Often anthracnosis occurs in areas with warm and humid climate: in the south of Russia, in Moldova, Ukraine and Central Asia. Recently, he appeared already in Belarus and middle latitudes.
This is a very dangerous disease that affects mainly grape varieties resistant to mildew and oidium and not treated with fungicides. Anthracnose strikes all parts of the plant: shoots, leaves and berries. How not to miss the signs of the disease and recognize them in the initial stage?
Signs of grape anthracnose
If you do not start on time to carry out preventive measures, then there is every chance of the emergence of this unpleasant disease. First of all, anthracnose leaves are affected. First, they are covered with small dark dots, which after some time turn into small brownish spots with a dark border.
A little later, these spots begin to appear on the shoots. Most susceptible to infection young leaves and stems.
These marks quickly grow, covering almost the entire area of the sheet, and acquire a pronounced dirty-pink shade. Damaged leaves dry out and crumble. It is not only the harvest that suffers, the often diseased plant simply dies.
Infected shoots become covered with long brown spotsthat sprout inward, expand and become dark brown. Affected areas begin to crack. In a long drought, shoots dry out and break off, and in wet weather they rot. More often suffer from anthracnose grape stalks, crests and inflorescences.
With the disease of clusters, on the berries appear concave inward round spots of brown color with a violet core. Because of the unusual pattern of these spots, anthracnose is often called the bird's eye. Over time, the berries crack, dry and fall off.
Causes of illness
Anthracnose is fungal disease. Its pathogen can live on the plant for quite a long time, about 5-6 years and does not manifest itself, until a certain point. The fungus overwinters on the shoots and leaves and awakens in early spring. Anthracnose very quickly becomes active at high humidity and t about + 25-35С.
The impetus for its appearance also serve:
- heavy rain with hail
- mechanical damage to the shoots by improper pruning,
- lack of potassium phosphate fertilizers,
- very sour or salty soil.
Methods of struggle
How to treat, if the disease could not be avoided? It is necessary to immediately remove and burn all the affected leaves and shoots and treat the plant with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. The first spraying should be carried out when the shoots reach a length of 7-10 cm, and the second after about 2 weeks, but with a 1% solution.
During processing, it is necessary to ensure that the drug falls on bottom side of the sheetbut did not flow down. For this it is good to use sprayers with small holes. Treatment is best done early in the morning or in the evening to avoid sunburn.
Unfortunately, folk remedies in the fight against this disease do not help, and if the disease is neglected, then you will have to resort to "heavy artillery" - systemic fungicides. Perfectly cope with anthracnose Ridomil, Abiga-Peak, Fundazol, Kartotsid, Ordan, Skor and Acrobat.
Recently, for the treatment of anthracnose grapes have become widely used. biological preparations: Gaupsin, Mikosan and Planriz. Processing should be carried out regularly, with an interval of 10-14 days and be sure to minimize the watering of the plant. Well, and, of course, do not forget about preventive measures.
To prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is necessary to properly care for the vineyard. Should not be allowed bush thickening.
It is necessary to carry out timely trimming and staking. Tools and equipment must be treated with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. The same solution can be processed and grape leaves.
In the spring, before flowering, it is necessary to spray a 1% Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride. After 2 weeks, the treatment is repeated. Pollinating with sulfur powder helps well.
In the autumn pruning all remote parts of the plant are burned. Soil regularly thoroughly loosenedwater and mulch. Be sure to use complex fertilizers, with a predominance of calcium and phosphorus, dig up between the rows and destroy the weeds. After heavy rains with hail, the Bordeaux mixture or fungicides are immediately treated.
Especially often suffer from anthracnose varieties such as:
- Dniester pink,
Less susceptible to infection varieties:
Anthracnose - terrible diseasewhich can kill an entire vineyard in a matter of days. If earlier separate regions suffered from this misfortune, with a warm and humid climate, now geographic coverage is becoming ever wider and there is no way to do without protective measures.
Dangerous disease of grapes: anthracnose
Grape anthracnose is a fungal disease, the development of which largely occurs in the green aerial parts of the plant: leaves, shoots, inflorescences and berries (before they start ripening). The causative agent of the disease is the fungus Gloeosporium ampelinum. Sass, which at the initial stage forms a colorless mycelium, turning brown with time. Under the cuticle on the mycelium, short cylindrical conidiophores with colorless single conidia are formed. Forming throughout the growing season and growing, they tear apart the cuticle, with the result that conidia protrude. The incubation period at the optimum temperature for the development of the fungus - 23–32 ° C is 3–4 days. Vineyards that grow in areas of humid climate and high temperatures suffer most from anthracnose. The disease is particularly pronounced in wet rainy weather and can cause damage to the plant at the very beginning of the growing season.
Signs of Anthracnose
To determine the appearance of anthracnose can be on the leaves, which affects the disease in the first place. On them are formed spots of light gray color, the edges of which are surrounded by an uneven dark brown or reddish rim. Appearing in the form of small spots and dots, in the process of developing the disease, they increase, acquiring angularity. This leads to the destruction of leaf tissue in the affected areas and the loss of such areas causing the formation of holes.
Anthracnose grapes along with the defeat of the leaves covers shoots, appearing on them brownish small spots with uneven edges. As the bush grows, they are drawn out and pressed in, acquiring a coffee shade with dark purple edges. Such ulcers on the plant, which often merge into one whole spot, ring the shoots, can be very deep, besides the bark, seize the woody part, rather than disturb the supply of nutrients. Strongly affected parts of the grape bush become charred, black, easily broken. The leaves on them are small, often dried. How to treat anthracnose grapes? Photo of damaged shoots shows the danger of this fungal disease for the grape bush. It is obvious that it is impossible to let everything take its course.
Anthracnose grapes are particularly dangerous for young ridges, infecting them during flowering or earlier. As a result, the inflorescences dry out and die (partially or fully). Berries also fall under the anthracnose lesion. Deformed, with depressed spots and uneven growth on clusters, they represent a very sad sight, often torn and exposing seeds in the places of defeat.
Anthracnose resistant varieties
The strong development of the disease leads to browning and complete drying of the entire aboveground part of the plant, and, as a result, to its death. Anthracnose grapes can spread through raindrops, irrigation water, insects, and even working equipment. Most often, the disease occurs foci and mostly affects varieties such as Lydia, Husayne, Karaburnu, Isabella. Resistant to anthracnose are Tsolikouri, Riesling, Nimrang, Saperavi, Sauvignon.
The introduction of varieties resistant to anthracnose will be the most effective measure against this disease. But if the disease still hit the plant, how to treat the anthracnose grapes?
The fungus is able to overwinter on the remains of a vine and awaken along with the plant in the spring. Therefore, protective measures aimed at the prevention and control of the disease, include mandatory cutting and destruction of the affected shoots.
Preparations from anthracnose grapes
As a preventive measure, throughout the entire growing season, spraying with drugs such as Ridomil, Horus, Bordeaux Liquid is required, which should be used within a few hours after preparation. Processing is recommended to be carried out in calm weather in the morning or in the evening, without admitting fungicides to growing near crops. Such drugs are not washed away by rain, quickly penetrate the plant tissue and begin to act 2-3 hours after spraying.
Fight against anthracnose
Excellently proven in the fight against antrocnosis and microbiological preparations: "Gaupsin", "Planriz", "Mikosan", possessing powerful growth-promoting properties in addition to the protective action. The drugs are not toxic to humans and animals and do not affect the taste of the grown product. Efficiency in the fight against anthracnose is up to 94%. Also in the fight against fungal disease is recommended the use of drugs with a copper content, such as "Poliram", "Copper oxychloride", "Abiga - Peak", "Cartocid". Their use is made when vegetative shoots reach 10-15 centimeters in length.
The causes of the disease
Grape anthracnose is a disease caused by the frost-resistant fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum Sacc. Causative agent has the ability to persist for more than four years in the remaining parts of the affected vine, on seeds or simply in the ground.
During the season, fungal spores can give up to three dozen generations. In spring, rainfall and an increase in the temperature of the air intensify the vital activity of the fungus. The presence of moisture contributes to the spread of anthracnose to healthy plants.
The development of the disease is affected by:
- excessive watering,
- potassium and phosphorus deficiency in the soil,
- increased soil acidity,
- heavy rains
- improper pruning, damage to the bushes,
- poor drainage and stagnant water in the soil,
- plantings density.
Grapes can be exposed to anthracnose throughout the growing season. But still with the onset of dry weather at temperatures above 30 ° C, the likelihood of the spread of the disease is reduced. Without moisture access, spore adhesion occurs, which leads to the cessation of fungal activity.
Young stems with leaves are most susceptible to infection. Increases the likelihood of defeat by anthracnose in neglected, densely planted vineyards. In such plantings air access to the plant is limited. This contributes to moisture retention and the spread of fungus.
Signs of anthracosis
The disease manifests itself within a week after infection. The rate at which the first symptoms appear depends on the air humidity and temperature conditions.
Anthracnose can spread to all aboveground parts of grapes. You can determine the disease by the main features:
- Leaves. Brown rounded spots with a bright border appear on the affected hardwood plates. Over time, these marks increase, blur and form solid dark blots. The central part of the affected areas gradually begins to dry and dies. As a result, holes appear on the sheets.
- Inflorescences. The flowers of the plant darken, shrink and fall. Approximate to the affected inflorescence part of the bunch of grapes also deteriorates.
- Shoots. Fungus-infected stems of the vine are stained in brown, surrounded by a purple-tinged border. In the tissues of the plant, deep ulcers form that reach the very core. Shoots become brittle and die.
- Fruit. Gray depressed marks appear on the grapes, surrounded by a dark border. Young fruits affected by anthracnose, no longer ripen. They change shape, crack and crumble.
Due to the dark spots that are formed under the influence of fungal lesions, grape anthracnose is sometimes called a bird eye. Young weak plants are especially susceptible to the disease.
What threatens the development of the disease
Anthracnose can cause significant damage to the entire vineyard. Infected plants become vulnerable to various external influences. Fungal disease significantly reduces the frost resistance of the fruit crop.
Consequences from the development of anthracnose are very bad for grape bushes:
- development of shoots slows down,
- decreases the speed of the process of photosynthesis in the leafy part,
- Most of the hardwood plates fall from the bush,
- the quantity and quality of a harvest decreases.
The unformed inflorescences affected by the fungus, in most cases, die. With a strong infection from the soil to the plant stops the flow of nutrients, which can lead to the complete destruction of the bush.
When the first signs of anthracnose appear, pruned fragments of the vine are cut. All remote damaged parts are removed from the garden and burned.
In the early stages of grape anthracnose treatment is carried out Bordeaux mixture. Such an aqueous solution of potassium sulfate and hydroxide has antifungal effect and helps protect the plant from the development of the disease.
Before the appearance of buds on the shrub Bordeaux mixture processing is carried out twice. The first time is sprayed with 3% solution, and after two weeks with 1% mixture. The recommended dosage for grapes is 10–15 liters per 100 square meters. m
During the vegetative period, only 1% Bordeaux mixture is used. In order to avoid burns on the plant, it is best to carry out the treatment in the evening or early in the morning.
With strong, neglected fungal lesions, the culture is initially sprayed copper sulphate solutionand then apply complex fungicides. Experienced gardeners recommend using such chemicals of chemical origin for treating bushes:
All these drugs are diluted in water before use. After one and a half weeks is repeated treatment. Chemicals should be sprayed on the vine in dry weather so that the raindrops do not wash away the solution.
Many gardeners prefer biological antifungal agents. The most effective among them are considered broad-acting drugs - "Mikosan" and "Gaupsin."
The final stage of the field of full treatment of the vineyard is the eradication treatment, which helps to finally protect the plant from fungus and other pests. It is carried out in early spring or after trimming the bushes in the fall. For this, substances such as DNOC and Nitrofen are used. Since these drugs are toxic, they should be used with great care. To prevent poisoning with poison, you must comply with all the safety measures described in the instructions.
All chemical and biological agents used to treat a vineyard from anthracosis are aimed at preventing, treating and protecting only the surviving healthy part of the plant. Infected berries, inflorescences, leaves and stems can not be cured.
Causes of Anthracnose Development
- heavy rains and hail, humid hot climate
- too sour or salty ground
- lack of fertilizers (especially potassium and phosphorus)
- damage to the shoots due to improper pruning of plants, too much of the crown, not allowing enough light and air
Signs of Anthracnose Disease
- on young leaves (leaves are susceptible for up to a month) small dark spots appear, which eventually turn into brown spots with dark edging. Spots are also formed on the veins of the leaves. A distinctive sign of leaf damage by anthracnose is the destruction and loss of tissue in the areas of damage. Spots quickly grow and infect the whole leaf; soon the leaves dry and fall off.
- on young, not yet hardened shoots brown spots appear, over time they become dark brown in color, and the places affected by the disease crack to form deep ulcers, the shoots themselves dry and break in dry weather, and with abundant humidity they rot
- wounds appear on the petioles of the leaves and the crests of the hands, the edges of which are black and slightly raised,
- on berries (before ripening) brown round spots appear with a violet core, slightly depressed, with time become velvety in the middle. Due to the similarity of damage on berries in the people, anthracnose is called "bird's eye". After a while the berries crack, dry out and fall off. As a result, the berries in clusters grow unevenly and deform
Если поражённые части растений поместить на некоторое время в тёплую и влажную среду, то на них вскорости появится слегка отслаивающийся розоватый или розовато-оранжевый налёт.
Лечение антракноза винограда
Anthracnose is a serious disease that can almost completely destroy a vineyard, as it spreads with rain, wind and even through garden tools. Folk remedies in the fight against this disease do not help, so the treatment should begin immediately when it is identified:
- All infected shoots, leaves, inflorescences are urgently removed and burned.
- The affected plant is treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture (the first treatment is carried out when the shoots grow up to 10 cm, and the second - in a couple of weeks, but with a 1% solution).
- When carrying out spraying, the underside of the sheet must be processed, while not allowing the solution to flow down (this will help sprayers with small holes). Treatment is recommended in the morning or evening to prevent sunburn. It is also worth remembering that spraying is carried out in calm, calm weather to avoid irrigation of nearby plants.
- The patient is treated with copper sulfate (a couple of weeks after treatment with Bordeaux mixture).
- In the case of neglected diseases, systemic fungicides (Ridomil, Abiga-Pik, Ordan, Skor, Acrobat, Kartotsid, Fundazol) and biological preparations (Mikosan, Planriz, Gaupsin) are applied in a complex manner. Processing is carried out regularly, with a frequency of a couple of weeks. It is very important to minimize the watering of the plant.
- In the spring, before bud break, in order to destroy the fungus after hibernation, the plants are treated with the preparations DNOC, Nitrofen.
Vulnerable and anthracnose-resistant grapes
More often than others such grapes are affected by anthracnose:
- Dniester pink
These grapes are not advised to plant in places where previously recorded anthracnose flashes.
Increased resistance to disease anthracnose identify varieties:
Such varieties can stop the development and reproduction of pathogens, although they are not immune to diseases.
Anthracnose - the main signs of the disease
Anthracnose refers to those diseases that can be easily recognized. Symptoms of the disease appear a week after infection with this fungus. Grape leaves are covered with brown spots, at the edges they become completely dark. After some time, the sheet darkens completely. As for the stem of the plant, it is also covered with brown oblong spots that grow inside.
They are an obstacle to the proper distribution of essential nutrients.
If timely treatment does not occur, then these spots increase and noticeably darken. Later, as the disease progresses, the stem and leaves of the vine begin to break, and rot appears on them. These processes occur in the case of high humidity. And if there is a prolonged drought, then the affected areas of the plant will crack, the stem breaks.
When grapes are heavily infected with anthracnose, the leaves (starting from the bottom) intensively dry and crumble. It is noticed that if the treatment does not come in time, then the plant can lose up to 70% of foliage. With the defeat of the stalk berries also fall. Productivity, respectively, decreases by 2, or even 3 times.
Grape anthracnose - treatment of disease
If the plant in your garden still has time to become infected, it is necessary to treat the grape anthracnose. As a rule, areas affected by the disease are cut off and burned. If the infection is noticed at an early stage, then you need to carefully spray or wipe the stem and leaves Bordeaux liquid (3%). A week later, repeat the procedure, only the liquid is already used 1% (as in the prevention).
For intensive treatment of plants used fungicides. Currently their choice is huge. The most popular are: Abiga-Pik, Previkur, Skor, Fundazol, Ordan, Acrobat MC. As a fungicide, you can use ordinary copper sulphate. It can be used as the first stage of treatment, and then use the fungicides listed above.
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Processing must be carried out regularly. The interval between treatments is 14 days. If after processing rain or hail has passed, it must be repeated immediately. The most dangerous anthracnose can cause grapes growing in the southern regions. There is the most suitable climate for this disease: humidity and air temperature.
Anthracnose - is it terrible for grapes?
The fungus calmly experiences even the winter cold, remaining in the affected areas of the grape.
The disease is caused by the fungus GloeosporiumampelophagumSac.
The danger of this microscopic creation is that it:
- for the season can give up to 30 generations
- persists in the form of mycelium in the environment up to 5 years,
- perfectly tolerates heat and frost,
- everything is subject to defeat - shoots, leaves, fruits, inflorescences.
The defeat of the berries is characterized by the appearance of dark round spots, then the fruits dry out and fall off.
Experienced winegrowers who are familiar with this adversary are well aware of his “manners” and have already learned to foresee his habits.
If the weather is dry and hot, nothing threatens the vineyard. But, as a rule, the heat is replaced by thunderstorms, often with hail. For an inexperienced eye, it seems that hail has broken leaves and holes, these are consequences of elements. However, this is not always the case.
As soon as the humidity of the fungus spores increases, until that time they are peacefully dormant, they become more active and begin their harmful action.
Long dry weather contributes to the rapid drying, and prolonged rains or abundant watering - the rotting of the vine.
- A microorganism with high pathogenicity needs very little time to develop the disease. 3-4 days is enough and saving the vineyard is already difficult.
- The fungus grows in a very wide range of temperatures from 20 to 30 ᵒC . However, in any case, he needs moisture. If it is dry and hot, there is no development. As soon as a “drop” appears, it spreads the fungus at a tremendous speed and the pathogen moves to more and more new territories.
- Long-term precipitation and prolonged rains lead to a serious defeat of the vineyards.
Symptoms of an anthracnose lesion
- On the shoots stains brown-brown, originally oval, small . Later spots merge and capture all internodes.
- The bark cracks, dries, and the fungus continues to “eat” the deeper layers . Affected shoots nadlamyvayutsya and dry. In this case, the longitudinal cracking of the shoot is the distinguishing feature.
- Similar signs are observed on ridges. .
- On the berries, the spots have a dark border and are slightly impressed . The center is similar in color to violet, and then becomes covered with velvet. From a distance, such a spot resembles a bird's eye. That is why the disease is sometimes called.
- Affected berry cracks and rots . If the fungus "sat down" at the beginning of the bunch, then everything below will inevitably dry out.
- Spots on brown sheets , but their border has a dark, almost black rim. Often they merge.
What to treat (spraying)
Bordeaux mixture is suitable for the primary processing of grape leaves.
Experienced winegrowers claim that if copper preparations are used regularly, this is quite enough, to anthracnose fungus forever left your vineyard.
However, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the processing schedule.
As the gap increases, and the weather is suitable for breeding, the population immediately increases.
To prevent the appearance of fungus, you should apply this treatment scheme:
- The first spraying with the beginning of the growing season. As soon as the length of the shoots reached 5 cm, it is necessary to process it. At this point, a 1% solution of copper sulfate,
- The second spraying before flowering. Excellent performance shows the drug "Kvadris 250SC".
- The third spraying during the growth of berries with the preparation “Switch 62.5 WG”. For processing should be diluted 10 g of the drug in a bucket of water.
Ecologically safe drug Guapsin of biological origin.
If you do not want to use chemistry, you can give preference to biological preparations. The drugs show themselves well:
- « Mikosan-V »
- « Gaupsin ».
If you follow the European experience in the fight against grape anthracnose, they prefer biologics.
Conducting research at the “Plodovoye” Crimea, and comparing treatments with “Topaz”, “TiovitJet”, “Switch” and “Mikosan-V” preparations, the researchers came to the conclusion that for biologics, a smaller number of treatments with a better effect is sufficient.
The treatments were carried out according to the following scheme:
- Phase 5 leaves
- Before flowering,
- After flowering,
- Phase softening berries.
Experienced winegrowers, sharing their experiences, argue that it is impossible to use the same fungicide drug throughout the growing season. Only a constant change of drugs allows fungal colonies to not have time to adapt and does not allow to multiply at a fast pace.
To date, there is no single fungicidal drug that could completely destroy the pathogen . Of course, science has advanced far ahead, but the extent to which the vineyard has strong immunity also depends on the implementation of agrotechnical measures.
As a rule, all of these drugs are effective for other fungal diseases of the vine and timely treatment will help the overall prevention.
You can not wait for the moment when the fungi appear, and you will need to take action immediately. Make it a rule to follow the processing schedule.
Conditions of successful struggle
Affected leaves, shoots and fruits should be destroyed immediately.
The most effective measures for processing will be in the event that work begins immediately after the identification of signs.
- Cut out all the affected parts of the vineyard and burn them,
- All vines and the area under the bushes handle.
If anthracnose hit bushes last year, don't wait for signs, process the vines every 12–14 days especially if the weather is wet.
We can not allow the overgrowing of the grape crown, timely thinning will allow better ventilation and evaporation of moisture.
It is also necessary to tie young shoots in time, this will help to avoid shading.
Anthracnose is not the most dangerous infection, but the most common.
By conducting timely and regular prophylactic treatment of the vineyard, it is possible to prevent its appearance.
If the fungus penetrates the shoots of the bush, then they are visible dark purple spots with a brown tint or black. The bark under the action of the mycelium of the fungus cracks, and anthracnose penetrates deep into the plant. As a result, the shoots are very brittle and dry quickly. If the shoots are strong, they grow for quite a long time and at the same time seriously deformed. The phenomenon may resemble what happens if the vineyard is seriously hailed by hail. The differences from damage by hail are that after the impact of the ice there are dark spots that do not rise above the shoot. If the grapes are sick, the marks will be convex, gradually blackening. Also the edges of the damaged bark are covered with growths. An anthracnose-stricken vineyard looks charred.
Manifestation on the brush
Brushes, which affected the disease, it is easy to determine before flowering. Externally, the spots on the affected areas are similar to those that appear on the shoots. The lower part of the brush, which is located under the spot, dries and dies. If the remaining part, which is located above the spot, can continue to develop, then the ovary on it loses its elasticity, cracks and crumbles.
When a vineyard is infected with a fungus, the likelihood of plant death increases. They disrupt the absorption of nutrients from the soil, because of what the bushes are suitable for winter weakened and do not survive the frost.
The disease is common in many European countries, as well as in Ukraine, Moldova, Central Asia and the North Caucasus region of Russia.
Sick bushes do not tolerate very cold weather, but also a lack of moisture in the soil.
Symptoms of anthracnose are seen 7-8 days after infection of the bush. If the urgent treatment of the disease does not begin, the fungus grows, penetrating into the deeper grape tissues and capturing a large area. In severe cases, the bush loses up to 70% of the leaves, which does not allow it to develop normally.
An outbreak of anthracnose occurs in spring. The treatment is carried out in the first half of the summer. In the autumn there is an active release of fungal spores. However, due to the fact that there are no young parts of the plant, the symptoms of the disease do not occur.
Anthracnose causes serious damage to plantings and causes damage to the grapes growing on an industrial scale. First of all, the young parts of the plant are damaged. The harm caused by the fungal disease is as follows:
- leaf dropleading to disruption of plant photosynthesis,
- insufficient fall of old unwanted leaves, 30% of which lingers on the branches,
- slow growth of shoots 5 times,
- the death of 25% of all shoots
- yield reduction - berries shrink, and clusters are formed 3 times smaller than the size,
- lowering the glucose content in fruits
- drying of diseased inflorescences, because of what is not formed up to 60% of the crop.
Consequences of infection with a fungal infection are so serious that when it occurs, the treatment of grapes should be started as soon as possible. It is also recommended that during initial planting, select varieties that will be resistant to the disease. Even they are not completely protected from the fungal disease, but the probability of its violent outbreak is much lower.
With timely response to the disease can be successfully treated. First of all, the diseased parts of the bush are cut and must be burned. Leaving the affected elements is impossible, since they will become the source of infection next year. Next is the treatment itself.
The tool that cut the sore parts of the grape bush is disinfected with manganese solution after work.
To stop the spread of fungal infections, 3 methods of treating plants are used: agrotechnical, exposure to chemicals and fungicides. The method of control must be chosen depending on the degree of damage to the plants and the size of the vineyard.
In case of illness, it is not effective to use home (folk) products, as there are no substances of chemical origin that can destroy the fungus.
Such measures are the primary stage of plant treatment. They are applicable in small vineyards when it is possible to process each plant. The use of agrotechnical measures allows you to get rid of the fungus on plants, and in the future to use less toxic drugs.
To stop the outbreak of the disease is necessary to conduct certain activities.
- Weeding the Vineyard. The presence of weeds, especially high ones, significantly increases moisture, which creates favorable conditions for the fungus. After removing the weeds, the airing of the vineyard will become much better, and the dampness will not stagnate.
- Reduced watering intensity in the period of active development of shoots. Topsoil may dry out a little, but not more than 1 cm deep.
- Removal of diseased parts of the plant. It makes no sense to pity them, since they will die anyway and will only allow the fungus to spread more strongly among healthy bushes. It is necessary to cut off sick shoots, capturing at least 4 cm of the healthy part. Struck brushes, like the leaves, cut off completely. All vegetable waste obtained during work is put into a plastic bag and then immediately burned. Throw them on the ground should not be.
- Potassium Phosphate Fertilizer Applicationwhich dramatically increase the resistance of grapes to major diseases, including anthracnose.
Planting only strong seedlings that do not have signs of any damage, including fungal, also applies to agrotechnical methods of control. It is recommended to buy material in large proven farms.
In addition to fungicidal agents, recently biological drugs that are highly effective against fungi and at the same time are completely safe for the grape bush and humans have become widespread. Do not suffer from them and insects. The main drugs in this group are:
Means do not change the composition and taste of the crop. They contribute to the activation of shoot growth, which allows the plant to recover from damage as quickly as possible. Processing can be carried out 1 time in 2 weeks.
Before winter, it is useful to treat plants to destroy the spores of the fungus, if any.
Systemic fungicides - the most powerful means to rid the vineyard of anthracnose. Such preparations are allowed for use to eliminate the fungus:
- Bordeaux mixture
- acrobat MC,
- phytosporin M.
If the damage is not strong, then a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture is used, which can be treated with shoots no less than 10 cm long. After 2 weeks it is required to re-spray the grapes with a solution with a reduced concentration of 2 times. The same solution is recommended to carry out treatment after prolonged rains.
Если растения ушли больными на зиму, то весной, до того как распустятся почки, обработку надо провести наиболее сильным препаратом ДНОК. Также им можно обработать виноградник и после того, как поздно осенью срезаны лозы.
Which varieties are most susceptible
A number of varieties are particularly susceptible to the disease, and when they are grown, it is necessary to exercise maximum caution. They are infected with anthracnose even in areas where the disease is not widespread and occurs only sporadically.
The most susceptible to fungal infection and the rapid progression of fungal diseases 4 grape varieties.
- Isabella is the most resistant to the disease variety, which is affected by the disease especially intensively.
These varieties lack the ability to resist the causative agent.
Read about the benefits and harms of Lydia grapes here.
Planting these varieties in areas where the disease is noted, should not be.
A number of popular grape varieties are minimally susceptible to fungal infection:
Description Saperavi grape varieties read in this material.
They are minimally infected with the disease, but this does not give a 100% guarantee that the vineyard will not suffer from the fungus at all.
In this video, we see a description of the disease and the causes of anthracnose.