Many gardeners and gardeners grow a variety of plants on their plots. Many of them play only a decorative role, while others may belong to the group of fruit and vegetable crops with a more extensive use. Among such cultures are the barberry ordinary from the barberry family of the same name. In habitat, this inhabitant is found in the highlands of the Northern Hemisphere.
Planting drummer and care for him
In our regions, one of the many varieties of this plant is grown under the name Thunberg barberry, which is decorated with landscape design near a private house or cottage. The ornamental shrub It looks very attractive, due to which, many gardeners respect him. We will deal with the main features of growing this variety at home.
Barberry Thunberg: description
Everything barberry varieties Thunberg are characterized by excellent winter hardiness, the absence of any diseases and amazing beauty. Compact crown will be able to decorate your territory for a long time. When spring comes, the drooping branches are covered with yellow or orange flowers resembling peculiar coins. In the autumn period, the twigs are covered with red berries with a brilliant shade. They are not edible, but are a good decorative value. In addition, different varieties can be very different from each other. Among the most popular are: Maria, Golden Carpet, Aurea, Orange Rocket and others. When grown in natural conditions, the color of such beauties is pale lemon.
- Dwarf shrubs Atropurpurea nana are famous for the purple-leaved form, the Red Chief variety has a chocolate shimmer, and the Admiration and Bagatelle species have gained great popularity due to the reddish-green ornament around the leaf edge,
- In the list of pinstripe varieties are Golden Ring, Kornik, Starburst ,
- Such popular varieties as Red Pillar, Golden Ruby and Erectra characterized by amazing colors of foliage and columnar shape,
- There are also creeping varieties, including Green karpet that perform the role of ground covers
Representatives of the popular variety Erect are characterized by a dense, wide-spread crown, which grows only up to 1 meter in height. The main part of the branches is directed vertically, but the side elements are able to choose any direction and bend at any angles. In early May, the bush is sprinkled with small white inflorescences, which soon form richly bright berries.
Barberry Erect has rounded leaves, which take on a light green hue in spring, and orange-red in autumn. Flowering begins in late May, when the bush is covered with abundant yellow inflorescences with a pleasant aroma. Already in October, the branches are covered with oblong fruits. Unfortunately, they are not edible and serve as decoration for the site throughout the winter.
Landing time and care rules
Planting of grafted branches in the open soil is carried out in early spring, but on condition that the land is completely thawed out and frost is not expected in the coming days. Often, gardeners plant a plant in the fall, when strong leaf fall begins. The shrub grows quietly in different conditions, including:
- outdoor areas in the garden,
- places near the hedge,
- on stony ground
However, the leaves look especially beautiful under the influence of the bright sun. Barberry favors soils with neutral acidity. If the figures are below 7p, the soil composition should be treated with limestone. This procedure is carried out before planting or a few days before it.
Choosing single landing option maintain the distance between the pits 1.5-2 meters. If you intend to create a beautiful composition, including a hedge from the barberry of Thunberg, then there should be 2 bushes per 1 square meter.
The size of the pit for seedlings is 40x40 centimeters. It is necessary to dig out such deepening in 2-3 weeks. In this case, the bottom is covered with a thin layer of sand. Immediately before planting, the sand is treated with a mixture of lime and ash, and then the seedling is lowered into the pit and tightly sprinkled with earth. After that, the ground should be filled with compost or peat. As for the ground part of the cutting, it is cut, and on the surface of the bush only a part with well developed buds is left.
Barberry care considered a great pleasure. Enough to fertilize it once during planting, and this feed is enough for the whole season. The following complex fertilizer is carried out only in the spring, and then once in 3-4 years. In the process of applying feed nitrogen. Other features of care include timely watering, regular loosening of the soil and clearing the area from weeds. Watering the bush is carried out in severe drought, when you need to pour warm water at the very root. The same applies to the procedure of loosening the substrate. In winter, the branches need to be cut or gathered in a bun.
Features of shrub reproduction
When landing The following methods are used:
- generative - when seeds are used,
- vegetative - cuttings, dividing or growing layers,
Choosing seed breeding method You need to comply with this description:
- In the autumn, before the coming cold weather, ripe fruits are picked from the branches.
- Then the pulp is separated from the stone, and the seeds are put in a solution of potassium permanganate,
- As early as next autumn, the seeds are sown in the depths of 1 centimeter, directly into open ground,
- In springtime, shoots need to be thinned, so that a distance of 3 centimeters appears between them,
- Seedlings are grown in the garden from one to two years, after which they are transplanted to a permanent place,
Regarding the cutting method, it is executed this way:
- First you need to choose a beautiful ornamental shrub from which suitable cuttings will be removed,
- Then you need to remove the lower leaves, shortening the upper half of the scissors,
- The branches are placed in a solution of epine, heteroauxin, root, or other similar preparations for the more productive formation of rhizome,
- After that, the finished planting material is placed in a wet substrate in greenhouse conditions, where further rooting will take place,
- To avoid mold and other formations, the greenhouse should be periodically aired,
Reproduction using layering spend something like this:
- In spring, the lower branch with a strong annual runaway is separated from the adult perennial barberry Thunberg,
- Under the branch a 20-centimeter-deep groove is pulled out, after which the escape is submerged there without taking it from the branch,
- In the autumn, the planted otvodok transplanted to a permanent place,
The method of dividing the bush looks like that:
- A plant aged 3-5 years old needs to be dug,
- Then it is necessary to divide the roots into several equal parts with the help of a secateur, after treating the sections with a special solution,
- The resulting planting material is transplanted into the prepared pits,
- If the branching of the shoots occurs above the level of the soil, it means that one cannot propagate a particular variety in this way,
Features trimming barberry
As for the cutting measures, they can be intended not only for decorative, but also for sanitary purposes. The first procedure is carried out for plants aged 8-10 years. To achieve this age, the bush can be pruned annually, in the autumn.
When carrying out cutting it is necessary to use a sharp pruner, brush cutter and garden hacksaw. It is important to follow the safety rules and take into account such a feature as spiny shoots. In the process it is better to protect yourself with protective gloves. For a start, it is enough to cut off all the old shoots, which are located near the soil, which is necessary to give a certain shape of the bush. Then you can begin the formation of the crown, cutting out part of the young shoots. Such pruning is considered rejuvenating.
There is no special need for constant pruning of the bush, except for some ornamental varieties that are covered with too long shoots as they grow and develop. Also pruning is best done if you wish to remove the ends of the shoots that are frozen for the winter.
Care for decorative barberries
Planting and care for the decorative barberry - very fascinating occupation. There are no particular difficulties in maintaining such a variety, since It does not require frequent watering or heavy dressing. Moistening of the trunk circle is carried out in a period of prolonged drought.
In the rest of the period it is enough natural precipitation. To prevent the water in the irrigation from spreading to the sides, create a cushion with a height of 10 centimeters around the perimeter of the tree circle, or select the soil from under the bush to make the tree circle larger. Watering is carried out using warm water, which is poured directly under the root. After abundant watering, it remains to loosen the soil around the bush and rid the area of weeds.
Choosing Fertilizer for Thunberg better to prefer organic products, including nutrient compost or humus. It is better to make the last options in the spring before the upcoming digging In autumn, the soil under the bushes is better to mulch with loose organic material, which can be used as peat or loose compost.
Diseases and pests
Barberry Thunberg characterized by very strong immunity. However, it is not immune from some diseases and problems, so you need to know how to deal with them. From the pests of barberry need to highlight aphids and the moth flower. When dealing with the last pest, it is better to use Chlorofos or Decis solution. The fight against barberry aphids consists of spraying the bush with a solution of laundry soap, in a proportion of 300 grams per bucket of water. Also, tobacco broth manifests itself well (500 grams of fringe per 10-liter bucket of soap solution). If folk remedies are ineffective, you will have to use the help of acaricides, including Actellic, Aktar, Antitlin and others.
Many problems with the development of barberry appear when a bush is affected by powdery mildew, spotting or rust. Such diseases cause drying of shoots, loss of decoration and other troubles. For the fight enough to treat the plant with a solution of colloidal sulfur or a mixture of sulfur and limestone. With a strong defeat, you will have to remove the affected shoots, cutting them with shears.
If you do not take preventive and curative measures for the disease spotting, it will cause rapid drying and leaf fall. Effective wrestling involves treating the shrub with oxychloride solution in a proportion of 30 grams per 10-liter bucket of water. The shrub is treated twice: before flowering, and after. The vital activity of individual fungal microorganisms is accompanied by the desiccation of barberry shoots. To prevent the development of such an adversity, it is necessary to cut off the infected parts in time and process it with the help of fungicidal preparations.
In spring time bright orange spots may appear on the upper side of young leaves, and spores may appear on the lower side. This disease is called rust. If the disease continues to progress, the leaves will dry out and fall prematurely. To get rid of the infection, the barberry is sprayed with a two percent solution of Bordeaux mixture, or 1.5% solution of colloidal sulfur. The procedure is carried out after the blooming of the leaves, and then the treatment is carried out after another three weeks.
Planting and caring for the barberry of Thunberg is a very simple task, so even a novice gardener will be able to grow such an amazing plant on his plot. Compliance with the basic rules of planting and care will surely give its results. As a result, the usual ornamental shrub will be a very bright decoration for landscape design in your garden in the country.
Barberry Thunberg - description
Barberry of Thunberg is a shrub up to 2.5 m in height with rejected arcuate ribbed branches, red or red-orange shoots that become dark brown or brown with the passage of time. Both shoots and branches are covered with simple and elastic spines up to 1 cm long. The leaves of this plant are rounded, spatulate or oval-diamond-shaped, slightly pointed or rounded at the top and tapered at the base. The length of the leaves together with the handle can reach 2 cm, and the width - 1 cm. On the upper side, the leaves of the barberry of Thunberg are bright green, below are gray, and in autumn they become bright red. The flowers of the barberry of Thunberg, single or collected in bundles or brushes, 2-5 inside, yellow on the outside, red, reach 1 cm in diameter. The fruits of the barberry of Thunberg are coral-red shiny ellipsoid berries up to 1 cm long. Flowering occurs in May , fruiting - in the beginning or middle of autumn.
When plant barberry Thunberg
It is best to engage in planting barberry Thunberg in the fall, during the period of leaf fall: before the winter the plant will have time to take, but will not start to grow, because with the onset of cold weather will enter a period of rest. You can plant a barberry of Thunberg in the spring, but you need to have time to do this before the buds begin to swell, although seedlings with a closed root system can be planted during the entire growing season.
Success in growing barberry Tunberg can be achieved only by creating the necessary conditions for its growth and development, so you need to take a responsible approach to choosing a place for it. Almost all the barberries of this species prefer open sunny areas protected from the cold wind. Mostly bright light is needed for varieties with red and purple leaves, and varieties with dark green foliage grow well both in the sun and in partial shade. The soil composition should be light and well drained. In areas with heavy soils that are hardly permeable to air and moisture, the landing pits are filled with specially prepared soil consisting of 2 parts of sod land, into which one part is filled with humus and sand. As for the soil pH, the Thunberg barberry is able to grow in acidic soil, but neutral soil (6-7.5 pH) is still preferable, therefore 200 g of wood ash or 300-400 g of slaked lime are added to acidic soil before planting. every plant.
How to plant the barberry Thunberg
Prepare a planting pit for a sapling with a depth and a diameter of about half a meter. The interval between the two plants should be at least one and a half meters, for dwarf shrub varieties a distance of 50 cm is enough, but if you are going to grow a hedge from the Thunberg barberry, it is better to dig under it not pits, but a trench 50 cm wide and 50 two saplings per 1 m².
At the bottom of the pit is laid for drainage layer of sand with a thickness of 10 cm, then poured in the center of the hill from the soil, set a seedling on it, straighten its roots and fill the remaining space with an earthen mixture. After planting, the surface around the seedling is lightly tamped and watered abundantly. When water is absorbed, the near-stem circle is mulched with organic material, for example, humus or peat, after which the seedling is cut, leaving no more than three buds on each branch.
Care for the barberry Thunberg
Planting barberry Thunberg and care for him is practically no different from the process of growing any other ornamental shrubs. The first time after planting and until the plant grows, it is watered no more than once per decade, and later, when the barberry becomes mature, watering will be needed only during a prolonged drought, and during the rest of the time it will be quite natural. precipitation. Build an earthen roller about 10 cm high around the perimeter of the wheel circle to prevent the water from spreading over the area during watering, but to be absorbed into the ground around the bush. To moisten the soil using water heated in the sun, which is poured at the root. When water is absorbed, you can loosen the soil in the root zone and remove the weeds.
As fertilizers, it is preferable to use organic matter — humus or compost, which is applied every spring to the near-trunk circle for digging the soil, and in the fall, the root zone is covered with peat or dry compost. Once every three to four years in the spring, each plant is fertilized with a solution of 20-30 g of urea in 10 liters of water. If you prefer to feed the barberry with mineral complexes, then Kemira Universal has proved itself best in this regard, a solution of 15 g of which in a bucket of water is poured into the stem of each barberry at the beginning of July and at the end of the season.
Trimming the barberry of Thunberg is not necessary, unless you have to shorten some shoots sticking out of the spreading crown, giving the plant a sloppy look. However, sanitary cleaning will have to be done every spring: when young leaves appear on the plant and it becomes obvious which shoots of the shrub were affected by frost, cut them to healthy tissue, and also cut out damaged, dry, diseased and thickening branches.
In the deep autumn, the trunks of the barberry of Thunberg are covered with organic material, and young plants under the age of five years in places with frosty winters protect it from frost with spruce leaves. Большие кусты барбариса в холодных краях укрывают, как гортензии или розы, стянув шпагатом и огородив цилиндром из металлической сетки, высота которого должна превышать куст на 10 см.The space between the bush and the walls of the mesh cylinder is filled to the top with dry leaves, after which the cylinder is covered with spanbond or lutrasil.
Reproduction of Barbar Thunberg
The barberry of Thunberg is propagated by seeds, cuttings, shoots, layering and dividing the bush.
Only plant species propagate with seeds, since the varietal characteristics are not preserved by the generative method. However, it is thanks to generative reproduction that new plant varieties appear. The problem with the seed method is that only about 15 to 40 percent of the seed germinates. To improve the germination of seeds need to be scarified, that is, slightly damage the taut sheath, which does not allow the germ to break through to the outside. After scarification, seeds are sown in the open in the open ground to a depth of 4-5 cm, where they undergo natural hardening during the winter months, and in the spring you will be able to see seedlings that will need to be grown 2-3 years before the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
If you want to preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant you like, it is best to propagate it vegetatively. For example, semi-woody cuttings about 15 cm long or green cuttings with two or three internodes and an oblique lower cut. To speed up the process of rooting, the lower section of the cuttings is treated with a growth stimulator, after which the cuttings are planted in a peaty-sandy substrate, placing them at an angle and covering them with a transparent cap with holes made for ventilation. It will be possible to remove the coating only when new leaves begin to appear on the cuttings.
The Thunberg barberry is most easily propagated by layering: lay the low-growing branches of the bush on the ground, fix it in this position and sprinkle it with fertile soil. During the season, water and feed them at the same time as the mother plant, and in the autumn, separate peeled leaves from the bush and plant them in a permanent place.
It is advisable to divide the bush only if there is a need to transplant the plant, since there is a risk of damage during the procedure of the roots of the queen cell. And transplantation and division of the bush should be carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow, or in the fall, after the leaf fall. The bush is dug out, its roots are carefully released from the ground, and then the bush is divided so that each part has healthy, strong roots and shoots. Delenki immediately planted in pre-prepared pits.
Barberry Thunberg in landscape design
Most often, the Thunberg barberry is used as a hedge, as this plant has not only high decorative characteristics, but also sharp prickles that protect the garden from uninvited guests. However, the creation of such a fence can take up to seven years.
Low-growing varieties of barberry Thunberg grow as a curb, and they successfully replace in this capacity the traditional boxwood. Good dwarf varieties of plants in rabatka and shrub mixborders. In Japanese gardens, the varieties Atropurpurea Nana, Kobolt and Green Carpet, formed in the form of pillows, fully replace the usual small-leaved azaleas.
The barberry of Thunberg is beautiful in the rock garden, on the shore of the reservoir, and as an accent in dwarf compositions, and as an element of large landscape plantings.
For planting shrubs, it is better to choose an open, well-illuminated place on the site. Light shading he tolerates well. In a dense shade the plant will not perish, but the lack of light will negatively affect its decorative effect. First of all, it concerns the variety Maria, as well as the red-leaved varieties of the barberry of Thunberg. The color of their leaves from bright and saturated will turn into faded and inexpressive.
It is possible to plant a bush on any soils. In nature, it is often found on poor nutrients, but loose sandy lands - on the banks of rivers, on the slopes of ravines.
In order for the barberry of Thunberg to develop successfully, the ground must meet only two requirements:
- be well drained
- freely pass to the root system of the plant air.
Drought culture tolerates easily, but is sensitive to stagnant moisture. If the site is characterized by high groundwater, a thick drainage layer of expanded clay or rubble is placed on the bottom of the landing pit. A heavy, poorly air-permeable and moisture-retaining earth with a high content of clay is best facilitated by the introduction of sheet humus, compost and sand. The first component can be replaced by forest soil.
For the Admiration variety, an easy and nutritious substrate of three equally mixed components is ideal:
Maria's cuttings should be placed in a rich organic and moist soil. Prefers shrub neutral soil. If the land in the area is acidic (with a pH value in the range of 6-7.5), limestone, slaked lime or wood ash is added to it.
In the open ground barberry Thunberg usually planted in the spring. So that the shrub settles well in the new place, it is important not to be late with the terms of the procedure. It is carried out while the buds of the plant are still asleep. It is possible and autumn planting has already gone into a state of rest bushes. Some gardeners consider it more effective, since the growing season for the plant does not occur immediately, but only the next year. Others prefer not to risk, as the probability of the freezing of young barberries is high.
Planting pattern depends on the desired result and the selected variety. Dwarf forms of a plant, for example, Admiration, can be placed closer to each other - at a distance of 0.5 m. Between tall single bushes leave at least 1.5-2 m of free space. It will need them for full development. They are planted in previously dug holes, the depth of which should be 35 cm and width 50 cm. If it is planned that in the future the barberry will form a hedge, the distance between the plants is reduced to 50 cm. It is more convenient to plant them in a trench.
A layer of sand is poured at the bottom of the dimple, it will allow the root system of the shrub to breathe better. Then it is filled with a nutrient mixture in which the plant is placed. Carefully straightening its roots, the pit is filled with the prepared substrate. It is compacted near the bush, and then a sapling is plentifully watered. The soil around the stem of the plant should be mulched. It is better to use for this organic material (humus, dry leaves). In the spring, the barberry will be quicker if the upper part of the seedling is cut to the level of 3-5 buds.
Well affect the rooting of the young plant special preparations - growth accelerators. They are sprayed sapling before placing in the ground.
Until the bush takes root in a new place, it needs regular watering. They are held in the spring every 10 days, preventing the soil from drying out. The lack of moisture can be judged by the appearance of the soil at the base of the stem of the plant. If a dry cobweb has appeared there, it is a sure sign that the sapling needs urgent watering.
Rules for watering and fertilizing
Barberry Thunberg is extremely unpretentious, a lot of time to care for him in the spring and summer will not go away. Watered shrub rarely. In dry weather, it is enough to do it only once a week, and on rainy days, it will be sufficiently obtained by natural moisture. It is necessary to pour water only under the root, trying not to overdo it with the amount of liquid. Its deficiency is tolerated most of the varieties of plants, but an excess can reflect badly on them.
For some varieties of culture, an exception will have to be made. If the barberry of Thunberg Maria is grown in the sun, you need to water the bush regularly. Otherwise, its rich yellow leaves with a spectacular red border can become covered with burns and even crumble. A layer of mulch will help keep the plant's moisture in the soil. As needed, it will need to pour. Both the Admiration and all other varieties of this barberry respond well to soil loosening. It performs two functions at once:
- facilitates the passage of oxygen to the roots of the shrub,
- allows you to easily and quickly get rid of disturbing its full development of weeds.
The barberry of Thunberg is a fruit bearing plant, but it will please you with a harvest only with proper care, which requires regular feeding. They begin to carry out when the age of the shrub reaches 2 years. In spring, high nitrogen content is important to him. Good results are obtained by watering the barberry with a solution of urea (20-30 g of the drug per 1 bucket of water).
From summer to fall, fertilizers use complex mineral preparations rich in phosphorus and potassium. Repeat feeding according to this scheme every 3-4 years. Experienced gardeners sprinkle the soil around the plant stem with compost. It is recommended to do this twice during the growing season.
Trimming and preparation for winter
Tall varieties of barberry Thunberg need annual pruning. It is most convenient to hold it in early spring, while the leaves on the plant have not yet dismissed, but you can postpone the procedure until late autumn. Pruning allows you to heal the shrub and increase its decorativeness. In order for the plant to be strong and beautiful, it is necessary to ruthlessly remove from it diseased diseases and pests, dry, weak, insufficiently developed and directed into the bush branches. As a result, strong and viable shoots are better lit and get more space for development.
Need a procedure and to give the bushes culture of the desired shape. If their crown is friable, shortening the branches protruding from it is not enough. In the composition of the hedge trimmed barberries only at the age of 2 years. You can safely remove up to ⅔ shoots. The procedure is carried out twice per season: in the first and last days of the summer.
Most dwarf and krasnolistnyh varieties (Admiration, as well as barberry, in the name of which there is a prefix "red") frequent pruning is not required. Their crown itself is compact and does not need to be configured. Cut them solely for sanitary purposes, removing frost-beaten and excess branches. Many gardeners do not trim the stunted plants at all.
One of the advantages of the barberry Thunberg is its high frost resistance. It can easily withstand temperatures as low as -35 ° C. Even if its bushes freeze slightly, with the beginning of the growing season, they will gradually restore their luxuriant crown. Almost all varieties of this barberry, and especially Admiration, are suitable for cultivation in regions with severe winters. But in the first years of life, while the shrub has not yet fully grown, it is better to cover it for the time of cold weather with withered foliage, dry needles or spruce branches. For evergreen varieties of culture within 2-3 years after planting in the ground such protection is required.
It is a pleasure to grow up a barberry of Thunberg on a plot, because you will not have to pay much attention to plantings, and you can spend a long time admiring their bright beauty. In the spring, the shrub attracts attention with its unusual colors, in the summer - with bright foliage of various, sometimes even contrasting shades. In autumn his scarlet berries will complement his outfit.
The shrub almost does not need care, it is not affected by dangerous diseases - rust and powdery mildew. His agricultural technology will seem familiar to those who have experience in breeding other types of barberry. This plant is not afraid of either arid hot summer or severe frosty winters. Even its single bushes will be the highlight of the site. And in group plantings, they turn into a charming hedge, which can replace the standard boring fence: through thick thickets covered with sharp prickles, intruders will not get through.
Varieties and varieties of barberry Thunberg
Of the entire family of barberries, the view of Thunberg stands out for its many merits. Firstly, its high decorative effect, secondly, this species is resistant to powdery mildew and rust. Gas and smoke resistant, well tolerates shaping haircut. No other barberry has such a variety of varieties. All of them differ in the shape and size of the crown, the color of the leaf plate and the growth rate, as can be seen in the photo.
- Atropurpurea Nana is the most popular dwarf variety with purple leaves.
- Red Pilar - has a columnar crown. Its reddish-purple foliage becomes scarlet by the end of the growing season.
- Golden Ring - a sheet plate of this variety has a coral color with a golden border on the edges. Reaches 3 m in height.
- Aurea - reaches 1.5 m, the leaves are golden or yellow in color.
- Kobold is a dwarf variety with green leaves. The crown is shaped like a ball. Can replace boxwood. Requires shelter for the winter.
- Green Carpet– bush height reaches 50 cm. Foliage is green in summer and red in autumn.
- Kornik - this cultivar of 1.5 m height is well combined with roses and conifers. The leaves are green in summer with white spots, and in the fall the green color turns red.
High grades due to the thorns form impassable hedges in the form of ribbons of different lengths. Looks great as a curb, can replace boxwood in cold regions. Suitable for creating a rocky garden and strengthen the slopes. Low varieties are perfectly combined with conifers and perennial flowers.
Barberry is undemanding to the place of growth. It can grow well in open areas and in partial shade. However, varieties with purple leaves in the shade may lose their decorative effect.
The barberry prefers to grow on soils with neutral acidity, it is necessary to add wood ash or lime to the soil with high acidity. The most important thing for the barberry is the absence of moisture stagnation.
The barberry is planted in early spring, before budding begins. If the bushes are planted alone, the distance between them should be from 1.5 to 2 meters. A planting pit for one plant is about 50 x 50 cm and a depth of 35 cm. When planting a hedge, two saplings are planted per meter. Under the landing of the fence is better to dig a trench. To improve the respiration of the root cannon, they sprinkle with sand and cover the pit with nutrient earth with the addition of humus and wood ash. Water and compact the ground.
Pristvolny circle mulch humus, foliage or any organic material. In order for the plant to stick well, they cut off the aerial part, leaving 3 - 5 buds. Watering the barberry is needed when planting and once every 10 days, until the seedling is taken.
Barberry seedlings purchased in a container can be planted at any time, except for winter - they are perfectly acclimatized, since the root system is not injured.
Tip Use only fully ripe berries of barberry, immature can be poisonous.
Fertilizer and dressing
In the first year after planting, you do not need to make any additional fertilizer, the barberry will be enough of those that are made in the planting pit. The following year, in early spring, feed the shrub with a solution of urea or any fertilizer with an increased dose of nitrogen. Then fertilized once in 4 years:
- in the spring - nitrogenous,
- in the fall - phosphate and potash.
Propagation of barberry
Barberries are propagated by various methods: seeds, cuttings, layering and dividing the bush. Each of these methods is convenient in its own way, choose the most suitable.
Reproduction by seeds. Pick ripe berries, separate the seeds from the pulp, disinfect them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dry. Sow the seeds in shkalku to a depth of 1 cm. In spring, young shoots are thinned so that the distance between shoots remains about 3 cm. Two-year-old seedlings are planted in a permanent place. After a couple of years, young bushes will give the first berries. In order to sow the seeds in the spring, they must be stratified for a long time at a temperature of 2 to 5 degrees.
Reproduction by cuttings. For this method will need a greenhouse or shkolka. Cuttings harvested in June. It is better to do it in the early morning, before the onset of heat. The leaves are removed from the cuttings, leaving only at the crown, shortened by half. Put the cuttings in a bucket with a solution of the root for several hours to stimulate the formation of roots. Planted cuttings in shkalku in fertile moist soil. The first two weeks closely monitor the soil moisture and timely airing. As with the first method, cuttings are planted in a permanent place two years later.
Reproduction by layering. In early spring, choose the strongest escape, lay it in the earthen groove and pin it. The end of the shoot must be above ground. The part that you will be dropping can be slightly scratched for faster root formation. In autumn, the finished seedling can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Dividing bush breed mainly stunted varieties of barberry Thunberg. To do this, choose the bushes 3 - 5 years of age, which branch out from ground level. In early spring, the bush is completely dug up and divided with a saw. Try to injure the root system as little as possible. Process slices with a weak solution of manganese or sprinkle with charcoal. Sit down delenki.
Agrotechnology and barberry care
Barberry needs watering only in case of severe drought in the first years of life. Further, a strong root system itself is able to provide the plant with water. Watering is carried out under the root of warm water.
Most varieties of barberry Thunberg does not need pruning. Обычно это только санитарная обрезка подмёрзших и загущающих побегов, а также лишней поросли. Сорта с рыхлой кроной формируют укорачиванием торчащих побегов. Низкорослые сорта вообще можно не подстригать. Для создания изгороди стригут барбарис в июне и второй раз в августе.
Барбарис очень хорошо переносит морозы до – 35 градусов, но молодые кустики в первые зимы лучше прикрыть на зиму лапником или сухими листьями, особенно сорта с вечнозелёной кроной.
TipThe berries of most varieties of barberry Thunberg contain alkaloids, therefore, they taste bitter and are not eaten. But birds willingly feed on the berries in winter.
How and where to plant the barberry Thunberg correctly
Decorative plants are determined by sufficient sunlight. Therefore, before planting the barberry Thunberg, decide what color of plants you prefer. In a place open to the sun, the leaves of the barberry will be juicy, bright with a purple color, on the crown part the color of the leaves will be green. You can not plant barberries in lowland areas: there is often accumulated rainfall, and the plant does not like their surplus.
Barberry Thunberg is not against neighbors, but there should be a distance of about one and a half meters between them for the full development of the shrub and the acquisition of a decorative look. You should not plant it near the windows of the house: the plant attracts insects that will bother you.
Planting barberry shrubs can be in the spring and autumn, but there are some nuances. When planting, you decide: in the spring, do it before the buds bloom. In the autumn - note that the root system must be developed and strong for a quiet winter.
Prepare the ground before planting: mix two parts of sod land, one sand and one humus. In such a soil, the shrub will receive all the necessary nutrients and oxygen, thanks to the sand.
Watering and mulching the soil
If precipitation regularly falls in summer, the plant does not need additional watering. Water once a week with a lack of moisture or no rain. To saturate the soil with oxygen and rid the plant of weeds, carry out regular loosening. Weeds do not just interfere with the barberry, but also pull nutrients out of the ground, thereby weakening the development of the shrub. Immediately after planting barberry seedlings, mulch around the trunk. You can use sawdust, nutshell or peat.
At the age of two it's time to do the thinning barberry. Barberry pruning is carried out in the spring to remove dry and weakened branches. If this is not done, they will interfere with the growth and development of new shoots. In addition, it will form the crown of the plant. In order to distinguish dry branches, wait until the leaves appear, they will prompt. In early spring, pruning may remove up to 70% of shoots. Sometimes the shrub needs re-thinning. It depends on the variety that you grow. In this case, conduct additional pruning barberry autumn.
Winter hardiness of barberry
Young plants in the late fall, it is desirable to cover spruce branches. Take shelter as soon as the temperature drops to -7 ° C. In this case, the soil will freeze to 5 cm. The immature root system must be protected, and, in addition, the branches must be protected from freezing and ice. You can wrap shoots in sackcloth, and cover with lutrasil on top and roll them up with a rope so that it does not open up when the wind gusts. If you use only one material, the plant will peel. In the spring, remove the shelter early so that it does not restrict the plant to grow.
For breeding division dig a bush, divide into several bushes. Each must have strong shoots. On the same day, delenki need to be planted on the prepared soil. Water frequently, but not abundantly.
The use of barberry Thunberg in landscape design
Each barberry variety differs in some way from another type of shrub — its height, crown shape, color of leaves, flowers, and even branches. All these differences give gardeners and landscape designers an extraordinary flight of fancy. The barberry can be used both on beds, and in a mixborder, in the Alpine hill. Low-growing shrubs will be a multicolored border, and the height of a bush of barberry Thunberg up to two meters makes it a wonderful living fence. Varieties of plants growing in the form of columns will be good in a single planting or will become a central figure in any decorative plot.
Due to the wide palette of color barberry, you can combine as you like in rock gardens and mixes compositions, creating masterpieces of design art. Very beautifully colored barberry will look on the background of decorative needles. In general, all varieties get along well with conifers and flowers. In addition to purely decorative purposes, you can spread barberries on the slopes to strengthen the soil.
What diseases and pests can spoil the barberry, how to deal with them
One of the most dangerous parasites of the barberry is aphid. Because of it, the leaves dry and frown. Shoots do not produce buds. In the spring, for prevention, the bushes should be sprayed with tobacco dust tincture. The peppered moth strikes the fruits of barberry. To get rid of it, treat Fufanon or Decis.
Fungal diseases are also dangerous for the barberry. Mealy dew affects the entire aboveground part of the plant. Symptom - white bloom, the method of struggle - spraying sulfur-containing drugs. It is necessary to carry out spraying two times: during blooming of buds and after flowering. If necessary, you can spray in the fall. Damaged areas must be removed. Rusty spots on the leaves weaken the plant, shoots develop poorly and freeze over in the winter. Before and after flowering shrubs sprayed with copper oxychloride.
The barberry of Thunberg will make your site unique, saturated with all sorts of colors and shapes. This plant is unpretentious, which makes it possible to grow it in almost any conditions, decorating their garden and flower garden.
Planting and caring for the Thunberg barberry (in short)
- Bloom: in May.
- Landing: in the spring before the start of sap flow or in autumn, in October.
- Lighting: species with red and burgundy leaves need bright light, and plants with green foliage develop well in partial shade.
- The soil: light, not swampy, deeply drained.
- Watering: only during the period of protracted drought.
- Top dressing: organic is preferable: compost and humus are applied to near-stem circles in the spring under digging, and in the fall the root zone is mulched with loose compost or peat.
- Pruning: there is no need for pruning, but sticking too long shoots from the crown can be shortened at any time. Sanitary pruning is best done in the spring, before the start of sap flow.
- Breeding: by seeds, by dividing the bush, cuttings, layering and undergrowth.
- Pests: aphid and floral moths.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, drying of shoots and leaf spot.