Spicy and medicinal herbs

Planting of holly holly and care for it

At the ornamental plant holly-rich leafy history. In Western culture, it is used for Christmas wreaths, but in general it is an excellent decoration of the autumn garden. Holly is unpretentious. However, to the beauty of its foliage and berries revealed fully, in planting and care need to take into account a few nuances.

Norway holly: plant description

Ornamental culture is also known as holly or holly. This is one of the most popular species of the genus Holly. The homeland of culture is the wet and mild climate regions of Western Europe and the Mediterranean. It is characterized by slow growth and a long life cycle, up to hundreds of years. Ostrolist is an evergreen tree that grows in wild form on average to 15-20 m.

Other characteristics of holly:

  • the trunk reaches 30-80 cm in diameter,
  • bark - smooth, gray,
  • young shoots are pointed,
  • leaf type - simple, with wavy-curved edges, which end in spikes,
  • the arrangement of leaves is next,
  • the surface of the sheet plates is leathery,
  • size - 5-12x2-6 cm,

  • foliage color - rich green (upper side) and light (back side),
  • flowers - small, white,
  • bloom occurs in late spring and early summer,
  • the fruits are poisonous for human peppered balls up to 1 cm in diameter.

Attention! Holly Norway is not for nothing got its name. The thorns on the leaves are really sharp. Moreover, they retain this property even in a fallen form. You can pierce your finger when cleaning even with gloves.

The value of the autumn holly is in the fruits. Scarlet drupes keep on sprigs all fall and winter. The rest of the time it is pleasant to admire the decorative foliage. The culture has many hybrids:

  • Silver Queen - silver greens,
  • Golden King - leaves are cast in gold,

  • Amber - orange berries and atypical for the species low growth
  • Ferox Argentea - small leaves with yellow spots and edging,
  • Pyramidalis and J.C. van Tol - leaves also have yellow blotches, only larger ones themselves,
  • China Boy and Girl, Blue Maid and Baron, Blue Princess are cold-resistant varieties, similar to the classic holly.

Planting holly holly

It is best to practice rooting culture at the end of winter or early spring. You need to start with the right choice of planting material. Experts advise to buy holly only in nurseries. Desirable - in the container. On sale may be seedlings with a closed or open root.

In the second case, carefully study the roots: they should be at least 4, when bent, they should not break or crack. The above-ground part of the seedling should also be checked for elasticity, the presence of live buds, the absence of any damage.

Attention! For cultivation in the middle band, frost-resistant holly hybrids are suitable. In extreme cases, the culture can be grown in a tub in a mini-version, bringing it into the room for the winter.

The holly is not picky about the soil composition. The only requirement is humus content and high water permeability. Holly normally grows in partial shade, but in the bright sun it will only become brighter.

  1. Dig a hole 1x1 m or more. At the center of the bottom pour a mixture of fertile soil with coarse sand.
  2. Place the seedling, placing the roots evenly along the soil mound.
  3. Dig and pour heavily.

Features holly holly care

The technique of growing holly in the open field is simple. It is important for a gardener to consider the following points:

  1. The tree needs regular watering, especially during a drought. The holly is at risk of not blooming at all if he has little water. Ensure that the soil does not dry out.
  2. Annually in the spring pruning. The minimum task is to remove damaged and dry branches, the maximum is to form a crown. Since holly grows slowly, then you can make a short and lush shrub out of it.
  3. Also spring is the optimal time for holly fertilizing. He needs both mineral complexes and organic matter. The plant responds well to nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
  4. Holly can get phytophthora. It affects the roots and causes the death of the whole plant. To treat this disease is ineffective. If you see obvious signs - dig and burn the trees, and disinfect the ground around.

When pruning a tree, consider the following nuances:

  • if you shorten the branches too much, the holly may not bloom at all,
  • flowers are formed exclusively on two-year shoots.

When summer or autumn pruning, you will certainly touch the flower buds of the next year, which the tree lays in the current season. Therefore, it is advantageous to carry out this procedure in the spring, until the rudiments have appeared.

Propagation of the holly of the Holly

Holly seeds are very tenacious. Therefore, in nature, culture is propagated by birds. Independently, sprouting from seeds can be obtained after long stratification (18 months). Therefore, gardeners usually resort to a faster method - grafting.

The method ensures the safety of varietal characteristics of the tree:

  • pick semi-woody shoots
  • cut lengths of 4-5 cm, and each should be a couple of internodes. The stalk must begin and end with the kidney,
  • make cuts under the slope,
  • prepare a substrate consisting of two layers: humus (10 cm) and sand (3 cm),
  • Plant the blanks under the film, plunging into the soil by 1.5 cm.

Before rooting young cuttings need suitable care. They do not like intense sunlight and drying out of the soil. Instead of watering, use spraying. Carry out the procedure daily, while opening the greenhouse for airing. Rooting occurs within 15-30 days.

Holly has amazing decorative properties. In addition, it is easy to grow. Therefore, he became so popular among landscape designers.

Plant description

Holly has the following characteristics:

  1. Crown. Most often narrow, cone-shaped. The branches are densely located in it and there are quite a lot of them. The bark of the tree is smooth, silvery gray.
  2. Leaves. Mostly simple. Their shape may be different: ovoid, oblong-elliptical and other. The color is mostly dark green. But there are species where the leaves have 2 colors: dark green and yellow (edging). The top of the leaves is shiny, the bottom is matte. The edges are covered with numerous teeth, wavy.
  3. Flowers. They are nondescript, as a rule, bright color. Their diameter is 6-8 mm.
  4. Fruit. They are called drupes. They can be of various colors: black, yellow, white, red, orange. The fruits have a rounded shape, their diameter is 7 - 10 mm. Remain on the plants until spring. The fruits, at first glance, seem appetizing, but you can not eat them, as they are poisonous.

Platy holly

It is found on the territory of Asia Minor, Southern Europe, and North America. This is an evergreen pyramidal or spherical tree, reaching a height of 15 meters. Its term of life is up to 100 years. In nature, it grows even in the North Caucasus. Outwardly, it looks like a Christmas tree.

Its branches are sprawling and short. Crohn dense oblong or pyramidal. The leaves have an oblong-ovate shape, wavy edges.

Holly flowers of holly white, fragrant small. Within 14 days they will remain on the branches. Then they will be replaced by bright red fruits, the size of which can reach up to 1 cm. They remain on the stalks throughout the winter.

This species can be perfectly located in the shade, resistant to frost, tolerates temperatures up to minus 22 degrees below 0. A plant located in central Russia cannot hibernate, therefore, it is grown only in winter gardens.

It is worth knowing that the holly is holly-leaved - that variety, thanks to which other varieties were bred. This is a dioecious plant with a deep root system. For the cultivation of this type suitable fertile neutral soil. For him, either full shade or partial shade is preferred. It perfectly withstands smoke, polluted air.

Holly

The homeland of this plant is Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. This species can be both a tree up to 7 m in height and a shrub. The latter is less common.

Holly kubchatyi stands out for its thick greenery, in appearance resembling boxwood. Divorced in Japan. In this country, it is a dwarf trimmed shrubs.

Holly planting rules

This plant loves shade, rich, light and moist soil. For the cultivation of the perfect substrate of the following components: humus, peat, sand, clay, mixed with activated carbon. Necessary and drainage. Its thickness must be at least 3 cm.

Holly holly needs cross-pollination. Therefore, it should be at the site to have several such plants. You can combine varieties, planting a number of male and female trees.

It should not be planted in the place where there is a lot of sunlight. The plant may suffer from this, so the best place for it is where there are no bright rays. Nevertheless, there are two-colored species with variegated leaves. In order for them to retain their color, these plants should be planted in a place with bright lighting.

Holly does not tolerate excessive heat. For the summer, it is recommended to move it to a room where the air temperature will not exceed 20 degrees Celsius. Only young plants should be replanted every year. After that, as needed, once in 3 - 4 years. In the spring, it is simply transferred to a larger container.

Main breeding methods:

  • seeds
  • cuttings. This method is more common. Semilignified cuttings of 10 cm in length are needed. For their rooting at the end of summer, the cuttings are placed in a peat-sand mixture and placed in a place where there is no direct sunlight and high temperature. After the roots have appeared, the cuttings are planted in separate containers.

Since holly is a beautiful tree, it is often grown in pots. At home, the tree should be transplanted in the spring every 2 years in a more spacious pot.

Care instructions

Holly Norway does not require undue attention. Both sandy and clayey soils are suitable for it. The main thing is that they are waterproof and humus present.

The plant does not like drought. In summer, when it is hot, it should be watered abundantly. By the winter period, the amount of watering should be reduced to moderate, avoiding drying out of the soil. Pruning should be carried out after the end of fruiting.

In the spring, young plants should be covered in order to protect them from sunlight. From spring to autumn, once a month, the tree should be fed with a liquid complex fertilizer diluted in such a ratio of 30 ml per 10 l of water.

Features of growing

When growing holly, you may encounter some difficulties:

  1. Fungal diseases. In this case, stains of purple tinge will appear on the leaves. The fungus appears due to the fact that there was not enough watering at high acidity of the soil. Or the plant lacked the necessary nutrients - potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus.
  2. Holly can infect late blight, which will lead to rotting of the root and death of the tree. If this disease is detected, the plant should be immediately destroyed, and the soil around it should be treated with disinfectants.
  3. Holly does not tolerate aridity, heat. He prefers cool places.

Norway holly - not too whimsical plant. Knowing the features of this plant, variety, rules of planting and care, special difficulties should not arise. It is important to follow all the recommendations, and only in this case the plant will grow beautiful, pleasing the eye.

Adding an article to a new collection

Holly is popular in many countries of the world. In the west, it is a traditional Christmas plant, and we have a great culture to create a hedge.

Gardeners appreciate holly for its unusual, shiny dark green leaves, attractive red, orange, yellow, white, or black berries. Berries appear on holly in the fall and decorate the plant all winter. Among the many varieties of this plant in the middle lane, the most holly is holly.

When choosing a holly, pay attention to the winter hardiness of the variety. Under the conditions of the middle band, it is most logical to plant frost-resistant varieties. But if you get a thermophilic holly, it is quite possible to drop it into a container, which can be easily removed to the house on the eve of cold snaps.

Where to plant holly?

This culture is good because it does not require special attention when growing. However, the choice of a place for holly should be approached with all responsibility. Best of all holly growers in shaded areas protected from the wind. It is advisable to plant them in light and nutritious soil with good water permeability.

Ways to breed holly

In nature, holly breeds by seeds: the seeds are spread by birds. If you decide to grow holly yourself from seeds, they will have to be stratified for 18 months. Therefore, reproduction by grafting is considered a more simple and popular method.

Reproduction of holly cuttings allows you to save varietal features. Cuttings of holly should be cut from the semi-lignified shoots of the current year. Their length should be equal to 4-5 cm. At each segment should be left 1-2 internodes. When cutting, be sure to use a well-sharpened knife. Sections should be made under the slope: the bottom - under the lower kidney, the top - above the top.

Immediately after cutting the cuttings should be planted in the greenhouse. To do this, it is necessary to prepare in advance a layered substrate consisting of a layer of humus about 10 cm thick and a layer of sand (about 3 cm). Holly cuttings should be buried 1.5-2 cm in the ground.

Planted cuttings should be closed from the bright sun and regularly sprayed. They take root in 2-4 weeks.

How to care for holly

In most cases, holly enough natural rainfall, so they do not need additional watering.

As holly hedges are obtained from holly hedges, it is important not to forget about the formation of plants. This should be done at the very beginning of the season. These trees grow very slowly and differ neat crown. Therefore, the topiary is carried out only at will.

Other important procedures should be carried out in the spring. For example, holly is recommended to pritenyat so that they do not get sunburn, loosen the stem, remove the dried or damaged branches.

It is worth taking care of feeding holly. In spring, it is recommended to pour a layer of compost mixed with complex mineral fertilizer around the plant.

Autumn holly needs shelter. It is best to protect the plant from frost fir spruce branches and dry litter. Pristvolny circle should be covered with sawdust or peat.

Sometimes the plant can infect phytophthora, as a result of which the root system begins to rot, and eventually it dies. Unfortunately, such a tree can no longer be cured, it should be destroyed.

Holly in landscape design

Holly can be planted alone or in groups. And in fact, and in another case, they will look just great.

As has already been said, holly hedges from hollows retain their shape for a long time and reliably protect the site from strong winds.

You can grow holly in topiary. In this capacity, dwarf trees stylized as bonsai will look especially good.

Not bad combined holly and with other ornamental shrubs and trees (euonymus, hydrangea, magonia).

Holly is a plant that in many cultures has magical properties. But even if you do not believe in magic, the trees, thanks to their unusual leaves with pointed edges, will protect you, for example, from uninvited guests. It is only necessary to land the hollies on the perimeter of the site.

The choice of location: lighting and soil

Holly does not require special attention to itself in the process of growing. Nevertheless, there are moments that should not be omitted. Holly likes to grow on the shady area, so that in the open sun it is not worth planting it. It is also recommended to protect it from wind.

The soil should be sufficiently well hydrated, light and nutritious. We must take care of quality drainage. Holly holly will grow poorly in heavy ground, it will be especially difficult for him to survive the winter under such conditions.

Rules for the purchase of seedlings

Holly saplings are recommended to buy in nurseries, best in container. This will help the culture to successfully transfer the transplant, regardless of whether it is summer or spring. Saplings on sale happen with open root system and with closed. Buying the first option, you need to pay attention to the fact that the root system has not been dried out.

Roots should be elastic and flexible, do not crack and not break when bent. The main roots should be from 4-5 pieces and more. The branches and trunk of the tree must also be resilient. You need to inspect them for any mechanical damage. The kidneys must also be alive.

Planting Holly Seedlings

For planting of holly olympodate, it is desirable to use ready breathable fertile soil. If this is not possible, you can prepare it yourself. Нужно для этого смешать дерновую, листовую, торфяную и перегнойную почву в равных частях, впоследствии добавив к смеси перлит или крупнозернистый песок.

После этого на выбранном участке делается лунка, засыпается туда приготовленная почва и проводится высадка саженцев. Ямку желательно делать около одного метра в ширину и глубину, можно больше. It is important that the root system of the seedling can be evenly distributed in the hole, without being damaged or twisted. After planting the tree should be poured abundantly.

Watering, weeding and loosening

Most often this plant is enough natural rainfall. It usually does not require additional watering. If there is a prolonged drought, you can moisten the soil, but it should be done only in the evening or in the early morning, long before the heat of the day. 2-3 watering per week will be quite enough for the holly, since it also does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil.

Additionally, you can spray the foliage of the tree with cold water. Also, do not forget about loosening the soil and weeding the area from the weeds. Loosening is required so that the soil allows air and moisture to flow well, and weeding, in order to avoid the use of nutrients from the soil by other plants.

For the normal development of the plant in the garden, it will be necessary to fertilize the soil from time to time. In the spring, compost should be poured into the root zone mixed with complex fertilizers. Also, no more than twice a month, you can fertilize liquid organic and mineral mixtures.

Due to the fact that it is possible to form beautiful hedges from holly hollows, you should take care of their appearance. At the very beginning of the spring season, pruning of the branches is necessary to form an attractive crown. Tree growing quite slowlytherefore, a neat crown will please the eye for almost the whole year. As for curly hairstyle, it is also allowed and can be applied if desired.

Speaking of holly, namely, its winter hardiness, it should be noted that endure the short-term lowering of temperature, down to -22 ° C it can. But at the same time, it is difficult for him to survive the whole winter in particularly cold areas. You can protect it with the help of shelter sawdust or peat. It is also permissible to use dry fallen leaves or spruce branches.

Some gardeners prefer to grow this plant in containers, bringing it into the room during the winter period. This option is valid, but keep it in warm rooms is not worth it. The temperature should be cool anyway during wintering.

Use in landscape design

For landscape design, holly ordinary has become just a godsend. It will be able to decorate any personal plot, it will become a reliable decorative live fence. From a practical point of view, plants can play the role of windproof plantations.

Especially often they land on the shores of the sea, as they have a good level of resistance to salt. Their leaves are prickly, and this will help rid the garden fenced from unwanted visitors. Due to the fact that he is remarkably amenable to curly hairstyles, beautiful topiary is often formed from it.

Reproduction features cuttings

Holly breeding can be carried out both by seed and cuttings. The second option has a higher popularity, because the seeds have a long period of germination.

First you need to cut the cuttings themselves. Choose for this should be the shoots of the current season, which are only semi-woody. The cutting knife must be very sharp so as not to damage the tree, and the cuts themselves are made oblique. Each stalk should be about 4-5 cm in length and always with the presence of one or two internodes.

Finished cuttings, it is desirable to first plant in the greenhouse. The substrate for the landing can be prepared from layers of humus and sand. It is recommended to plant cuttings to a depth of about 2 cm, after which regular spraying with clean water should be carried out.

The temperature in the room should not drop. As for direct sunlight, then from them the plant is recommended pritenyat. For 0.5-1 month cuttings will have time to take root, after which they can be transplanted to a permanent place of growth.

Medicinal properties

Holly has not only decorative, but useful properties. Its leaves have cardiotonic, antifebrile, diuretic and antiseptic properties. Leaf infusions are often used as a medicine for colds, bronchitis or cough. In addition, they can help with rheumatism, dropsy and arthritis.

The recipe for making universal tincture is very simple. You need two tablespoons of carefully crushed leaves of holly pour vodka (about 150 ml) and insist this liquid for a week in a dark cool place.

At the end of this period, the tool must be drained and you can take 25 drops two or three times a day. The tincture is pre-diluted in 50-70 ml of water, drunk 30 minutes before eating.

Holly ordinary or holly is a wonderful ornamental plant that can decorate any personal plot. In addition, its foliage can be used as an ingredient for the preparation of medicinal tinctures. The advantages of growing this tree are obvious. In addition, in the care he is completely unpretentious.

How to plant holly Norway

The holly family is widespread in temperate and tropical climates. In the middle lane, in the conditions of open ground, only winter-hardy varieties are grown. All heat-loving varieties are planted in tubs, during the period of cold weather they are kept in the winter garden.

Before you plant a holly, determine the place. Tropical plants prefer shady places, protected from wind and draft. The soil should be light, well drained and nutritious.

In nature, shrubs propagated by seed, but this method is not suitable for home cultivation. It requires a lot of time and special preparation of seeds.

It is better to reproduce holly cuttings. This method allows you to save all varietal features. Here is what you need to do:

cut cuttings from one-year-old shoots 5–7 cm long,

cut the shoots under tilt

treat the planting material with rooting,

Plant the cuttings in a loose substrate to a depth of 2 cm.

Seedlings covered with foil to maintain high humidity inside the greenhouse.

Place for planting choose shading, rooting takes about 2 weeks. The plant is transferred to a permanent place next spring.

Holly care after planting

The holly player does not need special care, does not require special knowledge and skills. Watering the plant is extremely rare, only in a period of drought. In rainy summer, natural moisture is enough.

Designers use holly to create a hedge, so the green mass of the plant should be well developed. During the period of active growth, the shrub is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers or organic matter.

The shape of the crown is formed using pruning, which the plant tolerates well. First, remove all dry shoots and damaged, then pinch the tops.

Pruning done carefully, as the flowers and berries are formed only on two-year branches.

If the shoots are shortened too much, there will be no fruit. Krona is formed only in the spring, in the summer and in the autumn the haircut is not done - the danger of cutting out flower buds increases.

If done correctly, growing holly will not be a hassle. The plant retains decorative qualities throughout the year. Used in landscaping and landscape design.

Planting and care of a bald leaf in indoor conditions

    Lighting and location. The plant prefers to grow in a sunny place, but can tolerate partial shade. The location is suitable on the western and eastern windowsill, but if the variety has a colorful color of foliage, then the sun will need a little more.

Temperature content The holly does not tolerate heat, therefore it is necessary to maintain heat indicators in the rooms around 21-degree. In winter, the temperature range should be reduced to 10–15 units, but the thermometer bar should not fall below zero, otherwise the plant will stop growing.

Air humidity. When growing holly in rooms, it is necessary to maintain high rates of moisture in the air. To do this, spraying of deciduous mass in the spring and summer is performed regularly, and such a procedure is recommended if it was not possible to create a cool wintering for the plant and it remained in the room where the heaters and central heating batteries work. The water used is warm and soft.

Watering. The main thing in case of room care for the holly leaf is to prevent the stagnation of moisture in the coaster under the pot, which can provoke the rotting of the root system or the complete drying of the earthen coma, which will cause the foliage to dry out. The soil between wetting should dry out at the top. In spring-summer irrigation should be abundant with the removal of spilled water from the base in 10–15 minutes, and with the advent of winter they reduce moisture. Apply well-settled warm water.

Fertilizer for holly once a month, from mid-spring to September. It is recommended to use complex mineral fertilizers.

Transplantation and selection of soil. The holly pot is changed once for 2–3 years, while it is recommended to prune the root system. At the bottom of the new tank, it is necessary to provide drainage, and in the bottom there are small holes to drain excess moisture. As the soil, you can use the purchased universal soil, with the addition of river sand or perlite, as well as a small amount of crushed charcoal.

  • General rules of care. If the plant possesses buds of the same sex, then holly with female and male flowers should be kept nearby for successful pollination. Requires regular molding of the crown, but you should not forget about the thorns on the foliage.

  • Reproduction of holly with your own hands at home cultivation

    It is possible to propagate the holly by sowing seeds, cuttings, or by cuttings.

    Seed propagation is used occasionally, as the seeds do not have high germination rates. Also, before planting, stratification is needed - a room for up to 2 months in cold conditions.

    In the summer, you can cut from the tops of the shoots billet for planting. Their length should be about 10 cm. The cut is required to be treated with phytohormone and land in a peat-sand substrate. The temperature during germination is maintained within 18 degrees. The place where the pot is placed with the cuttings should be shaded and after 3 months the cuttings can already take root. When the young holly will give signs of successful rooting, they are transplanted into containers filled with selected substrate, and gradually begin to accustom to sunlight.

    When breeding using otvodok, selects a branch that can be bent to the surface of the soil and there to fix. You can carefully cut off the bark in a circle. Then the shoot is pinned to the surface of the substrate with hard wire or a hairpin and powdered with soil. Then moisturizing is carried out carefully. Care of the otvodkom should be the same as for the adult specimen. When root processes appear at the site of the incision, the layers can be separated from the mother holly and transplanted into a separate pot.

    Diseases and pests arising from the cultivation of holly

    Of the pests, when grown in indoor conditions, the plant can be affected by the whitefly, mealybug, shield, or aphids. In this case, it is recommended to carry out treatment with insecticidal preparations. Due to the frequent gulfs of the substrate, especially at low growing temperatures, the plant is subjected to a variety of rot (accompanied by root rotting or spotting on the foliage). You should pull the bush out of the pot, remove the affected areas with a secateur and process it with a fungicide, and then plant a holly in a new sterile container and substrate.

    Problems with growing holly are still expressed in:

      shrinkage and fall of foliage, which occur due to insufficient watering or low humidity,

    poor plant appearance at too high temperatures,

  • sunburn of leaf plates, if the plant is constantly in the noontime under the direct rays of the sun, and especially if the foliage has a uniform color or the bush is still too young.

  • Curious Notes on Holly

    Holly is known for its tonic and immune properties. If you use the leaf plates and the stem of the Holly Paraguayan variety (Ilex paraguariensis), which grows in large quantities in the open spaces of South America, you can make a drink like tea, known to many by the name “mate”. But on the basis of the leaves of the Chinese Holly (Ilex latifolia) or as it is also called Holly broad-leaved, the so-called “bitter tea” - kudin is made.

    When the cold, inclement winter months come, then since holly in the culture of the Druids, and then the Celts was a symbol of the sun, it is customary to decorate its dwellings with its shoots and leaves.

    In antiquity, since there are quite sharp thorns on the leaves of the plant, which do not lose their sharpness even when dry, then with the help of bunches of holly in the era of Edward VII (from November 9, 1841, Buckingham Palace, London until May 6, 1910, the same place) taken to clean the chimney pipe.

    If we talk about the variety of Holly Tea (Ilex vomitjria), then it was used by the Native American tribes of North America because of its laxative or emetic properties, as well as the plant was used as an antidote during religious ceremonies or in medicinal preparations. On the basis of young leaf plates and twigs in these tribes they made a tea-like drink, which was called “black tea”.

    To date, official medicine has recognized the plant properties such as antiseptic and cardiotonic, as well as anti-fever. From parts of holly they prepare remedies for colds, bronchitis, as well as cure fever and cough, they alleviate the symptoms of arthritis, rheumatism and are applicable against dropsy.

    Types of holly for indoor cultivation

    Of the many varieties of holly for the conditions of the premises are suitable only a few, which are described below.

    Norway holly (Ilex aquifolium) or Holly ordinary. Variety is the most common of all in the family. Native areas of growth - the north of the African continent, Europe and southwest Asia. It has a tree-like shape and non-decaying foliage, it can reach 10–25 m in height and a trunk with a diameter of about 30–80 cm. The trunk is covered with a smooth bark of a gray color scheme. The crown is distinguished by pyramidal or oblong outlines, with a large thickness. The foliage has a wavy, winding hem with rather sharp notches. The shape of the leaf plate is oblong-ovate, it is attached to the branch with a short petiole. The length of the leaf varies in the range of 5–12 cm, with a width of 2–6 cm. Flowering occurs from late spring to June, with the formation of small bisexual flowers. Fruits are red, with a diameter of about 1 cm. Ripen from the beginning of autumn to the very end of winter.

    Among the varieties, emit:

      Handsworth New Silver, Golden Kingc, on which the formation of female flowers, the foliage has a greenish-yellow color, the fruits are bright red.

    Amber is a shrub form, the fruits of which are shaded by an orange color scheme and female flowers.

    Silver Queen is a plant with male flowers.

    Ferox Argentea is also a variety with male flowers and rather small spotted foliage.

  • J.C. van Tol, Pyramidalis varietal varieties that differ in self-pollination, can be both shrubs and trees. Leaf plates have a two-color color of green-yellow leaves, practically devoid of thorns, berries of a red color scheme. When the plants are young, their shoots are cast with a bright saturated purple tint.

  • Kalkhid holly (Ilex colchica) has a shrub form with shoots creeping along the ground or has the appearance of a tree, whose branches are drooping down. The native lands are the lands of Transcaucasia and Asia Minor. If a variety grows in the middle lane, then its size rarely exceeds 0.5 m. The surface of the leaf plate is leathery, the edge is decorated with serrated cuts and an abundance of spikes. The color of the foliage is saturated dark green, but the reverse side is lighter. On the surface are viewed strongly incised veins. The bones in the fruit are smaller.

    A characteristic feature of the variety is that in the winter months, frosting up to the snow cover, it can easily grow branches and foliage from spring.

    Holly narrow-leaved (Ilex stenocarpa) this species is relict and endemic to the western part of the Pre-Caucasus. It has the form of a shrub with evergreen foliage, reaching a height of only half a meter. The outlines of the leaves are elliptical, the surface is hard, the leaf plate does not exceed 9 cm in length with an average width of 4 cm. Each side of the leaf is decorated with teeth, which are 3-5 units in total. When flowering is the formation of patchy inflorescences in the form of umbrellas, and in each leaf sinus can grow several pieces. Flowers of the same sex, after pollination is the ripening of the fruits of the stone farms. The shape of the berries is rounded, the surface color is red. The flowering process falls on April-May.

    This species is considered endangered, as its quantities are limited due to human exposure (regular forest felling) and the particular location of distribution sites. Предназначен для охраны, поэтому выращивая данное растение, можно сказать, что идет процесс сохранения редкого представителя флоры.

    Падуб городчатый (Ilex crenata) или Падуб зазубренный, свое начало берет с земель Южного Сахалина, Курильских островов и японских территорий. Обычно представляет собой невысокое деревце, максимальная высота которого составляет 7 м. Особенная декоративность состоит в его густой зеленой лиственной массе, напоминающей самшитовую. Cultivated in the open field in the Caucasus and the Crimea, the growth rate does not differ and the plant has a rather weak fruiting.

    Mainly undersized varieties:

    • Fastigiata characterized by upright sprouts,
    • Convexa, has a more spreading bush.

    Holly Mezerva (Ilex x meservae) is a hybrid plant, obtained by crossing varieties of European common holly and Korean wrinkled. This plant is still quite new for gardeners of our latitudes, but when grown in conditions of open ground it can even withstand frosts in the Moscow region.

    Among this variety should be noted a number of varieties:

      Blue Maidthat has female and male flowers on one plant, therefore, no second specimen is required for pollination. Foliage with a simple green color scheme without any metallic sheen.

    Blue Angel It also has female and male flowers, but differs due to the metallic luster of the foliage with greater showiness.

    Golden Princess possesses same-sex flowers and fruits of a yellow shade.

  • "Blue Prince" and "Blue Princess" also with flowers of the same sex, but the fruits are red and the leaves with a beautifully cut edge, the whole plate of a leaf of dark green color, are used as decoration in Western Europe as a Christmas symbol.