Red dogwood (C. sanguinea) is considered one of the best solutions for landscaping parks and squares, a house territory or a garden plot. The plant is very unpretentious and does not require large physical costs, and minimal care for it ensures its decorative effect for many years.
In Russia, Svidina is widely used blood-red, white logs, scorch yarn or scrub compress.
For gardening cities in the middle lane, redwood is most often used. Spray-bark - a decorative look, used to decorate alpine slides.
Dören belongs to the Kizilov family. Distributed throughout Europe, preferably in temperate climates. Occurs in thickets, on the forest edges, as well as on the gentle banks of reservoirs. In natural conditions, the height of the shrub reaches 4 meters. The shoots of a young plant are very flexible and have a green light. Over time, the color becomes brownish or reddish, and in late autumn, after the foliage falls, the shoots become burgundy in color and look very bright.
- leaves are shrub ovoid, about 5 cm in diameter and covered with green hairs,
- the shrub blooms at the end of May and blooms with creamy-white buds for 3 weeks,
- for the first time the shrub blooms at the age of 7,
- under favorable temperature conditions, the bush blooms again in late August,
- in the fall, the inflorescences turn into black, inedible fruits 5–8 millimeters in diameter.
The hairs on the leaves become blood-red or brick-colored. It is thanks to the color of leaves and shoots shrub got its name.
Red dogwood has good winter hardinessIt perfectly tolerates cold winters of temperate climate. And shrub heat resistant and not afraid of summer drought.
Unpretentious to the chemical composition of the soil, loam is excellent, as well as moderately moist clay soils. The root system is well developed and has a large number of small roots, thanks to which the yarn is successful used by agronomists to strengthen the slopes.
Landing and placement
Dören preferably planted in a sunny place, for the formation of a dense and bright crown. However, the shadow and penumbra does not frighten unpretentious shrub. In the shade shoots are drawn, and the foliage becomes faded. Place for planting is chosen so that the red shoots look contrast on the plain background of the structure. The shrub looks great against a white brick wall, a wild stone, and also a combination with coniferous plants: thuja, pine and spruce.
The brightness of red leaves depends on the illumination of the landing site. On the same tree the leaves will be brighter from the sunny side.
Red dyren grows very quickly and if in the first years the growth is insignificant, then since the fifth year, the shoots grow very rapidly, so you can form a crown at will.
In the wild, red grass grows well in almost all types of soil, and also tolerates any adverse weather conditions. When planting on the summer cottage, red wood is desirable to provide nutrients and fertilizers for rapid growth. It is necessary to add organic fertilizer in the form of compost or humus directly into the planting pit.
For planting shrubs on the site, choose a young sapling, under the age of 4 years (a seedling rooted faster). If the seedling roots are dried, you should put it in a container with water for several hours, so that the hairs of the roots are saturated with moisture and straightened.
The seedling is planted in the hole to a depth of 60 cm. If the place for planting is too wet, the bottom of the hole is pre-filled with coarse sand or crushed bricks to create additional drainage and prevent stagnant water at the roots.
Experts advise planting red dören in late autumn or spring. In the fall the shrub is planted before the onset of frost. When autumn planting, seedlings begin to grow in the spring and they almost do not need time to adapt. In order not to disturb and not disturb the root system, the plant is transplanted along with a clod of earth. At first, the soil around the planted shrub is regularly watered and mulched.
Watering and fertilizing the soil
During the summer heat, it is advisable to water the shrub once or twice a week. With a lack of moisture, the leaves may lose a little color and brightness, but when they resume proper irrigation, they will finish off again and take on their original appearance.
Bush does not require special feedings and complex fertilizershowever, he is very responsive to soil changes. Well-watered and fertilized with mineral complexes bush, increases brighter and juicy shoots, thick and bright foliage.
A well-fertilized shrub has a dense crown, blooms profusely and forms a large number of berries, which in turn look great against a background of red foliage.
The main care for shrubs is in the correct pruning. Old shoots lose bright and beautiful color over time.therefore they need to be cleaned. In addition, without pruning the shrub grows in width and the branches under their weight fall almost to the ground. Growing and radical growth, which clogs the plants around. As a result, it looks untidy and not aesthetically pleasing, and also has a negative effect on the growth of the surrounding plants.
The first pruning is carried out no earlier than 3-4 years after planting.. Pruning of old shoots is done in spring, leaving 15–20 cm of shoot. In the fall, pruning of underdeveloped shoots is done, which negatively affect the decorative appearance of the plant, and also give shape to the crown.
Diseases and pests
Svidina blood red unpretentious and almost not sick. Poor shrub development is possible due to soil bogging. In this case, drainage should be organized for mahogany, namely, dig a trench (30–40 cm deep) along the ground trap and fill it with rubble, crushed bricks or stones.
The gardener should periodically check the shrub for insects and pests. The most frequent guest is aphidthat feeds on plant sap. Another dangerous pest red shit - sawfly, the parasite feeds on the leaves and buds of the shrub. The appearance of pests on the tree is a rarity, therefore preventive treatments are optional. However, when insects are detected, red drains are treated with insecticide chemicals.
Reproduction of shrubs in the garden
There are 2 types of breeding shrubs - slow and fast. Slow includes growing a shrub from seed. Fast - any methods of vegetative propagation:
Growing shrubs from seed takes a lot of time. Seeds remain viable for 7 years. Before planting, the seeds must necessarily undergo a stratification procedure.
Planting is made in the fall and spring. A bed is dug up and form furrows in which seeds are poured in the calculation of 5 grams per 1 m². Planting depth of no more than 7 cm. In spring there will be the first shoots that need constant watering. A full-grown and adult bush with this method of reproduction will appear only after 6–8 years.
Breeding method layering is the easiest and does not require much effort. A shrub that has not been pruned becomes very sprawling, and its shoots bend close to the ground. The branches themselves do not germinate, therefore the side shoot is attached with a metal bracket to the ground and sprinkled with compost or humus a junction with the ground. In the fall, roots will grow at the junction and as early as next spring you can transplant the plant.
The shrub is beautifully propagated by cutting. In June, cuttings from shoots of beginners to change color from green to red are cut with a sharp knife. A mixture of sand and peat is used as a soil for planting. Planted sliced cuttings in a greenhouse or greenhouse in spring. The seedling is stuck into the soil at an angle of 45–50 °, and all the leaves and the top of the head are cut with a pruner. At the end of the summer, a root system will be formed, which means that it is time to transplant into open ground.
The adult bush grows strongly enough, so it can be divided into several parts and form several new bushes instead of one. During this procedure, you need to completely dig up the bush, shake off the ground and divide the root system. Exposed incision sites should be treated with fungicides to prevent disease. Seedlings are ready for planting.
Dören red, or svidina blood red
Naturally grows in deciduous forests of the southern and middle zones of the European part of Russia. In culture, it is found in urban green areas of the zone of natural distribution, it is used in steppe afforestation. Areas of application: Baltic, middle forest zone (up to Moscow inclusive), southern forest-steppe and steppe zones of the European part of Russia. It is unpretentious to the soil - grows satisfactorily on relatively poor and dry soils, is drought-resistant, tolerates urban conditions very well. Shade-tolerant It is cold-resistant enough.
Deciduous shrub up to 3–4 m high with strongly spreading dark red, sometimes green branches. The leaves are broadly elliptical or rounded-ovate, 5–10 cm long, 3–7 cm wide, with a pointed tip and a rounded or widely wedge-shaped base; both sides of the leaves are covered with hairs, especially the lighter, lower side. The flowers are small, bright white, with thick fluffy shields, 4–5 cm in diameter. Fruits are 0.6 cm in diameter, round, purple-black, inedible. It blooms in May-June, the fruits ripen in September. The red cobbler in the fall is very decorative with blood-red foliage, leafless and especially in winter with red shoots. Suitable for planting groups in the edges and undergrowth. It has decorative forms: variegated - ’Variegata’ (Dipp.) Pojark, dark purple - ’Atro-sanguinea’ (gibbs.) Rehd. bright green - ’Viridissima’ (Dieck) Schelle.
Sound. The sapwood is wide, pinkish-brownish, the core is dark in color. Annual layers are hardly noticeable. At 15% humidity, the density is 0.8 g / cm³, and at 12% - 0.79 g / cm³.
Dries well. When drying artificially or naturally, wood dries out and cracks.
Wood resistant to rotting.
It adheres satisfactorily to high quality adhesives, and it is easier to adhere with resin adhesives than adhesives of other kinds. Well pricked, sawn.
Used for turned products and for tool handles.
Question number 146. What are the morphological and biological features of the Manchurian Aralia.
Botanical characteristics and biological features. Aralia Manchu - (thorn-tree, fucking tree) - Aralia mandshurica Rupr. et Maxim) is a small tree of the Araliae family, 1.5–3 m high (sometimes up to 6), unusual in appearance and very decorative.
The trunk is straight, unbranched, covered with numerous large thorns, with a thick whorl of large leaves on the top. Leaves on long petioles, twice pinnate, up to 1 m long. In the center of the leaf whorb, an inflorescence develops in the form of a spreading complex panicle. The flowers are greenish, inconspicuous, small, collected in spherical small umbrellas. By the fall black, spherical, juicy, berry-like fruits with five seeds are formed. Aralia roots lie horizontally at a depth of 10-25 cm from the soil surface, being located radially in all directions from the trunk at a distance of up to 2-3 m (sometimes up to 5). Then they abruptly go down to a depth of 50-60 cm, branching abundantly and forming numerous buds (up to 250 adventitious buds are formed per 1 m of roots, but only some of them give rise to shoots). This indicates a pronounced ability of the plant to vegetative reproduction. Under natural conditions, after cuttings and on the burned areas, Aralia gives abundant growth. Often it forms dense thickets, through which it is difficult to sneak without tearing clothes. This aralia justifies its popular name "thorn-tree."
It grows on burns and clearings of cedar-deciduous forests of southern and middle Sikhote-Alin. This is a photophilous plant. In undisturbed cedar-broadleaved forests, it is found only in the gaps or in thinned areas.
Spread. It grows in the Far East - in Primorye, the southern part of the Khabarovsk Territory and in the south-east of the Amur Region.
Medical value. Medicinal raw material is a root containing triterpene saponins - aralosides A, B, C, alkaloid aralin, essential oil and gums. Used as a tonic, identical to ginseng. The drug is produced in the form of tincture.
Stocking. Industrial harvesting of raw materials is carried out in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories in two terms: in the fall, starting in September, and in the spring — in late April - early May, before leafing. The roots are dug up with shovels, pulled out with crowbars or special devices in the form of a long metal lever. Digging the roots start from the trunk, carefully moving to the periphery. Thin (less than 1 cm in diameter) and 1-2 large radial roots do not touch: the numerous adventitious roots located on them quite successfully ensure the regeneration of the plant.
The dug out roots are cleaned from the ground, parts of the roots are removed from the blackened or rotted core and very thick (more than 3 cm in diameter) roots. Drying is carried out in a dryer at a temperature of about 60 ° C. Raw materials are pieces of roots, whole or longitudinally split,
with a diameter of up to 3 cm, with a few smaller lateral roots. The roots are light, longitudinally wrinkled, with a strongly flaky cork, are grayish-brown on the outside, yellowish-gray at the break, taste is slightly astringent, bitter. Raw materials are packed in bags weighing 25-30 kg and delivered to procurement points. The shelf life of raw materials for 2 years.
Question number 147. Describe the range and environmental properties of bird cherry.
Sweet cherry, bird cherry [p. Avium (l.) Moench.]
Tree up to 3 m or more in diameter and up to 60 cm. The bark is blackish, with brown lentils, peeling across with thin films. Shoots are reddish-brown, naked. The leaves are dark green, ovate, obovate or elliptical, up to 16 cm long and up to 8 cm wide, shiny, naked, doubly, less commonly trojanopia, on bare petioles. The flowers are white in few-flowered umbrellas, on bare peduncles. Blossoms simultaneously with the blooming of leaves in April and May.
In Sochi, blooms on April 3, the end of flowering on April 22. On the forest-steppe experimental station of the Lipetsk region, blooms on average on May 9 with fluctuations from April 28 to May 21. Drupe spherical, up to 15 mm in diameter, dark red or black juicy, sweet or bitter, with a smooth bone, 1000 seeds weigh about 165 g. Fruits ripen in June - early July.
Sweet cherry is used in food in fresh and dried form, for cooking jam and for cooking wine. Fruits contain up to 9-14% of sugars and other valuable substances. In the core of seeds up to 30% of the oil used in perfumery. The fruits of cultivated varieties of sweet cherries are larger and sweeter, their coloring is different. The bark contains up to 10% of tannids and dye. The trunks give gum, the leaves contain vitamin C. Honey flowers. Propagated by seeds (seeds), gives rise to stump growth.
Naturally grows in mixed deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests in the west and south-west of Ukraine, in Moldova, the Crimea and the Caucasus on deep fresh soils. In the mountains rises to 2000 m above sea level. It is bred as a fruit and ornamental tree not only within its range, but also slightly to the north, approximately to the latitude of Minsk - Kursk - Voronezh. It is of interest for forest shelter and afforestation of ravines in appropriate climatic conditions. Wood is used for joinery and turning.
Question number 148Describe the silvicultural and national economic importance of field maple.
Field maple (flat maple, neklёn, tow) is a honey plant.
Field maple, or flat maple, or Neklёn, or Paklen - lat. cer campstre is a species of trees of the Maple family of the Sapindaceae family.
Deciduous tree up to 15 m high (in the Caucasus, up to 25 m) with a dense spherical crown (rarely - shrub). Distributed in Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and Iran.
In Russia, it occurs in the chernozem zone of the European part, to the north - only in culture. The northern border of the area passes through the Volyn region, Zhytomyr, north of Kiev rises through the Orel along the Oka River to Tula, south of Ryazan passes to Tambov (in more northern areas - only in culture), not reaching Penza and Saratov, the eastern border goes to the Don and further in the Crimea and the Caucasus.
It grows in the middle zone of European Russia and adjacent countries in the second tier and along the edges of deciduous forests, in the steppe zone - in bayrachny and valley forests, in the Crimea and the Caucasus in oak forests, and also in the river valleys where it reaches the largest sizes, in the mountains rises to 1800 m altitude.
The trunk is straight or slightly curved, up to 60 cm in diameter, covered with thin, brownish-gray bark with longitudinal cracks. Young shoots are yellowish-brown, thin, sometimes winged from cork growths.
Buds ovoid, up to 5 mm in length, with 6–9 olive-brown scales, white litter along the edges.
Листья супротивные, обычно пятилопастные, редко трёхпальчатолопастные, плотные, сидят на черешке длиной 5—13 см. Лопасти тупые, цельнокрайние или с немногими притупленными зубцами. Размеры листовой пластины: 4—17 см в длину и 4,5—10 см в ширину. Верхняя сторона листа тёмно-зелёная или светло-зелёная, слегка блестящая, а нижняя более светлая, светло-зелёная, мелкоопушённая или только с бородками в углах жилок. In autumn (October), the leaves become golden yellow in color.
The inflorescences are the final 15-20-flowered erect corymbilous panicles about 3.5 cm in diameter, with a protruding hairy axis and peduncles.
The flowers are yellow-green, with a massive nectar disc, bloom almost simultaneously with the deployment of the leaves, the false-obscene - pistillate and staminate on one plant. Short stem hairy. Sepals oblong-elliptical, hairy on the outside and around the edges. Petals narrower, spatulate, hairy along the edge. There are 8 stamens, they are longer in the staminate flowers, in the pistillate flowers they are equal to the perianth, and the stamens are bare. Ovary hairless or fluffy.
Blossoms within 10-15 days in April-May after the blooming of the leaves.
First-class honey plant, gives up to 1000 kg of nectar per hectare of plantings
Grows relatively slowly. Very shade tolerant. Relatively drought-resistant, withstands slight salinization of the soil. Demanding on the wealth of the soil. Stagnant moisture does not stand. More thermophilic than Norway maple. Winter hardiness zone USDA (4) 5. It tolerates the conditions of the city, durable.
It is widely used in landscape architecture for single and group plantings, hedges, as well tolerated haircut. Easy transfer transplant.
Field maple in Emilia (Italy), along with elm, is used to support grape lanes. Wood is used for handicrafts and is used in furniture production, it is well polished and rather decorative, although it does not have a distinct texture. Maples are of great silvicultural importance as the breeds used to create a tailor, performing a longline, soil-protective undergrowth (shrubs). They are quite fast growing. In general, maples are of considerable interest in forestry.
Question number 149 Compare black walnut and Manchurian walnut in terms of their morphological and ecological properties.
Manchurian Walnut (j. Manshnrica Maxim.)
The tree is up to 28 m in height and 1 m in diameter, with dark-gray fissured bark. The trunk in the planting is straight. Young shoots pubescent. The leaves are very large, up to 1 m in length and more, and up to 40 cm wide, consisting of 9-12 oblong-elliptical, 10–25 cm long along the edge of the serrate leaves, extending into a narrow coracoid. The leaves at the time of blooming are reddish-green, pubescent, later on top almost bare, dull, hairy on the bottom along the veins.
Male flowers in solitary, multi-flowered axillary catkins, 10-30 cm long, with 5-6 lobed perianth and 8-40 stamens attached to the perianth.
Pistille flowers apical, 3-10 or more together. A large spherical or oblong-oval, with a fleshy, hard, iron-bearing outer and hard dark brown inner pericarp, is being worshiped. Walnut without a shell, up to 4.5 cm in length and up to 3.5 cm in diameter, with a sharp point and 6-8 longitudinal ribs. The shell is hard and thick. The kernel is 18-20% of the weight of a nut with a shell. Nuts are edible and nutritious. The core contains more than 55% fat, 19.5% protein and 15.1% carbohydrates. Nuts are used in the food industry and in technology on a par with walnut nuts.
Fig. 41. Manchurian walnut: 1 - leafless branch with growth buds and earrings in buds, 2 - leaf, 3 - pistillate flower, 4 - fruits, 5, 6 - nuts and cut them transversely.
Manchurian walnut blooms in May-June simultaneously with blooming or after blooming of leaves, in Khabarovsk - an average of May 27. Pollinated by wind and insects. Nuts ripen in September and fall to the ground as a whole or with an open shell. Germination retain for 2-3 years. For spring sowing, they must be stratified for 4-6 months. Fruits annually, but family years are in 2-3 years. 1000 nuts weighs from 6 to 8.3 kg. Propagated by seeds and shoots from the stump, which can give to old age. It grows very quickly. To soils demanding. More winter-hardy than all other types of walnut, but annual seedlings are often damaged by late spring frosts. Naturally grows in mixed, coniferous-deciduous and deciduous forests along river valleys and on humus soils, as well as on pebbles along the banks of mountain rivers in the southern part of the Khabarovsk Territory and in Primorye. West comes to the river. Zei, to the north - in Primorye and Amur region - up to 51 ° C. sh. In the mountains comes to 600 m above sea level. It is bred quite often in the European part of Russia to the south of the Leningrad-Arkhangelsk line, in Siberia - to the south of Novosibirsk, at the Gorno-Altaisk experimental station, in Krasnoyarsk and elsewhere, as well as in Western Europe and North America. For arid steppe regions of the south it is of little use, as it is a moisture-loving breed and dies from drought.
Manchu walnut wood is used in the same way as walnut wood.
Walnut black (j. Nigra l.)
An even more powerful tree comes from North America. It reaches a height of up to 50 m and is up to 2 m in diameter. The bark on the trunk is dark brown, deeply fissured. The buds are bare. Leaves up to 30–60 cm long, consisting of 13–23 oblong-ovate, with hairy leaves below, 6–10 cm long, on short petioles. Pistillate flowers 2-5 per brush. The black nut blooms in May after the leaves bloom. Fruits globose or pear-shaped, bare, up to 6.5 cm in diameter, with a non-opening shell, ripen in September. Nut kernel edible. Growing fast. To soils demanding. Pretty winter-hardy and drought-resistant.
Black walnut wood is dark brown, with a beautiful pattern, solid. Very appreciated in the furniture industry.
Black walnut is bred in the Caucasus, in Moldova, in Ukraine, in Belarus, in some places in the Baltic countries, in some southern regions of the European part of Russia, but does not go as far as the gray nut to the north. Bred by sowing nuts in the fall. For spring sowing, the nuts must be stratified throughout the winter. Well resumed shoots from the stump.
Morphological indicators of nuts of the genus Juglans
Derain (Cornus), or svidina, is a genus of decorative-deciduous shrubs of the cornel family, it combines several dozen species (both deciduous and evergreen), most of which grow in temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
This genus of shrubs is distinguished by absolute undemanding to the conditions, excellent frost resistance. And in addition they are very decorative, and all year round. In spring and summer, Deren pleases us with its beautiful foliage (especially variegated varieties) and pretty flowers. In autumn, the foliage becomes very bright and amazing fruits of white, black, blue or reddish colors ripen. In winter, he also will not be lost in the garden, because the bark of his shoots can have rich green, yellow, red and coral colors.
Derain is a shrub that has strong and solid wood, thanks to which it got its name (translated from Latin means “horn”).
In ornamental gardening, several species of this plant are used.
It will be useful to read:
The most common in our region is white deren (Сornus alba). This is a deciduous shrub growing to three meters. His straight upward directed branches have a reddish color of various shades. Young shoots often with a light bluish bloom. Green leaves oval, pointed up, slightly wrinkled. May have a whitish edge. The length of the sheet plate is about ten centimeters. It blooms twice a year: for the first time at the beginning of summer, and the second in the first half of autumn. Small white or with light pink flowers are combined in the inflorescence-shield. In the end of summer, inedible round-shaped fruits of drupes, blue-white or yellowish color, ripen.
Derain white is represented in ornamental gardening by many varieties. Pay attention only to some of them.
- Shpet (Spaethii) - a very common form, has on the edge of the sheet a golden-yellow border in combination with the same spots and stripes. In the fall foliage becomes purple. Shoots red-brown. Does not bloom.
- Aurea (Aurea), or Golden- with yellow and yellow-green foliage and red shoots. Winter hardiness is average.
- Elegantissima - the most frost-resistant, differs in a bright and wide white border, and also red branches.
- Gauchulti (Gauchaultii) - low (up to 1.5 m), has fringed leaves with pink and yellowish-white spots.
- Siberian or Siberia (Sibirica) - The height of the bush and a half meters, has a very beautiful red shade of the branches. The leaves are green, getting to fall yellow and red colors.
- Siberian variegata (Sibirica Variegata) - variegated form (up to 2 m), foliage with white border and specks; in autumn, the green part of the leaf becomes brownish-purple. Shoots - bright red.
- Argenteo-marginata (argenteo-marginata) - The leaves are distinguished by a grayish-white, as if silvery, border, shoots of maroon color.
- Kesselring (Kesselringii) - extraordinarily beautiful bush-chameleon. The leaves when blooming are purple-brown, then turn greenish-brown, and by the autumn they get a shade of bronze. The fruits are white and the shoots are black and red.
- Cream Cracker - This is one of the new varieties, low (about 1 m), with red shoots, the leaves have a yellowish rim, which gradually becomes creamy.
White sod has many more varieties, they are all distinguished by good frost resistance. Representatives of this species bloom after two years of life.
Derain is red, or svidina is blood-red
Another view is the red turf (Cornus sanguinea). A little less common in gardens than white turf. Flexible green shoots eventually acquire a red hue. Pointy ovate leaves covered with villi. Dark green in the summer, in the fall, they burn with all shades of red. Due to the autumn color of the leaves, the species got its name. Blooms on the seventh year in late spring. Small white flowers are collected in clusters of inflorescences. Sometimes re-bloom happens. In August, black round inedible fruits ripen.
Derain red is also an unpretentious look, quite cold-resistant, but in very severe winters it can be slightly icy.
It has decorative forms and varieties:
- Compress (Cornus sanguinea Compressa) - very interesting shrub with compressed rounded leaves. In the summer foliage dark green, becomes red in the fall. The krone is dense, vertical, about 1 m high. The bark on the branches is reddish-brown. Does not bloom.
- Winter Beauty (Cornus sanguinea Winter Beauty) - owner of a rounded, sprawling bush (about 2 m). Orange-yellow shoots. The leaves are oval, pointed upwards. Dark green in the summer, and in the fall - red.
- Midwinter Fire (Cornus sanguinea Midwinter Fire) - sprawling bush up to one and a half meters, bright red-orange shoots. The leaves are rich green in the summer, changing color from yellow-orange to dark red by autumn.
- Varigeata (Cornus sanguinea Variegata) - a variety with variegated leaves, they have yellow-white spots and a border on a green background, then the leaves turn red. Young shoots are green, but gradually acquire a burgundy shade.
Note also some of the decorative forms:
- Atro-sanguinea - with deep purple branches.
- Viridissima - different bright green fruits and shoots.
- Mietschii - young twigs and leaves of an unusual light yellow color.
The varieties of blood-red svidina we considered, as well as the white turf, are frost-resistant.
Derain kousa, or Japanese dogwood
This species, unlike those such as white and red blood, is a tall, flowering shrub, or even a tree, and can reach a height of 9 m. The homeland of the derm is coase, or benthamy (Cornus kousa), is Japan ( found in the wild in China and Korea).
The crown is wide-spreading, the old branches descend horizontally and form longlines. The leaves are oval, pointed at the top. The foliage in summer is dark green (bottom with a bluish tinge), and with the onset of autumn their palette spreads from golden yellow to dark crimson. Flowering begins in June. The flower is a simple yellow-green head, assembled from small flowers, around which are the bract leaves-wrappers (bracts). It is bracts (up to 9 cm) that make flowers beautiful, as they have an interesting shape and color. In late August, the fruits of the drupes ripen. They have a pink color and slightly rounded shape, similar to strawberries (about 2 cm). The fruits are edible.
- Satomi has pink-red bracts,
- Gold star different yellow pattern in the middle of the sheet,
- Milky Way has a high yield and cream bracts,
- Schmetterling floriferous variety with white bracts.
This species is considered "aristocrat" and the most beautiful among its fellows. But, unfortunately, less resistant to our winters.
This species came to us from North America and is a deciduous tree with a spreading crown. Blooming Derain (Cornus florida) - famous for abundant flowering, which occurs before the appearance of the leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, small, collected in a small head. Their beauty lies in the large bracts, bracts, which come in different shades. It is these modified leaves in the spring that turn the flowers into big stars and attract the views of others.
In the summer, the leaves of this species are simply green, but in the autumn, like its brothers, it does not give up and colors the leaves in bright yellow, orange and red tones.
This species also has ornamental varieties that differ mainly in the color of bracts.
- Rubra - The most popular of these, the bracts can be colored from light pink to deep red.
- Cherokee princess - has snow-white bracts.
- Cherokee chif - enchants with dark pink bracts.
Although this species can withstand frosts of more than 20 degrees, it is not as winter-resistant as white turf and can freeze slightly.
Derain male or dogwood ordinary
Deren male (Сornus mas) is well known to all of us under the name "dogwood". It is widely distributed in Russia (European part), Ukraine, Moldova, the Caucasus, Western Europe and even in the Middle East. Under natural conditions it can grow up to 9 meters and live up to 250 years.
For most of us, this shrub is associated with the red sour-sweet, drupes of slightly pear-shaped shape. And with a delicious jam of them. However, dogwood is used as an ornamental plant.
His shoots ribbed greyish brown (young - yellow-green). The leaves are oval, pointed up, covered with small hairs, rich green color. Blooms in spring, even before the appearance of leaves, gathered in numerous umbrellas inflorescences with yellow flowers. The fruits ripen by the end of August. They are not only tasty, but also have medicinal properties.
Winter-hardy enough, and with partial freezing quickly grows.
There are many varieties of cornel, which are focused on increasing the yield and quality of fruits. However, there are decorative varieties. For example, Aurea different yellow leaves Elegantissima It is a variegated variety with a wide yellow border, and Variegata - with white.
In addition to the above species, one can also call the dwarf Canadian creeping turf (Cornus canadensis), but it is not frost-resistant, as well as the sapwood, or silky sap (Cornus stolonifera), which is very similar to the white turf, only gives abundant growth.
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So, you decided to plant deren in your plot. Make it better in early spring. Although the types we have considered are very unpretentious, you should pay attention to some features.
Take a seat. Do not forget that these are rather tall shrubs, therefore consider the distance between the plants themselves, as well as to the walls of buildings and other garden objects. They are not particularly demanding for illumination, but in direct summer sunlight can get burned. Therefore, an ideal place would be for them a penumbra. Sunny places are suitable for variegated varieties.
The soil is preferably neutral, or slightly acid, and necessarily loose. Sand should be added to heavy clay soil.
We prepare a small pit (30-50 cm), since the roots of the Deren are superficial. We arrange drainage. These plants love a slightly wet ground and can tolerate a little drought, but stagnant water is harmful to them. It is possible not to make fertilizer, it is enough to prepare a nutrient mixture by adding humus and compost. After planting, water well and be sure to mulch the root circle.
As a shrub, Deren can be propagated by cuttings and layering, as well as seeds. However, please note that some ornamental varieties do not bear fruit, which excludes seed reproduction. And dogwood cuttings root poorly.
When the shrub begins to fully bear fruit, then gathering berries in the fall, they can immediately be planted shallowly in the ground, choosing a well-lit area. Top with a thin layer of sand and cover with fallen leaves. In the spring, when the seeds germinate, choose the strongest specimens and leave to grow for another 2 years. And only then they should be transplanted to your chosen place.
You can spend stratifying the seeds and plant them in the spring. But it should be noted that seed multiplication is a very long process.
Когда молодые побеги уже немного одревеснеют и станут гибкими, из них нарезают черенки до 10 см, прикапывают во влажную почву на глубину приблизительно 3 см и накрывают (можно использовать пятилитровые бутылки ПЭТ). Важно постоянно контролировать влажность почвы, она не должна пересыхать. Лучше высаживать черенки в полутень. Через два месяца они укоренятся. На зиму их следует обязательно укрыть, а с наступлением весны можно будет пересадить уже на выбранное место.
The simplest breeding of the tree is produced by layering and offspring. To make cuttings, bend the lower branch to the ground and prikopat (slightly injuring the bark in the place of dropping). It is desirable to secure something in the ground. You can use a wire bracket or just not very heavy stone. And if your grade of deren gives offsprings, then they need to be just carefully separated and transplanted young plant.
As already noted, the turf is a very undemanding plant. But minimal care is needed for him.
Given the superficial location of the root system, the soil under the bush should be constantly wet, but it is not recommended to flood the sod strongly. Constant mulching is desirable. In tree forms, ground-covering perennials can be planted around the trunk, they will help retain moisture.
Aeration is important for this plant, therefore regular loosening is recommended. It is important to loosen the soil shallowly so as not to damage the surface roots of the shrub.
Derain feels fine without fertilizers, but the spring complex feeding of an adult plant will not be superfluous. It is important not to alkalize the soil.
The types of turf we considered are relatively winter-hardy. The question of shelter for the winter should be considered regarding your particular climatic conditions. In compulsory shelter need first-year seedlings. The most winter-hardy type is white.
Derain tolerates pruning, it should be carried out depending on the type of use of the plant.
In the old branches, the bright color disappears with time. If you want to see your shrub beautiful in winter, then in early spring (before the leaves appear) the shrub is cut off radically, only 20 cm of height remains. This will update the shrub and give rise to a variety of young bright shoots. Such pruning is done every few years. And you can just cut the old branches in the spring, leaving a young growth.
To maintain beautiful foliage, sanitary and molding pruning is necessarily needed, since without this the lower branches of the bush will eventually become bare.
A hedge should be trimmed after young shoots slow down the active growth (in the second half of summer).
Begin to do pruning derden in the fourth year of life.
Derain in landscape design
The classic use of Deden bushes is hedges. In this role, it is ideal: frost-resistant, unpretentious and loyal to pruning. Especially white.
The lack of focus on lighting makes it a great solution for shady areas of the garden.
Derain is plastic and cuts well, so it can easily be given a suitable shape, it is an indispensable quality when creating topiary. Also molded bushes are excellent tapeworms. They are very original in the form of balls, hemispheres, pyramids, arches, and also as standard forms.
They are well combined with other plants: conifers and perennials. Can be used as a background for flowering plants. And a variegated turf will perfectly decorate monochrome compositions.
Derain kouza and blooming are especially beautiful among conifers. Ground-covering perennials will look original around their trunk.
And the most unpretentious white turf with its superficial and strongly branched roots will perfectly fix the slopes.
Derain can be safely called the king of landscapes. It is beautiful in spring with its flowers, decorative in summer with its foliage, in autumn it causes admiration with bright colors of leaves and patches of contrasting fruits, and in winter we are fascinated by red and yellow vines on dazzling white snow.
Caring for turf is simple: watering, loosening and pruning.
Derenes are mostly unpretentious and winter-hardy plants, preferring a sunny or semi-shady (they also put up with shadow) location with any garden soil. When preparing the site, it is advisable to fill the landing pit with humus. Recommended recessed landing. To care not demanding. Watering is carried out in dry periods, in the spring it is desirable to carry out dressing with full mineral fertilizer.
All sods have a large pobegoobrazovatelnuyu ability and therefore tolerate a haircut. Thanks to the haircut, you can adjust the height, thickening and shape of the bush.
Bright bark only in young branches, with age, it strongly dims.
Plants grown for branches that are beautiful in winter are pruned in the early spring, completely removing shoots 5–20 cm above the ground. Plants planted for the sake of flowers or beautiful foliage are grown almost without pruning, they thin out the crown only every few years (also in early spring, before bud break).
Use of deren
Derain blood-red is planted on the slopes of ravines, as it gives a lot of root offsprings and fixes the soil well. It satisfactorily tolerates urban conditions, in the fall it is very decorative thanks to red foliage. And in winter, nature lacks bright colors so much, and turns with their unusually beautiful bark of young shoots add cheerful colors that literally glow against the background of snow. Blood-red Derain is used in landscaping as well for creating hedges, small groups, in inner-garden landscaping, and they are good in single planting. The fleshy pericarp of the fruit and seeds contain non-drying oil used for technical purposes. In deden blood-red wood is very strong, thin layer, badly stabbing. From the thin branches of the turf weave baskets and make hoops.
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Planting in the garden
Growing red turf has several features. First of all landing. The shrub grows beautifully and develops in the shade, but like any plant in such conditions its shoots are drawn, and the leafy part is more rare. Therefore, if you want to have a dense and dense crown, you need to plant deren in areas open to the sun. The next point to consider is the emphasis on the decorative features of the shrub. In order to focus on the blood-red shoots and leaves, it is better to plant a bush near the corresponding background. It can be evergreen coniferous plants or plain walls. Such planting will only increase the contrast and add beauty to the bush.
Even if the turf and unpretentious to the composition of the soil, gardeners even recommend to prepare the soil and fertilize it. Planting seedlings should be carried out in a nutrient soil. For this, after the planting pit has been dug, organic matter is introduced into it, it can be humus or compost. Also, the pit must be provided with a drainage layer of large river sand and broken bricks or large stones. The hardwood is then mixed with organic fertilizer. In such a fertilized soil will be planted seedlings. When buying them, it is best to give preference to four-year copies. They are fully capable of adapting quickly to new conditions. Seedlings before planting are placed in water at room temperature for five to six hours. During this time, they are saturated with moisture and become elastic. The branches of the turf need a little pruning, shortening them by ten or fifteen centimeters. Then the bush is planted in pre-prepared planting pits. Roots gently straighten and sprinkled on top of the ground, which is slightly trampled and watered. Top ground mulch with peat and sawdust.
Planting of blood red sod seedlings is carried out in early spring or in the middle of autumn. Autumn seedlings must have time to take root before the onset of cold weather. And for the winter, the radical layer of the earth should be warmed with a layer of peat or humus.
Saplings planted in spring require special attention. They need to be watered regularly, the first time the earth should be constantly wet. To retain moisture, the soil is mulched.
After planting the red turf, its cultivation requires a certain care.
Svidina blood-red belongs to the undemanding plants, but an elementary care for her even so required. To achieve maximum decorativeness of the shrub, he needs a properly organized watering. Note that excessive moisture is harmful to him. Therefore, Deren is watered only in two cases, when it is too hot and arid summer and in the first month after planting. That the plant needs moisture, the gardener will tell the shrub itself. If the leaves have lost turgor, then there is not enough moisture in the soil and deren should be watered.
Caring for a shrub is not complete without fertilization. If this is not possible, then you can do without them. But, Deren perfectly responds to mineral supplements. It forms beautiful juicy shoots and rampantly growing foliage. Therefore, we recommend in the spring to apply to the soil a complex mineral fertilizer, previously abundantly watering the shrub.
Trimming turf is a basic care that should be given enough time and attention. Pruning shrubs begins at the age of four. In the spring, you need to look at the Derain and remove from the bush old shoots and young shoots around, which spoils the appearance. Also need to cut the damaged and weak shoots.
Planting and care
Derain red - shade-tolerant plant, the degree of shadow should be taken into account, based on the type. Variegated varieties better planted in the sun or in partial shade. In general, the grass is undemanding to the composition of the soil, prefers acidified substrates, unpretentious, quickly adapts. Derain is frost-resistant (especially Canadian turf), only some of its species need shelter (controversial turf). Derain is drought-resistant, but develops better on moist soils.
Also known as svidina (Cornus stolonifera). It differs from the white derena by a large number of offspring. Deciduous shrub with large oval leaves up to 10 cm long. Shoots are shiny, flexible, easy to bend and root near the bush. The flowers are small, yellowish-white, collected in inflorescences. Flowering continues from late May to early June. Derain beetle offspring in August - early September. The fruit is a white drupe.
The most famous varieties of Deden scion
"Flaviramea" - a variety with shoots of green or yellow color
"Kelsey" - stands out with a broad crown and yellowish branches with bright red tops
"Winter Flame" - bright yellow shoots are characteristic for the variety
White Gold is a very large shrub with yellow, rooting branches. The leaves are white-rimmed and the flowers are yellowish white.
All species of the Derain genus grow well on almost all types of soil and tolerate shading well, but the bright stems can only be obtained when grown in an open, well-lit area.
Plants withstand flooding, so they are often used when planting wet places or places with high levels of groundwater.
Almost all turf grows fast and tolerates a good haircut. The only exception is red “Compressa”, which grows slowly.
If the tree has an open root system, planting is best done in early spring or in the middle of autumn, when the apple and other trees are planted. Plants in containers can be transshipped in open ground at any time. Planting rules are the same as for other ornamental shrubs. Derain is unpretentious and therefore recovers from transplant stress very easily.
Formative pruning is carried out in the spring. At the same time cut to 2/3 of the entire length of the shoots. During the season you can apply sanitary pruning, cutting out diseased or dry branches.
Watering, loosening and dressing
Watering is required only in a very hot period. Derain responds well to spring dressing with nitrogen fertilizers. In summer you can additionally feed with peat or compost.
The root system of svidina lies shallow: therefore, the soil around the plant should be loosened carefully and to a small depth.
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Protection against diseases and pests
Adult turfs rarely suffer from diseases, but young plants are sometimes affected by powdery mildew. To prevent infection of the plant should be watered plants only under the root.
If the plants are still sick, the affected branches should be removed, and the plants themselves should be treated with fungicides (topsin, fast, chorus) in dosage and application rate for shrubs.
Among the pests of turf damage aphid and comma-like scapula, from which it is easy to get rid of by spraying aktelik or aktar.