Small tubercles (galls) are formed on the roots. It is in them that the nematodes live. The spread of nematodes occurs with watering, transplanting or with the tool.It is a small (1-1.5 mm), threadlike worms whitish. Overwinters in bulbs, soil, seeds. In dry scales of onion and dried garlic retains viability for 2-4 years. Propagated by laying eggs in plant tissue. When the infected plants die off, the nematodes go to the soil and look for a new host.Distributed everywhere. It damages the onions, gnawing the bottom, mainly during storage, but can also harm the field where it is brought with planting material. Penetrating inside the bulb, usually near the bottom, mites feed on fleshy scales, causing them to rot. Heavily damaged bulbs become rotten inside and dry out during storage. In the field, mites prefer plants damaged by other pests. They harm garlic, hyacinths, daffodils and other crops.
As a preventive measure, you can sterilize the soil before planting. And an already infected plant must be immediately destroyed along with the dish. Disinfect glass, inventory, shelf where the plant was located.
Damage. Infected plants suspend growth, turn yellow and die. The galls are destroyed over time and lead to the decay of the entire root. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi enter the plant through damaged roots.
Although I haven't tried it myself
If you make manure, let it rest for at least 4 months. Fold the manure into a collar. Cover with black film. All the larvae will die during this time if they were in manure. If you cover the manure with a transparent film, then death will come only after six months.
This can occur from April to September. The optimum soil temperature for this process is + 15-25 C at a humidity of 40-80%. Nematodes live on potato roots for about 40 days. With severe contamination of the site, yield losses can be up to 70-80%.
See you, dear friends!
The first type of this subgroup is that it sucks the sap of plants. Secreting saliva, they cause the formation of peculiar thickenings - galls on the roots of plants, thereby slowing down the growth and development of plants.
How to know that the site is infected with a nematode?
Observe crop rotation. It is possible to return planting potatoes to the site no earlier than after 6 years. But any summer resident will say that this is unreal. There is an unexpected solution to the problem of getting rid of nematodes. Not so easy. Not fast, but can give a good result. So!
Here they brought in old times potatoes from the American continent. And now the pests and diseases of this culture come to us from overseas. First, jump to Europe, and then to us. Who among us did not collect the Colorado potato beetle! But such a pest as
How does a potato become infected?
The second species is free-living nematodes, they inhabit sandy soils. After they defeat the roots of the plants change color - become brown, the entire root system gradually dies off, the plant languishes and as a result dies.
This short article on root nematodes and how
Nematodes suck nutrients out of the plant, causing the plant to die.
How to get rid of nematodes?
Thermal disinfection of seeds and seed in heated water at a temperature of 45-50 ° for 10-15 minutes. Sow only healthy seed. Compliance with crop rotation with the return of onions, garlic to its original place no earlier than 3-4 years. Before putting the onion in storage, make obligatory disinfection of storage facilities, drying and warming the bulbs at a temperature of 35-37 ° for 5-7 days. In storage at a positive temperature to maintain humidity not higher than 70%.
Adult mites can feed on plant debris. Ticks can often be found in garden soil, hotbeds, where the pest is brought mainly with infected planting material.
The drug can be used in the intervals between courses of vermoxa.
General characteristics of an adult individual. Leaf nematode: microscopic worms, colorless, up to 1 mm long. , able to move quickly, the larvae can be stored in the ground for several months.
How do you know that you have a nematode, some kind of vulgar fly started. and you are already a nematode-diagnosed after a serious differentiation. God forbid your plants to learn what a nematode is. The natural method is a wooded marigold. In general, plants do not cure, and destroy
If you have your experience of getting rid of nematodes, write in the comments.
Are there any chemicals to combat the nematode?
Take potatoes early and unstable to the nematode variety. Early spring lay the tubers in boxes with a layer of a single tuber. Hold the tubers for one week. Then sprinkle them with peat powder, and after 20 days, plant each tuber with a clod of earth. As soon as the first burst buds appear on the birch.
Nematodes with free cyst formation lay their eggs in the cyst on the roots of plants. Laying eggs can maintain its viability in this form for several years. The larvae released from the eggs again infect plants.
How to fight a nematode
Most nematodes affect different types of tropical and subtropical crops. Another nematode is called onion fly. Onion fly can cause great damage to the crop. The leaves of plants attacked by these insects begin to curl and turn yellow, then wither, and the bulbs rot.Stop pouring soup
Nematodes are growing in pots of flowers, how to get rid of? change the whole earth, or can it process something ??
Side effects: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, cramps. Contraindications: pregnancy, severe liver and kidney disease. The effectiveness of treatment: 80-100%. http://www.medkurs.ru/gastroenterology/section113/section2477/13518.html
Damage. In places of defeat the leaf becomes discolored, spots that are transparent to light are formed. The damaged leaf is darker, dries out or rots. The plant dies over time. Water, soil - are the main carriers of the disease.
No, throw away the plant, disinfect the pots. Poison that acts on them is very dangerous, it can not be used at home. Are you sure that these are nematodes? They are quite rare.
Snail on the slope.
You will not collect. This is a microscopic worm that came to us from South America.
Eggs and larvae of root nematodes, despite their adaptability, need certain conditions for their well-being and reproduction: they must be wet, warm ground (low temperatures prevent reproduction), slightly acidic soil (regular liming suppresses the spread of nematodes), sandy soil (sandy structure facilitates the movement of nematodes, provides them with oxygen).
On the plot. Before we talk about how to fight a nematode, let's get acquainted with this ruthless pest of our green pets.
To fight the onion fly, you should observe the crop rotation, alternation of garden crops, return the planting of onions and garlic to the previous place not earlier than in 4-5 years, warm the onion sets before planting within 24 hours at a temperature of 45 degrees.
There is a pochin drug for fighting soil pests. I usually use it in a mixture with ashes during plantings and crops, adding to the hole (groove). Try zaryhlit in close proximity to garlic cloves (if on winter garlic). Perhaps, following the crop rotation will help reduce the harm from this misfortune, that is, plant it after crops that this crap does not harm.
1.5-2 months prior to planting, dry heating of onion sets and uterus is carried out at a temperature of 40-45 ° for 16 hours or at 35-37 ° for 5-7 days. In storages where a pest is detected, gas disinfection is carried out with sulfur dioxide gas obtained by burning Gamma drafts (0.5-1 g per 1 sq. M) or coma sulfur (50 g per 1 sq. M). A prerequisite for the disinfection of premises is their tightness and compliance with safety regulations.
And who has nematodes?
3) Stem nematode
There are three types of nematodes: root, stem and leaf.
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It is also recommended to sow rye after regular harvesting of potatoes in usual terms, in the spring to dig up the plot. So, too, can significantly reduce the number of pests.
Take a closer look at potato plantations at noon. If the bushes wither, and the leaves are small and have an uneven color with a slant to pallor, there is a nematode. Planting will be thinned, with bald spots, and the bushes frail. If you look at the roots of the bushes, they will be weak with many small roots. And on these roots in July white and golden balls with a diameter of 0.4-0.8 mm are noticeable. And each ball has a small process. These are female nematodes. It will take some time and the balls will turn dark brown. Females will turn into cyst.
You will not find chemicals in the stores to combat nematodes, but the means of influence on this pest exist, they are available to any gardener. Crop rotation, mixed planting, use of green manure, selection of varieties of vegetables resistant to this pest, here are simple and effective measures to prevent the spread of nematodes.
Root nematodes are a small, rather dangerous pest, it can hardly be distinguished with the naked eye, since the length of this transparent roundworm migrating in the soil is no more than 1.3 mm.
Planting sevka need to be isolated from the beds with other types of onions. To scare away flies immediately after the feathers grow (at the end of May - early June), sprinkle the onion bed with a mixture of tobacco dust or a mixture of shag with ash (1: 1), you can use lime-fluff. Do it 3-4 times during the whole growing season.
2. Stem Nematode of Onion and Garlic
Marigolds collect nematodes on their roots and are a good tool in the fight against them.
How to get rid of pests that eat garlic in the ground
1) Root nematode
The root nematode or the gall nematode of the genus Meloidogyne is a serious pest of many houseplants, fortunately it is not often found. The nematode larva penetrating the root tissue, the release of specific enzymes causes the formation of blisters - gall. In size, they can be either with wheat grain or with walnut. Nematode is a small, colorless worms with a filamentous body up to 1.5 mm long.
Vico-oatmeal mixture, perennial legumes, corn also help clean the soil from potato nematodes. Some summer residents grow marigold and marigold, and then bury them in the soil.
According to experts, the nematode in the form of cysts is stored in the soil for 15-18 years. In each cysts from 500 to 700 eggs and in each are small worm-like larvae. Their length is within 0.4 mm.
But, if the lesion did appear, do not plant crops or plant varieties susceptible to this pest on such a site for 6 years.
Root nematodes are one of the varieties of nematodes, in nature, in addition to pests, there are also useful species. The classification of harmful nematodes depends on their habitat. There are root, leaf, stem nematodes.
To control the larvae of the flies, the ground around the affected plants should be watered with a solution of salt (a glass of 10 liters of water with a tablespoon of detergent added without bleach). Watering is carried out strictly under the base of the bulb. The first watering is carried out when the feather grows to 4-5 cm, the second - 10-15 days after the first treatment. Fading plants are removed to prevent infection of neighboring bulbs.
(Onion, garlic, parsley, parsnip, tomato, radish, cucumber, etc.).
1. Root (onion) mite
Damage. Stem nematode often affects flower cultures. Prefers a particular type of plant. A damaged plant is distinguished by an irregular shape of the stem, leaves, flowers. The affected parts turn pale, turn brown and fade over time.
It is quite rare. It causes galls on the roots of the formation or swelling. The size of the formation can range from tiny to the size of a walnut.
Control measures. Fighting an already infected plant is usually already possible; it is necessary to destroy it along with the pot. You can try the use of the drug "Narcissus". But to prevent nematode infection can sterilize the ground before planting.
Description and photo
Nematodes are microscopic worms. Parasites live and develop in a humid environment, harm the development of plants, can lead to the death of both garden and indoor crops.
Parasites under the microscope
In total, there are about 30 types of pests. They feed on plant sap. Worm sizes up to 2 mm. There are three types of nematodes, according to the places of life of parasites:
- Leafs have a beige color, up to 1 mm long, filamentary form.
- Stem, also filiform, up to 1 mm.
- Root or gallic with a length of about 2 mm, damage the roots, which are formed thickenings (galls).
Signs of plant damage
Signs of infection with a leaf (strawberry) nematode are as follows:
- Brown spots appear on leaves and buds, they curl and lose their natural color.
- Petioles swell, plant growth stops.
- On the leaves, spots appear below, becoming red afterwards, the leaf becomes thinner, the yield decreases, and the plants eventually die.
More susceptible to leaf nematode are strawberry, carnation, aster, chrysanthemum.
The defeat of the stem nematode leads to cessation of growth, thickening of the stems, loss of color of the stems and buds, and the death of the plant in the end.
In the area of risk of onion, garlic, cucumbers, parsley, tomatoes, radishes.
The cultures affected by the root nematode weaken and wither. The roots below the thickenings die off. Appear thin roots, root beard.
How to detect pests on the site
Due to its small size, detecting a nematode is not very easy. Leaf and stem can be found with a magnifying glass, carefully examining the buds, leaves and stems. To detect the root will need to dig up the plants. Roots thickening will be the first sign of infection. You can take the earth from the roots, pour it with warm water and the worms crawl in different directions.
Means of struggle
To fight nematodes difficult. To date, there are several ways to get rid of parasites:
- thermal method
- folk methods.
Unfortunately, the chemical method of getting rid of parasites is the most effective. A serious effect can be achieved only through the use of nematocides, chemicals that destroy nematodes parasitic on plants. Some poison pests through the respiratory system. These are carbathion, chloropicrin, nonmagon and methyl bromide. Others penetrate the skin, such as methylmercaptophos, karbofos, phosphamide, lindane.
Root thinning is a clear sign of infection
Some chemicals have a complex effect, such as chloropicrin. They lead to complete sterilization of the soil. Planting after treatment can be made only after a few weeks, and after applying some in general only for the next season.
The chemical control method consists in spraying garden crops with chemical preparations to destroy the leaf and stem nematode. To destroy the root need to shed the ground with a solution of the drug. Spraying and spilling should be done in dry, sunny, windless weather, preferably before noon or after 17:00 in the evening. The procedure must be performed several times, as the poisons act exclusively on adult worms.
The most effective chemicals are considered "Dimetoat", "Bi-58", "Rogor", "Vidat", "Nemafos".
It is necessary to apply chemicals in exact accordance with the instruction, with use of means of protection.
The main and, perhaps, the only folk remedy that gives the result is strait boiling water before planting. A significant number of pests after such a procedure dies, but you need to shed the earth to a depth of 20 cm. It is desirable after this to cover the earth with a film so that it cools more slowly. This method does not guarantee the complete destruction of worms, since some of them may be located deeper than the strait and survive.
Preventive measures include the following measures:
- After harvesting, thorough cleaning of the site from plant residues, grass and leaves is obligatory. Nematodes perfectly preserved and winter in the grass.
- Timely weeding and loosening.
- Remove damaged and yellowed leaves and other plant parts.
- Autumn digging plot.
- No need to excessively moisturize the soil, nematodes love moisture.
Left - infected roots, right - healthy
It is also necessary to comply with agrotechnical requirements, which are largely preventive:
- It is necessary to alternate the planting of different crops, the observance of crop rotation.
- Внимательно подходить к выбору сортов, выбирать устойчивые к нематоде, благо выбор сейчас есть.
- Тщательно выбирать только здоровые семена, подвергать клубни и луковицы термической обработке перед посадкой до 15 минут при температуре от 45 до 50 градусов.
- По возможности обеззараживать землю кипятком перед посадкой.
- Regular weeding and loosening.
- Regular testing of plants for infection, removal of diseased specimens.
Before you figure out how to combat these parasites, you need to talk about what nematodes look like, photos in the soil of which cannot be confused with any other pest.
In total there are approximately thirty species of nematodes, which can be divided into three categories:
- damaging plants
- dangerous to animals,
- threatening people.
This article will focus on nematodes that infect plants. Food for these pests is plant sap, so their growth and development slow down significantly. If time does not begin to fight nematodes, the plant will simply die. It will give an idea of how nematodes look like, photos in the soil. How to deal with these pests, every farmer should know. It is necessary to have an idea about the main methods of prevention.
Description of external signs of nematodes
Nematodes are worms ranging in length from one to two millimeters. Female and male individuals outwardly differ in size. The first have a little more length. The shape of the body of the worms can be round, oval or oblong, resembling threads.
Nematodes in the soil (the fight against them can be very diverse) are white and beige. The worms are well developed muscular system and protective sheath, which has a high density. The head of the worms is very small in size, it has mobile lips, with the help of which pests and feed.
Nematodes reproduce by laying eggs of white color, which can be round or oval in shape. The larvae outwardly do not look like adults, they have a white head and a transparent body.
Nematodes, photos in the soil of which look very disgusting, have a well-developed sense of touch, due to the fact that their body is completely covered with tentacles. Pests prefer dry and warm microclimate, which is ideal for breeding and laying eggs.
Before you begin to consider the main methods of combating these pests, it is necessary to understand what their varieties exist. In addition to the basic classification of nematodes in the soil (the fight against them is a very difficult task), feeding on plants are of the following types:
It is important to understand that any kind of these worms is absolutely dangerous for all plants. They can affect both garden and garden crops, as well as indoor plants. The vital activity of all nematodes is absolutely the same, however, there are some external differences, as well as preferences for habitat.
How to learn about the appearance of leaf nematodes in the garden?
The appearance of nematodes in the garden plot in the soil (the struggle with them causes a lot of trouble to many gardeners) is accompanied by the following features:
- foliage loses its normal color and becomes covered with brown spots,
- leaves begin to curl,
- scapes grow in size
- the plant begins to grow poorly and bear fruit
- the buds during the flowering period are covered with brown spots,
- glossy spots appear on the lower part of the leaves, which then turn brown.
If you do not start pest control in time, the plant will gradually dry out and eventually will completely rot. In this case, the solution of this problem should be approached comprehensively, since nematodes in the soil (the fight against them is very difficult) are able to withstand any frosts, and the next year will begin to devour other plants.
Favorite delicacies of leaf nematode
As mentioned earlier, these parasitic worms are able to infect absolutely any representatives of the flora, but most often they attack the following plants:
- room fern,
- Money Tree,
Therefore, if you are engaged in the cultivation of these plants, it is very important to perform certain preventive measures in advance to protect them from nematodes. They will be discussed a little later.
Stem nematodes in the soil of indoor plants are a very common phenomenon encountered by many growers. This species of worms grows to a length of one millimeter. It affects the stems, leaves and flowers of the plant, falling on them through the rhizome.
The presence of these pests can be found on the following manifestations:
- plant growth slows down
- the thickness of the stem increases, the color of which grows dull
- open buds dry up and fall off very quickly,
- in the absence of any pest control measures, the flower dies.
Stem nematodes prefer moisture, but despite this they are able to survive for quite a long period of time under any climatic conditions. Most often, worms of this species are parasitic on vegetable crops.
The root nematode has the largest body size, which has a yellow or brown color and can reach a length of 2 millimeters, so it is very simple to distinguish it from other varieties. This pest is the most dangerous for plants because it infects its root system. At the same time, the plant stops growing completely and also gradually fades until it dies with time at all.
What is the danger of nematodes for plants?
Before discussing how to get rid of nematodes in the soil, you need to talk about the dangers that these pests pose to the flora. Devouring the plants, the worms, along with the juice, draw all the nutrients from them. In addition, the waste products of these pests are very strong toxins, poisoning plants that lose their normal shape and color, stop growing and developing, and also yield significantly less yield.
The whole difficulty of fighting nematodes is that their presence is very difficult to detect in a timely manner. To the naked eye, it is impossible to do so because it is too small. Leaf and stem worms can only be seen through a magnifying glass, and the root worms live in the ground, so you have to dig out the plant altogether. The root system in this case will be covered with seals of a brown color.
It is worth noting that due to toxic substances secreted by nematodes, burns and irritations can appear on the skin, so long-sleeved clothing and gloves should be used to combat worms.
The most effective means
Novice gardeners have never heard of fulmigation, which is the most effective method of pest control. What is soil fumigation against nematodes? This treatment of plants and soil with special toxic substances and their vapors. You can buy chemicals in any store for gardening. Experienced farmers recommend using "Nefamos", "Dimethoat" or "Vidat", which are sprayed with plants. To make it more effective, chemical treatment of crops is best done on a clear, calm day. If the plant was affected by root nematodes, the chemicals are diluted with water and added to the root system. It is worth noting that these products kill only adult worms, therefore spraying is recommended to be performed several times so that the larvae also die.
Other methods of dealing with worms
An alternative to chemicals is biological agents. They are absolutely safe for plants and people, because they do not contain any toxins. One of the most potent drugs in this group is Nematophagin. When using it, one should strictly follow the dosage specified by the manufacturer. Otherwise, the plant may burn and die. If you are interested in the question of how to treat the soil from nematodes with minimal harm to the plant, then biological agents will be the best solution for saving plants from pests.
When dealing with worms eating rhizomes, you can also use heat treatment. To do this, the plant is dug out, damaged parts of its root system are cut off, after which the rhizome is immersed for 5 minutes in water heated to 50 degrees. However, it is important to understand that if the worms managed to hit a large part of the root system, then this method may be useless, because if you remove most of the rhizomes, the plant may not survive.
After completion of heat treatment, the plant is planted in a new place. It is recommended to add a small amount of an anti-nematode drug to the bottom of the hole to allow it to normally settle down and be able to recover. After planting the soil should be loosened. This is necessary in order to provide the root system with an influx of sufficient oxygen. This method is suitable for the control of nematodes of any variety, but in the case of leafy and stem worms, heat treatment of leaves and stems is performed. In this case, plant transplantation is also mandatory.
So, the most effective remedies for nematodes in the soil are chemical preparations, but they are very toxic, so their use can bring both benefit and harm. Therefore, than to deal with pests, it is better to try to prevent their occurrence.
To do this, conduct the following preventive measures:
- regularly fight weeds,
- timely remove fallen leaves,
- remove yellowed foliage from plants
- perform periodic plant transplants,
- flood the ground regularly
- choose planting material carefully
- Do not water the plants with too much water.
- Every autumn, dig the garden.
Adhering to these simple tips and advice, you can prevent the emergence of not only nematodes, but also many other pests.
If, nevertheless, the plant was affected by worms and it cannot be recovered, then it should be burned. If this is not done, the worms will spread to other plants that may also die. It is very important to detect pests in time, because they have a high reproductive ability. Therefore, if you want your garden to always be in order and give a good harvest, watch it at any time of the year.
Nematodes are, according to one classification, peculiar roundworms, and according to others, gastrointestinal worms. More than three tens of thousands of species of these creatures are described, however, most likely, there are much more of them. The overwhelming nematode species are parasites of a wide variety of plants; they can also quietly live in fish, humans, and animals. Nematodes are far from being harmless creatures; in humans, animals and plants they cause a variety of diseases.
The length of the nematode body can vary greatly (from 80 microns to several meters, if we bear in mind certain types of parasites). Nematodes have a specific fusiform shape, narrowed at the ends. The body across is round.
Here we will talk about nematodes that parasitize plants, and try to fight with them in the light of modern science so quickly that in the next season after infection the area can be planted or sown.
Let's start with the varieties of nematodes that plague the plants. Usually it is very difficult to understand that your site is infected with a nematode, there are few signs of its activity. For example, you see that shoots are slowed down in development or almost no growth and development of seedlings, or flowering is weak, or the death of plants at a young age is suspiciously significant, or the crop dies massively.
All this can be a sign of nematode, and a sign of other diseases or pests. The reason for the lack of health of plants can be in the simple lack of any one or a group of elements in the soil. Therefore, if next year there is exactly the same picture, we advise you to take a sample of the soil, digging it with a shovel into a bag and take it to the laboratory, they will tell you whether it is a nematode or something else, otherwise you will treat the plants from one , then from the other, without getting the proper effect and simply massively propagating the worst enemy.
Nematode under the microscope. © Håkan Kvarnström
What is the danger of a nematode?
In the process of its active life, it penetrates into the roots or vegetative mass, violates the integrity of the plant, causes rot, infection of the roots and vegetative mass with viruses, fungal infection, bacteria.
Understand that the nematode attacked the roots, in principle, can be, if the plant began to wriggle out of the soil and thoroughly examine its root system. When infected with a nematode, you can see a large number of branches on the roots, the plant seemed to be trying to find a way around, getting rid of the pest.
In this case, the smallest roots, most likely, will look rotten. In addition, on the roots, if it is not legumes, you can see galls, literally clusters of nematodes, cysts with eggs, as well as sharpening and swelling, all sorts of ulcers - all this is deadly dangerous both for the root and for the whole plant.
More on the root nematode
So, the root nematode is essentially a filamentous worm, belonging to a very large group of parasitic worms and a class of nematodes that form galls on the roots of plants, somewhat similar to legumes in legumes (only in such galls are not nodule bacteria, and females, scored eggs).
Males of root nematodes look like a worm up to two millimeters long, females are more swollen (galls) or similar to nodules, half as long.
The earthen nematode is surprisingly polyphagous: it is reliably known that it can affect the root system of more than two thousand plant species. Of course, this group includes cultivated vegetable plants, various valuable industrial crops, as well as ornamental plants, herbs, shrubs, and even trees.
Its full development to the present active organism, it takes place depending on the temperature in the soil for 20-50 days (when warmer, then the development takes place, as a rule, faster). It is noteworthy that a female nematode in its life can postpone a monstrous number of eggs - up to two thousand, and according to the latest information - even more.
In each egg, the nematode larva first passes molting, then comes to the surface and, thanks to the tapering ends, immediately penetrates the root of a nearby plant, starting to feed heavily on the juice of this culture. She can become either an immovable female, which later will lay the same huge number of eggs, or a male, who can move freely, looking for a female to fertilize her.
The most actively grow and develop nematodes with moderate soil moisture (about 70-75%) and temperatures from +22 to + 28 ° C. As for the acid-base balance, they prefer slightly acidic soil, but not alkaline.
Root nematode in tomatoes. © Scot Nelson
Stem and leaf nematodes
In addition to soil nematodes, there are also leaf and stem nematodes. Most often they lead to spindle-shaped thickening of the stems, while the leaves are either underdeveloped to normal size and shape, or there is a strong deformation of the leaf blades in various plants.
Usually, more accurate evidence of the presence of nematodes on the leaves are dry necrotic spots of various shapes, which have no regularity in location. Most often leaf nematodes are infected: garden strawberries, chrysanthemum and nephrolepsis. The stem nematode is not averse to feasting on vegetables, such as garlic, onions, parsley, parsnip, radishes, tomatoes and cucumbers.
Consider the types of nematodes for the most important crops, and the first in this list will be our beetroot
Interestingly, they did not officially recognize the presence of nematodes on beets and for some reason called the disease beet fatigue: supposedly when grown in the same place, even fertilizer did not help to get good results. But then everyone learned that the nematode also happens on beets, and it rages very strongly.
To understand that a beet is infected with a nematode is actually quite simple, for a start you can see well noticeable browning of its leaves, and if you pull out such a plant, you can see a root crop that is rotted in half (or slightly less), which can only be thrown away, because it cannot be recycled. Often, root crops can be whole, but they lose a lot of weight several times, and are not stored at all, they can only be used for processing. From a plantation infected with a nematode, it is possible to collect no more than half of the beet lacking its maximum mass.
Nematode on potato
Another vegetable that most often affects the nematode is potatoes. It is extremely easy to infect your plot with this scourge, it is enough just to buy seed in an untested place and for a good harvest you can put a cross for many years (or start using harsh chemistry). Дело в том, что даже если вы разрежете купленный клубень, то можете совсем не заметить личинку, притаившуюся в картофелине, и лишь после ее помещения в почву она в виде червя выберется наружу.
Нематода картофеля – это круглый червь, достигающий примерно миллиметра длины, который может паразитировать как на корнях, так и на клубнях картофеля. Обычно в клубень из корней черви перебираются, если почва бедна питанием и корни очень тонкие.
Сам процесс жизнедеятельности картофельной нематоды весьма интересен. After the worms leave the tuber, the females attach to the end of the root and wait for the male, and the male in search of the female can move along the roots of the potato, causing damage to the plant, and when it finds the female, it dies after fertilization. After that the female also practically perishes; she turns into a cocoon – cyst, in which up to a thousand individuals of different sexes are in the form of eggs, they naturally remain in the soil after digging potatoes.
Next spring, when the potatoes are planted in this place, the cysts are broken, the larvae come out and everything repeats.
It is clear that the nematode strongly inhibits the development of potato plants, the crop drops by several times, and if the soil is poor, then the nematode simply does not absorb food from the roots of plants, and no more than a couple of small tubers can be found in the holes.
Externally, you can see that plants lag far behind their counterparts, in warm weather, they seem to twist, because the nematode does not absorb moisture from the soil, and if you pull the plant out of the soil, you can also find a huge amount of thin roots unusual for the potato.
In general, it is possible to describe a different kind of nematode on various plants for a long time, let's move on to a story about measures to combat this infection.
Potato nematode. © Graham Rawlings
Anti-nematode control measures at the site
If the nematode somehow came to you on the site, then it remains only to listen to the professionals, although many advise you to just wait two or three years, keeping the plants under the black steam, digging the site for the winter with a clod of earth, without breaking lumps, and then you maybe exterminate the nematode.
But if you want to get rid of it as soon as possible, then first try using crop rotation. That is, in the area where the beet nematode was noticed, do not plant more beets, and if you notice potato, then potatoes. Perhaps, thus, it will be possible to get rid of a certain type of nematode on the site.
After a crop rotation, which is unlikely to help, a heavier machinery operates, it is fumigation, which is currently the most effective means of controlling the pest, but it is also harmful, too.
What is fumigation?
This is the treatment of soil, definitely an infected nematode (for which samples and analyzes are taken in advance) by various highly active poisons and even their pairs, and sometimes in red-hot form. In principle, the pesticides themselves can be bought now even on the market, these are Nefamos, Dimethoat or Vidat.
These drugs can be used to treat plants infected with nematodes, or to shed their soil. These drugs are quite dangerous and we would not advise just to pour chemistry, but it is better to entrust this business to professionals who can reliably process the site and destroy not only adult worms nematodes that die almost immediately, but also much more tenacious larvae that sometimes need a few treatments.
The following year, it is better to conduct only a control planting on this site, taking, say, a third of the site with a variety of crops and to check whether the nematode remained in the soil.
We draw conclusions about the nematode
Nematode - a dangerous pest, you need to be careful when buying seed, plants in greenhouses, and just seedlings with parts of the soil. Particularly offensive can be the owners of small areas, which will have to wait years for at least something to be planted on them, or to add liters of chemistry to fight a harmful contagion without a guarantee that somewhere there is still no cyst with a couple thousand eggs.
Remember that a nematode is both an external and internal quarantine object. You cannot trade in products of an infected nematode, you cannot transplant plants to other plots from plots infected with a nematode. If potatoes are grown on a site infected with a nematode, then it can only be put into processing and, best of all, as feed for farm animals.
If you have ever dealt with a nematode, describe your experience in the comments to the article, perhaps some readers will find it very useful.
The larvae in the soil, under the influence of the root secretions of the potato, migrate several centimeters and penetrate into the roots of the potato within an hour. And there they begin to eat.
Plant defenders affect nematodes in different ways. Some may expel these pests due to their specific root secretions, others suppress them so much that, weakening, they lose their ability to reproduce.
Root nematodes live in the soil most often near the roots of plants. First of all, vegetable crops suffer from them. This type of nematode can be divided into the following three groups - root gall nematodes, free-living and nematodes with free cyst formation.
Some amateur gardeners use a very tough method of pest control: they spread a tablespoon of ammonia in 10 liters of water and spray them with plants. This method is effective in combating not only the onion fly, but also the carrot and cabbage. AND LITTLE SMALL COUNCIL WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO SOW ONION ONLY AND VISIT THE BULBS OF THE NEMATOUD DO NOT LIKE THE SIN OF CARROTS OR PLANT THE CROWNERS
Nematodes, or rootworms, are small, thread-like worms that have a small proboscis. This pest infects the roots of the plant.
Damages onions, especially garlic. It is found on parsley, parsnip, tomatoes, radishes, cucumbers and other plants. Larvae and adult nematodes feed on plant sap, causing their curvature and growth retardation. In the nematode-damaged bulbs, the internal tissues are friable, grainy, grayish. Succulent scales loosely adjoin each other, as a result of which the bulb feels soft to the touch, the bottom cracks. In garlic plants, there is a lag in growth, thickening of the false lance, yellowing and dying of leaves, yellowing of cloves at the base.
Methods to combat all types of nematodes.
General characteristics of the adult individual Root nematode: small colorless worms with a body up to 1.5 mm long. Gauls are the place where the female lays eggs.
Heard a weak solution of dichlorvos.
Yes, but they are all highly toxic. And they can not be used on the plots.
Everything! It's done!
For example, marigolds are deadly to nematodes, only varieties of small marigolds with a strong odor should be used. And excretions of calendula roots eject nematodes, stimulating the vital activity of beneficial soil inhabitants. The roots of gaillardy, rudbeckia, and coriopsis emit substances that nematodes do not tolerate.
Description of species
Nematodes parasitizing plants are classified according to their habitat:
- root (gall) nematodes.
Worms cause damage to almost all plants: garden and vegetable crops, indoor flowers, and even weeds, which serve as reserve plants for them. The principle of vital activity in all types of plant worms is the same - they pierce plant tissues, inject digestive enzymes, which upsets the metabolism, and then suck out nutrients (juices).
Adult nematode larvae prefer wet and warm, slightly acidic soil, sandy in composition, since the sandy structure of the soil facilitates the movement of the worms and provides them with oxygen.
This type of nematode lives in moist soil, affects all parts of plants. On the stem, it climbs to the leaves and through the stomata located on the underside of the leaf, penetrates into the plant. In one leaflet, there are often over 5,000 nematodes.
The parasite has the appearance of a thread-like worm. In length, the female nematode reaches 1.2 mm, the male is about 1 mm. Nematode per year gives about 10 generations.
It mainly affects flower plants (chrysanthemums, phloxes, daffodils, begonias, orchids ...), from garden crops - garden strawberries, tomatoes, etc.
Signs of infection:
- the plant is stunted
- flowers and buds do not develop,
- leaves turn yellow and die off
- irregularly shaped brown spots appear on the leaves,
- leaves curl, weaken, lose their color,
- yield is significantly reduced:
- translucent spots are formed on the lower part of the leaves, which then turn brown.
Mass reproduction of the pest leads to the fact that leaves become small and wrinkledstem and scapes thicken or shorten. A large number of lateral buds appear on the trunk, which are strongly branched but still underdeveloped. The plant dies off.
The leaf nematode with planting material spreads through contaminated soil, weeds. It is a carrier of viral infections.
Nematodes remain viable for no more than 3 months, however, they winter well in fallen dry foliage.
- weed control,
- burning and culling damaged plants,
- steaming planting soil at a temperature of 60 degrees for 5−10 min.,
- soil treatment for 30 days before planting on the infected areas with a 2% solution of nonmagon or carbotine,
- disinfection of boxes for seedlings with 3% formalin solution or heat treatment with hot (70 degrees) water.
This type of nematode damages not only the stems, but also the bulbs and tubers of berries and vegetables. It poses a serious danger to potted plants.
These parasites harm not only during the vegetative period, causing curvature of the trunk and growth retardation, but also during storage - they suck the juice from the fruits of vegetable crops, which leads to the drying of the bulbs and tubers.
The most susceptible to parasites are such plants:
Signs of infection:
- plants stop growing
- leaves become wrinkled, pulled along the central vein,
- scapes and peduncles shorten or thicken,
- stems and leaves bend,
- shoots turn yellow and die.
Sources of infection are: planting material, water for irrigation, garden tools.
Invisible to the naked eye microscopic worm in the upper layers of the soil. The defeat of berry bushes begins gradually. Infected strawberry leaves become small and wrinkled, their plate is deformed, individual leaves turn into styloid outgrowths, flower rosettes are deformed, and whiskers are shortened.
The parasite enters the private plot together with the ground.
Measures to combat stem nematode:
- when planting, use only healthy plants and seedlings,
- soaking the planting material before planting in water at room temperature for 3-4 days,
- weed control during the growing season
- careful bulkhead tubers before storing,
- destruction of crop residues after harvest,
- digging the garden plot.
The root (gallic) nematode differs from previous species in that it affects the nervous system of the plant and is the largest of them, reaching a length of 2 mm.
Gauls are cone-shaped growths on the roots of yellow or brown plants, resulting from the laying of eggs by the female.
Adult male vermiform, female pear-shaped. The female nematode is able to lay in one gall from 300 ... 1000 eggs with larvae. When eggs of a worm-like form appear from eggs, as they develop, they become similar to adults.
The larvae develop in galls, from where they pass into the soil and penetrate into the roots of other plants.
Signs of plant infection by the parasite:
- the plant stops its growth, weakens and fades,
- foliage turns yellow and curls
- root regions below the galls die off,
- growing root beard (a large number of thin roots),
- roots rot and die.
The root system of ornamental plants (carnation, rose, cyclamen, begonia, primrose ...), as well as tuber and bulbous crops (potatoes, onions) are most susceptible to these pests. Damaged roots rot due to the entry of pathogens and viruses into the galls.
Measures to combat the root nematode:
- to grow nematode-resistant plants in home gardens,
- do not use contaminated seed
- in infected areas, growing grain crops, legumes, or vegetable crops for 3–4 years,
- replacement of soil in boxes and pots,
- Soil disinfection with steam for 10 hours.
It spreads through contaminated soil, with tubers, remnants of roots, contaminated soil.
If there is a wet warm earth, then the worms can develop year-round, eating the entire root system of the plant.
Council from the gardener:
If the gall nematode is infected with a houseplant or seedling, then you can save them with the help of a pharmacy drug that treats people for worms. This is Dikaris, Vermoxa, Mebendazole, a tablet of which you need to dissolve in 1 liter of water, then water the plant for several days, followed by a repeat of the procedure after 2 weeks. As for the seedlings, then its roots need to be held in such a solution for several hours.
Folk remedies for nematosis and prevention
If plants are massively infected on a site, they are best destroyed by culling and burning so that the pests do not migrate to other cultures.
There are few chemical methods for controlling parasites; therefore, conventional prophylaxis in the form of observing crop rotation, planting on the household plot of plants - defenders helps to drive away the nematode or suppress it so that it will lose its ability to reproduce.
The most effective sidereal (plant) means of combating nematosis are marigolds, rye and marigolds.
- Rye. The roots of the cereal produce deadly substances for the nematode in the ground. The most effective method of clearing the field of parasites is sowing of winter rye until September frosts, the efficiency reaches 80%. Before frosts, rye is cut down, and the green mass, along with the roots, is buried in the beds.
- Marigold. Against the nematosis, stunted varieties are planted between the rows of other flower crops, as well as along the strawberry and strawberry bed borders. On the area of the potato plot marigolds are planted by islands.
The roots of the flower penetrate deep into the soil and disinfect it. During harvest, tops and roots of marigold flowers are chopped, crushed and buried deep in the soil. Parasites do not tolerate the specific phytoncid odor of this plant and die.
And also for the treatment of bulbs and tubers before planting using an aqueous solution of marigolds.
- During flowering, the entire plant is collected and dried in the open air.
- Half a bucket of crushed marigolds is poured with ten liters of water and drawn for 2-3 days.
- Add 50 grams of soap and filter. Soap is needed to better fix the liquid on the plant.
- Within 8−12 hours the bulbs and tubers are aged in the infusion.
Adding an article to a new collection
Small nematode worms are the most dangerous pests of horticultural and garden crops. They are thousands of species, they are extremely tenacious and voracious, damage everything from stalks to roots, resistant to traditional pesticides. Is there really no means of fighting against nematodes?
Such funds are. And in order to understand how best to get rid of nematodes in the soil, let's talk in more detail - what kind of “beast” is this pest, why is it so difficult to protect plants from nematodes and what methods are still the most effective in fighting it.
Who are the nematodes
Nematodes, or roundworms, are a type of living organism that includes a huge number of species, many of which are parasites of both animals and plants. As a result of their vital activity in the garden and on the garden (both in open ground and in greenhouses), germination is reduced in plants, growth and development slows down, multiple deformations are formed, flowering and fruiting are weakened, resistance to most diseases decreases, many of the young plants just don't survive.
These worms exist on the roots as ectoparasites or penetrate into the plant through the organs of the root system and already behave as endoparasites of leaves and stems.
In this regard, herbivorous nematodes are divided into three large groups:
- Stem nematodes especially harmful to vegetable and flower crops. In the process of feeding, they actively release toxins, clog up the vessels of the plant and strongly affect the stems, leaves, buds and flowers. You can see them by cracking and deforming the stem, spindle-shaped thickenings, corrugation and dark leaf spot, loosening the tissues of succulent scales in bulbous. Their favorite objects are hyacinths, begonias, daffodils, carnations, phloxes, tulips, onions, garlic, tomatoes, cucumbers, parsley.
- Leaf nematodes - rapidly moving endoparasites. Recognize their activity by the appearance of pale yellow spots, thinning, browning and further drying and leaf death. They live on a variety of ornamental plants, like strawberries, chrysanthemums, nephrolepis.
- Root (gall) nematodes so named because they parasitize on the root system of plants, forming growths (galls) on it of various sizes and shapes that impede normal feeding and water absorption, as a result of which plants wither and die. Greenhouse tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers suffer from them especially - you can lose 30-80% of the harvest! Прекрасно себя чувствуют эти паразиты и в открытом грунте, поражая свеклу, картофель, овес. Декоративные культуры также в опасности – лилии, фикусы, аспарагусы, бегонии, цикламены…
A great danger of nematodes is also that they are carriers of phytopathogenic organisms, contributing to their penetration into plant tissue through the resulting damage and further viral diseases.
Nematodes on plants extremely actively feed and multiply, creating whole colonies. And the features of their biological development (several intermediate forms with very different characteristics) lead to the fact that conventional pesticides do not have any toxic effect on them.
The most common on our summer cottages are such representatives of the type as the golden potato nematode, beet nematode, onion nematode, strawberry nematode, chrysanthemum leaf nematode and others.
How to deal with them that helps from nematodes?
Folk remedies for nematodes
The main and, perhaps, the only effective folk remedy for the fight against the nematode "cheap and angry" is spilling the soil on the eve of planting boiling water.
High temperatures are detrimental to tiny nematodes, and after such a procedure their numbers in the area are indeed noticeably reduced. It only needs to be remembered that for this effect the ground should be soaked with hot water with a temperature not lower than 50-55 ° C to a depth of at least 15-20 cm. After that, it can also be covered with polyethylene so that it cools slower.
Alas, the measure is not effective until the end. Although a significant number of nematodes live in the surface layers of the substrate and, as a rule, die during such thermal disinfection, some pests can migrate to deeper soil layers and escape.
In addition to the soil, the affected plants themselves can also be treated with hot water - this mainly applies to the bulbs and roots affected by the gall nematode. They are washed from the ground, and then soaked in hot (45-50 ° C) water for 10-30 minutes. Formalin at a concentration of 0.06% can be added as a useful additive to this water.
Agrotechnical methods of getting rid of nematodes
Conventionally effective and other preventive measures and means of combating the nematode without the use of chemicals. It:
- Compliance with crop rotation.
- The choice of varieties and hybrids that are relatively resistant to nematode damage (for example, for tomatoes – Nagano F1, Eupator F1, Malik F1for garden strawberries – Festival, Pearl oyster, Dessert, Saxon, Rocketfor potato – Scarlet, Fresco, Picasso, Diamant).
- Careful selection of healthy seed.
- Warming up the bulbs of tubers and corms before planting for 15 minutes at a temperature of about 45-50 ° C or 3-5 minutes at a temperature of 55-60 ° C.
- Pre-plant soil disinfection with hot water, removal of the top layer, digging and mandatory mulching.
- Regular care of planting - weeding and thinning.
- Neat watering - on the stems and leaves should not be a long drop of water, because This contributes to the development of nematodes.
- Planting in the row-spacing of phytoncidal plants that help repel pests, such as marigolds or calendula.
- Upon detection of infection during the growing season - timely cleaning of affected and weakened plants.
- After harvesting, harvesting all plant residues from the site, removing (burning) all the remaining infected plant material, together with the surrounding soil.
- To increase fertility and partially destroy nematodes, the site vacated after harvesting in August - early September should be well sown with grain crops (better than winter crops). Initially, the plot is cleared of weeds and plant debris, the soil is loosened and only then sown with grain "randomly" to a depth of 2-3 cm. When steady frosts occur, the soil is dug over with winter crops, making a complete revolution of the reservoir. So it is enriched with organic matter and is released from the most dangerous pest - a nematode, which in such adverse conditions for it simply freezes.
Nematode control chemicals
Alas, to truly effectively deal with this pest in the garden and garden today is possible only with the help of nematocides - a group of chemicals that destroy herbivorous nematodes.
Some of them can be used as fumigants - toxic gases that poison pests when they enter their respiratory system (carbathion, chloropicrin, nonmagon, methyl bromide).
Others (phosphoorganic compounds, derivatives of carbamoyloximes and carbamates) are like contact poison, which poison the worms by being absorbed directly through their integuments (methylmercaptophos, karbofos, phosphamide, lindane) or systemic actions that make the plant poisonous to nematodes (for example, dimethoate).
Nematocides-fumigants are used by introducing them into the soil, as well as for pre-sowing treatment of seeds, bulbs, tubers or roots of seedlings in the fight against worms parasitizing on the roots of plants. Organophosphate nematocides - by spraying plants to destroy leaf and stem nematodes.
Some nematocides (for example, chloropicrin) have a complex effect, being both fungicidal, insecticidal and herbicidal agents. They lead to the complete sterilization of the soil (sowing on it is possible only 20-50 days after treatment, and for particularly toxic soil it can only be done in the next sowing season).
In general, all the above chemicals should be used strictly according to the instructions and following all the rules of TB - the methods, norms and terms of their application vary greatly and depend on the types of nematodes and the plant to be protected, on the form and properties of the preparation, on the soil type and environmental conditions on the site.
As a rule, organophosphorus compounds are less toxic than fumigants-nematocides, moreover, they have significantly less consumption rates.
It is also known several biopharmaceuticals-nematocides, which are based on either predatory nematophagous fungi (Arthrobotris, Paecilomyces), or waste products of microorganisms, or plant extracts (garlic, marigolds, calendula, neem). This, for example, Nematophagin BT, Basamil, Aversektin S, Metarizin, Petsilomycin, Narcissus, Phytochite and etc.
These drugs are environmentally safe, but often very narrowly focused - before you buy, be sure to read the instructions.
As you can see, effectively fighting a nematode at the site is difficult, but possible. Before you grab chemicals, do not forget to carry out preventive measures carefully and on time - these dangerous pests are easier and cheaper to prevent than to stop.
As mentioned above, plant-eating nematodes cause a number of nematode diseases. Moreover, both wild and cultivated plants are subject to infection. When this parasite appears in the soil, poor germination is observed, as well as a slowdown in the growth and development of seedlings. Such cultures bloom very little, and some of them die, and not giving fruit. With a strong infection possible complete loss of the crop.
The source of food for soil nematodes are plant sap, which they suck from the roots. In this case, the damage is double: the culture weakens due to insufficient functioning of the root system and becomes much more susceptible to infection by fungi, bacteria and viruses, which can easily penetrate into the body of the plant through the damaged sections of the roots.
As a result of parasitization of soil nematodes, the rhizome begins to branch out strongly, and new roots will be very thin - filiform (this phenomenon is called the root beard), small roots turn away, galls form in the affected areas, tissues in this area swell and become yellow-brown. . After some time, the root dies completely.
Important! It is worth noting that gall formations will not always indicate an infection with nematodes. Some plants, such as chlorophytum, have elongated swollen areas on the roots, which contain a supply of nutrients and moisture. They are painted in light, sometimes almost white, others may be the same shade as the roots. However, these are not Gauls! It is important to remember that the shade of galls caused by a nematode is always yellow or brown!
If we talk about the external signs of infection by a soil nematode, they manifest themselves in the diseased form of plants, as with an acute lack of moisture and nutrition. The culture weakens, its leaves begin to curl gradually.
However, in order to determine that you are dealing with a nematode, the culture must be excavated, since the main features will appear on its root system.
How to fight the root nematode
In order to stop the spread of nematodes in the garden plot, it is necessary, first of all, to observe crop rotation. And since these parasites can only feed on a specific plant, their reproduction will be stopped. However, the scheme of crop rotation should be constructed in such a way that the infected plant does not appear on the infected area for 3-4 years. During this period, the root nematode must die.
On a note! Even in the absence of a host plant, a nematode can remain viable for several years!
The fight against some species of nematode can be in the drying of the soil. This procedure is easy to implement if the parasite was found on houseplants or seedlings. And for its destruction, it is enough to scatter the substrate with a thin layer and wait until it dries completely. And in order to prevent the defeat of pot plants and seedlings, they should use only clean land acquired in a garden store. Taking the substrate from the garden or garden is not recommended.
But at the same time it is desirable to pre-heat the purchased land
Experienced gardeners suggest using folk remedies for nematodes, which are based solely on natural ingredients.
- Hot water treatment. We dig out infected plants, wash the rhizomes from the ground and place them in water, the temperature of which should be between 48 and 55 ° C. Keep the bush in the water can be from 5 to 20 minutes depending on the degree of damage. Adults will die at about 40 ° C, water must be hotter to destroy eggs.
Important! Just do not warm the water too much. Remember that the maximum limit is + 55 ° C. Otherwise, you simply boil the plant and it will die!
Herbal extracts show very good efficacy in the fight against the soil nematode.
With a serious infection, hot treatment with ordinary water gives good results. However, this method is very time consuming, especially if many plants are infected. Many gardeners in this case prefer to simply prune the damaged roots. However, it is not worth much to get involved in this procedure, since it is stressful for the culture itself - the plants cannot always gain enough strength to form new healthy roots.