Any plant belonging to the order of the Higher has ground and underground systems. By ground refers crown, trunk or trunk, which in various monocotyledonous plants are called boles, and the plant itself will be called standard. The underground part consists of the root system, which includes various skeletal roots and a multitude of thin root hairs.
The aboveground and underground systems are interconnected. The growth and development of one system is impossible without the growth and development of another. Therefore, absolutely any external impact on the crown has a direct impact on the root system of plants, and vice versa. The task of any gardener is to minimize external stimuli or try to ensure that influence is always justified. Most often at the intuitive level, the gardener adheres to certain norms of maintaining decorativeness.
Trim or not trim?
In the spring there is a risk of removing the flower bud, which, in turn, is located on the very top of the shoot. It is also not recommended to level the lilac in height and to carry out formative pruning.
Most often forming trimming combines sanitary shoot removal. It is held in the summer months immediately after flowering and includes:
- removing branches that overload the crown,
- removal of weak shoots
- circumcision of swan shoots that are no longer viable,
- cut off the dried base or the tops,
- pruning shoots that infected with various pests,
- at this time produce a thinning of the crown,
- old branches are removed, as well as shoots that intersect with healthy ones.
Next is the trimming of the top and branches. This is done to form a smooth and beautiful crown. Do not forget about the new shoots, which also must be removed. It is important to remember that too dense trimming of the crown, in which the work of the root system changes, in turn, may provoke active growth of shoots.
In spring, deep digging of the soil is unacceptable, especially in pristvolny circles. In this case, the most uppermost, most physiologically active roots are damaged. Reaction occurs aboveground part of the plant, namely, thin and short shoots are gaining weight. Flower buds are formed only on the well-lit part of the crown. Based on this reaction, the lilac is cut annually to about 15-17% of the total number of branches. Under young plants, the soil is loosened shallowly - up to 8 cm, while under older plants it is necessary to dig up the soil up to 15 cm.
Many gardeners are of the opinion that pruning lilacs is an unnecessary exercise. The postulate is: if it grows, let it grow as it wants and where it wants. However, opinions differ: some gardeners are constantly trying to align, prune, file. Experience has shown that, more often than not, the end result of constantly constantly undercutting is worse than that of the former. Everyone knows that it is necessary to cut the plants, and also to form a crown, but do it once a year and do it right.
In the usual broadleaf lilac and some other types of shoots branch in a false dichotomous type. This happens when from top node a one-year shoot does not sprout one, but several new shoots. On one shoot, many shoots are formed due to germination of buds on the nodes located below, and this increases the total number of shoots on one bush several times.
Accordingly, in spring the root system is incapable of increasing significantly in size. Based on this, every year the plant becomes less and less shoots and inflorescences, as well as the overall decorativeness of the entire bush. Only due to the correct annual pruning, it is possible to avoid crown thickening and to improve the overall appearance of the whole plant.
To carry out the procedure yourselfshould learn how to properly trim the lilac. There are two main ways to trim the lilac:
- pruning branches, crown and damaged shoots,
- removal of inflorescences that have already bloomed, through a slice with a width of not more than 0.4 cm in diameter.
On the place of old inflorescences the lilac of large size will not grow, therefore it is necessary to cut off the old inflorescences. It is desirable to smear the cut well with a garden pitch, otherwise the plant will begin to rot. The rot subsequently penetrates into the middle of the skeletal branches, and gradually a healthy tree will turn into dust.
Lilac can be grown as a small tree or a bush. Crown plants are formed at the age of three; adult bushes should have several trunks. Among a large number of shoots or branches, 4–5 are the largest and strongest, which are directed in different directions. relative to the center of the plant. All the others are cut around the ring, and in the future, to avoid the emergence of new shoots, the crown is thinned every year in the central part.
Thanks to this method in the crown does not appear thick branches, the removal of which means a strong injury to the plant. For the old bush, which has a large number of trunks, this is permissible, because after removing the old shoot in its place a new one is formed. The latter grows out of the kidney of the root zone, which takes two and a half years.
Standard plants have a single trunk, and because of this, it is protected from any mechanical damage from the very beginning of the formation of the crown. The lilac is pruned in the spring, and this process begins in order to reduce the height of the trunk to 1 m. And all the rest are cut around the ring. Left shoots must be approximately at the same distanceto make the crown look symmetrical. This will make it possible to give the plant stability and strength.
In all the following years, shoots and young branches that are redundant should be removed immediately. Shoots that grow from dormant buds must be removed as soon as they sprout. Thanks to this method, cuts will never be larger than 2–3 cm in diameter, and this, in turn, ensures the durability of the trunk and its skeletal branches. However, if for any reason one or several branches in the crown, which have significant diameters, were not promptly removed, they do not need to be cut. By their presence, they will inflict less damage to the plant than the wound formed after their removal.
When to prune
As a gardener, you will have to decide for yourself when and how to prune the lilac.
Warning! Never exercise Lilac pruning in the summer, because it is in the summer months that the most active budding takes place. An inexperienced gardener can intervene in the process and unknowingly remove just those shoots that are tuned to the most magnificent flowering.
To trim the crown is necessary in early spring or, which is most favorable for growth, after the end of flowering. At the same time, velvet inflorescences and dry branches are removed.
Lilac lovers know that if old inflorescences of varieties such as common and broad-leaved lilacs are not removed or removed late (in August – September), all the nutrients will go to seed and fruit formation. There will be nothing left on the bud of the flower buds, and later, next spring, the plant will not bloom. Therefore, it is necessary to start pruning the inflorescences as soon as the lilac has blossomed.
There is a certain regularity: the more flowers of any varieties of petals are in relation to their wild relative, the less fruit they have. The very first pruned bushes, flowers which are non-double-leaved are more than half of the lilac varieties. The second are semi-double inflorescences, such as: Marshal Lannes, Violetta Linen. Last but not least, with double and terry inflorescences: Madame Lemoine, Madame Casimir, Ogni Donbassa, Taras Bulba, Lavoisier and others. In this case, thanks to pruning inflorescences, you can significantly improve the decorative appearance of the lilac.
Varieties that do not bear fruit, for example, Beauty of Moscow, Lesia Ukrainka, pruned at any time, can be cut even in winter. In physiological terms, the presence or absence of inflorescence in their crown does not have any effect on the formation of flower buds. In these types of inflorescences, most often they are not pruned, because, regardless of the number and yield of seeds, every year they bloom very much. However, there is an exception - this is Beijing Lilac, which, provided that the fruit is at its maximum, cannot form flower buds and will not bloom next year.
Spring pruning adversely affects the appearance of lilac shrubs, because pruning places (dips) may not disappear before flowering begins. That is, when the crown blooms next time, dark spots will appear there, which visually impairs the general appearance of the bush.
Pruning before flowering
Lilac pruning can be done in different months. Each of these procedures has its own meaning.
For example, pruning before flowering (that is, in early spring, from mid-March to early April) is important for several reasons.
- It leads to more intensive growth of lateral shoots.
- It helps to leave in advance only those branches on which buds appear. Thus, all the nutrients received by the plant will go to the growth of these parts.
- At this stage, it is easier to form the crown.
You need to start pruning with the removal of all damaged branches. If they are broken, blackening appeared on them or branches grew in a curved shape - get rid of them.
Also need to trim quite old branches. They can be identified by the following features:
- curved shape
- the presence of lichen on them.
But the young shoots that have appeared over the past year, may also be under attack. For example, if they grow in the center of a bush. They do not get sunlight, nutrients also reach in small quantities. And there is not enough room for intensive growth. They only overload the bush.
It is also better to get rid of the shoots that have not survived the winter cold. They will not be able to reanimate.
But to cut off the upper parts of the branches, shortening the bush, in this period is not worth it. After all, there are also kidneys there.
Pruning after flowering
The next pruning should be carried out after flowering. It is best to do this between the end of May and mid-June.
During this pruning, the goal is no longer old and damaged branches, because they are disposed of in early spring. Now you need to get rid of the inflorescences that dry out after flowering. If you do not do it in time, then they will begin to form seeds. And all the nutrients the plant receives will be transferred to them. Because of this, you can not wait to re-bloom in the spring.
Also, it is possible to shorten long branches after flowering. Now there is nothing to worry about emerging buds. After pruning you will notice that voids are visible in the crown. There is nothing to fear - by the next spring they will grow, new shoots are formed.
When is it best to prune after flowering - right after it ends, in spring, or can you wait for autumn? For novice gardeners this is a serious matter. Pruning in the fall is not prohibited categorically. And if you do not have time to shorten the branches immediately after flowering, then you should do it in the autumn. But there is a risk that you will cut off parts of the already forming kidneys. For this reason, flowering in spring may not start at all. So it is better to prune until mid-summer.
Pruning is needed not only to get rid of spoiled branches. With it, you can change the shape of the lilac. Usually such procedures begin when a shrub reaches the age of three years.
Trimming needs to be planned in advance, because it will take several years to create the form.
- In the first year will have to get rid of a large number of branches. Ideally, leave no more than four. These should be the strongest and evenest branches, on which there is no damage. Also, they should all be sent in different directions. That is, even if there are two branches that are ideally suited for the formation of a bush, but they grow side by side and are directed in one direction, one will have to get rid of one. It is also necessary to shorten the remaining branches about two times. All of them should end at about the same level.
- By the second year, branches will appear on the tops of the branches left. You will also have to work on it, leaving only those forks that have become the strongest.
- In the third year and further, you need to repeat the same actions - get rid of weak gains, maintaining the necessary form.
In the future, you also need to control the resulting shape and prevent the formation of a large number of branches.
Another type of form - the standard. In this way you can get a small tree. First, it is a more unusual and beautiful form. Secondly, in this way you protect the bush from external influences. For example, if your lilac was chosen by a dog, because of which the lower branches constantly rot.
- In the first year, immediately after planting, cut all the side branches. Leave only the central one, which is the strongest and strongest. During this year, remove the young shoots that appear on the side of the remaining stem.
- In the second year, when the lilac grows to the required height, it is necessary to stop its growth in this direction. For this bush pinch, that is, remove the tip. As a result, the shoots will start to grow sideways. But most of the shoots will have to get rid of, retaining no more than four of the strongest. These branches will be the basis of the tree.
- In the future, you need to act the same way as with conventional formative pruning. That is, each year to process these skeletal branches, leaving them with the strongest gains, adjust the length of the branches.
The height of the lilac in the second year should be no higher than a meter, but not less than sixty centimeters. If the lilac is too high, it will be difficult to adjust its shape. A low shtamb looks not very beautiful.
Over time, the lilac, which was not originally created form and not carried out in a timely pruning, grows too much. Its branches grow in all directions, differ in length, a large number of old and damaged branches appear. Pruning of an old bush will help to make rejuvenation. The layout is pretty simple.
- Pruned shrub should also be until spring, before flowering. And if during normal pruning it is not recommended to shorten the branches so as not to remove the developing buds, then during the rejuvenating pruning you will have to do it. Yes, you will get less shoots. But this is really a radical pruning, which will bring a positive result next spring.
- Before pruning, you need to clarify whether the seedling is grafted. For this you need to inspect the trunk of a lilac. At the vaccination site, you will find a change in the thickness of the trunk, as well as differences in the cortex — below the level of vaccination, it may be of a different color or with a different pattern. Cut such a lilac can only be above the site of vaccination. Otherwise, it will lose its features and grow into an ordinary bush.
- Very old and damaged branches should be removed, leaving no hemp. Stronger specimens, which will be the basis for a rejuvenated lilac, can be cut in half or a third.
- Further adjust the shape of the bush every year. To complete the restoration of lilac will need about one or two seasons.
After pruning, the wound remaining in place of the cut of the branches heals with time. However, this is not such a fast process, and in a period when new shoots have not yet formed, lilac is in danger. Particularly serious may be harm after the removal of thick branches, because fully formed wounds may not be delayed. Viruses and fungal spores often get into these holes. Collision with them can lead to the death of the bush, so it is important to handle the place of pruning.
- After removing or shortening a branch, work a little with a very sharp knife.
- If moisture does not get into this area, then after about ten hours cracks form on it. This means that the top layer of about 5 millimeters has dried up.
- After this, it is necessary to treat the cut point with a garden pitch.
Garden pitch is a special remedy that speeds up the healing of wounds and prevents pests from entering. It is sold in stores for gardeners. But you can cook it yourself. To do this, you need three ingredients:
One part of the rosin will require two parts of wax and oil. Melt rosin, add wax. Pour oil into the resulting liquid, stir and turn off the heat.
To prevent the mixture from separating, pour it into water after removing it from a fire. Then drain it, leaving the pot to dry. Store in closed containers.
An important procedure in the care of lilac is pruning. It helps to regulate the growth of the bush by getting rid of old branches, which in vain absorb nutrients. Also with the help of pruning you can change the shape of lilac. You can get both an ordinary bush and a beautiful tree. Обрезка поможет омолодить сирень.
Лучше проводить эту процедуру весной – до цветения и после него. Можно обрезать сирень и осенью, но тогда есть риск, что в этом сезоне она не зацветет.
Крайне важно обрабатывать место среза, чтобы куст не подвергся атаке вирусов.
When the lilac is cut
If you make the correct pruning plant, you can:
- upgrade bush
- improve flowering
- form a crown
- provide a good gain of green mass
- Do not let the fungal diseases hit the plant.
The young lilac in the first two years does not need to remove branches and shoots. If you remove young growths, the flowering will be rare or completely absent. It is important to choose the optimal time for shaping and cutting. In the spring gardeners do not recommend cutting the lilac, as this may disrupt flowering or stop it altogether.
It is better to transfer all manipulations to fall or until the inflorescences on lilacs disappear. But this does not mean that spring care is not required for the plant. Until the lilac buds appear, the damaged and dried branches, as well as the diseased sprouts, should be cut.
Types of lilac trim
There are two types of pruning lilacs:
- crown trimming
- pruning inflorescences that have bloomed.
Crown pruning is performed after flowering, so that the bush gives new buds and does not weaken. Long branches are removed by 1/3, thinning shoots and remove excess root rooted. The shrub pruning scheme after flowering is shown below.
The flowering inflorescences are pruned in late spring or early summer when the flowers disappear. This stimulates the growth of new kidneys. After the bush has been rejuvenated, only hemp remains on it and it does not look beautiful. But after 2 years, lilacs will have new shoots and lush flowering.
List of tools
This procedure requires garden tools, namely:
- Pruner. To remove thin branches and new shoots.
- Hacksaw. Required when removing thick branches.
- Special paint. For processing fresh cuts or damage.
All inventory must be clean and well ground, so that the infection does not penetrate into the section when pruning. The ingress of various bacteria can be detrimental to the plant.
Autumn pruning lilac
The main goal of the autumn pruning is to prepare the plant for winter, rejuvenate, strengthen the growth and development of the bush. At this time of year, the plant tolerates pruning better than in spring. In the autumn, not only rejuvenate, but also remove dry shoots, give the desired shape to the bush.
How to thin a lilac bush
Thinning is done to shape the shrub, but do not forget that this procedure is done after 3 years of plant life, otherwise the lilac will disappear. Below is a diagram of forming a bush.
You can create a lilac bush:
- in the form of an improved bush,
- in the form of a free bush,
Autumn rejuvenation of lilac
A shrub can maintain its fluffiness as it grows, but the intensity and duration of flowering decreases. To eliminate this, rejuvenating the scrub is done. The plant over 10 years old needs rejuvenation. After the procedure, the lilac looks ugly, but for 2 years it will evenly and magnificently bloom.
During rejuvenation, most branches are pruned. The length of the branches should be no more than 40 cm from the soil level. Sections are covered with oil-based paint or brilliant green for quick healing.
For timely sanitary cleaning lilac inspect each year in the fall. Branches that are covered with lichen, and the bark must be removed so that next year the lilac pleased with their flowers.
You also need to remove the curves and broken shoots that thicken the crown. This event is not done in the spring, so as not to disturb the growth and development of flower buds. Autumn pruning will greatly benefit the shrub and improve its wintering.
Spring pruning bush
Gardeners do not recommend rejuvenating and shaping the shrub in the spring, but some treatments with the plant are necessary. Before the appearance of the kidneys, all unnecessary shoots are removed. In such pruning needs old lilac, which eventually stops flowering.
After the procedure, in the first year, the bush will have no inflorescences, but in the future it will delight with a large number of lush and beautiful buds.
Pruning during flowering
When the bush blooms and wants to pick up an armful of lilacs and decorate an apartment or house. You can do it safely to strengthen the shrub. In the process it is forbidden to break off branches, you need to use garden tools. Breaking branches, you can destroy the plant, and in rainy weather, the breakup quickly rot.
Pruning at the end of flowering
After the flowering of the shrub, dried inflorescences are removed. Fulfillment of some requirements will help to preserve the bush and ensure its lush flowering in the future:
- after the flowering of the lilac, pruning is done to preserve the strength of the plant for further growth,
- a bush that does not bloom is thinned every year,
- Autumn pruning is useful for shrubs and helps it to endure even the coldest winter.
What you need to grow lilacs
Growing lilac does not require serious material costs. For good growth and abundant flowering of the bush, you must follow simple rules, namely:
- conduct annual pruning,
- do sanitary cleaning of shrubs,
- rejuvenate the plant in spring and autumn
- periodically thin out the bush,
- use garden tools for their intended purpose.
Why pruned bushes
Everyone knows that most plants consist of aboveground and underground parts, which are completely dependent on each other. Any impact on one of them instantly reflects on the second. Therefore, only the correct pruning - a pledge of well-being of the plant as a whole.
Lilac is no exception to the total mass. Its shoots are so arranged that 2 twigs sprout from each node. Over time, the root system is simply unable to provide the expanded crown with nutrients, as a result of which the plant will be weak and very few buds will form on it.
To achieve a decorative look requires regular pruning of lilacs. Any deviation from the rules will cause irreparable damage. For those gardeners who very often and thoughtlessly pruned something, the bushes can die at all.
Attention! By cutting the lilac each year and according to the existing rules established by experience, it is possible to get bushes literally strewn all over the height with flowers.
It should be borne in mind that lilac, like any other plant, "gets shock" during pruning, and thick sections can rot in stable, wet weather. Experts recommend to exclude top dressing during this period, and in order to avoid problems, lubricate all wounds with brilliant green or other suitable antiseptic.
How to pruning in the fall
Lilac pruning in the autumn period is required to achieve several goals:
- removal of old and damaged branches,
- rejuvenation of the bush
- giving shrubs a beautiful shape, that is, its formation.
As usual, all these procedures are carried out in the early spring period, but they are practiced by many gardeners in the autumn.
Sanitary pruning is cutting all shoots that have dried up or been damaged. This also includes the removal of outdated inflorescences. Rejuvenating procedure is recommended to perform only from the age of 15 lilac bush. It includes trimming extra young shoots and shortening the tops. The latter is performed in order to activate the branching of lateral shoots. Formative pruning lilac is also included in the autumn care. Thanks to her plant give the conceived shape. For example, to get a bush in the form of a cylinder, the following scheme is required:
- On the lilac, which has reached 3 years, leave 4-5 main escape, the growth of which is directed in different directions. The rest neatly sawed to the ground. The tops of the branches left trim on one level.
- For the second season, the most powerful, well-branched shoots are left. They should be at the top of the bush and be directed outwards. The rest, thickening crown, removed.
- Each subsequent season, the pattern is repeated until the crown takes on its intended form. At the same time, neither thickening nor noticeable voids should be observed.
Such a scheme, in addition to the main purpose, will not allow the shrub to grow old.
Attention! All pruning work should be done on a cloudy day. This will help avoid sun damage to the injured shoots.
In addition to the cylinder lilac looks good in the standard form. But such plants can not be called strong. They are often subject to disease and freeze.
How to prune the lilac before flowering and during
Lilac pruning in spring is mainly carried out for sanitary purposes. Clean up all the darkened and broken shoots over the winter. Strongly thinning lilac at this time is not recommended - there is a threat that the plant this season will “refuse” to throw out the buds.
In addition, in the spring before bud break, old branches covered with lichen or those that have cracks on the bark should be removed. Such shoots consume a lot of nutrients, while flower buds are not formed on them. Of the young shoots on the lilacs, some of the strongest are left to maintain annual growth. They must grow upwards and not upset the shape of the crown. During the flowering period of lilac it is allowed to cut off a lot of fragrant inflorescences with which gardeners love to decorate a home. This procedure has a beneficial effect on the shrub.
Lilac pruning for rejuvenation
This procedure is performed on old, heavily overgrown lilac bushes. After that, be sure to water and feed the plant. This is done in early spring, at the time when the buds have not yet dismissed, according to the following scheme:
- Weak and unnecessary shoots cut to the ground level.
- Those branches that have decided to leave, cut off by 40-60 cm from the root collar.
- In the spring of next season, most of the shoots left are cut into a ring. At each stump at the same time you get several strong branches.
Buds on the lilac shrub formed 3 years after the start of rejuvenation.
Attention! Strong pruning of such a plan extends the decorative effect only for a few years. Old hemp quickly destroyed and the plant dies.
Lilac - a plant that requires minimal maintenance. Several bushes with different colors of flowers, which are pruned annually according to the rules, can be the main decoration of the entire site.
When you can prune the lilac
Lilacs should be pruned every year, but depending on the purpose of pruning they spend it at different times. In early spring, before the sap goes along the branches and the garden awakens from its winter dormancy, thinning and sanitary cleaning. In the same time exercise and anti-aging pruning lilac
Lilac bloom with proper pruning
Form the crown A shrub is best immediately after completion of flowering. At the same time you can carry out sanitary cleaning, thin the crown and rejuvenate the plant.
Lilac spring pruning
In early spring, you need to remove numerous shoots, cut all frostbitten, dry, broken, crooked and blackened branches and shoots. They also remove old, gnarled branches and last year’s weak shoots from the central part of the crown. Shorten good branches and shoots do not need: together with the tops of the shoots, you risk getting rid of flower buds.
If you have a grafted lilac, remove all the shoots that formed the stock, otherwise the new growth will drown varietal shoots.
Is it possible to cut the lilac during flowering
When the lilac blossoms, it is customary to cut off branches for bouquets from it. Do not break, namely cut off: after breaking, the disfigured ends of the branches with peeled bark remain, which disfigure the entire shrub and may be affected by pests. Partial sanitary pruning is also carried out during flowering: they remove branches that shade other plants or interfere with walking.
When the lilac bloom is complete, you need to cut off all drying inflorescences, until they begin to set seeds: the formation and ripening of seeds takes a lot of strength and nutrition from the bush, and you hardly need any seed material for propagation of lilac: reproductive characteristics of the plant are not preserved by generative reproduction. Cut faded inflorescences should be as close as possible to the first pair of leaves.
After that, you can shorten the shoots to improve the shape of the crown.
When do you need to cut the lilac: in spring, summer or autumn?
You can prune garden lilac year-round. Sanitary procedures are best planned for the spring before bud break. Before starting flowering, it is worth refraining from adjusting the crown height so as not to remove flower buds. If the lilac inflorescences form a lot, that part of them can be removed to prolong the flowering of the shrub.
It is not recommended to spend more than 3 lilac haircuts per season.
Not everyone can correctly cut the lilac, although planting and caring for clematis also causes some difficulties. After the flowering of perennials, it is enough to remove only faded panicles so that they do not pull off some of the nutrients for seed ripening. Moreover, 10% of inflorescences are left in order not to disrupt the vegetative processes of the shrub.
The hairstyle is carried out no later than August, the trees thinned in autumn do not bring inflorescences in the next season. Cut the lilac in the fall can only be used for sanitary purposes. In the period from September to November, the fungal parts of the crown are removed. In this case, saving the bush from death is a priority to its fruiting.
Types of pruning before and after flowering
Flowers, trees and shrubs are the hallmark of any site. Well-groomed plants can ennoble even the most unsightly territory. While thickened, diseased shrubs not only make the vegetative composition heavier, they also pose a threat to other ornamental and fruit crops. Regular cutting will help protect the plant from overgrowing.
There are several technologies for cleaning the bush from green mass. The choice of one of them is carried out taking into account the time of year, the age of the bush, its condition.
Sanitary annual clean crowns
Works are reduced to the release of perennial from infected, frostbitten and withered branches. Injured and dried shoots are usually removed in early spring before bud break to prevent fungal and pest damage to the trunks. Sanitary work also includes the removal of inflorescences after flowering.
Sanitary haircut is not always tied to the calendar works in the garden. In the case of the invasion of pests or damage to the crown by bacteria, the patient part is cut out completely regardless of the work carried out earlier. In order not to remain without a blooming garden, they take into account when repotting clematis, roses, peonies, hydrangeas and other perennials.
This is a type of haircut, in which lateral growth and cuttings are cut from a formed bush.
The following branches are removed from the plant:
- with an acute otkhozhdenie angle - due to improper attachment to the stem, they slowly tear apart the bark,
- fork - skeletal branches, sitting in one node and creating an additional load on the trunk,
- intersecting due to constant friction, provoking the exposure of wood and the ingress of infections under the seed bark,
Shrub or shtambovom tree?
Lilacs can grow as a compact tree or wide shrubs, annually forming root shoots. If you give the culture the opportunity to grow independently, then over time it will turn into an overgrown shrub, consisting of many stems of different ages. In the center will be the old trunks with flaking bark. Lichens, mosses, pests willingly take root on them, causing damage to the whole plant.
Another possible development of events is also possible - for those varieties that do not form sprouts, a single trunk ages. If you do not take timely action, the plant will grow old and die. Approaches to the forming should be different, in each case it is necessary to take into account the varietal characteristics of perennial.
It makes no sense to try to form a stem from an overgrown bush or vice versa. Approaches to shaping should be different.
The initial stage of forming a stem tree is to shorten an annual sapling to a height equal to the desired size of a bole, plus 3-4 pairs of developed buds. From shoots that grow from abandoned buds, they further form a crown on the basis of a bush plant. In the future, will have to promptly remove the branches formed below the crown.
Video on the formation of trunk of lilac.
When to start rejuvenation?
Anti-aging pruning is cleaning the crown in order to extend the life of the bush and improve flowering. When it is carried out, the gardener selects the oldest trunks and cuts them to the stump. The updated crown is formed from young shoots that were selected and preserved during past cleansing of the plant. Partial anti-aging pruning is to remove lignified skeletal branches.
Anti-aging cleansing is carried out with the aim of stimulating the growth of new shoots. In the next vegetative season, the plant will not bloom, since all the flowering buds of the last year will be removed. Before carrying out the planned event, gardeners determine the availability of vaccinations. When it is detected, all parts of the plant, located on the same level, or below the grafting, are preserved.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend removing all the old branches at once, and cut 2-3 old trunks annually so as not to remain without flowering.
При достижении 12-летнего возраста цветение становится скудным, соцветия мельчают, поэтому щадящее омоложение лучше начинать, когда кустарнику исполнилось 9 лет. При срезке 2-3 старых побегов за сезон сирень всегда будет выглядеть ухоженной без ущерба цветению.
Надо ли обрезать соцветия после увядания?
If the owner is not interested in the maturation of seed pods, faded panicles are recommended to be removed, as they absorb a significant amount of nutrients.
When the first flowers appear on the lilac, they can be cut into bouquets. Breaking branches is forbidden, since the split wood is recovered with difficulty. The flowering next year will not be as abundant as usual. This is explained by the fact that the shoots, in which future flower buds will form, are located next to the inflorescences and destroyed along with them.
To cut the panicles per bouquet without loss of flowering buds of the next year, you can trim only the brushes themselves, or the brushes together with a “slingshot” - the place of fusion of 2 inflorescences with an allowance of 5-6 cm.
For work you will need a set of garden tools:
- gardening scissors,
- insulating tape, resin or garden var,
At the primary stage, a visual diagnosis of the bush is carried out. There are trunks, branches and shoots, which in consequence will be cut. It should be remembered that for 1 time you can not remove more than 20% of the crown.
What mistakes make novice gardeners dismantled in the video.
Too long branches are shortened first by 2/4. The cut is done under an inclination of 45% and covered with garden pitch in order to avoid the penetration of infections under the bark. After this, the shrub is thinned from the withered, deformed and broken branches. They are cut to the very base of the trunk. Bare spots are wrapped with tape or agrofibre.
When working with intertwined branches and closely spaced trunks, use strings. With its help, parts of the crown are fixed in such a way that the individual shoots do not interfere with the work of the gardener. The trunks are cut to a stump, i.e. under the very foundation, the wound is covered with garden pitch. If the amount of cut material does not exceed 15% of the total mass of the crown, gardeners start nipping weak branches and young shoots.
After completion of the procedure, the string is cut, the crown takes the same form. Cut material to be disposed of immediately. The branches abandoned near the bush provoke the development of putrefactive processes.
How to cut the lilac correctly - tips and ways
Lilac can be found on almost every flowerbed, because this unpretentious shrub has a high decorative effect, and its lush, fragrant inflorescences will decorate any garden. But in order to preserve these qualities, it is necessary to regularly prune lilac, both to form a crown of the correct form and to rejuvenate old plants.
This article describes in detail the technique of the procedure, depending on the season and the age of the shrub. You will learn how to properly remove the branches of lilac in the spring and autumn, and what activities need to be carried out before and after flowering, and photos and videos will help to master the skills necessary for the procedure.
When and how to prune the lilac
Remove old branches or excess shoots from the bush is necessary, because otherwise the flowers will cover mainly the upper part of the plant, and its decorativeness will decrease.
It is important to choose the right time for the procedure. Spring is not well suited for the formation of crown, because the stress of pruning can reduce or even stop flowering in the current year. Therefore, it is better to postpone the procedure until completion of flowering or autumn.
However, this does not mean that spring plants do not need to pay attention. Before the awakening of the kidneys, you need to carry out sanitary cleaning: remove all dry or damaged branches, as well as shoots with signs of disease. This will help preserve the health of the shrub during the entire growing season.
For trimming this shrub there are several schemes. One of them is aimed at the formation of the crown, and the second - at the rejuvenation of the old plant. Consider each of them in more detail.
To form a crown, do the following:
- Wait until flowering is over and remove all withered buds,
- Long branches must be shortened by a third,
- Remove all excess root growth and thin out shoots growing close to the ground.
If the bush has become too wide, it is necessary to additionally remove weak and thin side shoots. As a result, you should have a compact plant with a rounded crown. This procedure is best done after flowering, and not in the spring, so that the shrub is not weak and can form buds (Figure 1).
Figure 1. The classical scheme of formation and rejuvenation of the bush
In the case of old shrubs that require rejuvenation, do differently. Without exception, the branches are shortened so that their length from the surface of the earth does not exceed 40 cm. Shoots located at the surface of the ground, thin out or completely remove (if the branch is old). If you are not interested in flowering this year, rejuvenation can be carried out in early spring, otherwise pruning is carried out after flowering is completed.
In fact, after rejuvenation, the bush will not look very attractive, since only small hemp will remain on it. But after 2-3 years it will acquire young shoots and again become covered with lush inflorescences.
For the procedure, you will need a standard gardener set: a secateur to remove young shoots and thin branches, a handsaw to cut off parts of large diameter, as well as garden var or oil paint to treat the resulting wounds.
It is important that the entire instrument is clean, sharp and disinfected. Otherwise, an infection that can kill the plant can get into the cut.
Young culture is growing very quickly, and without regular thinning the bush will turn out too lush and shapeless.
Note: Since this event does not involve the removal of a large number of branches, it can be carried out in early spring.
In order to qualitatively thin the crown, first of all, cut out all the dry or frozen parts. Next, remove the weak shoots that are not able to form flower buds, but they consume the plant sap and weaken it. In addition, you need to cut off the branches growing inside the crown. Such an arrangement leads to the fact that the kidneys do not receive enough sunlight, and do not bloom.
Also in the process completely cut root shoots, especially for grafted plants. If this is not done, wild branches will form at the roots, which will only weaken the plant, but will not bring flowering. However, moderation and caution should be observed during pruning: at most one third of the total number of branches can be removed at a time.
The main difference between anti-aging pruning and other species is that it implies a strong thinning of the bush. At first glance, such a procedure may seem dangerous, but in fact it will allow a few more years to enjoy the flowering of the old lilac.
After such a procedure, only hemp remains from a previously magnificent bush. But do not be afraid that the plant will die: gradually, in place of old branches, young flowering shoots are formed.
Note: There is a certain difference between the rejuvenation of grafted and own-rooted varieties. In no case can graft plants be cut below the grafting site. This will lead to the fact that instead of a beautiful ornamental shrub, you will grow an ordinary wild shrub.
Rejuvenating plant, do not regret that this year will not bloom. In early spring, before the movement of the juice in the branches began, all old shoots are removed, leaving no more than 40 cm from them. Old shoots with cracked bark can be cut to the ground. Naturally, after such a procedure, it does not make sense to expect flowering. But after 2-3 years the plant will fully recover, and will delight you with its bloom for several more years.
Lilac pruning in autumn
Despite the fact that the crown formation is most often carried out immediately after the completion of flowering, that is, in the summer, in the fall, it is also necessary to conduct such events. Their main goal is to slightly rejuvenate the shrub, to prepare it for wintering and to strengthen it before the future growing season.
Since the autumn pruning lilac brings much better spring, during this period, you can not only thin out and rejuvenate the shrub, but also more carefully form its crown.
Lilac pruning before flowering
In early spring, that is, before the start of flowering, it is not recommended to strongly thin out the shrub. This may lead to the fact that in the current year the lilac does not bloom.
Activities that are carried out in this period include sanitary cleaning and easy thinning. The first step is to remove all dry, broken or blackened branches. You also need to cut the oldest shoots covered with lichen or cracked bark. Such branches only thicken the crown and consume juices, but do not form buds. In addition, it is necessary to cut off too young and weak shoots, leaving only a few of the strongest for annual growth. It should be carefully observed to remove only those shoots that grow in width and disrupt the shape of the crown.
Lilac pruning during flowering
Keep from moderate pruning of lilac during the flowering period is difficult, because you want to decorate your house with lush inflorescences. Do not be afraid to do this, because such a procedure will only strengthen the plant and preserve its vitality.
Note: A similar procedure is not carried out for young plants: they are not strong enough and will not tolerate pruning.
Cutting the buds, in passing, they carry out a light thinning: they remove young twigs that grow inside the crown, or interfere with the formation of stronger shoots. In the process, in no case can not break the branches. For cutting, use only a sharp shears or garden shears. If you just break a branch, an ugly trace will remain in its place, which can later lead to diseases or the death of the entire bush, especially in wet weather, when damaged branches quickly rot.
How to cut the lilac after flowering: schemes and methods
Immediately after completion of flowering, it is necessary to equip with garden tools and prune lilacs. This is necessary if you plan to enjoy blooming for several more years.
Note: There is a certain order of pruning: first, care for simple varieties, then for semi-double, and then for terry.
The main goal is to remove all wilted buds. The cut should be done directly above the first pair of leaves or buds, but if you want to slightly correct the shape of the crown, you can back down from this rule.
There are several rules that will help preserve the health of the shrub and provide abundant flowering next year. (Figure 4):
- Pruning is carried out immediately after the flowering period. Otherwise, the strength of the plant will be spent on the formation of fruits and seeds, not buds.
- If you grow a non-fruiting shrub, thinning can be done year-round: flower buds will form anyway.
- Do not be afraid of autumn pruning: lilac quickly recovers and hibernates well after such care.
The only condition that must be observed is the proper care of the planting after trimming. Sections must be treated with oil paint, linseed oil or ordinary brilliant green. Without this, the branches will quickly begin to rot, especially in wet weather.
Old lilac: pruning
Any old lilac bush is not a very attractive cluster and interlacing of branches. At the same time, it does not bloom too much, and can quickly die without appropriate care. To prevent this, rejuvenating procedures are performed (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Rejuvenation of the old plant
Similar pruning can be done in spring and autumn. In any case, it will be possible to wait for flowering only in 2-3 years, since in the process of rejuvenation all old and young branches are cut out, leaving only small hemp no more than 40 cm long. Root own lilacs with a lot of old branches can be cut off altogether. But such a procedure will be detrimental to the grafted seedling: if you cut off the grafting site, instead of a varietal shrub, you will have wild growth.
Since rejuvenation is considered to be a very traumatic procedure, it is better to spend it in dry weather. Dampness can cause rapid rotting of the branches, especially if the cut points have not been properly treated with oil paint.