Many trees that successfully grow in the southern territories of our country, there is no way to grow in regions with a cooler climate. This also applies to walnuts known to all of us - spreading and tall trees with tasty and very healthy fruits. But a Manchurian nut, more resistant to frost, can become a good alternative to them. Let us clarify how the Manchurian nut is planted and how it is needed in the Moscow region for this crop, we will discuss its cultivation in a little more detail.
Manchurian walnut trees in the wild grow in the Far East and Northern China. Such a culture is similar in appearance to a walnut, but there are some distinctive characteristics. So the leaves of this tree look larger than that of a walnut, the whole blade can reach one meter in length. The fruits of the Manchurian nut are slightly smaller in size, their shells are very dense, and their shape is ovate-pointed to one of the ends. Having planted a sapling, you can expect the first harvest already in the fourth year. And when grown from seed - on the seventh-eighth.
Manchurian nuts are monoecious plants, respectively, they are formed separately for male and female flowers. Pollination occurs with the wind.
Planting in the suburbs, growing
Manchurian seedlings do not like transplants. Therefore, they should be planted immediately to a permanent place. These trees prefer to grow in well-lit areas, not shaded by other cultures. The cultivation of the Manchurian nut in the lowlands is allowed, however, the ground must be quite fertile. Readers of Popular Health need to remember that the Manchurian nut has a deep-penetrating root system and a fairly large, branching root. Accordingly, the landing should be carried out away from all kinds of buildings. When planting several seedlings, you need to have them at intervals of ten to twelve meters.
It is best to plant young trees in April or in September. For them, you need to prepare a landing hole, its optimal depth is eighty - one hundred centimeters. The volume of such a pit should be equal to the volume of the root system of the seedling. On the bottom of the pit, you need to lay out a layer of drainage, you can use gravel, broken bricks and other suitable materials. Add a layer of primer to cover drainage. Instead of poor soil it is necessary to use a mixture of soil taken out of the planting pit, humus, turf and sand (keep the ratio 4: 2: 2: 1). Add to this mixture twenty to forty grams of superphosphate, as well as potash fertilizer. Stir the soil thoroughly.
Before planting, you need to examine the seedling and shorten the central root. The tree must be installed in the center of the hole, and immediately attached to the peg. Experienced gardeners recommend planting a Manchurian nut in the Moscow region so as to preserve its original position in relation to the cardinal points, it is believed that it will take root much easier and faster. Sprinkle the seedling with soil mixture, fill it with a neat bucket of water. After the liquid is absorbed, add the primer and apply it, forming a near-stem circle. Add five or ten liters of water, and then mulch the soil.
Manchurian Nut Care in the Moscow Region
Such a tree is quite moisture-loving. So in the first year of cultivation it is necessary to ensure that the soil always remains wet. Moisturize the soil without excessive moisture. After watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil and carry out the removal of weeds, it is also important to mulch the soil.
Adult Manchurian nuts may well survive the lack of moisture or a rare flooding of the roots.
Young trees of the fourth year of life need fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium mixtures. Such compositions are applied to the soil once during the whole vegetative period, optimally - during the formation of the fruit. It is allowed to use only superphosphates, but at the same time it is worth adding a glass of wood ash to the earth, because it contains many nutrients.
In the suburbs in the care of a tree should not forget to include its preparation for the winter.
Young saplings must be warmed to prevent frosting of the tips of the branches. To do this, wrap the shtamb, as well as the lower branches, using burlap or non-woven material. In addition, it is necessary to use the grid - as a shelter from rodents, it needs to be stuck in the ground and trampled around. In winter (after the snow falls), it is advisable to repeat this procedure.
Another important stage in the care of Manchurian nuts is the periodic pruning of the crown. In fact, such a tree does not need to form a crown in an artificial way. It is capable of self-shaping. It is enough to perform sanitary pruning: in early spring or during the winter dormancy period. Thus it is necessary to eliminate the defective, dead and growing down the branches. However, if you grow a Manchurian nut in a small area, it is advisable to pay attention to its formation. These procedures can be started in the second year after landing. The correct formation can make the tree sprawling with a short bob, or single-barreled with a crown having the shape of a ball. Sometimes a shrub is formed from a tree, in which several main trunks grow.
If you decide to start a Manchurian nut on your plot, then growing this tree is not so difficult, you just need to adhere to the above instructions.
Manchurian can be propagated by seed, but the problem is that the new plant does not always preserve the primary characteristics of the parent. For this type of reproduction, nuts of 1-2 years old are used.
Seeds are sown in autumn or spring. In order to do without stratification, it is best to resort to the subwinter planting of fruits. In this case, seeds germinate faster than when they are planted in spring.
The site should be fertile and well drained. Be sure to need a regular, careful watering and formed bed.
The future does not take root on acid soils, therefore you should add 2-3 cups of wood ash per 1 sq. M, and a depth of 10-15 cm. The holes are placed at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other and 6-8 cm in depth. Pre-nuts are wiped with kerosene to protect against rodents and placed on the edge in the hole. Then the hole is filled with earth, mulched on top of any material that will help keep moisture.
Sprouting seeds can be immediately moved to a permanent "place of residence". In this case, the main thing is to pinch the central taproot. But you can also transplant to a permanent place after a year, after shortening the main root in the center. This is done so that the tree grows faster.
The best time for a permanent landing is April or September. The soil should be sufficiently moist and fertile. The bed should be dug, loosen and add wood ash.
It should be remembered that the plant, when it grows, takes quite a lot of space and when choosing a planting place it is necessary to maintain the necessary distance to other plants.
The plant is best planted on the north side. Manchurian walnut planting has several features:
- When marking the holes, it is necessary to maintain a distance of about 10 centimeters,
- Manchurian seedlings are planted in a hole of 80 centimeters and with drainage (stone, rubble, broken brick). A mixture of soil, humus, sand and sod is laid on the drainage. A sapling is inserted into the hole itself and fixed with a peg, sprinkled with earth on 4/5 of its height. After this is carried out abundant watering. The soil is pressed around, and a large amount of sawdust or peat is laid on top. This is done in order to protect seedlings from cold and strong frost.
- When planted with seeds, the nut is placed on the rib in the hole and covered with earth, covered with straw or sawdust.
When transplanting the nut requires regular and abundant watering. In dry weather, it can be sprayed with a hose.
To seedlings grow well, they cut the roots.
Manchurian nut, both in planting and in care, has several features:
The plant must be watered often, because it loves wet soil. With a normal amount of precipitation, the procedure is carried out about 5 times per season. When watering seedlings that are 2-3 years old - seven or eight times per season. If the year is dry, then use about 20 liters.
Weeds are regularly removed and the soil is loosened, this helps to avoid stagnant water. The land is mulched to protect against rapid weed overgrowing.
After the growing season watering is carried out less frequently. Thus the nut is prepared for wintering. It is resistant to sub-zero temperatures, and if it is cold, it quickly leaves and begins to bear fruit.
If it happens that the tree is damaged by fire, the trunk is cut off and the stump is left. Handle circles with the trunk, loosen, mulch. After this, new processes appear at the base of the stump.
In order to hide the leaves from the aggressive influence of the sun's rays, a pine, spruce and spruce are planted nearby. And to save the trunk from the south place irgu or viburnum.
A seedling for up to three years is covered with peat or burlap, and at the end of the summer they are fed with either ash or superphosphate.
Manchurian walnut basically does not require special assistance in the formation, he copes with this on their own. The best time for pruning is the moment when the buds have already blossomed. After that, this procedure is no longer carried out until the second half of August, in order not to provoke the appearance of new buds, which will simply freeze out in winter.
Diseases and pests
Above it was mentioned that the plant produces active biological substances that help to protect themselves from attacks of pests. But it also happens that the tree is still sick. In the case of blackened leaflets, it should be treated with Fundazole or any copper-containing agent. Most likely, this is a fungal disease that has damaged some walnut segments. The treatment procedure is carried out 2 times with a break of 2 weeks.
Manchurian nut can suffer from gall mites and walnut cracks. The first of the pests, the tick, waits the cold season of the year in the kidneys themselves, and lays eggs in them. Females fall into the leaves and they are visible tubercles. In this case, the diseased tree should be treated with colloidal sulfur (100 grams per 10 liters of water) during bud break. In mid-summer, you can spray Fufanon (0.1%) every 10-12 days. Abamectin is considered a good remedy, for ticks from neurotoxic. Branches that are badly damaged are cut and destroyed by burning.
Walnut should not be treated with drugs that contain pesticides, it can poison the tree and make it poisonous.
The second major pest for this tree is a nut tree. It has wings and inflicts damage to the bark of the shoots, leaves, flowers, creates galls in them. The most benign method of dealing with it is simply the destruction of the affected branches. When adult insects appear, the tree is sprayed with a solution of Chlorophos or Karbofos (90g per 10 liters of water).
Under the green shell is a hard shell and a nut is placed in it. Its appearance resembles a walnut.
Nuts begin to ripen in autumn, namely in September. The shell that covers the shell begins to turn brown. This indicates a willingness to harvest.
A bountiful harvest of the tree brings every two years, and actively bear fruit to reach the age of 8.
One plant gives about 80 kilograms of nuts per season.
Walnut juice contains magnesium and potassium and is very pleasant in taste. Although he does not have a healing effect, he is remarkably invigorating and refreshing.
Fans of homeopathy and traditional medicine successfully use the leaves and the green shell, as well as the undeveloped fruit to improve the general condition, as an antimicrobial and antibacterial agent.
Tincture has a good diuretic effect, promotes dilation of blood vessels, has antihelminthic effect. Actively helps eliminate cramps, slight pain and stop bleeding.
In China, they claim that an extract from this sort of walnut helps to destroy cancer cells.
Fresh leaves accelerate wound healing. To do this, the sheets are kneaded to obtain juice and applied to the damaged area of skin and pinned.
It is possible to make jam from milk nuts, for this purpose they start harvesting in July.
Thus, this type of walnut does not require a lot of time and effort, but is able to benefit and decorate the garden plot.
Characteristics and description of the Manchu nut
Manchurian walnut belongs to the genus walnut and is a shrub or deciduous tree type. Culture is considered monoecious, in other words, male and female inflorescences grow on the same tree. The second name of the plant is dumbay nut.
The native land of culture is considered to be the northeast of China, and, more precisely, the area called Manchuria. It also grows in nature in the Korean Peninsula and the Far East, in particular, in the Amur region, Primorye, on Sakhalin.
Externally, Manchurian walnut is quite remarkable. The crown of the tree is different spreading and something like a ball. The color of the bark is closer to dark gray, but the tint of the shoots is more brown. Under natural conditions, the height of adult culture can reach 30 m, and life expectancy is long - up to 200-250 years. In this case, the active growth of the tree lasts only up to 80-90 years, after which the process slows down.
The leaves of the Manchurian walnut are characterized by a rather large size, in contrast to the closest relative - walnut. It is interesting that one leaf consists of 8-20 oblong and smaller leaves with jagged edges. On average, the total length is about 50 cm, but there are specimens with sizes reaching 100 cm. In the summer, the foliage has a rich emerald color, and by the autumn it acquires a golden hue.
At 10-12 years old, the plant begins to bear fruit. At the same time flowering occurs in April-May, but the harvest of fruits can be collected only at the end of summer - beginning of autumn. As for the appearance, the shape of the nuts resembles an oval, and the size is about 3-5 cm in diameter. Grow clusters of 2-7 fruits on a branch. It should be noted that the Manchurian nut shell is durable, and the thickness reaches 5 mm.
Young Manchurian Nut Tree
The benefits and harm to the body in Siberia
Manchurian nut can be called to some extent a unique culture. The leaves, bark, and, of course, the fruits of the plant have amazing healing properties. Naturally, such opportunities are determined by the richness of the chemical composition, the main components of which are considered:
- vitamins of groups A, C, B,
In addition, the walnut pericarp includes malic, gallic, citric acids, coumarins and vitamins of group P. And the oil obtained from the Manchurian nut combines linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids.
As for the beneficial properties, they distinguish the following plant abilities:
- antiseptic, wound healing properties,
- anti-inflammatory effect
- analgesic effect
- vasodilator effect,
- diuretic effect
- an obstacle to the development of parasites in the body,
- air purification
- antifungal properties
- improvement of the gastrointestinal tract,
- antispasmodic effect.
The healing effect of the Manchurian nut has long been known and proven - the body's tone increases, the digestive tract is optimized, the appearance of the skin and hair is improved. But there are some contraindications to the use of funds based on it. The first is to highlight the pregnancy and lactation. And it is also strictly forbidden to take inside the funds on the basis of the plant for people suffering from liver cirrhosis, ulcers and gastritis.
Medicinal properties and application of the fruit of the tree
The scope of the Manchurian nut is very wide. Of course, the most famous is the use in medicine tinctures and decoctions of plants. Here you can highlight the following areas:
- for the fastest tightening of wounds and other damage on the skin,
- stopping bleeding,
- for skin diseases: eczema, lichen, rash,
- blood pressure disorders
- heart disease,
- the presence of parasites in the body,
- colds and infections
- gastritis, diarrhea, constipation,
- varicose veins,
- disruption of the thyroid gland,
- dandruff, brittleness, hair loss.
The most famous among fans of traditional medicine are tinctures based on Manchurian walnut. Именно они оказывают общеукрепляющее воздействие на организм и нормализуют работу всех его систем.
Рецепты настоек из маньчжурского ореха:
- На водке. Растереть 30-40 плодов ореха и залить 1 л водки. Добавить мед по вкусу. Настоять в темном месте 5 недель. Принимать средство следует за 30 минут до приема еды, но не менее 1 ст. л. в сутки.
- На воде. Измельчить 1 ст. л. leaves of the plant and pour 200 ml of boiling water. Insist 30 minutes, strain. Take orally 3 times a day.
Directly kernel nuts fashionable to eat. Also from the fruit is the oil used in culinary recipes. And from small unripened nuts they cook tasty jam.
Very interesting is the fact that the wood of culture has high strength and extremely attractive texture. Due to this, Dumbay walnut is widely used in furniture production, as well as used to create various souvenirs. Paint and wood semifinished products are successfully made from walnut pericarp.
Manchurian nut in hand. Sizes of fruits
Rules of planting and growing in the Urals
Since the Manchurian nut is distinguished by unpretentiousness, it is realistic to plant and grow in almost any conditions. In addition, designers often use it in landscape design. This can be done by planting seedlings or seeds.
Each growing method requires paying attention to 2 important points.
- The choice of location. Culture belongs to the light-loving plants, so the habitat must be open and sunny. And since the root system of the Manchurian nut grows deeply and widely, you should choose a site far from buildings and other garden crops.
- The composition of the soil. The soil should be fertile, well drained.
With regard to the process of planting, here each method involves its own nuances.
- Seedlings should be purchased in advance at a specialty store.
- If the soil is rather poor, a mixture of soil, humus, sod and sand should be prepared in a ratio of 4: 2: 2: 1. At the bottom of the hole lay out the drainage in the form of brick fragments or gravel, crushed stone.
- A part of the soil mixture fits into a well prepared in advance, not less than 80 cm in size. Potassium fertilizer is introduced or 1 cup of wood ash. The seedling is placed in the hole and immediately tied to the peg, and then powdered with planting mixture. After that a bucket of water is poured into the hole and the remaining soil is poured. Further, the sapling again spills 0.5-1 liters of water.
Planting seeds is somewhat different from the cultivation of seedlings and suggests its own characteristics. It is worthwhile to clarify here that it is preferable to land at winter, in other words, in September. In this case, preliminary stratification of seeds will not be required, and seedlings will appear much earlier.
There are the following stages of planting seeds:
- For planting should choose nuts collected no more than 3 years ago, since the third year, germination is significantly reduced.
- The soil for sowing should be fertile, drained. The site should be pre-dig and make 2-3 cups of wood ash. Then you need to form a bed and carefully shed it.
- Seed wells are prepared at least 8 cm apart. The depth of the pits should be 6-8 cm.
- Nuts are laid in the hole on the edge and sprinkled with earth.
- Shoots nuts can immediately move to a permanent place, but you should first pinch the taproot. It is not forbidden to leave the seedlings in place for another year, and then transplanted to the prepared area.
Rules of care in the suburbs
Immediately after planting a sapling or a walnut fruit, the soil will need to be mulched with sawdust, peat, and healthy foliage. Of course, the bed should be carefully watered beforehand and subsequently also maintain humidity.
If the planting was done in the fall, before the cold, young seedlings will need to wrap with non-woven material and cover with a protective net from rodents.
Further care of the young plant includes the following points:
- Weekly watering plants. After 2-3 years, the frequency of irrigation should be reduced to 2 times a month. Since the third year, the walnut is watered 1 time in 30 days.
- Regular weeding, loosening and mulching the soil around the seedling to maintain moisture.
- In the second half of summer, the culture must be fertilized with fertilizer. Here, the best option would be superphosphate. It will be necessary to dilute 20 g of the substance in 10 liters of water and water the soil around the plant with it.
- In order to avoid sunburn, plant stem should be whitened regularly with a solution of lime and clay.
The Manchurian nut is a deciduous tree, capable of reaching a height of up to 30 meters. It has a powerful even trunk and sprawling rounded crown. The leaves are light green, dentate, sharp at the tip, up to 20 cm in length and 5 cm in width.
Flowering in walnut begins in May, in the form of small flowers located in earrings. In one inflorescence can form up to 10 flowers. Both male and female flowers can be formed on one bush, because of which the plant is monoecious.
In September, fruit ripening begins. They are similar to walnuts, have an oval shape, a dense green shell. Nut kernel can be eaten. Fruiting in the wild, begins at 5 years of life, at home for 10-15 years.
Home nut is the Far East. He easily gets used to the harsh climatic conditions, can withstand 40 degrees of frost. It easily carries strong winds and hurricanes, due to its powerful roots.
Manchurian nut is propagated mainly by seeds that are able to germinate for 3 years. Before planting, seeds should be prepared by several methods:
- Pre-place them in a container of water at room temperature for 2 weeks, changing the water daily.
- Place the seeds in warm water, then it daily, reducing the temperature for a month.
- From the fall they are placed in water, then they are placed in snow until spring comes.
- Seeds are poured with boiling water, then they are planted in wet sand, in room conditions. Within a month they germinate.
- In winter, they can be stored in the refrigerator, before planting, for a month, soak in water, constantly changing it.
After winter storage, the seeds are placed in warm water, after a week, they should be planted in wet sand. Within 2 weeks they should germinate. When the roots reach a length of 1-2 cm, they are determined in a cool place.
The best time to plant is spring. Fallen seeds from trees should be covered, and in the spring to moisten abundantly. Seedlings should be planted still small, at the age of 1 year. Since large seedlings are very difficult to tolerate the transplant, because of the established root system.
When to harvest
For the first time, the fruit on a nut can appear 4-5 years after planting, providing it with proper care. Tree fructifies every 2-3 years. In home growing, the plant bears fruit every year.
Fruits are nuts, reaching in sizes up to 6 cm. Have a solid hard shell. Fruit ripening begins in early autumn, after which they immediately fall to the ground. A signal of ripening of the fruit will be a brown shell.
When growing a Manchurian nut in his garden, with timely care, the tree will delight the owner not only with a decorative look, but also with a rich harvest.
How to grow a Manchurian tree, see the tips in the following video:
Manchu Nut Spread
The natural habitat of the Manchu nut is found in the Far East, North China, and the Korean Peninsula. It grows predominantly in mixed oak-maple forests, preferring proximity to larch, pine, cedar and other coniferous species.
The Manchurian nut grows in the cultivated form and forms harvests on the Solovetsky Islands, in the Leningrad, Vologda, Moscow and other regions of Russia.
Biological description of the Manchurian nut
The Manchurian nut looks like a walnut, but there are also distinctive features. The lamina is also complex, unpaired, but larger than that of a walnut, reaches a length of 1 m, contains 7-19 smaller leaves (10-20 cm long), serrated along the edge, with a pointed tip.
Nuts are located on the branches of 2-7 pieces, smaller than walnut, with a very dense shell, oval-pointed to one of the ends. The young bark is light gray, smooth, darkens with age and becomes black in places. When planting seedlings, forms the first crop in the 4th year, and seeds - at 7-8. The first 20-30 years is growing very fast. The annual increase, especially in the early years, is up to 2 meters.
Manchurian walnut fruit. © Qwert1234 Male flowers (catkins) Manchu walnut. © Qwert1234 Female flowers of Manchu walnut. © Qwert1234
Manchurian walnut monoecious plant, forms separately male and female flowers. Male in the form of long black earrings bloom simultaneously with the blooming of buds. Female, represented by few-flowered small tassels. Pollinated by the wind. Flowering occurs in April-May. Manchurian walnut crop forms in 1-2 years. With yellowing leaves, fruits are suitable for harvesting (2-3 decade of September).
Positive qualities of the Manchu nut
- Kernels containing more than 50% fat are used fresh.
- From green nuts (at the beginning of June) of milky ripeness (2-3 cm in size) they prepare very tasty, therapeutic jam.
- A decoction of leaves harvested during flowering, is used in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gingival looseness, exudative diathesis.
- Fresh leaves are applied to wounds to prevent rotting. Used for the treatment of furunculosis.
- To cure the fungus on the feet (and even the nail), the leaf is brewed like tea. After cooling, the feet are kept in the solution for 20-30 minutes. The procedure is performed within 7-10 days.
- Decoction of leaves improves the quality of hair (accelerates growth, returns shine, eliminates dandruff).
- Well cleans the air from dust. The plant contains the bactericidal substance yuglon (the smell of iodine), which disinfects the air from pathogens.
Use in the decoration of the site
Manchurian walnut - reaches a height of 10-25 m, is known for the harmony of the formed trunk and a wide spreading crown. In the northern regions it can grow as a shrub and in this form also produce fruit. Manchurian walnut belongs to the fast-growing ornamental cultures.
Thanks to its decorative leaf foliage, the nut fits perfectly into any landscape. Effective in gardening suburban area, both around the perimeter and in a single confined space. Foliage of nuts produces phytoncides that disperse mosquitoes, therefore Hazel is a wonderful helper in the design of a resting corner. Particularly distinguished by their aesthetics are joint plantings with hvoyniki, trimmed areas of lawns with green curtains.
Nut seedlings are difficult to tolerate transplants. Therefore, deciding to propagate the culture in a vegetative way - planting seedlings, you need to immediately find the right place. Nuts are crops that love to grow with their heads open. The place, therefore, must be sunny, not shaded by tall trees. Walnut grows well in low places, but the soil must be fertile. Given the deeply penetrating root system with a large branched root, seedlings should be planted away from buildings. If several trees are planted in a row, then the holes for the seedlings are planned in 10-12 m.
Planting seedlings can be carried out in September or April. We prepare a planting pit with a depth of at least 80-100 cm and in volume equal to the root system of the seedling. At the bottom of the pit lay drainage, under which you can use broken bricks, gravel and other material. We pour a layer of soil covering the drainage and part of the planting pit.
If the soil is nutrient depleted or thick clay, then prepare the planting mixture. The top soil of the landing pit is mixed with humus, sod and sand in the relevant parts of 4: 2: 2: 1. Add 20-40 g / pit of superphosphate and potash fertilizer. Instead of potash fertilizers, you can make a glass of wood ash. Stir the mixture well.
Sapling (1-2 year old) inspect, shorten the central root. Set in the center of the hole and immediately tied to a peg. We partially fill up the soil mixture, pour a bucket of water neatly and, after soaking, add the rest of the soil, crush it around the trunk. Add another 0.5-1.0 bucket of water. We mulch the soil around the trunk with peat, sawdust (not coniferous), mature compost, healthy foliage.
For the winter we warm the seedlings, since at a young age the tips of the branches can frost up. For insulation we wrap shtamb and lower branches with burlap or nonwoven fabric and protect them from rodents with a net. Mesh dropping into the ground and trampled around. In winter, after snowfalls, we repeat the procedure so that mouse-like rodents do not make moves in fresh snow.
Manchurian seedling. © Chika Oka
Manchurian Nut Care
When transplanting a seedling or a seedling on a permanent basis, try to keep the original position of the young plant relative to parts of the world, which will allow it to settle down faster. Walnut is a moisture-loving plant and therefore in the first year the soil must be kept constantly moist.
Watering is carried out 2-3 times a month, not flooding the soil. For 2-3 years, we reduce the frequency of irrigation to 5-7 times, and in subsequent years we water the summer season once a month. After watering, the soil must be loosened, at the same time destroying weeds, and mulched. In the 4th year, the tree blooms and can give the first harvest.
During this entire period, the care of young trees includes fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which are applied once during the growing season better during the period of fruit formation (June). You can feed only superphosphate, but be sure to add a glass of wood ash, which contains a large set of macro-and micronutrients necessary for normal culture development.
Trees need annual digging at the edge of the crown. Mature trees endure a brief drought and temporary flooding of the root system. To protect young trees from sunburn, do not forget the trunk and skeletal branches regularly to glue lime mortar with the addition of clay and adhesive. When complying with agrotechnics, trees are practically not affected by diseases and pests.
Manchurian walnut tree. © T. Abe Lloyd
Timely and high-quality pruning of the crown are the most important work with a walnut tree. In principle, a Manchurian nut does not need artificial crown formation. He forms himself. In this case, only sanitary pruning is carried out in the early spring or during winter dormancy, cutting out dried, curves that grow inside the branch. But when grown on a small plot, the owner must intervene. This is primarily due to the size of the free area on the site, other crops growing near the walnut tree.
If necessary, the formation of the crown begins with the second year of the nut life, and it can be carried out at any time of the year. Manchurian nut can be formed:
- like a branchy tree with a short stem,
- like a single tree with a spherical crown shape,
- like a bush with a few main trunks.
In order to form a spreading tree in a young sapling, one of the most developed central shoots is left, which is shaped like a trunk, up to 50-80 cm high. In the future, the stem will remove all the buds. Then place the main skeletal branches in a circle of the trunk at the same distance from each other.
Each skeletal branch should have a large angle of departure from the trunk. A sprawling tree will turn out, with strong skeletal branches, a central conductor and a large shady area. The upper skeletal branch on the center conductor is cut to the lateral bud. Crohn limits its growth upwards, and leaving the skeletal branch to the side allows the sun to penetrate inside the crown.
If the area of the site is small and does not allow the formation of a sprawling tree, due to the shading of the nearby other plant species, then a single palm trunk can be given to the tree. To do this, allocate one trunk, which form a height of not less than 1.5-2.0 m, removing all lateral buds on it. Above are the skeletal branches, which freely form an openwork crown, not shading a number of growing plants.
It can also be cut in the shape of a ball in several steps. The tree resembles a palm tree with a “tassel” of branches at the top. The shape of the ball is obtained by shortening the lower branches by 2/3 of the length. To the center of the future ball, the length of trimming is gradually reduced to 1/3, and then decreasing in length - to the top of the crown. The second option is more economical, since it will not shade other plants.
Bush form is more suitable for planting around the perimeter of the site. A bush is formed with several trunks, the skeletal branches of which begin 40-50 cm from the ground. This is especially useful if for some reason the crown will die. From the root of the young shoots will go, and the plant can be reformed, giving the new plant the desired shape of the crown.
Characteristics of the Manchurian walnut
According to the description, it is a deciduous tree or, in some cases, a shrub. On the same tree grow both female and male inflorescences. East China, namely Manchuria, is considered the birthplace of this culture.
Hazel tolerates low temperatures, even to -50 ° C. Благодаря морозоустойчивости культуру можно выращивать в любой климатической зоне, даже в Сибири и на Урале.
Продолжительность жизни этого дерева достигает 250 лет. Дерево растет и развивается только до семидесяти лет. С виду культура довольно-таки примечательна: крона напоминает большой шар и выделяется среди других деревьев раскидистостью. Высота дерева в обычной среде составляет 25−30 метров.
Manchurian walnut is also distinguished by large leaves, which is not the case for walnuts. A feature of this culture is that one large leaf consists of 10−20 small sharp leaflets. In nature, you can find trees on which the leaves reach 100 cm in size, but on average one is 40–45 cm long. In the summer season, the leaves acquire a deep emerald color, and with the onset of cold weather they change to warm orange.
10 years after planting, the culture begins to bear fruit. Harvest can be collected at the end of summer, but at the same time flowering begins only in April. The fruits themselves grow in clusters of 3−8 per branch. The shape of the fruit is similar to the oval, and the size reaches 5 cm in diameter. In contrast to walnut, the Manchurian shell is very strong, its thickness is 4-6 mm.
The fruits have unique antimicrobial properties. And also the nut has many other useful qualities:
- A decoction of the leaves has a positive effect on the hair (removes dandruff, accelerates growth, gives the hair a beautiful and natural shine).
- It is possible to make not only tasty, but also very healthy jam from unripe nuts.
- The fruits of the Manchurian nut can be included in a balanced diet, as they contain more than 45% of healthy fats.
- To get rid of the fungus on the feet or nails, walnut leaves need to brew and immerse the legs in the decoction for 30 minutes.
- Fresh and clean sheets can be applied to wounds to prevent rotting.
- The plant contains a bactericidal substance that cleans the atmosphere from dust, gas and harmful fumes.
- Broth from the foliage is used to cleanse the blood and treat tuberculosis.
Each part of the tree, from the leaves to the bark, contains many useful components, such as:
A unique culture is the Manchurian nut.
Nuts generally love to grow with an open crown, in a place that is not shaded by large trees, sunny and with fertile soil. Culture root system penetrates deep into the ground and has a wide branching root. Based on this, trees do not need to be planted close to buildings. And if you decide to plant several trees nearby, then the distance between them should be less than 10 meters.
The landing pit should be 90–100 cm deep and wide enough for the root system of the tree. The bottom of the pit should be laid drainage, it may be brick dust or rubble. To fill the pit is better to make a landing mixture. To do this, take a little soil and mix with humus, sand and turf in a ratio of 4: 2: 2: 1. You can also add potash fertilizer. The resulting mixture should be mixed well, and then it will be ready for use.
To properly plant a seedling, you need to perform a few simple steps:
- Carefully inspect the seedling, and make the central root shorter.
- Set the tree in the planting hole and immediately tied to a peg.
- Fill the seed mixture in small pieces and pour a bucket of water.
- After the water is absorbed, pour out the rest of the soil, gently press it and add another half a bucket of water.
- Sprinkle the soil around the tree with foliage, sawdust or peat.
To seedlings successfully survived the winter, they need to be warmed. To do this, wrap the trunk and lower branches of the sacking and attach the grid so that rodents do not get to the tree.
Although walnut and unpretentious in the care, he loves moisture. If in the environment where the nut grows, precipitation is normal, watering is produced 10 times per season in young trees, and in old ones - 5-6 times. After watering, be sure to carefully loosen the mail and clean up all the weeds, as the plant does not like stagnant moisture. If it was time to dry out, then you need to fill the tree with 20 liters of water every week. If the amount of precipitation exceeds the norm, then irrigation should be stopped until the soil is completely dry.
Culture is resistant to various diseases and pests, and in some cases it can even protect itself due to its antimicrobial properties. But exceptions happen. Most often, the culture is disturbed by such diseases and pests as the gall mite, fungus or nut-cracker.
If the leaves on the tree begin to turn black and dry, then these are obvious signs of a fungal disease. In this case, the tree should be treated with a tool that contains copper. This may be Fundazol. The procedure should be repeated every 2 weeks.
When females of the gall mite lay their eggs, small bumps appear on the leaves of the nut. At the time of development of the buds, the tree needs to be treated with colloidal sulfur. If the branches are badly damaged by a tick, they need to be cut and burned. It is not recommended to treat wood with preparations that contain pesticides, since these harmful substances can be present even in fruits.
Nutcracker is an insect that destroys the bark, leaves and inflorescences of a plant. The best way to get rid of the pest will be pruning the affected areas of the tree. If adults grew from eggs, then the nut should be treated with chlorophos.
Growing a Manchurian nut at home is not as difficult as it may seem at first glance. In addition, this culture is very useful for human health and the environment. From the fruit, you can create medicines, cosmetics, as well as their use in food. And most importantly - this plant can be a wonderful decoration for your site.
Choosing a place to plant a nut
- For landing, you need to find a spacious place.. It will take several years, and the sapling will turn into a big tree. With its crown, the nut will inhibit the growth of any plants within a radius of up to 10 m. Powerful roots can damage the foundation of a small building if it is within their reach.
- Open to sunlight. This is important at the beginning of the growth of the tree, the first 2-3 years.
- Lowland, downwind, gassed city boulevard - manchurian nut is picky. The exception is wetland or hill top in the north. The most suitable place is a neighborhood with a pond that does not freeze in winter.
- To grow walnut is needed fertile and deep landhaving a neutral or alkaline reaction. For liming, if the reaction is acidic, suitable humus mixed with sand and turf ground in equal proportions.
How to plant a Manchurian nut in the suburbs
Landing is done in spring, in April, when the earth warmed, or in autumn, in September.
It is necessary to purchase a sapling in the nursery. One should choose one-year-old, even, up to 1 m high. Roots should be packed with a clod of earth.
A pit is prepared for the seedling: the depth is about a meter, and the width is twice as large as the earthen clod of the seedling. The bottom is laid out twenty-centimeter layer of pebbles, it will be drainage. For this purpose, you can use broken brick, fragments of ceramic tiles, which is suitable at hand.
Drainage sprinkle fertile soil with a ball of 10 cm. You can use organic additives in the form of ripe compost, humus. They also feed in the first years of tree growth, this is 40 g of phosphate fertilizers, the same amount of potash fertilizers. Be sure to mix ash or lime if the soil is acidic.
Before the landing, you should examine the tip of the central root, it should be shortened, if it was not done in the nursery. By shortening the tip, you will create an incentive for active growth of the nut.
It is necessary to place the seedling in the center of the pit; the root neck should be flush with the ground surface. In advance hammer in the support peg, to which the tree is tied.
Half of the pit is filled with prepared and fertilized soil, then poured a bucket of water. Fill the remaining space with earth and slightly compacted by hand.
Mulch pristvolny circle, you can use peat, foliage or sawdust, but not with coniferous trees. It remains to once again moisten the earth.
In the first year and later, even a beginner, inexperienced gardener will be able to care for this tree.
- The first two winters recommend walnut insulation. Burlap is well suited for this. It should wrap the trunk and lower branches of the seedling, but do not overdo it, do not wrap the branches too tightly.
- It is necessary to mulch the area, quite a thick layer of about 10 cm. Recommend rodents to wrap the trunk with a metal grid and put poison next. With the arrival of spring, everything is cleaned, including mulch.
- In the first year of life, the nut must be systematically watered.. Every 15 days, subject to the absence of precipitation, pour a bucket of water under the seedling. The second and third year of growth is watered once a month. From the fourth year, additional watering is done only in the summer months, if summer is dry. An adult nut can not be watered at all or watered if it has not been raining for more than a month and the earth has dried up.
- To prevent the formation of crusts after watering should loosen the pristvolny plot of soil. This will increase the oxygen supply to the roots and reduce the number of weeds.
- To facilitate the care of the nut pristvolny circle mulch bark or shavings of deciduous trees. This preserves the loose surface of the earth, prevents the appearance of weeds and increases the nutrition of the roots through the soil.
- Feeding is carried out in the summer, before the formation of the fruit. Before irrigation, phosphate and potash fertilizers are diluted in water.
- Recommend one once a year dig around the whole area under the tree, to the edge of the crown. If you decide to arrange a recreation area under a tree, try not to trample the entire area, the access of oxygen to the roots is very important in the life of the nut.
- From April to June is held sanitary haircut - This is a mandatory tree care procedure. To eliminate unnecessary load and better development, every dry, cracked and twisted branches, as well as those that grow in the middle of the crown, are removed.
- There is no need to carry out formative pruning of the crown, but there is a need create crownsuitable for harvesting or to reduce the space occupied.
Such pruning begin to hold from the age of two walnut. Each spring, after the average air temperature rises to 10 ° C and the appearance of buds, a crown is formed depending on the need:
Low Spreading Tree
Such pruning has several positive sides: convenient harvesting, easier to care for the tree, a good place to rest under the canopy, an interesting place for children to spend time with.
To form such a crown, the crown of the trunk is trimmed to the second lateral bud, and from the bottom all buds are removed up to one meter in height. This makes it possible to grow the necessary side branches and direct the growth of the leading escape to the side. Such a tree practically ceases to grow upwards, throws the crown to the sides, the lower branches can reach the ground.
High shtamb compact tree
Pruned in a similar way in the case when there is little space, I want to grow a nut and do not want to harm the surrounding plants.
Clear the buds and branches of the trunk to a height of one and a half meters, and the tip pinch off. Subsequently, the crown is strongly branched, and the form can later be formed at will.
This is the natural and only form of a nut in the north. This form is used for growing on the site when there is not enough space for planting a tree. And yet, by cutting a nut in this way, gardeners can save a lost tree.
The tip just cut down on a stump or pinch off, it stimulates the emergence of root shoots. Choose from them several, six or seven, straight, strong shoots for the skeleton of a bush. Further care is limited to thinning and keeping fit.
Independent cultivation of a sapling from a nut
Planting a nut is a fairly simple and quick process when compared to other fruit trees.
There are several methods for the independent cultivation of a Manchurian seedling:
- The easiest, natural way: to plant yourself in the ground in the fall.
- Nuts are stored in the refrigerator throughout the winter. Before disembarking, they are placed in warm water for 10 days, daily changing water.
- Fill with hot water and leave for a day. We plant in sandy soil, we expect shoots in 1 month.
Before planting, the soil is prepared in advance using ash or lime, and well watered. Planted to a depth of 8 cm, with a distance between the nuts more than 10 cm. To protect the nuts from rodents, seeds are dipped in kerosene and spread in the hole to the side. Seed should be filled using soil, sawdust or sand. It is recommended to mulch the landing site.
In the spring, those nuts that have been in the ground since autumn will be the first to grow; they have undergone a natural stratification in the ground.
It is considered the most correct to transplant a sprouted nut immediately after its appearance on the surface. Replanting to a permanent place, it is necessary to clearly consider the direction of light of its growth, noting, for example, where the first leaf is looking. This will help the seedling to adapt more easily on site.
When digging up a sapling for transplanting, it is worth remembering: the root is much longer than the stem, it should be shortened quite a bit, this is enough to stimulate the growth of the tree itself.
For a seedling, it is better if the pit prepared for planting is dug into a meter deep. The drainage layer created by the gardener will serve the tree throughout its life.