.
In April, urea at the rate of 10-15 g per m² is applied to the moistened soil in the area for embedding. In June, the red currant is fed with 1 liter of infusion slurry or a solution of half a liter of bird droppings in 10 l of water diluted in a bucket of water. If it was not possible to find organic matter, add 10-15 g of urea under each bush, the same amount of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate.
In the summer, red currants need foliar nutrition with trace elements. To do this, in 10 l of water you need to dissolve up to 2.5 g of boric acid, 5-10 g of manganese sulphate, 1-2 g of copper sulphate, 2-3 g of ammonium molybdate and the same zinc sulphate. Red currant leaves are processed on a cloudy day or in the evening.
At the beginning of October, the red currant is fed up for the last time: 10-15 kg of organic fertilizer, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium chloride are added under the digging for each bush. Mineral fertilizers can be replaced with a vegetable or fruit mixture at the rate of 500 g per shrub.
When prune red currants.
Growing red currant involves regular formative, rejuvenating and sanitary pruning of bushes. Pruning of red currants is carried out in early spring or late autumn, when it is at rest.
The structure of red currant is similar to the structure of black, but its fruiting shoots last two times longer. Red currant fruit buds are almost always formed on the tops of annual shoots, and its fruits are placed in the upper part of the branches, so when cutting the ends in no case cut off. Since the period of fruiting of red currant shoots is longer than that of black shoots, its rejuvenating pruning is not done so often.
Pruning red currants in spring.
In a one-year-old red currant sapling, all shoots are shortened by half to the outer bud, forming a compact spherical bush. Since red currant is a very light-loving plant and when the bush thickens, it loses its yield, the bush forms no more than 15-20 branches for 5-6 years, and from the seventh year, in addition to sanitary pruning, which involves removing unnecessary, sick, broken or dried branches, it will be necessary to carry out rejuvenating - to remove outdated branches and to regulate the growth of zero shoots. Of the zero shoots for renewal, the most developed and successfully located ones are left, that is, those that grow closer to the bush, do not lie on the ground and do not intersect with other shoots. They are shortened to half the length of the outer kidney, pointing upward, and the remaining growths are cut.
Pruning red currants in the fall.
In the autumn, after leaf fall, when the red currant leaves the plant and goes into a dormant period, the bushes are pruned sanitary: they remove broken, diseased, dried or growing branches in the wrong direction. If for some reason you didn’t do a formative pruning of a bush in the spring, you can do it in the fall.
How to propagate red currants.
Of course, you can buy red currant seedlings in any market, but there is no guarantee that they will sell you exactly the varieties that you decide to buy. If you do not want to survive the disappointment, reproduce yourself. Red currant propagated vegetatively - layering, cuttings and dividing the bush.
Reproduction of red currant layering.
This is the easiest and most effective way to propagate a culture. A young bush of three, four or five years is chosen for it, the soil is loosened under it in early spring, it is fertilized, grooves 8-10 cm in depth are made in the ground, coming from the center of the bush, well-developed one-year or two-year shoots are laid in them, they are fixed they are in several places with metal hooks and cover the middle part of the cuttings with soil in such a way that their top remains on the surface. When the shoots developing on the layers are 10–12 cm high, they are twice spiked with moist, loose soil twice at intervals of 2–3 weeks. All summer the cuttings are abundantly watered, mulching the area around them with organic matter.
In the fall, the established and separated shoots are separated from the mother liquor and, dividing them in length, into separate plants with a root system, they are transplanted to a permanent place. After two or three years, the most developed of them have already entered fruiting.
Reproduction of red currant cuttings.
Cutting is also a reliable breeding method. It is easier and faster rooted lignified cuttings of red currant from annual shoots grown from the root or on two or three-year branches. The thickness of the cutting should be at least 8 mm, and the length should be 18-20 cm. Prepare planting material in the fall, then lay the cuttings in a box with wet sand to form root buds and hold for 2.5-3 months at a temperature of 2-3 ºC and then placed under the snow or in the vegetable box of the refrigerator before spring planting.
Planted cuttings in open ground in early spring obliquely at a distance of 20 cm from each other under plastic bottles or glass jars. The depth of immersion of the cutting in the ground is as follows: above the ground should remain only two buds, and the rest are immersed in the soil. The soil around the cuttings is compacted and watered, and when it dries, the site is mulched with humus or small peat. Rooted cuttings in September transplanted to a permanent place.
You can propagate currants and green cuttings, however, they form the root system for too long to the detriment of the ground part, therefore, they are planted at a permanent place not earlier than one year later, and therefore they come into fruition later than red currant from woody cuttings.
Reproduction of red currant by dividing the roots.
Typically, this method of reproduction is resorted to when there is a need to transplant a currant bush to another place. First, all patients are removed from the bush, old and broken branches, after which the bush is dug, divided with a sharp sterile instrument into pieces, each of which must have well-developed roots and shoots, then the cuts are treated with crushed coal and placed in the prepared wells 5- 7 cm deeper than growing a shrub. After planting, the shoots are shortened to 15-20 cm, watered generously and continue to moisten the soil daily until parts of the bush take root in a new place.
Diseases of the red currant.
Diseases of the red currant are typical of all Gooseberries. On our site there is an article “Diseases and pests of the gooseberry”, which describes in detail all the dangers that await the representatives of this family, so we will not elaborate on each disease, but simply remind you about them.
So, red currant is affected by anthracnose, white spotting, European powdery mildew, doubleness (overgrowth, reversion), non-spree drying of shoots, striped mosaic, scyphoid and columnar rust, gray mold. In the fight against fungal diseases, fungicides such as Bordeaux liquid, Kaptan, Homitsin, Ftalan, Topsin M, Fundazol, colloidal sulfur, Kuprozan and other drugs with a similar effect showed good results. And such viral diseases as terry and mosaic, unfortunately, cannot be cured with any medication. In the event that the virus has hit only individual branches or inflorescences, cut them out and burn them, but if the entire shrub is infected, you will have to get rid of it.
Red currant pests.
As well as black, white currant and gooseberry, red currant bushes can be affected by blackcurrant fruit, cep, gooseberry yellow and pale-footed sawflies, currant gall midges, stewed gooseberries, stewed gooseberries, leafy gallus and spider mites, leaf gallus and gooseberry seedlings, kidney and spider mites, leaf gallus and gooseberries, stems, kidney and spider mites, leaf gallus and gooseberries, gravy, kidney and spider mites, gall leaves and gooseberries, gravy, kidney and spider mites, gall leaves and gooseberries, gravy, kidney and spider mites, gall leaves and gooseberry sprouts, kidney and spider mites, gall leaves and gooseberry sprouts, kidney and spider mites, gall leaves and gooseberries, grape leaves, woody and spider mites, gall leaves and gooseberries, gravy, kidney and spider mites, gall leaves and spruce grasses.
The best insecticides today are Actellic, Karbofos and Rovikurt. Aktara, Metaphos, Etafos Ambush, Fosfamid, Vofatoks, Tedion, Cydial, Zolon, Antio and others also showed good results in pest control.
We want to remind you that, for the most part, plants that are affected by disease or insects are mostly weakened and unkempt, therefore, the main defense against diseases and pests is the observance of agricultural culture and timely care. And, of course, preventive treatments of bushes in early spring and after fruiting will not hurt.
Large varieties of red currants.
Large-fruited currants are represented by the following varieties:
- – Viksne - large sweet red currants of the Latvian selection of early ripening with berries of dark cherry color and sweet-sour taste. Viksne - winter-hardy and drought-resistant variety, almost not affected by diseases and pests. The yield from one bush is 5-7 kg,
- – Ural beauty - high-yielding and winter-hardy, self-fertile variety with large red berries of sweet dessert taste weighing up to 1.7 g. The variety is not damaged by sawflies and firehorn, it is also resistant to powdery mildew,
- – Fertodi - a variety of Hungarian selection, self-fertile, fruitful, winter-hardy and fungus-resistant, with rounded bright red berries weighing up to 1.2 g of a pleasant sweet-sour taste,
- – Darnitsa – крупная красная смородина, вес ягод которой достигает 1,5 г. Сорт среднего срока созревания, засухоустойчивый и морозостойкий, высокоурожайный, редко поражающийся заболеваниями. Brilliant dark red berries are used both for fresh consumption and for freezing and processing,
- – Ronde - high-yielding, resistant to anthracnose frost-resistant late variety of Dutch selection with large berries of sweet-sour taste, ripening on low compact bushes.
Large varieties also differ Hazor, Obsk sunset, Ilyinka.
Sweet varieties of red currants.
The most famous of the sweet varieties are:
- – Sugar - fragrant, tasty and sweet red currants, which can be eaten directly from the bush. However, the variety has a low self-fertility, and for good fruiting it needs pollinators - for example, red currant varieties Natalie,
- – Red Cross - A variety of medium ripening time with large light red berries of dessert taste, shredding by the end of the brush. Unfortunately, the variety is affected by anthracnose,
- – Early sweet - winter-hardy productive variety, demanding to the care and fertility of the soil, with medium-sized sweet light red berries aligned with the size,
- – Svetlana - winter-hardy and productive variety of medium ripening with small round berries of light red color with thin skin,
- – Houghton Castle - Western European winter-hardy and fruitful variety with medium-sized red berries and pleasant taste.
Early varieties of red currants.
The varieties of red currant early maturity include:
- – Victoria - high-yielding variety of European origin with medium-sized good-tasting berries, consumed fresh and suitable for processing,
- – Crystal - samoplodny grade with yellowish round berries with transparent skin of a good balanced taste, medium or large size,
- – Firstborn - frost-resistant, high-yielding and mycosis-resistant red currant of Finnish selection, from the bush of which you can remove up to 10 kg of sweet-sour, pleasant-tasting berries of medium size. The variety is a universal pollinator for samobosplodnyh varieties
- – Serpentine - resistant to diseases and pests high-yielding variety with large sour-sweet berries, located on long brushes,
- – Generous - resistant to anthracnose and kidney mites high-yielding and winter-hardy red currants with light red, moderately acidic berries.
Famous early varieties of redcurrant are also the Dutch red, Early sweet, Laturnays, Chulkovskaya, Rachnovskaya and Konstantinovskaya.
Medium varieties of red currants.
The varieties of red currant medium ripening is much more than early or late. Of these, most often grown:
- – Versailles Red - productive large-fruited and samoplodny grade with large red berries with a dense thin skin, used both fresh, and in processed,
- – the Rose - disease-resistant dessert variety with pink one-dimensional berries of medium size, delicate sweet taste with a slight sourness,
- – Buzhanskaya - Ukrainian high-yielding and mycosis-resistant variety with bright red large berries weighing up to 1 g, suitable both for fresh use and for freezing and processing,
- – Gazelle - high-yielding winter-hardy and fungus-resistant variety with small, but very tasty red berries,
- – Red Andreichenko - self-fertile winter-hardy high-yielding variety resistant to fungal diseases, with red round berries weighing up to 0.8 g of a pleasant sweet-sour taste.
In addition to those described, other mid-season red currant varieties that are popular in amateur gardening are known: Purple, Hero, Honduin, Reby Castle, Star of the North, Natali, Polyana, Samburskaya, Vika, Niva, Beloved and others.
Late varieties of red currants.
Among the varieties of late ripening most often cultivated in the culture:
- – Valentinovka - winter-hardy, high-yielding self-fruiting variety, resistant to powdery mildew, with medium-sized one-dimensional sour-flavored berries with high gelling properties,
- – Marmalader - winter-hardy, productive and resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew, a very late ripening variety with orange-red berries of sour taste, medium or large size,
- – Osipovskaya - winter-hardy, productive and disease-resistant variety of Russian breeding with the same size dark red berries of good taste,
- – Dutch red - hardy, unpretentious, winter-hardy, fruitful and resistant to anthracnose, a variety of Dutch selection with an average size of red berries of sweet-sour taste with transparent skin,
- – Lapland - winter-hardy, productive self-fertile variety with light red berries of medium and small size and excellent, delicate sweet-sour taste.
In addition to these, late-ripening varieties of Dana, Spark, Oryol Star, Memorable, Orlovchanka, Rosita, Gift of Summer, Ural Dawns, and others are cultivated in the crop.
Useful properties of red currant.
Red currant berries are rich in vitamins A, C, E, potassium, iron and selenium, malic and succinic acid, nitrogenous and pectin substances. They have a lot of antioxidants that can resist cancer cells. The red currant, which is beneficial for humans, is primarily due to its high content of provitamin A in its berries, which is essential for healthy hair, skin and bones, as well as preventing aging.
The presence of a unique substance oxycoumarin in red currant provides prevention of heart attacks and has a positive effect on the activity of the cardiovascular system. People suffering from atherosclerosis are shown daily consumption of red currants due to the pectins contained in it, which remove excess cholesterol and thereby prevent the formation of plaques in the vessels.
In addition, red currant improves the functioning of the stomach and intestines, increases sweating, which helps to remove excess salts, slags and toxins from the body. It has anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antipyretic, hemostatic, cleansing and laxative properties.
Regular consumption of red currant juice normalizes the level of hemoglobin in the blood, relieves constipation and uric acid salts, and helps pregnant women to fight with the symptoms of toxicosis - nausea and vomiting. Athletes juice helps maintain tone and rejuvenate after the competition. Drinking juice reduces fever in children and adults with fevers. It is also shown for anemia, diabetes, loss of strength and chronic fatigue.
Compared with many other useful for the body berries and fruits, red currant is a product that does not cause allergies - it is prescribed even for dermatitis.
Red currant - contraindications.
But, despite the obvious benefits of red currants, one cannot keep silent about the fact that it can be harmful to some people. Such categories include patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers, acute gastritis, hepatitis, and hemophilia. Undesirable regular use of red currants for people with increased blood clotting.