The Colorado potato beetle is traditionally considered the main enemy of potato plantations. But if the damage from this pest of potatoes and its larvae on the leaves is visible to the naked eye, then the losses from the stay of the wireworm are detected only after digging the crop.
The danger of the wireworm as a pest of potatoes
If the site is infected with hard, up to 3 cm long larvae of the click beetle, about 60% of the tubers are riddled with complex passages of the potato pest. While the damaged potato is in the soil, the flesh around the hole is colonized by putrefactive bacteria, nematodes, and fungi. The wireworm does not shun juicy roots, as a result, even whole potatoes do not receive food, and the harvest is sharply reduced.
The area of click beetles is extremely extensive, therefore yellow larvae with surprisingly dense shells are found everywhere and readily feed not only on potatoes, but also on the juicy roots of such cultures as, for example, wheat grass and bluegrass.
Due to the abundance of succulent feed, potato plantations are extremely attractive to the larvae. In this case, the pest is active in the beds throughout the growing season, starting from the germination of tubers and ending with the drying of the bushes. But no matter how hard the gardener tried, it is unlikely that he would completely get rid of the wireworm on the potato field.
Ways to get rid of the wireworm on the potato field
You can only significantly reduce the number of these dangerous insects and with the help of special measures to protect plants from attack by pests. Moreover, the fight against the larvae of the click beetle can be carried out in several directions. This includes:
- tillage and incorporation into it of substances that ensure the death of potato pests and prevent their reproduction,
- the device of various traps and baits for wireworm and adult beetles,
- potato processing before planting with solutions of active substances,
- mechanical digging, loosening the soil on the site and other agricultural practices.
"Prestige": processing of potatoes before planting
The measures aimed at protecting planted tubers from wireworm attack include the treatment of planting material with such active substances as Prestige. As a result of seed dressing, after planting, it loses its attractiveness both for the wireworm and for other pests, including the Colorado potato beetle, the polar bear and the hruscha.
The effect of the drug "Prestige" in the processing of potatoes, according to the instructions, lasts up to 60 days. Already with the appearance of the first leaves above the garden bed, you can see how the Colorado beetles react to the chemical. Adults die quickly, but how do you find out if the wire has died?
Here only the digging up of the bushes and the observation of the plantings as they grow and bloom will help. It was found that the number of affected plants during the "Prestige" is sharply reduced, and the young tubers which have started, are healthy. But when the 60-day period expires, the pests of the potato again rush to planting.
- Since the tubers for winter storage are dug much later than two months later, gardeners cannot do without additional measures to protect the crop.
- But the early varieties of potatoes, ripening faster than 60 days, it is better not to pickle “Prestige”.
How, in this case, get rid of the wireworm on the potato field? What kind of plant protection can you use to get rid of the wireworm.
Methods for getting rid of wireworm in potatoes
In most cases, the most simple agrotechnical methods become a serious help:
- plowing the site in early spring, when the larvae and adult beetles are still inactive, the birds easily become prey or perish in the sun,
- careful removal of weeds and their roots, becoming the habitat of the wireworm and the food of this pest of potatoes,
- summer loosening of the soil under the bushes of potatoes allows you to extract the laying of the click-beetle eggs on the destructive sun for insects,
- Autumn digging of the area shortly before the onset of stable frosts helps to extract insects into the air, where the wireworm dies from the cold.
During spring work on the site, fertilizers containing nitrogen and ammonia are introduced into the soil, which are extremely unpleasant for the wireworm. In addition, the pest uncomfortable on soils with low acidity. Experienced gardeners are advised to add several granules of superphosphate to the wells during planting.
Another effective technique that helps get rid of the wireworm in potatoes is the introduction of tubers when planting a special soil containing predatory nematodes. For these microscopic worms, potato pests become a tasty prey, and for plants and humans such organisms are completely safe.
What the wire looks like and how dangerous it is
It is usually possible to detect wireworms only after the plant is practically no longer salvaged.
Small adult beetle beetles reach lengths of up to 20 mm. These are fusiform and oblong insects with a rich violet, brown or dark brown coloration of the body. Beetles fly from spring to early August. Leaflets of cereal plants are the main diet for these insects, so they do not cause any special damage. In one season, the female can lay up to 200 eggs. It is from them that the sworn enemy of potato fields and vegetable gardens, the wireworm larva, appears later.
As a result, in addition to the “freeloaders” - pests with which almost any vegetable garden is already filled, another and rather big problem appears - these are wire worms (the so-called clicker larvae). They are the true long-livers of the world of insects and can safely live in the soil under suitable climatic conditions and the availability of food for up to 5 years. It is rather difficult to find them, because the wireworms hide from any threat in deep and winding passages.
In the first year of life, the larvae of click beetles are practically not dangerous, since they are still fairly small and cannot cause special harm to plants. Individuals that have reached the age of 2–4 years are the greatest threat. Their length reaches 30 mm, and they become similar to worms with distinct segmentation on little bodies. From light yellow, their color changes to brown, and the body becomes hard (it is easier to break the wireworm in half than to crush).
The guard is omnivorous, and it doesn't matter what he spoils during the meal. He eats literally everything, and this number includes:
For this pest, it does not matter at what stage of development the plant resides on which it “laid eyes” - be it a tuber or a seed planted. Wire worms damage stems, young shoots, roots and other vegetation available to them. Crop losses from wireworm invasions can be up to 80 percent. But even this does not end the misfortunes, because the larvae of this voracious pest are left to spend the winter, and in the spring they will start eating plants with a new force.
Harm caused by the larvae
The wireworm suffers from potato larvae. Root crops, roots and germinating seeds are often subjected to violent attacks from these voracious pests.
Small larvae inflict wounds on young tubers, which are then drawn out and already on adult tubers have the appearance of funnels.
Older larvae cause much more damage, gnawing potato tuber through. As a result, pathogens of bacterial and fungal diseases can penetrate through the damaged surface, which leads to rotting of the root crop during storage.
The weatheriness of the larvae is strongly influenced by the weather conditions. If tubers are formed during dry decades, the larvae are especially actively trying to root inside the tubers in search for moisture. Therefore, the roots of early varieties, the formation of which occurs in a more moist soil, are less prone to damage, unlike the later varieties.
How to detect a pest in the garden
The most “favorite dish” of the wireworm is the potato, so it is most often subjected to attacks of this pest. You can understand that the wireworm has already eaten potatoes, which you have diligently grown, by the following signs:
- when digging on the tubers are found narrow through holes and small dark depressions on the skin,
- if among healthy potato bushes faded and isolated affected plants appear, you can be sure that you have an uninvited “guest” called —wire. This conclusion can be made on the basis of the fact that the wireworm larva moves well only in the vertical direction (it can dig to a depth of two meters), but in the horizontal direction it is rather bad. It does not move farther than 20 cm from the feeding place, therefore it usually damages detached plants, although sometimes beds or whole stripes,
- during the period of activity, this pest lives in shallow depths (up to 10 cm), therefore during garden works it can be accidentally dug up.
Adults of the wireworm can be confused with useful ground beetles, but it is easy to “calculate” them by a characteristic click made when the bug is turned over from back to belly.
What scares wireworms
Click beetles and their larvae, the wireworms, scare off some cultures quite well. The wireworm does not like mustard, therefore, planting it in the fall, wait until it grows up to 10 cm, and then cut and bury it for the winter in the ground. This operation must be repeated in early spring. The rotted plant will secrete essential oils that will scare away the pest. You can also land:
The omnivorous wireworm also does not favor beans, beans, and peas. In addition, these legumes will additionally enrich your soil with nitrogen.
It is believed that wireworms do not tolerate the aroma of dahlias. With these flowers does not stand the neighborhood and wheat grass.
Traps and lures
Wireworms are rather willingly “led” to various traps. This weakness of them is successfully used by lovers of non-chemical pest warfare agents. Here are some instructions on how to get rid of the wireworm on the potato plot:
- take the spoiled potato and soak it in insecticide (any) for a day. Then bury in places of a congestion of the wrecker, having noted these places with chopsticks. After a few days you need to collect the roots with the wireworm and destroy them,
- put in a glass half-liter jar pieces of potatoes and bury, and leave the neck at ground level. This improvised trap will become a kind of mousetrap for larvae and even adult individuals. True, the latter can fly away, and to avoid this, you need to cover the neck of the can with paper, then it will be more difficult for the insect to get out,
- Before spring planting of vegetables, you can string carrot, beetroot, potato pieces on a wire and bury this “shish kebab” 10 cm into the ground for the entire length of the bed. A few days later, you get a great treat for poultry, consisting of vegetables and larvae.
The click beetles like to hide during the day in shady and wet places. In the spring, they can be lured by a handful of dung or grass, and after a few days, burn this “hotbed” of pests. The same can be done in the fall.
The young shoots of wheat, barley, oats and corn are the habitat of the wireworm. Before planting potatoes (10–14 days), you need to sow a small amount of these plants, and then dig up plantations along with pests. During the summer, new plants can be planted, having previously treated their seeds in an insecticide. This poisonous treat kills the wireworm. The main thing is to remember that it is already impossible to eat such a plant.
Chemical and biological agents
The gardeners have been engaged in “war” with wireworms for many years. There are many ways to combat this pest on a biological basis, without using chemicals. Here are some of them:
- soil acidity reduction. During plowing and loosening of the soil, you must add chalk, ash or lime, and you can also use dolomite flour (once every 2-3 years),
- ammonium sulphate or ammonium nitrate. The use of preparations containing ammonia will force the larvae to dig deeper into the soil, fleeing from this poison. 20–30 grams of the preparation is enough for one square meter,
- watering the plant under the root solution of potassium permanganate. Two to 4 grams of potassium permanganate is enough for ten liters of water. About 300 ml of solution is applied to one well.
It is advisable to use chemical preparations only in extreme cases in order not to harm your plants, therefore you should not abuse them. Some "poison" can be prepared independently.
Granulated superphosphate (5 kg) is scattered on a polyethylene film in a thin layer, and a solution is prepared to process it. To do this, you can take one of the following drugs:
- "Fastak" - 2 ml,
- "Actellic" - 15 ml,
- "Karate" - 1 ml,
- "Decis" - 0.4 ml.
Then add it to the following solution:
Spray the mixture with superphosphate, then let it dry. If the resulting preparation is dispersed in a tape way, it should be enough for an area of 100 square meters. m
Folk means of fighting wireworms
Some gardeners do not risk using chemicals in their plots, as they fear the harmful effects on the crop. In this case, folk remedies against wireworms can come to the aid of:
- ground eggshell. It is one of the most effective and at the same time readily available means against wireworms. It needs to be laid out throughout the garden area throughout the entire working season, and as a result, the wire will leave your crops alone,
- dressing holes before planting. To prepare the tincture you need 500 g of crushed nettle soak in water (10 liters) for 12 hours. You can use dandelion tincture (200 g) or celandine tincture (100 g) for the same amount of water. This solution can be treated with about 20 holes for potatoes. The treatment is carried out in 2-3 days during the week.
- when planting potatoes can add a handful of onion peel to each well,
- calendula or marigold, planted next to the potatoes, scare away the larvae, as well as other pests.
The treatment of plantings with infusions of plants is recommended to be done three times with weekly intervals.
Preventive control measures
To avoid the appearance of wireworms on the site, it is necessary to apply timely preventive measures:
- crop rotation. Often, on a certain plot of land, potatoes are planted every year, so you shouldn’t be surprised at the poor harvest,
- remove the roots in time and do not leave them for the winter. If the source of heat and food is eliminated, the wire will lose a comfortable wintering,
- reduce soil acidity. Indicator plants that are starting to appear on your site will tell you that the earth has become very acidic. Such plants include plantain, sorrel, horsetail,
- get rid of the wireworm by attracting its enemies to the site
The following birds especially like to eat the wireworm:
- turtle doves,
To attract these birds to your site you need to build birdhouses.
Destroy the weeds. Wheatgrass and burdock are the ready-made “house” for the wireworm, so you need to start the fight with them, as well as with other weeds.
The wireworm is a voracious and dangerous pest that causes irreversible harm to garden crops. It can sometimes be difficult to fight, but nothing is impossible. The main thing is that this “war” should be regular and systemic. And ultimately the worst enemy will be broken, and the harvest will remain safe and sound.
Great damage is caused by the larvae of beetles, called wireworms.
Birth beetles are considered dangerous for agriculture:
- Agriotes - sowing, type: dark (dark yellow with glitter).
- Athous - appearance: black (black, with a brown tint).
- Selatosomus - look: brilliant (light yellow color with shine).
- Melanotus - appearance: pointed (the color of the body on the back is orange of all shades, including brown).
- Limonius - type: yellow-legged (yellowish-brown, caramel color).
Their larvae damage the tubers and stalks of potatoes (up to 60% of the crop), buds and shoots of grapes, affect other garden and garden crops. The plant stops growing, fruits lose quality.
The larvae gnaw through the passages where pathogenic bacteria are introduced (rot, mold, others). They harm:
- Root crops.
The gluttony of pests increases with the onset of hot, dry weather: they are looking for roots with moisture, respectively, causing more damage to the plant. In dry months it is worth more to moisten the soil.
The benefits of this pest are: they destroy the root system of weeds, contribute to the ventilation of the soil, are useful food insects in the food chain, suggest the presence of soil acidity to humans.
Methods of struggle
- Mechanical methods: digging the soil.
- Set bait traps.
- Reducing the acidity of the earth.
- The use of biochemical substances.
- Искоренение сорняков, сжигание растительных остатков.
Ползучий пырей привлекает их больше всего. Если нет севосмены (сажают культуры постоянно на одном месте), размножение жуков происходит более интенсивно.
Вредитель не исчезнет с участка самостоятельно. «Однобокая» борьба с ним тоже не поможет. In addition to the use of traditional methods and pesticides, special attention is paid to the mechanical method of control.
Autumn-spring work to destroy the wireworm:
- In the autumn before the frosts: very deeply dig the entire landing area, turning over a layer of earth. Most of the larvae will not survive the frost.
- Spring before planting: dig the soil shallowly, choosing bugs, their larvae, manually.
- During the growing season of plants:
- In the summer, maintain sufficient soil moisture (especially where the trap lies) so that the larvae spoil the root crops less.
- Weed eradication (heaps are carried outside the site, burned).
The thing is that there are several generations of wireworms living in the same place, each year turning into adults, laying eggs again.
The owner should carefully follow all recommendations for the destruction of the larvae in order to get rid of the pest as soon as possible.
It is possible to catch a wireworm all season - starting from April and ending in October.
People have come up with several types of traps for bait:
- Using whole potatoes: 7-10 days before planting, potatoes (without eyes, seedlings) soak for 24 hours in any preparation of insecticidal action, then bury between the rows of plantings. After 3 days, dig it up, destroy the wireworms, bury it again (repeat several times).
- For some time before planting, in the beds, bury the pickled grain: soak corn and oats in an insecticide and bury in piles. Places mark. Periodically change the grain to the new, and the old - to burn.
- With the use of cut vegetables: string large pieces of raw root vegetables (carrots, beets) or potatoes on a wooden stick, bury them in the spaces between rows (approximate depth - 7-10 cm). Periodically dig up, destroy pests, bury again (the entire growing season).
- The bait of click beetles is laid out in half-liter jars (1 pc. Per 10 sq. M): sliced potatoes (carrots, beets) are placed on the bottom of the tank, buried between planted crops flush with the ground. Check banks every day.
- Planting lettuce in a row (bait for larvae), and after a while it is dug out: the roots along with the wireworm destroy.
- Leave a handful of wet straw in several places, and after 6-8 days - carefully assemble, destroy outside the site. At the same place put a new handful.
The place where the trap is buried must be marked (with a sprig or some other noticeable material). Instead of bait, the wireworm can be scared away from the beds, planting legumes everywhere (around the perimeter, between the rows). Peas and bean beetles, their larvae, especially do not like.
How to deal with the wireworm?
Many are aware of the problems with growing potatoes. Often, fresh potatoes are filled with black passages. This is the result of the "work" of the wireworm.
Wireworm moves in potatoes is a real attack. It is much easier to throw out such a tuber at all, rather than trying to clean it. However, it is even more sensible to prevent its damage.
When planting potatoes and tomatoes - in advance. If you plan to plant cabbage, then such flour should be made in the process of planting. An even simpler remedy is a ground egg shell. Throughout the summer, scatter it regularly throughout the land, and the wire will not harm your crop.
Good help in the fight against wireworm and tools such as ammonium sulfate and ammonia water (proportion: 20-30 grams per 1 sq. M.).
It is very important that ammonia water gets into the soil, and not into the zone of the root system and not into the zone of seed germination, but deeper than the seeds or away from it, between the rows. It increases the protein content in plants and stimulates the growth of green mass.
You can also prepare a special "pickling" solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 5 grams of potassium permanganate per ten liters of water. Pour such solution into each well before planting potatoes or tomatoes.
In the well should be poured half a liter of solution. The following preparations are recommended to be used from production preparations: “Trap”, “Zemlin”, “Provotoks”.
How to deal with wireworm folk remedies?
To prevent the appearance of the wireworm on potatoes or tomatoes, you can use herbal solutions. So, a celandine infusion is a good remedy.
So, to make an infusion of nettle, you will need half a kilo of chopped herbs. It also needs to be filled with 10 liters of water. For the infusion of dandelion need to take only 200 grams of grass.
How else to deal with the wireworm in the garden?
To make your fight with wireworm a win-win, you can prepare special traps. To do this, take the potatoes without eyes (so as not to sprout) and soak for a day in an insecticide solution. Then bury such potatoes for three or four days before planting in the places where the pest is most concentrated.
Then, after some time, remove and, after clearing the larvae, bury it back. You can simply put on a stick pieces of raw potatoes, beets and carrots and bury 10-12 cm in the ground. Then get, clean and bury back. This method can be practiced throughout the garden season.
You can also soak the seeds of corn and oats in the same solution and sow before planting the main crops. Such poisoned food will perfectly save you from problems with the wireworm.
Keep clean and tidy on your site. Weekly do weeding, first of all, removing the grass. He is particularly fond of wire. You should not fold torn weeds between the beds, as the wireworm loves greens and multiplies quickly.
It is best to take out all the garbage outside the garden. After a couple of weeks, you will notice significant changes and notice that the wireworm larvae have become much smaller. In the autumn, it is recommended to dig deep all the soil, lifting and turning over individual boards.
An important technique in the fight against wireworms is the change of cultures. The fact is that the wire, as a rule, does not affect the culture that grows in this area only for the first year. So, you can significantly ease your task.
It was also noted that the wireworm likes to eat the roots of lettuce. Therefore, you can sow lettuce between the rows, and then dig it, destroying the roots along with the pests stuck in them.
In conclusion, the editors would like to note that it is better to use non-chemical preparations and methods. Despite the fact that the use of chemicals - the easiest way, it can harm not only the wireworms, but also landings, as well as you.
All the above recipes are great for fighting wireworm, so they will definitely help you. But the main thing - always keep clean and tidy on your site. Then you will not know the problems with pests, but it will be a pleasure to work.
Safe ways to deal with wireworm
To remove pests from the potato plot, various baits and traps are often used, which are located around the perimeter of the plantations or are placed between the ridges.
- Juicy potato slices are strung on a string, and such garlands are added dropwise along the ridges to a depth of 5 to 15 cm. The lures are changed every two or three days.
- Every half meter across the site planted several grains of cereals or corn. When shoots appear, juicy roots will surely attract pests.
- Adult beetles and larvae usually accumulate under straw, foliage or tops that can be located along the border of a potato field.
Using such bait, it is important to regularly inspect and change them in case of accumulation of dangerous pests of potatoes. As measures of scaring wireworms can be used:
- watering the beds with infusions of a coltsfoot, dandelion, celandine or nettle,
- soaking tubers in the infusion of celandine before planting,
- onion peel, which is put in the wells when planting tubers,
- marigolds around the perimeter of the plot or between the rows,
- Fresh pine or spruce needles dug along the ridges.
If the area allows, properly organized crop rotation will help get rid of the wireworm on the potato field. Soil pests do not infect plants if they are planted in the first year. Therefore, the alternation of potatoes with unattractive for the wireworm plants, for example, legumes, spring rapeseed and buckwheat, will help not only to preserve the crop, but also enrich the soil with useful substances.
After harvesting on the site of potatoes, it is useful to sow mustard, alfalfa, and clover. These cultures for potato pests are completely edible, changing the diet will cause the death of insects or their departure from the affected area.
Video: "Pests of plants - wireworm and click"
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Coincidence or not, but at our site the wire is almost never found after a lot of earthworms have divorced. A few years after the acquisition, the garden was fertilized only with imported humus, and the EM-1 Baikal preparation was used. On the acquired site the wireworm and scab raged. Moss was used against the scab, which was flooded in the swamp and laid out in the wells during planting. It helped.
The wireworm did not disappear immediately. Chose to trap, planted with the addition of Bazudin. But once the earthworms are divorced, the wire is rarely caught. At the same time, we use for planting well-green potatoes, seasoned before planting at EM-1. And all the neighbors from the neighbors dug up and sow there phacelia. Decorative and mass can be used on compost.
I also noticed that if you choose a wireworm for traps, it is better in the spring before planting potatoes. In the fall he is fed, he does not go to the bait. It seems to me that while the larvae are small, and this is 2 seasons, someone eats them. Coincidence or not, but at our site the wire is almost never found after a lot of earthworms have divorced. A few years after the acquisition, the garden was fertilized only with imported humus, and the EM-1 Baikal preparation was used. On the acquired site the wireworm and scab raged. Moss was used against the scab, which was flooded in the swamp and laid out in the wells during planting. It helped.
The wireworm did not disappear immediately. Chose to trap, planted with the addition of Bazudin. But once the earthworms are divorced, the wire is rarely caught. At the same time, we use for planting well-green potatoes, seasoned before planting at EM-1. And all the neighbors from the neighbors dug up and sow there phacelia. Decorative and mass can be used on compost.
I also noticed that if you choose a wireworm for traps, it is better in the spring before planting potatoes. In the fall, he is fed and does not go to the bait. It seems to me that while the larvae are small, and this is 2 seasons, someone eats them. It seems that rain helps to clean the garden. We see wireworms only in the third and fourth season.
Maybe earthworms help clean the garden. We see wireworms only in the third and fourth season.
I noticed that the wire was not found in the soil densely populated by earthworms. I think that this is due to the fact that worms can destroy the clutches of a click beetle eggs. A sharp increase in the worms population can be achieved by introducing vermicompost into the soil when planting potatoes. For 100-150, under the tuber. When digging potatoes under each bush, you can dig up up to 50 worms. At the same time, worms also destroy pathogenic microorganisms and partially weed seeds. The soil is loose, so the tubers grow evenly and are surprisingly even. Moisture is better preserved in the soil and there is sufficient ventilation of the root system. The average yield is about 1000 kg per hundred. At the same time soil fertility continuously increases. In any case, nine years of planting potatoes on one plot gives an increase in yield. The soil is well structured and does not require digging.
The wireworm - the larva of the click beetle, represents yellow-brown worms 2-3 cm long, with rather dense cover. The imago (adult) is a black beetle with an oblong body up to 5 cm long. Named so because of the sounds made when trying to roll over.
It has a five-year development cycle. The female in the spring lays more than 100 eggs under the clods of earth, the remnants of plants. In the first year, the larvae are harmless to cultivated plants, over the next three years they can cause great damage to agriculture: they eat seeds before sprouting from them, roots, soft parts of the stem.
Wire struck potatoes.
They are moving inside the roots and tubers, eating food, making the plants rot and die. Damage to various agricultural, garden, forest crops. Great damage is done to the potato, first of all - its keeping quality and presentation (gnawing at tubers are moves, due to which decay develops quickly).
Clicker, imago pest.
The larvae got its name because of the similarity with the wire in appearance and high rigidity - it is very difficult to crush them.
Before you start the fight with the wireworm in potatoes, you need to know some of the features of his lifestyle, to take this into account in the future.
- The most favorite food of the wireworm is the roots of the wheatgrass of a creeping, weedy culture.
- Beetles love moisture. In usual time they hide in damp unlit places, overgrown with herbs or cereals.
- Potato tubers are damaged more often with a lack of moisture and wheatgrass roots.
- Sour soils are good for these pests.
- The thicker the vegetation, the better the click beetle and its larvae.
On the knowledge of these features are based many methods of pest control, while others are associated with chemical effects on the beetle and its larvae.
Ways to fight
We now turn to how to get rid of the wireworm in potatoes. It is better to start the fight as soon as it is discovered, albeit in small quantities. Sometimes the plots are quite badly infected with a pest, especially if there is uncultivated land in the neighborhood with weed beds, including cereals. Here an integrated approach to the problem will help.
Using knowledge about the lifestyle and preferences of the pest, we can recommend the following agrotechnical techniques in combating it.
- Late autumn and / or early spring digging or plowing of the land is used to destroy the weeds. Including wheatgrass, crawling, favorite wireworm food - after plowing or digging, you need to choose the roots of this weed as carefully as possible.
- In conditions of small acreage, it is advisable to remove beetles, pupae, larvae, if they show up. The depth of digging should be at least 25 cm in the fall, after that in the spring you can dig not so deep.
Late autumn processing also contributes to the destruction of the larvae under the influence of frost, and the spring - the death of egg clutches under the rays of the sun.
- Liming sour soil. In the wet ground is often found increased acidity. The owner of the cottage, garden, plot can determine this without special analysis, relying on the presence of indicator plants.
So, on lands with high acidity horse sorrel, mint, plantain, field horsetail actively grow.
The traditional means to reduce acidity is lime-fluff, which is introduced into the soil. However, it will not only help get rid of the wireworm in the potato, but can harm the products.
A good way to fight - when digging the garden manually remove the larvae from the ground.
It can cause potato scab damage - the immunity of plants against this disease is reduced, which, although not dangerous for eating vegetables, harms their presentation.
It is better not to apply lime, but chalk or dolomite flour to potato fields or plots. There is also a simpler tool that can replace them: this is wood ash. You can make it as the entire area during plowing, and specifically in the ridge and hole for planting.
In the fight against acidity, the soil is best used ash from burning dried stalks of sunflower, as well as the most potato tops. The shredded eggshell will also help in solving the problem - it also helps to lower the acidity.
Making dolomite flour when digging a vegetable garden is applied at the rate of up to 1 kg. on 10 m2 of land
Planting legumes (peas, beans, soybeans) is a safe and effective means of fighting wireworms.
This method is especially good for large areas for potatoes. Continuous cultivation of potatoes in one place contributes to a more severe infestation of the fields by the pest. After two or three years, part of the plot instead of vegetables is sown with beans, peas, buckwheat, spring rape, lupine, mustard.
For the wireworm, the soil where legumes grow or grow is unacceptable.
Mustard also produces an alkaloid, which is detrimental to it. If beans and peas, soybeans and chickpeas can be grown for harvest, rapeseed or mustard is usually cultivated as green manure, that is, as a green fertilizer to enrich the garden with nutrients, including nitrogen. Также некоторые огородники советуют в этом качестве люцерну или сурепку.
На следующий год выбирается другая часть поля для "оздоровления", а эта засаживается картофелем. И так далее. Возможен посев сидератов и летом, после уборки ранних сортов, тогда год не теряется.
Wireworms damage tubers in search of moisture, so the potato suffers more from dry periods. In particular, early varieties that ripen in more humid conditions are less damaged than later ones. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the contamination of the soil with the help of abundant watering of the site during particularly dry seasons.
Lack of thickening
It is known that the pest "like" a dense weave of rhizomes of plants. Therefore, you should not have a ridge of potato close to the thickets of perennial grasses, lawns. As well as untreated areas with thick weeds. Do not plant the potato itself tightly and often carry out weeding.
If there is an undeveloped area with thick weeds next to the potatoes, you need to make a good in-depth row spacing. Sow it with a salad that the wireworm also really likes. Thus, the larvae from the untreated area, even if they go to the side of cultivated plants, stop at the roots of lettuce and do not get to the potatoes.
Application of chemistry
Currently developed a lot of drugs to combat pests. There are those that are used in the fight against wireworm.
There are fertilizers that, while performing their main function of improving soil fertility, at the same time scare the larvae away. These include nitrogen-containing drugs:
- ammonium sulfate - at the rate of 30 gr. per m2.
- ammonium chloride - in the same dosage.
- ammonium nitrate - 15-20 grams. on m2.
They are introduced with incorporation into the soil, so that the pests could smell the ammoniac odor unpleasant at the depth.
Ammonium sulphate produced by the company Minisemp (Lipetsk). Photo packaging is increased by clicking.
- Aktara is a remedy for wireworm in potatoes intended to be dissolved in water and applied to tubers before planting, dry powder can also be applied to the wells before planting, the manufacturer gives a guarantee of a 100% result, and many farmers agree.
Description and instructions for use Aktar (increases by clicking).
Click to enlarge.
Rates of consumption Basdina on the packaging (click to enlarge).
Every living thing in nature has a natural enemy. On the use of natural enemies and built biological methods of pest control.
Modern drug of similar action - Nemabakt. It is a powder that must be diluted with water to a state of suspension and applied to the soil by spraying. The drug is a bioinsecticide and contains in its composition microscopic nematode worms. Moreover, the predatory nematode is in symbiosis with bacteria that help to get rid of the wireworm in potatoes.
The essence of the action is as follows: the nematode in the soil is at rest until a worm appears next to it. Then it penetrates inside, the bacterium kills the larva, and the nematode feeds on the body of the insect. Then leaves the empty shell and penetrates the next victim.
We have a seminar video where it is available to tell about this drug:
In winter, when the temperature drops, the nematode falls into a state of rest, by the way, it can maintain its vital properties for up to two years. That is why it is necessary to apply warm water to the suspension in order to “wake up” the nematode before sending it to the soil. You can make the mixture and set it to warm naturally to room temperature. Heat the suspension on a fire or stove can not be, as well as used to dilute the water above 30 degrees!
At present, ready-made soil is being sold, where nematodes are populated. It is called Protection. It is recommended to add a good handful of soil to each well before planting. Nematodes will spread throughout the soil and will protect potatoes from wireworms.
Lures and traps
Using baits is troublesome, requiring constant attention, but the effect they bring is not bad. Especially when it comes to small areas - here you can get rid of 20 to 80% of the wireworm population using baits, according to reviews of farmers.
Consider the various types of baits and traps for the pest - all of them are based on its food preferences or the desire for wet unlit places, and in cold weather - to heat.
- In the autumn after harvesting, it is desirable to leave as many piles of tops and weeds as possible on the site. You can specifically bring straw, manure. Under such shelters gather the larvae. Before the onset of frost, all these heaps must be collected and burned along with insects.
It makes sense to send part of the waste from the garden not to compost, but to the device for wireworm traps.
Use of various substances for soil application
Many people do not consider the use of insecticides, pesticides such a necessary way to fight against wireworms. According to the observations of craftsmen, the use of home-made products destroys the pest no worse than industrial ones.
- Potassium permanganate: before planting, make an aqueous solution (2 g / 10 l), pour the place of the future garden bed, so that the earth is soaked in depth by 15-25 cm. It can be processed during planting potatoes: 5 liters of solution are poured into one well.
- Wood ash (neutralizes the acidity of the soil): pour between 1-5 cm layer between rows.
- Mineral salt (ammonium): the destruction of the larvae + dressing root crops.
According to experts, the simultaneous use of industrial tools and popular methods only increases the chance of rapid destruction of wireworms. It should only follow the dosages and instructions for their use.
Industrial anti-wirewound agent
After using chemicals against pests, people are not recommended to visit the treated area for 1-10 days (see instructions).
Industrial products that are allowed to use on the plots:
- Bring in 1 time at landing:
- Processed tubers (1 time):
- "Taboo, VSK."
- "Prestige, KS".
- Bayer CropScience.
The above means are assigned to the 3rd class of danger to human health. For bees (other beneficial insects), these drugs are safe.
Prevention instead of fighting wireworm
Snacks are often settled in areas with plenty of wheatgrass: it is considered their most favorite shelter and food. Therefore, the weed must be eradicated first.
How to distinguish clickers from other species:
- Put the beetle on your back.
- When he begins to roll over on his belly, a click is heard.
Earthen toads, ground beetles (predatory beetles, polyphagous) are very fond of eating wireworms. Some farms are experimenting, specifically breeding them for the purpose of pest prevention.
Rules of preventive methods:
- Neutralize the acidity of the earth by liming (eggshell, chalk): wireworms develop well in acidic soil.
- Observe certain distances between plants: the larvae gather in dense stands.
- Disinfect the earth, humus with a hot solution of potassium permanganate.
- Use mineral fertilizers with ammonium content (ammonium sulfate).
- After the autumn harvesting, collect all the remnants of vegetation from the territory of the beds (weeds, roots of crops) and remove them outside the site or destroy them.
Where one click was found, they must have their larvae (wireworms), laid eggs, and other adult individuals.
Immediately start to fight them: beetles multiply rapidly and without taking measures to destroy it, they fill the entire potato bed for 2-3 seasons.
To survive the wireworm finally from their garden, the owners divide the land in half. One part is sown with rye (peas, mustard, buckwheat), and the other is used for planting (rows of crops are “diluted” with beans, dahlias, marigolds).
The following season, the same principle of planting is repeated, only the place of the sowed part is planted with garden crops (parts are interchanged: where sowed - used under the garden). Some gardeners in the holes with potatoes throw beans to scare the wireworm from the tubers.
The struggle of folk remedies is not only safer, but also much more productive, because the methods can be used regardless of the phase of cultural development (flowering, formation of the ovary, the period before harvest).
10 ways to deal with wireworm
The Wireworm is the omnipresent larva of the click beetle. She is able to stay in the ground for 4 years and eat almost any crop. But especially the wireworm damages the planting of potatoes.
There are many ways to combat pest, but the best option is still the use of several methods of struggle.
Method 1. Traps
Pitfalls of jars filled with young potato leaves help fight an adult pest, the clicker itself. On one hundred squares, it is enough to place 10 such traps at equal distances from each other.
And every 2-3 days you need to change the bait in them. This method aims to prevent the emergence of larvae, since one female can lay up to 200 eggs per season.
Method 2. Onion peel
In each hole when planting potatoes need to throw a decent armful of onion peel. However, this method is not effective, if you hold the event in windy weather - the husk quickly fly away.
Alternatively, you can use onion decoction, which is soaked before planting tubers of potatoes. Not only will this not please the wireworm, but it will also protect the plants from some possible diseases.
Method 3. Siderates
Sideratov sowing is a fairly effective way of dealing with wireworm. Mustard, peas, phacelia - these cultures perfectly scare away the uninvited guest, but, of course, growing additional crops at the site requires additional effort, time and money.
Method 4. Mustard powder
If you do not want to mess with the siderats, then when planting potatoes in the hole, you can pour mustard powder. This option is much safer to use "chemistry", and the dislike of the wireworm to mustard plays into the hands of gardeners.
By the way, this method of struggle can be used when planting radishes or turnips. If desired, even hot peppers can be added to the mustard powder.
Method 5. Lures from root vegetables
If you have time, then at a depth of 5-10 cm in the soil, you can make special baits for wireworms using potatoes, beets or carrots. However, they must be done constantly, taking into account the pest's lifespan.
Method 6. Reducing soil acidity
In conjunction with the rest is good and this method of struggle. To destroy the wireworm, lime is scattered directly on the soil surface or added when planting potatoes right into the hole. In addition, to reduce the acidity of the soil can also be added to the wells of ash, ground eggshell or planting legumes.
Method 7. Cleaning the site
If we deal with weeds in time at the site (in particular, it concerns wheat grass), then the amount of food from the wireworm will sharply decrease. In addition, it is useful immediately after harvesting to remove from the garden and all the tops, as well as small potato tubers. The less food for a pest, the smaller its number.
Method 8. Seasonal digging
In autumn, before the very frosts, it is necessary to deeply dig the whole area. After such a procedure, many larvae of the pest will be on the surface of the soil, and they will simply die from the frost. Repeating a similar deep digging costs in the spring, because this land will be more dry, and therefore less nutritious for the pest.
Method 9. The solution of potassium permanganate
Before planting potatoes in the well, you can also pour out 0.5 l of potassium permanganate solution. However, this option requires a significant amount of water. This method is appropriate rather for small landings. To prepare the solution, you must use 5 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water.
Method 10. Conifer needles
Coniferous plants also help fight the wireworm. It is better to collect the needles just before planting the potatoes - for 2 days. The branches of young pines are considered the best option. During planting, potatoes are first laid in the furrow, then ash and humus are poured, and the entire furrow is covered with pine branches on top.
Control on wireworms
I am constantly approached by residents of villages and towns, beginning farmers, gardeners, gardeners and simply familiar with the same question: how to get rid of the wireworm hitting potato tubers. This problem is really unpleasant and growing in scale before the problem of fighting the Colorado potato beetle.
Wireworms are larvae of click beetles, whose life cycle lasts for 3-4 years. Their eggs are slightly oval, white, smooth, 1-1.5 mm in size. The larvae are up to 25 mm long, hard to the touch (at an older age it is difficult to crush even with a fingernail), their color is from light to dark yellow.
At the end of April, click beetles as they warm up the soil come to the surface, keep in shaded and moist places, mainly with grass vegetation and perennial grasses. It should be remembered that the favorite delicacy of the larvae is the roots of the wheatgrass creeping.
Females lay eggs in the soil to a depth of 1-3 cm. The development of eggs lasts 2-3 weeks depending on the weather, of which larvae appear, which live and develop in the soil for 3-4 years. Having completed development, they pupate in June-July at a depth of 10-15 cm. In 15-20 days, beetles emerge from pupae, which overwinter in the soil until spring.
What are the practical measures to combat wireworm? There are two ways: chemical and agrotechnical. The first method involves the introduction into the soil of chemicals aimed at the destruction of the larvae.
However, this way, I think, is in no way unacceptable for personal plots for two reasons: firstly, because of the high cost of living, and secondly, from an environmental point of view. Why increase the pesticidal load on the soil, why destroy and oppress the soil microflora?
After all, after such an impact by "chemistry" on it, along with the larvae of the pest, beneficial microorganisms and earthworms will die.
There is a more benign method for reducing the number of wireworm larvae. This is the introduction of ammonium-containing nitrogen fertilizers or simple ammonia water into the soil. This method was used earlier and now it is used in rural joint-stock companies on such crops as maize and other silage.
In the household plot, this technique is difficult to accomplish practically due to one requirement - it is necessary to introduce ammonia water with mandatory incorporation into the soil so that ammonia does not evaporate. It is proved that pest larvae try to leave the site after such treatment.
However, as an agronomist-practitioner, I hardly believe this, since the activity of the larvae in the soil is small, they move very slowly.
I will cite several agrotechnical methods of controlling wireworms, which can drastically reduce the number of harmful larvae by 2–3 years, by 50–90%. Firstly, it is a late autumn digging of the site or dump plowing to the full depth of the arable horizon.
The term of tillage is mid-October and even the end of the month, that is, on the eve of the onset of stable frosts. In this case, the wireworm larvae, once on the surface of the soil, die from the cold.
Another effective method of reducing the number of larvae that I have tested in practice is the careful manual removal of the rhizomes (even small ones, only 1.5–2 cm long) of the spring grass and the roots of chicken millet.
This method of tillage, such as surface loosening in May and June, along with preserving moisture and destroying weed seedlings, makes it impossible for the beetle beetle eggs to become unviable under the sun’s rays, that is, the larvae do not appear from them.
This operation is repeated several times. We can recommend such a rather laborious, but effective method. 1.5-2 weeks before planting potatoes, they sow nests of 10-15 grains of barley (or oats) in 60-70 cm at the site. When they germinate, they are dug out and wireworms are selected.
Well, and for those who are engaged in reproduction of especially valuable or rare varieties of potatoes, I want to advise a short-term soaking of tubers in the infusion of celandine.
For large potato plots infected with wireworm, 2-3 crop rotations should be introduced. In this case, potatoes are not planted on a part of the area, and legumes are sown (vetch mixtures - oats, peas - oats or lupins), it is good to sow buckwheat or spring rape. In this case, we have a lot of positive things.
Secondly, the alternation of plants makes it possible to cultivate the soil and enrich it with nitrogen, and not mineral, but biological, environmentally friendly.
Proper crop rotation allows you to completely abandon the use of pesticides. For example, the alternation of legumes and various row crops is the best way to combat not only pests, but also weeds. This path is the most important in agriculture, which provides organic food.
Folk remedies for wireworm in the garden
The wireworm is a larva of a click beetle. The larvae have a hard coating, for which they got their name. In the larva stage, these beetles live 2–5 years, so several generations of larvae are present in the same area.
Кроме того, жуки-щелкуны довольно плодовиты и хорошо переносят зиму и холода, зарываясь в землю. Поэтому нужно наблюдать, не появились ли личинки в огороде и начинать борьбу с ними как можно раньше.
Все народные средства от проволочника в огороде можно разделить на 3 группы:
- Использование ловушек.
- The use of various substances for application to the soil (for example, mineral salt or ash for the destruction of wireworms) and spray solutions, resulting in the wireworm dying.
Fight Wireworm with Traps
Potatoes cut in half can be used as traps for baiting a wireworm. It must be dug into the ground to a depth of 15–20 cm. In a few days, pieces of potatoes must be dug. They will have a lot of larvae.
In order not to forget where the bait potatoes were dug in, these places should be marked with wire, chopsticks or twigs. The entire procedure must be repeated several times. Each time, the larvae will be less.
Another type of wireworm trap is the planting of leaf lettuce or corn between the rows of root crops. Wireworm must settle in the roots of these plants. And the owners will only remove seedlings along with the larvae.
They pull in the wireworm and the heaps of grass left in the garden, which begin to sweep and become an attractive delicacy for the larvae of the click beetle. After several days, it remains only to carefully collect and discard (destroy) the rotten grass together with the wireworm. Instead of grass, you can use straw or hay.
Catching wireworm with bait is best done in the spring, even before planting root crops. But you can use the trap in the summer and autumn, if there are many larvae and it threatens to land.
Fighting with wireworm ash, mineral salt, potassium permanganate
A proven way to get rid of the wireworm in the garden with folk remedies is the use of chemicals of its own production, which have no negative effect on the crop.
Ashes sprinkled between the rows. The larvae of the click beetle die. Ammonium salts (mineral salts) will not only help get rid of the wireworm, but also serve as a good feed for root crops.
Some gardeners are not only against insecticides used to kill pests, but also against mineral fertilizers. Therefore, the use of mineral fertilizers to combat wireworm is not suitable for everyone.
In any case, folk remedies will help get rid of the wireworm in the potato. And the best way to combine different types of folk remedies.
A WIRE PARASITING ON POTATO RACKS CAN DAMAGE THE CLUBS
If a lot of potato wire is found on the plot, then the main part of the crop can be saved only by taking urgent measures to combat this pest. The size of the damage caused to potato planting is not much lower than the well-known Colorado potato beetle. But, unlike the latter, to deal with the wireworm is much more difficult.
Malicious pest of potatoes - wireworm
Appearing on the potato of the Colorado potato beetle is difficult not to notice, and even the tops eaten by its larvae are visible from afar. The pesticides treatment carried out in time allows to get rid of this pest without noticeable loss of crop.
It is rather difficult to fight this pest, since it lives almost everywhere, but it is quite possible to reduce the population size to a size where the wireworm will cause minimal damage.
The wireworm is a larva of a click beetle. In our country there are several hundred species of these insects. They are distributed almost throughout the territory. The development cycle of insects lasts from 2 to 5 years.
In early spring, from April to June (depending on the region), female beetles lay eggs in secluded places on the ground - under clumps of earth, in cracks, under plant debris, piles of dry tops. In each laying there are from 3 to 5 eggs, and only one female lays up to 150 pieces.
In a year, the clicker larvae become much larger and more mobile. The shell of their body becomes very durable - it is easier to break the insect than to crush. From the second year of life, the wireworm switches to potatoes, damaging its roots and tubers.
Spores of the fungus and bacteria enter the moves done by the larvae, causing rotting of the root crops and making them unsuitable for winter storage. The damage caused by the wireworm is very significant, therefore it is necessary to take systematic measures to combat this pest.
How to deal with wireworm on potatoes
On the garden or dacha with a wireworm can be fought with agrotechnical techniques without the use of chemicals. Problems with it most often arise on lands where wheatgrass grows. Therefore, first of all it is necessary to get rid of this weed, which must be chosen with rhizomes - an important means of sustenance of this pest.
A lot of wireworm and in areas where perennial cereal grasses have been grown for several years. On such in the first year after plowing, it is better to sow legumes: beans, peas, beans, but not potatoes.
Larvae can be caught and destroyed from early spring to autumn with baits. Pieces of raw potatoes are strung on a cord or string, the ends of which are tied to pegs and buried in the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
Pegs mark out the installation of baits. Every 2-3 days, the bait is dug and wireworms are picked from them. You can string the potato pieces into thin rods and bury them to the same depth (10 cm) 1-1.5 m apart.
The beetles gathered there are destroyed. Wireworm can also be removed from damage to tubers and roots by chemical means: with the help of Prestige, which is treated with seed before sowing or planting.
Effective wire control measures
What is a pest wireworm is the larva of the click-click beetle, a multi-eating pest. The length of the wireworm reaches 3cm. The development of the larva to the stage of the bug takes place in 5 years, therefore, it is necessary to fight with the wireworm for a long time. When they find wireworms, it means that you already have clicked beetles in the soil.
Wireworms can be easily “picked up” if you have wet or sour soils, on wheatgrass plants, thickened crops. To deal with the wireworm need to conduct agrotechnical work:
- plant legumes (beans, peas, soybeans and others),
- extract and destroy wireworms in gasoline when digging the ground (in autumn a deep digging up to 25 cm deep, in the spring - shallow),
- Lime the soil with an acidic pH. Eggshell, lime, chalk,
- to make mineral fertilizers with ammonium, such as ammonium sulphate and ammonia water,
- fight weeds especially
- clean the tops after mowing,
- Do not thicken the landing.
But this is most likely not a fight against the wireworm, but preventive measures. Now in detail about the real measures to combat wireworm: agrotechnical and chemical techniques:
- You can fight with wireworms with the help of baits: before planting, for 3-4 days, take 20 cm long sticks, put half of raw potatoes, beets or carrots on one end and dig them into the soil to a depth of 10 cm. After a few days, pull the bait along with wireworm, collect pests, update the slice, moisten with water and then bury.
- Click beetles need to fight all summer. Prepare glass jars with a volume of 0.25 l, 0.5 l in the amount of 10 pieces per 1 hundred area. Bury them in the shade in the area to the neck. At the bottom of each jar, put sliced raw potatoes, carrots or beets in pieces, check every 2-3 days, collect insects and update the bait.
- Wireworms love to gather in a pile of straw, tops or manure, so in the fall it can all be decomposed around the site, and when it gets cold, collect and burn. In the spring, heaps can also be expanded and burned after a while.
- If the plot is heavily populated with wireworms, then you will have nothing else to do but to plant all the legumes. The wireman will leave the site very quickly if he finds nothing else for himself.
- If you find a wireworm, observe crop rotation: plant annual legumes before planting root crops.
- When planting potatoes, plant 2-3 beans in each well, so you will drive away the wireworm from the potato, and feed the soil with nitrogen.
- To decorate the site and compete with the wireworm will help flowers marigold, siderat white mustard.
Chemical ways to combat wire
- If there is a lot of wireworm: during spring planting, the wells or grooves are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. 10 liters of solution should go to 20-25 holes. Get a good result!
- Potassium chloride, introduced into the soil with digging, will help to destroy the wireworm in 2-3 years.
- Of the preparations for combating a large number of wireworm Pochin and Bazudin are effective. When planting: dilute it with sand and add to each well 1 tsp.
- In the autumn, cover the area with lime, when the snow melts, the lime will fall into the ground and the wireworm will leave.
- Lime and make phosphorus in the soil before planting potatoes is effective, but the quality of the tubers may suffer from this!
The wireworm is a malicious pest of beet root crops, carrots, potatoes, as well as sunflower, corn, melon. The wireworm is especially dangerous during deep planting of seeds. Worm-pest can be found on the characteristic traces - holed tubers.
Chemical methods of dealing with wireworms are simple, quick and effective, but toxic, so if you slightly contaminate the soil with wireworms, try to do it with agrotechnical methods. Of course, the clicker beetle itself will not bring harm, but the harm will be significant to your harvest from its larvae.
Wireworm called larvae click beetles. These are multi-tidal pests that harm corn, onions, sunflowers, potatoes, root crops (carrots and other crops). They also harm melon plants, to a lesser extent - annual legumes (peas, beans).
Get rid of the wireworm is very difficult. But you can try. This can be done by agrotechnical methods or using chemical means. To agrotechnical methods include:
- Weed control and in the first place with wheatgrass.
- Liming and phosphorising of the soil, but before planting potatoes, this is undesirable, as this may affect the quality of tubers.
- Mandatory soil treatment (pre-sowing, inter-row, autumn).
- Strict adherence to crop rotation is necessary: it is desirable to plant annual legumes before potatoes and root crops (of course, if there is a wireworm in the garden).
- It also applies folding baits and traps. Baits are made from pieces of potatoes, carrots or beets, in which you need to stick the twigs and bury to a depth of 10-12 cm. After a day or two bait to inspect and destroy the pests gathered there (you can feed them to chickens). After the destruction of the wireworm, it is necessary to renew the cut again, sprinkle it with water and bury it in other places to the same depth. In early spring, small bundles of straw and leaves can also be decomposed on the plot. Catch there beetles catch and destroy.
- Helps in the fight against this pest and the cultivation of white mustard for siderat (green fertilizer).
- The introduction of ash (up to 1 l / m2) in the fall under the soil digging is useful.
- Introduction before sowing seeds of root crops and planting potatoes with ammonium-containing fertilizers (15 g / m2 ammonium nitrate or 30 g / m2 ammonium sulfate).
- Watering the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- The introduction of the insecticide diazinon (basudin) at a dose of 40 g / m2, the measure is justified only if a large number of pests.
In conclusion, I note that although the chemical method is the simplest, it is advisable to resort to it only as a last resort, since diazinon is highly toxic (highly toxic) to humans and other warm-blooded animals. Therefore, with a relatively low pest population, try to limit yourself to agrotechnical methods.
At the same time, if potatoes cannot be included in the crop rotation, then the most larvae populated part of the land allotted for this crop is to be occupied with early potatoes, so that after harvesting it was possible to have time to grow mustard by siderat.
How to deal with wireworms in organic farming
Greetings to you, inquisitive readers! Today's article on how to get rid of the wireworm. Usually they annoy in the early years of development of the plots, but also occur in those who have been working the soil for a long time. The wireworm is seen by many gardeners as such an indestructible creature that “steals” and destroys crops and even flowers.
Are these maggots indestructible and why do they live on our sites at all? Should they be so afraid to run for poisonous chemistry? Let's see this tough pest today.
By the way, why tough you probably know. Anyone who has ever seen these worm-like creatures alive and tried to crush them knows that the body of the wireworm is very hard, like a wire. That is why the larva received such a name. Yes, this is not a wireworm beetle, namely a larva. And the "parents" of this larva are click beetles.
By the way, there are still loops. They are very similar to click larvae, but their “parents” are darkling beetles. It is very difficult to distinguish between the larvae of these 2 species, but it pleases that the control measures with them are very similar. So from one article you will learn and how to deal with wireworm and with a false wire.
The apparent difference between wireworms and false-conductors is the life time of the larvae before pupation. If the first live in the earth for 3-5 years, then the second after a year turn into beetles.
Also, blacktail beetles, and accordingly, the fiberwires live mainly in warmer areas. If you want to know more about the features and differences between the beetles and the larvae of these 2 species, you can read Zhirmunskaya’s book The Secret Life of Pests.
Nutcracker and Wireworm
- There are different colors, but mostly they are dark brown and black. The main difference from other beetles - they turn over from their backs to legs with characteristic clicks - because of this, they are called clickers. Some of the most common pests are dark, clickable, steppe-clicked,
- prefer to sit in the afternoon during the day. Hiding under leaves, clumps of soil, planks, etc. - their favorite thing,
plot with wet and acidic soil, covered with thickets of grass, paradise for them. Although quite willing to live on dry and sandy soils. The fact is that there are a huge number of species of these beetles,
- love areas with wheatgrass, but if you don’t even have wheatgrass, and the area hasn’t been processed for a long time and is overgrown with herbs, the probability of meeting these bugs is very high
- live in the ground on the same site where the beetles laid eggs,
- for the first time, their larvae are white and with a soft coating. At this time, they are more vulnerable and become easy prey for predatory insects, for example, ground beetles,
- after a few molts, they become more yellow and even with an orange tint, and also become more rigid. Such larvae can be eaten by insectivorous birds - starlings and rooks. They can eat them and chickens,
- the larvae live in the upper 5 cm layer of soil, and under adverse conditions (at low temperatures or during drought) they go deeper - up to 50-60 cm,
- favorite cultivated plants are potatoes, beets, carrots, wheat, corn, barley. Do not disdain, and onions, sunflowers, seedlings,
- She loves to “dig” in the roots of grain plants (wheatgrass is a close relative of grain, therefore wireworms love it)
most harm comes from sowing seeds in the cool ground. Therefore, so that the earth warms faster after winter, remove the mulch from the garden bed. On the contrary, dark mulch can be left - compost or peat help to warm the soil. Only a nuance: peat oxidizes the soil, and the wireworms like this one,
- In dry times, the roots and tubers of plants are especially eagerly eaten (they also need moisture).
In contrast to wireworms, wireworms can damage fruit tree seedlings, like pumpkin crops and sugar beets. True cereals - also their delicacy.
How to get rid of the wireworm and whether peaceful coexistence is possible
Sepp Holzer always says that every plant, insect, or animal is useful, even though pests are needed by nature. I am sure it is so, we just do not always understand their purpose. Wireworms can be one of the creators of soil fertility.
Why not? We do not even understand our neighbors, and here the underworld ... Maybe they point to some kind of problem in the territory of their residence.
But we want to harvest a variety of crops, and carrots, beets and potatoes are one of the most beloved root crops and somehow do not want to give them to the larvae. Let them live in another place, and not in our garden. At least we don’t need them in beds and flowerbeds.
Immediately I warn you that the liming of the soil and the sowing of siderats does not drive out the larvae immediately, but simply reduces their appetite and "speaks" about the need to leave this place. Some of the larvae die from hunger, and some pupate, turns into beetles and leaves in search of a better home.
Want to get rid of them faster - use a set of activities: siderata, ash, bait, getting rid of wheat grass. The main thing is to have patience for the next 2-3 years. Maybe you can get rid of them before, but this is unlikely. Главное, что вы им аппетит испортите и они нанесут значительно меньше вреда, чем если оставить все на самотек.
Как избавиться от проволочника. Выбирайте подходящие для вас способы борьбы с проволочником. Проволочник не любит такие растения:
- масличную редьку,
- черные бобы, фасоль, сою, горох,
Проволочник не любит нейтральную и щелочную среду, соответственно при посадке растений можно бросать немного золы в лунки или рядки. Sometimes they also throw onion peel or ashes, and onion peel together.
Wireworm likes marigolds (tagetes), BUT it is believed that the juice of these flowers is poisonous to him. So that's an additional plus for sowing marigolds on the plot. On the other benefits of Tagetes here.
A great method is bait for the wireworm. Since they love potatoes, feed them to them. Old potatoes should be cut (in half, into quarters or circles) and buried somewhere in the garden (preferably at the edges and at a distance of 1 m from each other). Dig in not deep - 7-15 cm deep.
The depth depends on the timing of the bait layout. If it is still cold, then it is possible to a depth of 15 cm, and if it is warmer and the earth warms up, then it can be higher. In any case, if the garden has nothing to eat, then the wireworms will crawl to the bait.
Be sure to check these places in order to check the baits from time to time (every 1-3 days) and destroy the wireworms gathered in them. Ash should not be added to the bait, otherwise they will not crawl there.
It is better to start making such baits long before planting the cultivated plants (1-2 weeks before planting). You can continue to place bait during the time when seedlings are planted or seeds are sown.
Since click beetles and their larvae love wheat grass, you need to get rid of this weed in the garden beds. How to do this will tell in the next article. However, getting rid of the wheatgrass is only part of the fight against the wireworm.
It is believed that the wire (and the wheat grass too) does not like the neighborhood of dahlias. Well, try to plant a few bushes in flowerbeds, for example. About species of dahlias can read here.
Sowing rye against the wireworm is questionable. Some believe that it helps to get rid of them, but in fact it attracts these larvae to itself more. You can use it as a bait and just pull out the plants along with the root, where there will most likely be a lot of wireworm. But I would hardly bother, but what you want.
In addition, rye takes on a lot of moisture, which can lead to a decrease in yield of other crops. It is believed that the wireworm lives exclusively in the soil and does not climb to the surface by itself. This is what gardeners use natural farming for growing potatoes on virgin soil.
What are they doing? When planting, they do not bury potatoes, but only lay them on the surface. Then fall asleep with straw and other mulch (a very thick layer). Due to this, the potato gives a good harvest, and the wireworms remain in the ground. Personally, I have not tried this method, but there is common sense in such actions.
And if you throw 1-2 seeds of black beans next to the potato (they are low and do not require tying to the support), and add some ash, then the chance of success will increase significantly.
Some summer residents make traps for the beetles themselves, collect them in jars and then destroy them. Someone crushes all dark and black beetles in a row. BUT, are they sure that all these bugs are harmful? Maybe among them a lot of useful creatures? By the way, the ground beetle is also dark ...
But those who use chemicals, I can only sympathize. Such people probably have a lot of sores, are spent first on chemistry for the garden, and then on chemistry for the treatment of diseases, then again on chemistry for the garden, and then again on medicines for themselves, their children and grandchildren.
Such people have no joy, their life is a continuous struggle ... Unfortunately, such people are hard to convince and they don’t even want to associate their diseases with “vegetables and berries grown at home”. But fortunately, every year there are more and more thinking people and those who understand the fallacy of the "chemical" path. As you can see, the measures to combat wireworm varied.
And now about preventive methods:
DO NOT CARRY THE EARTH FROM OTHER PLOTS, otherwise you can bring along with it both the larvae of the pests and the seeds of various weeds. Also, do not abuse rotted manure (I keep silent about fresh water), as it makes the soil more acidic.
If you still want to grow "forbidden" culture, then you have to spend a little more time for traps.
Well, that's all for today. I tried to talk as fully as possible about how to get rid of the wireworm. I hope I did it.
If you have questions - ask. If you know more interesting methods, how to deal with the wireworm, I will be glad to learn about them. By the way, maybe you have an idea or knowledge about the benefits of wireworms and click beetles? I wish harmony in your gardens!
Where wireworms come from
Nutcracker in the stage of additional feeding
May-June is a time when on flowers, leaves of trees and bushes, needles can be found quite seemingly innocuous beetles, which are called click beetles. Although at this time they are passing the stage of additional nutrition, they do not bring much harm. There are about 200 species.
Click beetles there are about 200 species
But the larvae of these beetles with a dense cover from almost white to brown are called wireworms, wireworms, or here and there, bruises, and are malicious pests, first of all, of potato plantations and root crops.
Wireworm - The Larva Beetle
The larvae are hatching from eggs that lay female click beetles into the ground or rotted wood. Depending on the type of beetle, the clutch can number from 100 to 350 eggs. After 3-4 weeks of them the larvae hatch, which develop in the ground for 3-5 years, grow, molt many times.
Then the larvae pupate and remain to winter in the ground at a depth of 15–20 cm.
Cheoz 3-5 years old wireworm turns into a pupa
In the spring, when the earth warms well, a new generation of click beetles emerges from the pupae.
Why fighting wirewinds is necessary
The endless natural conveyor of the emergence of all new wireworms is difficult to stop, since the click beetles are flying insects, and it is almost impossible to track and prevent their movements. Nevertheless, the subsequent stages of development of insects (laying and maturing of eggs, the appearance and development of larvae and pupae) take place in the midst of the earth, therefore surface spraying of plants, such as from Colorado beetles, does not work.
The larvae feed on the roots, rhizomes, roots of cultivated and wild plants, gnaw holes in them, and eat sown seeds in their land when they are in the land. On potato plantations, the damaged wireworm tuber begins to rot, and by the time of ripening such potatoes will simply become unfit for human consumption.. By the time of harvest, losses can be 40–60%.
By the time of harvest, the number of tubers damaged by wireworms can be 40–60% of the whole potato.
Agronomists recommend to begin the fight against wireworms, if there are 3 or more of them per 1 square meter of cultivated soil.
Of course, modern science could not help but come to the aid of farmers in solving such a difficult problem as the struggle with the wireworm. Most often vegetable growers and gardeners use such drugs as Prestige, Zemlin, Basudin, Provotoks.
But no matter how much in the description of this or that means would indicate its low toxicity, using chemical preparations, it is necessary to observe safety measures:
- use protective clothing, respirator, gloves,
- during work you can not eat, drink, smoke,
- after processing, you need to change clothes, wash hands and face.
The German drug Prestige is an insecticide with a fungicidal disinfectant. Active substances are:
- Imidacloprid, which blocks nerve impulse transmission at the level of insect receptors,
- Pencycuron, penetrating the cuticle of the plant and preventing the sprouting of the mycelium.
The tool has a third class of danger to animals and people, that is, it is necessary to work with it while observing safety measures.
It is used to process potato tubers before planting, seedling of solanaceous crops to protect them not only from the wireworms, but also from the Colorado beetles. An aqueous solution of this product, prepared according to the instructions on each package, reduces the number of tubers damaged by wireworms by 50, or even 70%, and protects completely from the Colorado potato beetle.
The effectiveness of this tool, my family experienced first hand when we first started to explore our suburban area. Due to inexperience, we did not pay enough attention to the fight against the wireworm, although there were quite a few of them. We began to use prestige as a means of fighting the Colorado beetles. He attracted our attention by the fact that being in stems and leaves, he really protects potatoes from these volatile and creeping pests from neighboring plots. And although the tool itself has a toxicity class 3 (moderately toxic), after 40 days, when the potatoes have already flourished, the drug is completely decomposed into harmless substances. In the second or third year, I don’t remember exactly, we noticed that the neighbors complain about the invasion of the wireworm, and we hardly see one or two in a season. Yes, Prestige is not a cheap tool, but with one shot it is possible to kill two birds with one stone - to protect the potato from the Colorado potato beetle and get rid of the wireworm.
This drug is one of the contact-intestinal insecticides, having a wide range of effects. It affects the ability of pests to feed and multiply, leading them to imminent death.
Adding an article to a new collection
The appearance of the wireworm at the site is difficult to confuse with anything else. This pest undermines the tubers and shoots of plants, and getting it is not easy, because it can burrow into the ground to a depth of several meters. But even with such a disaster you can fight.
The wireworm is not such an "untwisted" enemy of potatoes as the Colorado potato beetle. A lot is written about the latter and every season they advertise another new means of struggle, which "is guaranteed to get rid of the beetle." And to inconspicuous click beetles and their larvae, the wireworms, it seems no one cares. That is why their biology is poorly studied, control measures are few and ineffective. Yes, and detect the wireworm can not immediately, but when he comes across gardeners, the plant is usually not saved. Nevertheless, this scourge can be fought. But let's first examine it in detail.