The transformation of small tomato seeds into a powerful bush takes more than one month. Therefore, they are planted early, even in winter. The most impatient vegetable growers conduct pre-sowing seed treatment on January 23-28. Dates of mass sowing - February 7-14. You can begin to germinate seeds before March 14, but not later. It is better to sow seeds in 2-3 terms. This will help to insure in case part of the seedlings will die. This technique can “stretch” the fruiting from the beginning of July to mid-October.
After you have decided on the date, remove the seeds. Put them in a small glass jar. Put a piece of double gauze on it, fasten it on the neck with a rubber band. Prepare a solution, dropping 2-3 crystals of potassium permanganate in 200 g of water. Stir it, pour into the jar. After 20 minutes, drain the liquid. Rinse the contents of the jar with water.
Put the seeds on the gauze, which lay on the saucer. Prepare a solution of any growth stimulant according to the instructions. If not, add a quarter of a teaspoon of aloe juice to 100 g of water, pour this solution into the seeds for 10 hours. Then pour it out, place the saucer in the fridge for a day. Now you can plant seeds in a prepared container with the ground.
Make grooves to a depth of 1.5 cm. Cover the bowl with cellophane and clean it in a warm place. As soon as the first light loop of the germ appears, place the container on the window. When the seedlings turn 4 weeks old, transplant each into a small cup. After another as much - in a bigger tank. All this time, from the moment of emergence, provide the shoots with more light in the evening and morning hours. Do not overmoisten the soil, and do not raise the temperature on the window where the seedlings are located above + 24 ° C. Then it will not stretch.
Planting seedlings in the ground
Tomato seedlings are planted in a warm greenhouse on May 1-15, under a light shelter on the 15-25th of this month, in open ground - on May 20-30.
Make holes 15 cm deep at a distance of 50 -60 cm in a checkerboard pattern. First pour 0.5 tsp into them. complex fertilizer, a tablespoon of ash. Cover it with a liter of humus. Well shed holes. Scissor glass with one hand and its bottom. Carefully free the plant. With a clod of earth, plant it in a prepared hole. Immediately place a stick near each plant. Tie her to her rope loop "figure of eight."
To plant tomato seedlings should be in the evening or in the afternoon in cloudy weather. If the next days promise to be sunny, coat it with a light cloth or newspaper.
- For sowing seeds, it is necessary to prepare a good chernozem soil, rotted humus, and also add some sand. The mixture is sifted through a fine sieve. After that, ash is added to it at the rate of 200 g per 10 kg of soil, and it is also necessary to add egg shells at the rate of 100 g per 10 kg of soil. It is very important to follow the rules of making ash in the ground, as it can only be introduced in the autumn, because after the onset of spring, the soil should be neutralized so that in the future it does not damage the delicate root system of tomatoes.
- Ash contains many different trace elements that are useful for growing tomato seedlings. But if for some reason you did not bring ash in the fall, then with the onset of spring it is necessary to water the soil with water that insists on the ashes. To do this, take 10 liters of water to take one glass of wood ash. Ash poured into the water and infused in this way during the day. Before irrigation, water should be filtered through 5 layers of gauze.
Before sowing, you also need to manually sort and sort the seed. Seeds of tomatoes should be the correct form, large. After that, they are placed in bags of gauze, tied with a strong thread with a long end. It is desirable to attach a label to the threads with the name of a variety of tomatoes. Bags with planting material are lowered for 15 minutes into the solution of potassium permanganate. To prepare the solution, it is necessary to take 2 g of potassium permanganate per 1 liter of water. This is done for the purpose of disinfecting seeds. After that, the seeds are washed under running water.
Sprouting seeds implies compliance with the following rules:
- On a baking tray with sides it is necessary to lay out pieces of coarse calico, pre-moisten the cloth with sodium humate. Dissolve one tablet per 1 liter of water. At the same time on the fabric should not be excess water.
- Further, in one layer it is necessary to lay tomato seeds in dense rows on the fabric.
- The baking tray is placed in a plastic bag, on top of it the polyethylene should not touch the seeds.
- The baking tray package must be placed in the warmest place in the room, where the air temperature is between 27 and 30 degrees.
- A day later, the seeds on the baking sheet must be refrigerated on the bottom shelf for 3 hours.
- This procedure is repeated 3 times, and then the baking sheet must be placed in a warm place until the first seeds are laid. As a rule, this period takes about 5 days.
After that, you can start planting seeds for seedlings. You should not expect sizing at once of all planting material. Seeds are allowed to be stored in the refrigerator, as there they will be well stored and not outgrow for 2 weeks.
Depending on the region, as well as the climate and growing conditions, the sowing of tomatoes should be carried out from late December to early February. Planting tomatoes in a permanent place in the open ground is carried out in the period from late March to early May.
The planting of tomato seeds is necessary to produce special boxes, the size of which is 28 by 32 cm, and the height of the boards is 6 cm. To reduce the number of waterings and to keep as much moisture in the soil as possible, polyethylene should be laid on the bottom. This technique is quite useful for growing seedlings. During this period, it is not necessary to make mineral fertilizers, otherwise salinization of the soil may occur. In boxes, as a rule, seeds are planted in order to get as many tomato seedlings as possible.
It is necessary to fill the prepared soil with a layer of about 5 cm into the prepared boxes, level it and compact it. Further grooves are made with a ruler to a depth of about 0.5 cm with intervals of 3 cm. Using tweezers or a stick, spread the seeds of a single tomato variety into the grooves. Up to 12 seeds can be placed in one groove. After that, the number of tomato seeds and each variety in the grooves must be recorded and numbered.
After sowing, seeds are carefully poured with a layer of soil about 1 cm thick and moistened with a spray bottle so that the tomatoes have good germination. Crates of crops covered with plastic wrap to retain moisture. For seedling germination, it must be placed in a warm place. When the seedlings germinate, the boxes must be opened and put into the light. The air temperature in the room should be about 19 degrees during the day and about 13 degrees at night.
Next, you need to carry out the process of picking seedlings in plastic cups or cups of peat. You can also use tin cans, whose diameter is about 13 cm. If you decide to use plastic bags, they must be double. The seedling is spiked by planting each plant separately in a glass or jar. It is necessary to carefully separate each seedling from the box and plant it in a separate glass, which should be half filled with soil.
Having installed the plants in a glass, it is necessary to pour the ground from above almost to the top, while leaving some space so that it is convenient to water the plant. Abundant watering of plants is carried out only in the first 2 days after transplantation.
Before planting young tomatoes in the ground, they must be hardened.
During warm weather, pots of seedlings must be taken out on the street and left there for 2 hours. And if on the street at the same time there is sunny weather, they must be rearranged in the shade. Thus, young plants are gradually accustomed to the sun. Before you plant the tomatoes in open ground, they must be left outside for a day. If there is a threat of frost, the seedlings must be left in the greenhouse and reheated with a lamp.
Rules for planting tomatoes in the ground
As a rule, most varieties of tomatoes are grown in the garden or in the greenhouse. Greenhouses are a kind of fixed structure with a solid structure, which is designed for long-term operation.
Planting young seedlings in a greenhouse or in open ground should be done in the afternoon. This is due to the fact that it is at this time that the air becomes cooler, and the solar activity decreases. During the landing in the morning you need to prepare the seedlings. Preparation consists in cutting off seed leaves, removing sick and yellowed leaves. It is also necessary to get rid of those leaves that during planting can fall into the soil. By the second half of the day, when the seedlings will be planted, the leaves will usually dry out.
In order for young tomatoes to better adapt to the environment, they must be planted in warm soil.. The warmth of the soil must be checked in advance. At the same time, the temperature is measured using a household thermometer, which should be immersed in the ground in a greenhouse or in a garden plot. If the temperature is about 15 degrees, this means that the soil is ready for planting seedlings. Based on this, we can conclude that young tomatoes will quickly take root.
If we talk about planting seedlings in the greenhouse, it is recommended to select such varieties of tomatoes, which are characterized by limited growth, determinant and semi-determinant.
Planting seedlings in the ground should be carried out according to the following scheme:
- Between the rows, you must leave a distance of about 1 m,
- The distance between the bushes should be about 50 cm.
To create more even rows in the soil, you can drive in the stakes, and then tighten the cord along the entire length of the bed. Channels are digging along the cord to the depth of the spade bayonet.
Further in this ditch it is necessary to make planting of tomatoes. In this case, it is worth paying attention to the fact that only seedlings with a length from 26 to 30 cm should be planted. Only the pot is filled with soil mixture. The lower leaves of the seedlings need to be torn off, leaving only the upper leaves, about 5 of them, on the stalk. Glass should be gently turned, skip the stem between your fingers, and then put the seedlings in a ditch lump and sprinkle with soil.
It is necessary to fill up a hole with seedlings with soil using a chopper only after all the cups have been placed. After that, the earth is well watered so that it can settle well. The soil is allowed to mulch with sawdust with rotted humus or manure. Thus, young tomatoes will grow stronger, without disturbing the development of the root system. Mulching will also help settle down on tomatoes after transplantation.
The optimal depth for planting seedlings is 10 cm. It is at this depth that the root system will not overheat and dry out. The soil on the plot or in the greenhouse can be enriched with the help of nutrients that will come into it from rotted mulch. Another advantage is that a crust does not form in the soil under mulch after feeding or watering..
In order to produce a garter of tomatoes, it is necessary in each ditch every one and a half meters to beat the stakes on which the wire is pulled. The wire should be pulled in each row every 30 cm. Further heavy bushes of tomatoes are tied to this wire. During the garter, lower stepsons must be removed so that they do not lie on the ground. After the implementation of the garter to the trellis, the tomatoes will feel more at ease, will receive more light and heat, with the result that they will give a good harvest.
Growing tomatoes in 3 stems, as well as constant coining can lead to the growth of heavy and large fruits. Also, thanks to this, it will be possible to observe an earlier ripening of the crop.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that while planting tomatoes it is not allowed to put fresh chicken dung or manure into the hole. This action only harms the future harvest, since a large amount of nitrogen contained in fertilizers can cause excessive growth of the tops, which will be only to the detriment of the formation of the ovary of flowers.
Planting overgrown seedlings
If for some reason your seedlings have outgrown, it should be planted in the wells as follows:
- In the hole depth of about 13 cm is necessary to make another hole,
- The height and width of the hole should be equal to the height and width of the pot, which is placed in it along with the seedlings.
On overgrown tomato seedlings, all the lower leaves are removed, and the stem is placed in the soil at a slight angle and sprinkled with earth.
If you want to grow strong and disease-resistant tomatoes in your greenhouse or garden, you need to feed them once every 2 weeks. Top dressing is recommended to carry out slurry diluted in water. You can also use pigeon, chicken, mutton or goat droppings. Top dressing begins at the moment when the mass flowering and fruit set of tomatoes is formed.
Vertical planting of tomato seedlings
This method implies that immediately after planting the tomato bush will grow straight, and its trunk and leaves will not touch the ground. In fact, the landing process looks like this:
1) You make holes in the ground for each bush seedlings.
2) Then spill the wells well with water and wait until the liquid is fully absorbed into the ground.
3) In the center of the hole, make a small depression and place the base of the bush along with the roots in it.
4) Then you enclose the damp earth around the base of a tomato to strengthen a bush with a peculiar “hill” of soil. Above you can tuck dry land, which plays the role of mulch.
The deed is done: the tomato is planted, its top reaches for the sun, the leaves do not touch the cool ground. The first two or three days the leaves of such a bush can be lowered down, but over time the plant is saturated with liquid and beneficial substances from the earth and becomes stronger.
Features of vertical planting of tomato seedlings:
- you “pamper” a tomato by planting it at all and even help it “look up” by strengthening it with earth. As a result, such a plant, for which the gardener does everything, may not have enough strength for a bountiful harvest.
- The root system of the tomato, on which the strength of the bush and its future fecundity directly depend, is located in a small radius around the base of the bush. This means that it is very easy to pick it up and damage it while loosening the soil. Without calculating with forces, it is possible to completely remove the entire bush from the ground, accidentally prying its roots.
- Watering and spuding such a bush is generally convenient: it grows in the center of the hole, so the water reaches all its roots. During hilling, you can cover the bush with earth on all sides evenly.
Planting tomatoes "lying"
This method is more tricky, because it implies orientation on the cardinal points and an independent “raising to the feet” of plants.
1) As in the first case, you need to dig holes for each tomato bush.
2) Then wet the ground and wait for the water to sink into the soil.
3) And then - remember, from which side of your area the sun rises. It is to the east that the roots of the bush should be directed, which you will not put in the hole, but put. The top of the bush should "look" to the west. Put the shrub in such a way and sprinkle its roots with soil so that they do not look out of the ground.
4) The first few days it will seem to you that nothing happened and the tomatoes fade. But this is only at first glance, because with this method of planting seedlings tomatoes should become strong enough to raise their “body” up in a few days. Actually, it is for this purpose that they are placed in this direction: it is understood that the tips of the bushes will reach for the sun and thus lift the bushes completely. Tomatoes will raise their "heads" from the holes in 3-5 days, and after a week you will see that they grow more or less vertically.
Features of planting tomato seedlings "lying":
- the center of the bush will be displaced in the hole, so it will not work out evenly: some of the roots will not get enough moisture,
- spuding such a bush is not convenient, because its base is not strictly vertical, but curved,
- the root system of such a tomato is developing more actively and occupies almost the entire well. While loosening the ground, it is very easy to stumble on the roots, but it won't hurt the plant: a powerful root system will not allow you to accidentally pull out a bush.
As you can see, you can adapt to any of these methods of planting tomato seedlings: both have their pros and cons. As for the harvest of tomatoes, we have on the site the best result showed tomato bushes planted "lying." Они намного быстрее обзавелись плодами и породили больше гроздей с помидорами. Скорее всего, на это повлияло именно «закаливание» кустов, которые с самого маленького «возраста» должны были тянуться к солнцу и крепнуть самостоятельно.
Наш эксперимент показал: помидоры, высаженные «головой» на запад, дают лучший урожай. They do not look too aesthetically pleasing because of their curved bases, but they please with strong and beautiful fruits!
General information about growing
Tomato seedlings can be obtained when grown at home. At the same time, a good harvest is ultimately ensured if the plant is healthy. To do this, you need to make maximum efforts, to conduct proper care of tomato seedlings. To properly grow tomato seedlings, you need to acquire certain knowledge and skills. After all, most novice growers make many mistakes. Especially big problems arise when planting tomato seeds on seedlings. All flaws affect the fruiting adult culture.
How to plant tomatoes for seedlings? The initial stage is to seed the tomatoes. In this case, it is important to determine the timing. The final stage is planting tomato seedlings for cultivation in the open field. If the whole process is carried out on the balcony, then the cultivation of seedlings at the final stage is realized in special boxes.
Planting tomato seeds is necessary in a certain period. Usually, experts recommend performing this operation on average 60 days before it is planned to plant tomato seedlings in open ground, in boxes on the balcony or in the greenhouse (preferably polycarbonate).
Tomato seeds are characterized by a fairly quick ability to emerge after planting, but all the necessary conditions must be provided. Depending on the variety, tomato seeds can sprout in 4-11 days. However, there are such options that are able to sprout after 5 days. In this regard, the average period of time is determined, during which it is necessary to keep tomato seedlings in room conditions - 53 days. The report is kept from the moment shoots appeared.
Growing tomatoes is given special attention if the whole process takes place on a windowsill in an apartment. Here we must take into account that tomato seedlings are unacceptably long stays indoors. An adult bush ceases to develop normally, which leads to a poor harvest.
Before planting seeds, you need to focus on the climatic features of the region. For example:
- for the southern region of the country - from February 20 to mid-March,
- for the central part - from mid-March to April,
- for the northern regions - from the beginning to the middle of April.
Planting seedlings of tomatoes in open ground can be made in the following terms:
- for the southern region of the country - from mid-April to mid-May,
- for the central part - from the second week of May to the beginning of June,
- for the northern regions - from the 20th of May to mid-June.
To plant a tomato should be on these terms, but watch out for frosts, which often in the spring adversely affect the crops grown. If you plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, and not in an open area, then the dates of sowing tomato seeds will move 2 weeks earlier.
Favorable conditions for growth
For the cultivation of tomatoes, special conditions must be created that allow the plant to remain healthy and bear fruit well. Before you plant a tomato seed, you need to take care of some items. Usually plant seeds with seeds taken in small boxes, which are placed on the windowsill. This place is considered to be comfortable so that the germinated seeds quickly grow and turn into full-fledged seedlings. However, often the planted seeds in the indicated place do not feel comfortable, and therefore they are slow to germinate. After that, the plants themselves grow slowly, which makes them weak and unprepared for transplantation.
Even on the windowsill for seedlings need to create special conditions.
We plant tomatoes on seedlings only when there is a lot of sunlight on the windowsill. If it is not enough, then you need to use artificial sources of illumination. It is necessary that the window does not fall shadow of trees and other objects. It is better to place the boxes with tomatoes on the southern windowsill.
For seedlings of tomatoes, a high level of humidity is very important, because at the expense of it the plant is able to grow and grow faster, which will ensure further transplantation. To maintain the humidity in the normal range, it is necessary to spray the plants several times a day. For this you can use a special sprayer.
At any time of the day, tomatoes should be at a comfortable temperature. In the daytime, this value fluctuates around 20 ° C, and at night - 13 ° C.
Preparation of tomato seeds is reduced to several procedures (can be viewed in video 1), which are aimed at the rapid germination of seeds. The first step is to soak the seeds in a special solution. For its preparation you will need the following elements: water - 100 ml and hydrogen peroxide - 3 ml.
Hydrogen peroxide is diluted in room temperature water. After that, the solution is heated, and the seeds are placed in it for 10 minutes. This procedure is aimed at disinfection.
Preparation of tomato seeds for planting is not limited to the described action. It is necessary to provide conditions for their further development. Sprouting seeds can be carried out with the help of a fabric that should be cotton. It should be moistened in ordinary water, then seeds are laid on a piece of tissue flap, and the second part of the cloth must be covered.
In order for the germination process to occur faster, it is necessary to ensure a comfortable temperature regime. Cloth with seeds should be put in a special plastic container. It should be covered with a film, but not tightly. Thus, it will be possible to retain heat, but the necessary amount of air will also flow.
Planting seeds on seedlings requires that the soil is properly prepared. Cultivation can be carried out only in fertile soil. In addition, care must be taken to ensure that it is not susceptible to infection with pathogens. Tomatoes can be grown from seeds safely in the soil that is sold in specialized stores. However, most often growers choose the soil in their own area. He may not be good enough.
Tillage is done at home:
- you can roast the soil in the oven, while the procedure is carried out for 10 minutes at 200 ° C,
- you can warm the soil in the microwave (1 minute at a power of 850),
- boiling water treatment
- treatment with potassium permanganate solution.
This will help to remove possible dangerous bacteria, organisms, etc. from the soil. The high temperature copes with the task most successfully.
Seed planting procedure
To plant seeds, you need to take care of the capacity. There are a lot of options to choose from, as it can be special wooden boxes, pots made of peat, paper or plastic. It is convenient and practical to use glasses with a removable bottom. They need to plant tomatoes, and after a certain time the bottom is removed, which allows you to remove the plant without damaging the root system. It is necessary to grow up seedling only in the prepared ware. Therefore, containers are treated with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Tomatoes grow better if there is a special layer of drainage at the bottom of the tank. This is quite important, because it allows you to avoid infection with a black leg. Properly plant seeds in a container, at the bottom of which there is crushed shell rock. Its layer should not exceed 0.5 cm, the soil is poured on top. Water should be poured into the tank in order to moisten the soil; cover it from above with soil so that the humidity is evenly distributed throughout the whole volume.
After 5 hours can be planted tomatoes in seedlings. This will require a toothpick or any other similar tool. With it, shallow holes (0.5 cm) are made in the soil, and seeds are placed in them. Growing will take place correctly if the soil is sprinkled on top of the soil and not heavily rammed. Water a little.
You need to grow seedlings in a warm place, so the container is sent to a comfortable environment. Often the cups are covered with a film on top, but not tightly, until the tomato germinates.
Care for tomato seedlings must be provided in a special way. Growing it from the seed, you need to follow the moment of emergence. This is a signal that the film has already fulfilled its function and can be removed. How to grow seedlings in the future? At first, the temperature regime should be maintained at the same level. The seedlings are not strong and may change or weaken as the conditions change.
How to care for tomato seedlings to get a good result? All the time you need to monitor the soil moisture. For grown tomatoes, it is important that the soil is not too wet, as this has a negative effect on the root system. Growing tomato seedlings will be optimal if watering is carried out with rainwater. Otherwise, you can use ordinary water, which is purified by a filter.
How to care for seedlings? 7 days after germination, tomatoes are ready to reduce the temperature. In this case, the temperature value can reach an average of 18 ° C. We grow plants in a ventilated room, but without a draft.
How to plant seedlings of tomatoes? Many growers think about the need for picks. Grown up to a certain size of seedlings can feel bad in the old conditions, so it can be safely transplanted. Video 2 displays this process. Grown seedlings are not afraid of a new place, and it grows well.
How to plant seedlings when picking? Need to focus on the external signs of tomatoes. It is possible to plant tomato seedlings to another place, if the cotyledon leaves have developed well enough. One of the sheets must be at least 5 mm.
How to plant seedlings when picking so that it continues to grow and develop well? To do this, shorten the main root by 1/3, the root system will become more developed.
How to plant the plants? To do this, prepare a separate container. When planting seedlings take into account the depth on which the further development of the tomato depends. The optimal level of deepening of the plant is up to the cotyledon leaves. Sometimes vegetable growers use a special device for planting seedlings, which is a special shovel. Its use allows you to leave the root system of culture intact.
To grow the seedlings of tomatoes in the future was successful, you need to tamp the soil around the stem. Watering is a must. In video 3, you can become better acquainted with the process. If you plant tomatoes on seedlings, after picking you should not forget about the right lighting. It will need additional light sources in 3 days. And in the first days of direct sunlight can negatively affect its condition, so the cultivation should be carried out away from them.
Before planting seedlings in open ground or on a new picking site, a week before this, plucking of the tips should be done. However, the plants must have time to get stronger, as shown in video 4.
How to grow seedlings? For this, it is necessary to carry out certain procedures that allow the plant to grow more successfully. Cultivation should take place in good light. The maximum amount of daylight is 18 hours. This amount of light is enough to get healthy plants that are suitable for sale and for other purposes.
At the present stage, experienced growers are increasingly saying that additional light is not needed. Thus, we plant tomatoes on seedlings without providing alternative sources of illumination, which gives good results. But you need to monitor the correct temperature.
How to grow tomatoes to ensure a good harvest? There are a large number of parameters on which the strength of the seedlings depends, its ability to be taken in open ground. If we plant tomatoes on seedlings, then we should not forget that they need additional feeding. For this there is a large selection of natural and organic fertilizers (video 5).
For tomatoes, certain drugs are added to the soil before planting. They are also fed up. For example, Gumi, which belongs to the category of bio-fertilizers. Its use allows the seedlings to remain strong. After transplantation in open ground or greenhouse, it is able to bloom quickly and give ovary. The number of fruits on the bushes can not but rejoice.
A fertilizer called Baikal EM-1 is popular among vegetable growers. However, its use is possible only if the seedlings are weak and do not grow well. Otherwise, the tomatoes will become too strong.
It is necessary to grow tomatoes when the gardener has thoroughly studied all the rules of this procedure. Only in this case, the harvest will be high and high quality.
When is it time to plant seedlings?
People often ask, what are the terms of planting tomatoes on seedlings? Planting in the greenhouse is about two months after the emergence of seedlings. The height of the seedlings during this period should be thirty-five centimeters.
For Moscow, planting tomato seeds for seedlings begins in early March and during the month. For seedlings under film coating - in the middle of March.
For Siberia and the Urals, the time for planting seeds falls on the period from March to April.
But for accurate calculations it is better to use the above advice, depending on:
- from tomato variety,
- places of further cultivation,
- opportunities for lighting seedlings during early planting,
- landing on time in the greenhouse or under the film,
- weather conditions expected this spring,
- moon calendar. There is a belief that landing on the lunar calendar.
Folk omens say: If a snowdrop blooms, then you can plant tomatoes on seedlings. Seedlings in a permanent place can be planted when the mountain ash, lilac blooms.
How to plant in the ground?
You need to plant a plant in the afternoon or, even better, in cloudy weather:
- In this case, the seedlings will not dry out and will better “feel” themselves. If, however, you decide to plant tomatoes before noon, then it is better not to water them this evening.
- Then in the dug-up soil, wells are made after 30 cm. In them you need to add compost and a little ash or superphosphate. Add water.
- Remove the seedlings from the cups (if you bought them on the market) or pull them out of your own container (if you have grown yourself) and put them in the hole. Plant saplings should be planted carefully so as not to damage them.
Gardeners usually plant the plants at a depth corresponding to the height of the glass in which the seedlings were bought, or so that the first leaf was above the soil. So it is easier for you to plant, and the plant to take root.
Care of seedlings
Proper care of tomatoes after planting is the key to a good harvest. Therefore, it is very important to know all the details of this action. All care can be divided into four types of work:
Before the seedlings are fully acclimatized, you need to monitor the condition of the soil surface. Thus, the soil must be loosened. Otherwise the cracks that appear will affect the formed roots. As a result, they will be broken. Then there are two scenarios: either seedlings slow down the development, or even die.
Watering a tomato must also be correct. This should be done accordingly:
- when transplanting seedlings into the soil in one hole 1.5-2 liters,
- flowering time - 20-35 liters per 1 m²,
- the formation of the ovary - from 40 to 50 liters per 1 m²,
- with repeated formation of fruits - from 70 to 80 liters per 1 m².
At the beginning of the collection of fruit watering grown bushes plants should gradually decrease. It has a positive effect on tomatoes:
- from late blight,
- fruit cracks and other diseases.
Weakening is an important step in caring for tomatoes:
- Therefore, after planting, loosen the soil every 3-4 days. Planted seedlings should be spud immediately after grafting and ten days later. Loosen the soil under the tomatoes each time after watering at 10-12 cm, and not deeper. Otherwise, damage to the roots of the plant.
- Only in a month you can add 2-4 cm and loosen up to 16 cm. Before closing the tops of the tops, the ground is chased so that the air and humidity penetrate it better. The process is not complicated: in the soil cracks are made at a distance of one and a half meters from each other and at a depth of 60 cm.
- It is correct that the first top dressing was carried out 14 days after planting the seedlings in the soil. One square meter will require from 8 to 10 kg of nitrate, 5-6 kg of urea or from 10 to 12 kg of nitrophos, from 20 to 35 g of superphosphate and potassium salt.
The second feeding is 20-25 days after the first. The same fertilizers are also used in the same proportions. Also take a “recipe” for tomatoes in case they start to fade. This is due to the negative impact on plants of weather conditions. Have to take:
- Mullein with water (1:10) or bird droppings (1:14).
- Both the mullein and litter are soaked for 24 hours.
- Затем половину литра одного раствора смешивают с 10 литрами воды и поливают растения.
- Через неделю нужно повторить.
Удалите нижние листья посаженных помидоров через 1,5-2 месяца. Три нижних листа подлежат ликвидации. После этого саженцы нужно поливать через 24 часа. Эта процедура проводится один раз в неделю. Если этого не сделать, происходит застой воздуха и развиваются различные заболевания.
You can also watch a video where an experienced gardener will tell you how to plant early seedlings of tomatoes in open ground.
Thus, planting tomato seedlings in the open field is not so difficult. The main thing is to know the process and all its subtleties. Thanks to this article, you were able to learn the main nuances of how to plant tomatoes in the open field. Planting tomato seedlings has become much easier!
General recommendations for planting tomatoes at home
When growing seedlings at home determining the exact date of sowing seeds is of paramount importance, otherwise, by the time the tomatoes are planted in the ground, the seedling material will be either still weak or already overgrown.
The time when planting tomatoes depends on the latitude and weather conditions. Therefore, most often:
- in the southern regions of Russia tomatoes sown from February 20 to March 15,
- in the central regions - from March 15 to April 1,
- in the northern regions (Siberia, the Urals) - from April 1 to 15.
Before sowing seeds, it is necessary to foresee where the seedlings will grow.. It is better if they are windowsills of south or southwest windows. It is possible that in bad weather conditions (constant cloudiness) the need for additional lighting of seedlings will be required, therefore a fitolamp should be purchased.
The selection of seeds should be approached responsibly. It is desirable to purchase them in specialized stores or from sellers who have all the necessary documents to guarantee the quality of the goods. You should not buy on street trays or in transitions: similar conditions for storing seeds are not up to standard (temperature, humidity, etc.).
Before you go for seeds, you need to decide: which tomatoes should you buy (tall or short), which varieties to prefer, what amount of seed will be needed. Naturally, all conclusions are drawn based on the characteristics of the backyard plot or greenhouse (area, soil composition, etc.).
The store should pay attention to the manufacturer, and most importantly - for the period of storage. Seeds, which are more than two years old, it is better not to buy. If there are no other options, then the planting material will need to be carefully inspected and rejected of poor quality.
Successfully cope with this task will help the following way:
- in 1 liter of water to mix 30 - 40 grams of salt,
- immerse the purchased seeds in the resulting solution for 10 minutes,
- seeds that surface to the surface should be thrown away, and those drowned should be selected and rinsed with clean production water.
Rejection should be carried out on the eve of sowing seeds in the ground.
Processing and preparation for disembarkation
Seeds of well-known manufacturers usually do not need additional processing, but the seeds collected by hand or bought on the market, it is better to pre-disinfect.
- This can be done by immersing them in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 ml of water) for 20–30 minutes; after the time has elapsed, the seeds must be rinsed with water.
- Another option: for a day, the seed is placed in a 0.5% soda solution (0.5 grams per 100 ml of water).
- You can process the seeds and a solution of liquid Fitosporin (1 drop per 100 ml of water), keeping them in the liquid for 1 - 2 hours.
To increase the percentage of seed germination, they can be kept in a growth stimulant solution (Appin, Zircon, Heteroauxin, etc.), the method of dilution and the duration of the procedure - according to the instructions. Some gardeners use the folk method: immerse the seed in a solution of aloe juice (1: 1) or honey water (1 tsp per cup of water).
Sow seeds can be dry and germinated, but the second option is preferable. For germination will need:
- cloth, gauze or paper towel.
- The fabric is moistened, placed in a straightened form on a saucer, onto it the seeds of one variety are poured out and distributed over the surface, the container is covered with a plastic lid or plastic bag and put in a warm place for 10-12 hours.
- Swollen seeds should be sown immediately.
- You can keep them on a saucer for 3 to 5 days, in which case the seeds should germinate, and you should be extremely careful when planting so as not to break the fragile shoots.
The main component of the purchased substrate is peatwith high acidity, so experienced vegetable growers add garden soil or universal soil for flowers in a 1: 1 ratio, as well as dolomite flour or chalk (1 - 2 tbsp per 10 l of substrate).
For those who want to prepare a soil mixture with their own hands, you can offer the following options:
- Garden soil, peat, humus are mixed in equal parts, a little ash and complex fertilizer are added to the mixture.
- Peat, turfy land, mullein (4: 1: 0,25). For every 10 liters of the mixture, 3 liters of coarse sand, 10 grams of ammonium nitrate, 1 - 1.5 grams of potassium chloride, 2 - 3 grams of superphosphate are added.
- 1 part of humus, peat, turf land mixed, adding for every 10 liters of the mixture to 1.5 tbsp. ash, 3 tbsp. superphosphate, 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tsp urea.
The recommended level of soil acidity is 5.5 - 6.0 pH. The earth must be decontaminated! For this purpose, the soil can be calcined in the oven (+ 180С - + 200С for 30 minutes), shed with boiling water or bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, processed with fungicides according to the instructions.
The soil is usually pretreated, 10 to 12 days before the expected planting date. After disinfection, the soil should be moistened and left at room temperature for the reproduction in it of useful wet organisms.
As a container for sowing seeds, you can use special cassettes, peat tablets or pots, as well as improvised means: plastic cups and containers for foodstuffs, shallow boxes, independently knocked out of plates or plywood. In any case, drainage holes in the bottom must be made in all tanks, which will ensure the discharge of excess moisture.
The optimal height of the boxes should be 8-10 centimeters.. You should not prefer too bulky containers, since for the entire period of growth of seedlings they will need to be moved from place to place several times.
Disposable containers do not need disinfection, and used ones should be wiped before use with alcohol.
In peat tablets
This method makes it possible to grow strong and healthy seedlings, bypassing the dive stage. When planting in open ground or in the greenhouse, the plant can be transplanted with a tablet.
- A tablet with a diameter of 4 centimeters to fill in previously warm water for swelling.
- After draining the excess liquid, place the tablets in a transparent container, the volume of which will hold all the peat products.
- Sow 2-4 seeds of tomatoes in each tablet (if the quality of the seed does not cause doubts, then one can be used). To do this, a small depression is made in the cavity with a finger (1 cm), where the seed is placed.
- From above each deepening is covered with soil or vermiculite.
- The box is covered with a transparent lid or plastic wrap.
- Capacity is placed in a warm (+ 23C - + 25C) place.
Watch a useful video about growing seedlings of tomatoes in peat tablets:
In a container or other container
The classic method of sowing, which provides for the stage of diving on individual tanks.
- At the bottom should be poured a layer of drainage with a thickness of 0.5 cm (small pebbles, eggshell).
- Soil 8 - 10 cm thick is poured into the tank, it is well moistened with warm water.
- Grooves with a depth of 1 cm are made on the surface, the distance between them is 3-4 cm.
- Seeds razlazhivayutsya on grooves at a distance of 1 - 2 cm, sprinkled on top of the soil and moistened with a spray.
- The container must be covered with glass or a lid, then placed in a warm (+ 25C - + 30C) place.
We offer to watch a video about growing tomato seedlings in a classic way:
Sowing in the "diaper"
This method will make it possible to save space: a large amount of seedling material can be grown on a relatively small area.
- Polyethylene must be cut into strips 10 cm wide, the length of the strips is optional.
- Toilet paper or kitchen paper towel, which is placed on top of the film, is cut into strips of the same size.
- The paper layer should be moistened with a growth stimulant solution.
- Seeds should be spread out on paper (closer to one of the edges) at a distance of 3 - 4 cm.
- On top of the seeds are covered with another layer of paper and plastic film.
- The resulting tape must be twisted into a roll and placed in a plastic cup. To save space in one glass, you can put several rolls at once.
- Water should be poured at the bottom (1-1.5 cm), cover the tank with a plastic bag with holes for aerating the air and place in a warm place.
Watch the video about planting tomato seedlings in the “diaper”:
Of course, you can buy ready-made seedlings, but the taste of tomatoes grown from seeds with their own hands is much sweeter and tastier.