Agrotechnics planting garden cranberries slightly different from the usual. If almost all garden crops can be grown in early spring or autumn, then the landing of the garden cranberries has its own nuances:
- Early spring. After the snow melts and the soil warms up to a depth of 10 cm, the optimum moment comes for planting seedlings,
- Autumn time is not suitable for planting. Usually, in September, gardeners start preparing the land for the spring planting of berries.
Garden cranberries are recommended to be grown in open, lit sunny areas, slight shading is allowed. If a lakeside or a stream is selected for a landing site, then in this case a good crop of cranberries can be achieved. Do not forget about the natural features of the growth of this plant: high humidity and good light.
Cranberry planting scheme
Cranberry garden: growing from seed and propagation by cuttings
Cranberries are propagated in two ways: vegetative and generative (seed). The peculiarity of culture is that a subsidiary plant grown from seeds has no signs of maternal. Therefore, the generative method of reproduction is mainly used by breeders. In private gardening, to obtain plants of a certain variety, it is necessary to adhere to the vegetative method (green grafting).
Cranberry propagation by cuttings
Cranberry cuttings should be harvested in the spring when the shoots develop intensively. Planting material should be planted immediately in the soil. The length of the green cuttings should be at least 10 cm. They are rooted in a previously prepared place - called shkolka, planted to a depth of 3 cm. Sand, peat and rotted pine needles are used as a substrate.
Drip irrigation is ideal for cranberries - as it requires constant moisture
It is necessary to take into account that the cuttings will have to be grown in the shkolka for 1-2 years before being planted in a permanent place, and the first fruits will appear in another 2-3 years. This method is time consuming, but guarantees the preservation of the qualities of the mother tree. Cultivation of seedlings will save several years before the harvest, but there is no guarantee that the selected variety will be enjoyed.
How to grow cranberries from seeds
It is recommended to grow cranberries in this way from fresh, freshly harvested seeds. Ripe berries knead and well washed with water. The resulting seeds are immediately planted in the soil.
The procedure is carried out around the beginning of autumn. If the seeds are not freshly harvested, they should be stratified before sowing: put into a mixture of sand and peat 1: 4, moisturize well, and withstand up to 3 months at a temperature of 3 to 7 degrees Celsius. This planting material used in the spring.
How to grow cranberries from seeds
Seeds are sown in a container with peat, then a layer of sand of 3 mm is added, and 5 mm of crushed peat is poured over it. Land abundantly moisturize and cover with glass, then regularly aired and watered.
After 3-4 weeks, the first shoots appear. The glass is removed and the seedlings grow to 4 leaves.
Ready seedlings are planted in a greenhouse for a year, where they are carefully looked after and fed by Kemiroy station wagon according to instructions once every 2 weeks.
In late summer, the greenhouse is removed, and in October, the landing is mulched with peat and covered with spunbond. The following year, the seedlings are moved to the school - for 1 year.
Planting cranberries in spring
Seedlings should be 0.15-0.2 m high. The procedure is simple and quick:
- planted in early spring, around the beginning of April,
- the necessary depth of landing is 10 cm, and the distance between them is 20 cm,
- warm water is poured into the hollows and 2 plants are placed,
- then pour the soil, but not compacted.
The first berries will appear only in 2-3 years, and the bush will begin to fully bear fruit only in the 4th year. The yield of culture is 0.5 kg per 1 square. m shrub.
Spring Cranberry Care
The basic principles of spring care:
- when the shrub is covered with leaves, pruning should be done to prevent thickening,
- the soil in the circle should always be wet,
- it is necessary to loosen the soil regularly and remove weeds,
- in early spring, fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers is carried out (it is important not to overdo it, since the plant tolerates an oversupply of minerals).
Next to the cranberries, it is recommended to plant honey crops, such as oregano or savory - this will attract bees for pollination.
Summer Cranberry Care
Throughout the summer, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture, it should not dry out. The plant loves an acidic environment, so when watering, it is recommended to add citric acid or vinegar to water. Weeds should be regularly cleaned and the soil loosened.
If the shrub develops normally - top dressing is not needed, and if the plants are weakened - it is worth making complex mineral fertilizers. For the prevention of planting treated with fungicides: topsin M, Delan, speed.
Why plant cranberries in the area?
Many believe that in order to grow this berry, it is necessary to breed a swamp on its plot. This view is wrong, although this culture prefers peat soil. In nature, it can be found in the northern and central regions of our vast country. Kamchatka, the Far East, Siberia and Sakhalin are all habitats of an evergreen shrub. The plant is unpretentious in the care, but you need to take into account its peculiarity - the love of well-moistened terrain. Vitality, vitamins and minerals shrub absorbs from soil fungi, which are formed on its roots. The advantages include loyalty to transplants.
Immediately it should be said that the fruits are unlikely to surprise with their taste, but they are famous for healing properties. Cranberry juice - the first assistant in the treatment of viral diseases. It is recommended to take these fruits to improve digestion, they contribute to the production of gastric juice. Thanks to the last property, cranberries are taken to treat gastritis. It is worth noting another diuretic effect and the ability to protect the urogenital system from various infectious diseases. Increasingly, doctors say that this product is an excellent tool for cancer prevention.
Red fruits are rich in vitamins and antioxidants, they contain almost all the beneficial substances, malic, citric, sorrel and other acids. The content of pectin is also quite large. Also very wide is the list of trace elements, among which potassium, calcium and phosphorus occupy leading positions. Cranberries are eaten both fresh and dried. Jam is prepared from it, stewed fruit drinks, fruit drinks, make various tinctures. At the same time, the useful properties of the product are preserved in any form.
However, shrubs are planted in areas not only because of the miraculous berries, they are also different and decorative properties. An evergreen with thin, low stems is covered with beautiful pink or purple flowers at the end of May. But to enjoy the fruits can only be in September. And you should not hurry with the harvest, the berries can be stored even under a layer of snow. Usually the size of the fruit does not exceed 12 mm in diameter. However, there are bred varieties with berries about 20 mm.
Varieties for all occasions - Ben Lear or Stevens?
There is a marsh and large-fruited cranberries. The first is found in the wild and better tolerated frosts. The flowering period of such a plant is the end of May, and the harvest is at the beginning of September. In large-fruited varieties, as a rule, these processes occur 2-3 weeks later. Ben Lier is particularly resistant to frost. Pear-shaped berries reach 20 mm in diameter and weigh more than 1.5 g. The yield is 400 g per square. The Black Weil variety can boast the same characteristics, only the fruits are round, and the yield can reach 0.7 kg from 1 m 2.
Cranberries on the site
Sredneranny Roof has berries no more than 1.8 g. The peculiarities of this type include the stretched ripening period. But high yields can boast varieties Hoves, Stevens and Pilgrim. The first one has red fruits of medium size, but due to a weak stalk the harvest will not cause any difficulties. The ripening period is at the beginning of October. Stevens is an early maturing species. Large, almost black berries are beautifully stored. Productivity reaches 2,5 kg. In late September, you can eat berries and pilgrim shrubs. They are uneven in color and reach 24 mm in diameter. In this case, the yield is as much as 3 kg per square.
Having settled the Airlie Black variety on your plot, get ready to take care of the plant in the winter, as it does not tolerate little snow. If there is no natural precipitation, provide artificial shelter. Dark red fruits are usually not more than 1 g and are poorly preserved. Small berries are characteristic of the Franklin variety, but, unlike the previous one, this species tolerates frosts and is not afraid of drought. The harvest is kept well.
Where to plant the berry and where to get the planting material?
At this point we will move on to a more exciting topic, namely, how to choose the site correctly and, if necessary, prepare it. Cranberries like well-lit areas, preferably with a water source nearby. Ideal peaty soil acidity pH 4-6. Such a soil is rarely found in the household plots, so in most cases the conditions are created artificially. To do this, you need to dig a hole half a meter deep and fill it with peat.
If the area is dominated by light soils, then you can fill them with a mixture of peat. Components are taken in a 1: 1 ratio. Add double superphosphate at the rate of 30 g per square. Then thoroughly water the plot. You can also add a mixture of compost and pine sawdust. To protect the prepared soil from the ingress of heavy soils and weeds, one should install boards or roofing material along the edges of the pit.. You can also fill the bottom with a small layer of expanded clay. This will contribute to good drainage. Despite the fact that the plant loves lighted terrain, a small penumbra from closely growing trees will only benefit.
By the choice of planting material also should be treated very responsibly. It is best to give preference to seedlings from the nursery. Such a plant will be endowed with predictable properties, and the transplant will transfer somewhat easier than a wild relative. In addition, you will know in advance what the expected yield, the size of the fruit. On the other hand, shrubs brought from the forest are resistant to various diseases and pests. True, such material will become the main source of weeds.
If you still decide to give preference to the forest dweller, you should choose the most healthy shrubs. Be sure to pay attention to the size of the berries - the larger they are, the better. We cut off several healthy twigs about 20 cm long from the selected specimen. Then we drop them into the prepared soil and irrigate it beforehand. We leave the shanks to winter until the early spring.
Saplings from the nursery can be with open or closed root system. In addition, they are divided into several age categories. More appreciated by instances from 2 to 2.5 years old. They tolerate a transplant better and begin to bear fruit earlier. In small pots you can buy annual seedlings. But the cheapest - young residents under the age of 9 months. They are usually sold in special cassettes. But if you want to eat sour berries in the near future, it is better to give preference to bushes of at least 4 years old with a closed root system.
We have bushes in the garden - how to?
Now you can proceed directly to the work. It is possible to plant seedlings at a new place from April to October, but it is better to do this in early spring. The cuttings are placed according to the 15x15 cm scheme, and 2-3 saplings are placed in one well. Young plants are buried by 10 cm, while a small tip of no more than 4 cm should remain on the surface. With proper care, the roots will appear after 14 days. If you are dropping annuals, then between adjacent specimens it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 20 cm, and for biennial seedlings it increases by another 10 cm. Marsh cranberries are planted in three rows, and large-fruited - in two.
Planting cranberries on the plot
If you prefer a wild relative, then the distance between the holes can be slightly reduced - from 10 to 20 cm. It is advisable to place the seedlings in rows in a staggered manner, so the area is used as efficiently as possible. Finally, the soil is mulched with sand and moistened. A newly planted plant especially needs fluid, so we water new residents daily for two weeks. After the specified period, the need for moisture is somewhat reduced, and the number of waterings can be reduced. At the same time be sure to keep the soil moist. Subsequent irrigation depends on weather conditions. During the rains should reduce the number of irrigations, and in drought - increase.
In early June, you can feed the representative of the flora with mineral fertilizers. On one square we add 7.5 g of potassium salt, 10 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 2.5 g of copper sulfate. The next month, reduce the amount of fertilizer in 2 times. It is very important not to overfeed the plant, but the yield will decrease, and the cranberry itself will be prone to various diseases. It is also advisable not to use chlorine-containing bait. We pay due attention to weed control, they are especially dangerous in the first few years of plant life, until the shoots covered the area. Already in the second year, an increase will appear, and even after 2 years the plants will close and enter the fruiting stage. True, it will be possible to enjoy a full-fledged harvest in another year. Creeping shoots need to drip, it contributes to better rooting.
What to do with the grown berry and how to deal with parasites?
After 3 years, the entire area will be completely closed by the shoots of the plant, which complicates the process of pollination and harvesting. In addition, in such a "coat" lodge pests. Often, such creeping shoots drown up vertical ones, and it is on them that flowers and fruits form. Solves a similar problem by mulching with coarse sand. Repeat the procedure every 3 years. The thickness of the sand layer should be about 20 mm. As a preventive measure, you can sprinkle a little frozen soil with coarse river sand.
During the first three years of the plant’s life, it is especially important to feed it with minerals. This will most favorably affect the growth and development of young shoots. It is enough to repeat the procedure 2 times a year. At the same time every year the dose of fertilizer decreases. In the first few years with the help of molding trimming you can give the bush the desired look. This is often used in the design of landscape design. But remember that cranberries older than 4 years can not tolerate shortening.
To make the bush more fluffy, it is necessary to shorten the vertical shoots by 1/3 in early spring, but by cutting the horizontal branches, you can give it a more spreading shape. In the latter case, the harvesting procedure will be greatly simplified.
Snow mold is considered one of the most dangerous diseases of cranberries. You can calculate it by leaves and buds, which at the beginning of spring have a reddish-brown color. But after a few months they become gray and fall. Gray mold quickly affects closely growing shrubs, and if you do not take action in time, then you can say goodbye to all cranberries. You can overcome the fungus by spraying. Well proven drug Fundazole. Treated representatives of the flora in the fall. You can also freeze the cranberries. To do this, with the onset of frost it is necessary to fill the plot with water and throughout the winter add a little liquid to increase the ice layer.
If the tops of the shoots turn brown and dry up, then you need to take measures to combat monilial burn. Dark brown round spots on the leaves and cracking of the bark suggests that cranberries are affected by ascochytosis. In the fight against the first disease Bordeaux mixture, drugs Horus and Mikosan-V. If for some reason the plant has not been treated, the affected shoots should be removed and burned. To overcome ascohitoz, you should sprinkle the affected areas with a mixture of chalk and sulfuric copper. All fallen leaves must be burned.
Reproduction - how to increase the number of their own?
In nature, cranberry breeding occurs vegetatively or by seed. But in artificial conditions - seeds or green cuttings, also in specialized stores you can buy shrubs. If you decide to grow cranberries from seeds, then be prepared to wait, as this planting material needs stratification. Процедура занимает около 5 месяцев, и только после нее можно поместить семена в открытый грунт.
Для черенкования выбирается наиболее сильное взрослое растение. Нарезаются небольшие веточки, длиной от 7 до 15 см, и высаживаются в подготовленный грунт. Чем длиннее будет черенок, тем больше у него шансов прижиться. Спустя месяц появятся корешки, и растение готово к пересадке на постоянное место. Но самый удобный способ размножения – саженцами. If you want to grow wild shrubs on the plot, then small plants are taken directly from the forest. And by purchasing a varietal cranberry in the nursery, you will provide yourself with an excellent harvest.
Cranberries: general information, main varieties and varieties
Cranberry is a plant with evergreen shrubs reaching half a meter in height. Culture has a taproot. The leaves are oblong in shape on small petioles. Cranberry fruits - small sour red berries (up to 1.5 cm).
Cranberry is a very popular berry in the fruit and vegetable market and its price is very high. This is not surprising: cranberry has amazing healing properties and is used for the treatment of beriberi, vascular and gastrointestinal diseases, removal of heavy metals from the body, toxins and slowing the aging process.
There are several varieties of cranberries, but in the agro-industry mainly large-fruited and marsh are used. The most popular varieties of the first variety include the following:
- Ben lir Early ripening variety with excellent yield. Berries of considerable size, tasty, but, unfortunately, are not stored at all, so they must be processed or frozen immediately after harvest.
- Searles. The high-yielding grade giving considerable berries (color saturated red). Well kept.
- Stevens. This variety is considered one of the best in its variety. Well stored and gives a very high yield of large berries of rich red color.
Marsh cranberries come from Europe. There are a considerable number of varieties of this variety. The most popular of them include:
- Sominsky. The high-yielding grade giving large bright red fruits of an asymmetric form with small sourness.
- Gift of Kostroma. It is a high-yielding medium-early variety, giving large, juicy fruits of cherry color and flattened shape.
- Beauty of the North. This variety belongs to late ripening (yields a crop by mid-September). Fruits ripen large, carmine color.
Planting in the ground
Cranberries in nature grows mainly in wet places: along the reservoir, in the coniferous forest, etc. Accordingly, for its cultivation in the country will have to create similar conditions. First, the place should be open, with good access of light and close groundwater storage. Ideal - places near the cottage stream or rate. The shadow, for example, from trees growing nearby will also be superfluous.
Cranberry bush loves sour soil. Perfect peat or soil from the forest mixed with moss. If your soil is not the same, then you will have to try: remove the soil about 25 cm deep and cover it with a mixture of peat, soil and humus from the forest, as well as sand (2: 1: 1: 1).
Tip Experienced gardeners know one small trick that helps improve cranberry growth - just add a few conifer needles to the soil. Cranberries will only be grateful to you.
Cranberries are planted in early spring, when the earth thaws to a depth of about 10 cm, but the soil must be prepared from the autumn (before the onset of the first cold weather). Try to enclose the place for planting with not rotting material - slate, plastic, etc. Dig in the "fence" to a depth of about 20 cm and at the same distance it should rise up.
Before sowing, dig holes in the soil 10 cm deep, keep at least 15 cm between them and fill them thoroughly with water. In each, you need to put on a pair of seedlings about 15 cm high and gently cover the holes with earth, but not compacting them. The first berries you can get as much as three years after planting. And you will gather a big harvest in a year.
Features cranberry care
Growing cranberries is pretty easy. The main thing is to carry out standard measures for the care of crops growing in the open field: weeding, watering, etc. But first things first.
In order to achieve active growth of cranberries, it should be watered abundantly during the first 10-14 days after planting. Over time, when the first sprouts sprout, it will no longer require such a quantity of water. It is enough to follow the main rule - the soil should not be too wet, but only wet.
In early spring, when the berry turns green, thin it and trim a little. Cranberries love space, so regularly remove weeds from the soil and loosen it.
Towards the middle of summer, carefully ensure that the soil does not dry out. If you have cranberry bushes growing on the site that have not yet reached the age of three, weeding and thinning should become your regular actions to support the active development of the plant. If you are not growing cranberries for the first year, then in order to maintain an acidic environment in the soil, add some vinegar / citric acid to the water for irrigation.
Cranberries, which have reached the age of four, and, accordingly, are already actively producing a crop, should be periodically mulched with peat chips or coarse sand (layer thickness is about 2 cm).
Cranberry pruning is an important process for the formation of plant bushes. It should be carried out at the end of spring, during the first three years. The form of bushes can be of two types: compact and spreading. To create compact tall bushes, it is necessary to cut off all thin shoots creeping along the ground, to create shrubs of a spreading shape, on the contrary, it is necessary to stimulate the formation of horizontal creeping shoots.
Top dressing and cranberry fertilizer
To ensure the active growth of young bushes, the soil must be regularly saturated with fertilizer. Since spring, the green berry needs to be fed with a complete mineral fertilizer.
If you grow annual cranberries, then a few weeks after sowing, you need to feed it. Suitable Universal fertilizer - 1 tsp per 1 square. m. soil. By the end of the summer and then by the middle of autumn, the Autumn fertilizer is applied to the soil - 1 tsp (incomplete) per 1 sq. M. This feeding scheme is observed up to the fourth year of the plant’s “life”. And in the fourth year, the amount of fertilizer to be applied should be reduced to a maximum of 5-6 feedings for the entire growing season (1 incomplete tsp per 1 sq. M.).
Caution: diseases and pests
After the crop is harvested, the plant must be protected both from diseases, and from frost and the possible lack of snow. As soon as the temperature is stable at a mark below zero (-4-5 degrees), it is necessary to fill the cranberry with a two-centimeter layer of water. When it freezes, pour again the same layer. Repeat the action until the cranberries are completely hidden under water. It is important that all layers are completely frozen.
Tip If the climate in your region is too mild and frost is rare, just carefully cover the cranberries with fir branches.
To prevent the development of fungal diseases due to the presence of plants in wet soil, at least 3-4 times over the entire growing season, cranberries should be treated with fungicides. In the spring, when buds begin to actively bloom, the plant is necessarily sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (1%).
It is worth noting that cranberries are a “tough nut” for pests. They will not be able to cause practically any harm to the plant if they are regularly cared for (especially when weeds are removed from the soil). The use of insecticides to control pests is an extreme measure that can be done no later than six weeks before picking berries.
Consider a few of the most dangerous diseases for cranberries:
- Gray rot. The disease appears in cool, wet weather. The largest stems and leaves of the plant are covered with a gray fungal patina. The method of struggle: treatment of plants with chlorine oxide or Bordeaux liquid.
- Cytosporosis. The causative agent of the disease penetrates the plant through its small wounds and affects it with black rot. The method of struggle is the same as with gray rot (necessarily at the beginning and at the end of the growing season).
- Terry (growth). This is a virus. Affected shoots rise up, and the leaves are reduced and adjacent to them. “Sick” cranberry bushes do not give fruit, and if the first berries have already appeared, they will grow small and ugly. There is no method of fighting this disease, therefore, the diseased plant is simply removed from the soil and burned.
Cranberry combination with other plants
Since cranberries are a plant pollinated by bees, you will do yourself a favor if you plant honey plants - oregano, thyme, etc. - next to it.
Cranberries grow in an acidic and humid environment, and, naturally, it is impossible to grow traditional and well-loved crops like the members of the nightshade, cabbage, etc. next to it. But there is a great combination of plants with lingonberries, sedge, wild rosemary.
Harvesting is carried out in early autumn, when the fruit has not yet ripened. They will ripen during storage.
Our material is coming to an end. Now you know about all the intricacies of growing cranberries in the dacha. Following the advice given in the article, you will be able to grow a beautiful plant that will later delight you with a rich harvest. Good luck!
Large-fruited Cranberries very valued by the people of Russia and is in high demand in the market. Such popularity is justified by the great benefits and high content of various trace elements. People have known about its medicinal properties for a long time. Cranberry is successfully used to treat and prevent such health problems as avitaminosis, vascular and gastrointestinal disorders. And also it is used to maintain the protective properties of the body, removing heavy metals, slags and toxins. Many believe that with the help of cranberries you can stop the aging process. Due to the large amount of vitamin C in the fruits of this plant, it is often called the "Northern Lemon".
This berry is home to North America. There she was able to adapt well to the harsh weather conditions and acidic soil. In Europe and the United States, cranberries have been grown for two hundred years, creating special plantations for this, with conditions as close as possible to natural ones.
In Russia, not too long ago, they also began to practice growing large-fruited varieties on an industrial scale. Plantations are located mainly in Kostroma, Karelia and the Leningrad region. Productivity at observance of all agrotechnical norms reaches eleven tons of berries from one hectare of land. On their summer cottages and backyards, amateur gardeners can also grow large-fruited cranberries and get a good harvest of this useful berry.
When growing this plant, it should be borne in mind that cranberry is quite demanding on the soil, it must have sufficient moisture and have a pH value of from three to four and a half Ph. To provide bushes with such conditions, you can carefully prepare a place for planting, taking into account all agrotechnical norms.
The complexity of this case is more than pay off, after you collect the first harvest. After spending your time and energy for growing the “northern lemon”, you can get the opportunity provide all relatives and friends juicy berries with a high content of beneficial vitamins and trace elements. It is also possible to attribute this activity to a good idea for a small business, as not only the berries themselves will be sold, but also seedlings, which are now in great demand.
Of course, the cranberry is considered to be frost-resistant and unpretentious plant, but still its cultivation in garden conditions is laborious in terms of maintaining and providing the microclimate needed for the bushes. Professionals distinguish one indisputable advantage in the cultivation of cranberries, which makes it extremely attractive for country gardening - a plantation prepared for such plants can be used for similar purposes for several decades. This feature must be taken into account when planning the first landing.
Choosing a place for beds
Cranberry refers to moisture-loving plantstherefore, if there is a high level of groundwater in your summer cottage, this will be an indisputable advantage. For garden varieties, it is enough to have groundwater at a depth of 40 to 45 centimeters, but if for some reason you prefer marsh varieties, the water should be located ten centimeters higher. These bushes very well survived and bear fruit on sandy, loamy and even poor acidic soils.
The area intended for cranberries should be located on the sunny side and be well protected from wind and drafts. For these purposes, perfect garden glades among trees and shrubs, as long as they do not block the sunlight. In addition to valuable fruits, cranberries are also able to please with their decorative qualities. These evergreen neat bushes will decorate your site even in winter time.
Growing cranberries begins with careful preparation of the plot for garden beds. This process will primarily depend on the type of soil. Peat soils with groundwater close to the surface will require a minimum of forces. In this case, the usual loosening of the future beds of weeds and the introduction of sand into the soil will suffice.
If the soil in your garden is not suitable for growing cranberries, you will have the following job:
- The minimum size of the plantation is one hundred and forty by four hundred centimeters. But it is better to focus on the conditions available to you. The main thing is to provide an approach to the bushes without treading the beds.
- Remove the top layer of fertile land, thirty to forty centimeters thick.
- Divide the land into three parts.
- Add two pieces of peat to two parts of the ground.
- If the soil is heavy and clayey, then deepen the resulting pit to fifty centimeters.
- Install plastic or wooden sides jutting out 20–25 centimeters above the surface.
- Pour the bottom of the pit with a ten-centimeter layer of drainage material. To do this, you can use large pebbles, crumbled foam, expanded clay, crushed stone, broken brick and clay shards.
- In the film, make holes (this is necessary for draining excess water) and cover the drainage layer with it.
- Pour a mixture of crushed twigs, foliage and grass on the film. Dust it with horse manure and humid it. It should turn out to be a fifteen to twenty centimeter layer.
- Then fill the pit to the top with a mixture of sour peat and sand. The mixture is prepared in the ratio of three to one (peat: sand).
- To the peat and sand you can also add one part of horse manure compost and one part of rotted pine sawdust.
- Now the pit is filled with earth mixed with peat and fresh pine sawdust.
- To mix the beds, use pine needles, pine sawdust or sphagnum moss.
The main condition for a good yield of cranberries is the necessary acidity of the soil. Therefore, in order to maintain the fruitfulness of the berry, it is necessary to fertilize and mulch the beds annually. And also do not forget about the abundant watering.
Growing cranberries from seedlings
To date, there are four types of cranberries, two of which - marsh and large-fruited, are used for cultivation in country and industrial conditions. Amateur gardeners prefer early ripening large-fruited varieties bred by American, Belarusian and Polish breeders.
If you want to get healthy and strong plants, purchase seedlings only in specialized farms. Clean planting material there is obtained thanks to advanced technology. Pay attention to the root system, it can be open or closed. And there are three age categories of seedlings:
- Young saplings, aged from seven to nine months. They are in special cassettes for growing.
- Average saplings, age from one year to one and a half years. They are planted in small pots.
- Adult seedlings. Their age ranges from two to two and a half years.
http://dachnaya-zhizn.ru/images/dacha/5171.jpg The older the planting material, the higher the price. If you do not want to wait for the harvest for four years after planting, try to find a seller that implements four to five year old seedlings with a closed root system.
Planting seedlings produced in MayFor this purpose, breathable, friable, slightly damp and very acidic soil is chosen. To plant the cranberries at your cottage, adhere to the following algorithm:
- On the prepared bed dig holes. Their depth and diameter should be slightly larger than that of the seedling in which the seedling was located.
- Remove the plant from the pot along with the earthy clod.
- Without breaking the ball, place the seedling in the hole.
- Water the planting, sprinkle with earth and grumble the plot.
Healthy plants tolerate transplant well and take root in a new place in the open field.
The rate of watering for cranberries is quite high.because the soil of the plantation should always be hydrated. About once a week it needs to be poured heavily, and a good layer of high-quality mulch will help maintain moisture for several days, right up to the next watering. In hot and arid weather, cranberries need to be watered every day.
During active growing season cranberries should be fed, одного раза в две недели будет вполне достаточно. Для этих целей используют растворы комплексных удобрений. После подкормки, растения поливают водой с добавлением лимонной кислоты (одна чайная ложка на три литра) и столового уксуса (сто миллилитров на десять литров воды). На первые 2 -3 года можно отказаться от такой процедуры, так как в почве ещё достаточно кислот.
The first three years of plant life remove only underdeveloped shoots. When the bushes are compacted and landing will become a multi-tiered begin to carry out thinning pruning. For haircuts, the main thing is not to forget the basic formation of cranberry bushes correctly — removing horizontal shoots and stimulating vertical ones leads to more efficient fruiting.
Such procedures should be carried out in the fall or spring. Thus, you will provide fruit buds with a large amount of energy and abundant nutrition, which will further help the plants to form larger fruits.
Seed propagation method
With the seed method of reproduction, young plants rarely retain varietal properties, and the first harvest will have to wait about 5-6 years. Therefore, obtaining new bushes from seeds is justified only in cases where you plan to use young plants only for decorative purposes.
Before planting, the seeds are placed in a refrigerator for three months. But even with proper preparation, one should not expect that the seed material will give abundant shoots. During the first year, caring for seedlings will require a lot of time and effort. Therefore, if you do not have much patience, give up this method of reproduction.
Cranberry care in the fall
Harvesting is carried out in September and October, and the berries fully ripen during storage. The shrub is treated against pests with insecticides: Calypso, Fozalon, Aktellik.
Before wintering, it is necessary to moisten the planting well, and cover it with a spunbond or spruce fir branches, and then pour a good layer of snow.
Cranberry processing throughout the season
High soil moisture, which is so fond of berries, is the threat of fungal diseases. To protect shrubs several times per season are treated with fungicides:
- in spring, when buds swell and bloom, it is necessary to treat the plants with Azofos,
- during the budding weekly triple treatment with Chorus and Scor,
- in November after harvesting - spraying with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
It is necessary to water a bush regularly. The soil should be slightly wet, but not wet. Excess fluid may adversely affect the quality of the berries. In hot, dry weather, water should be watered daily with cold water.
Cranberries like moisture, so you can use a constant drip
Spring Cranberry Pruning
The sole purpose of pruning this crop is to form a bush. The following schemes exist:
- horizontal sprawling
- vertical compact.
Pruning is carried out in May. When forming a sprawling form, the upper shoots should be removed, stimulating the development of side shoots. To create a high compact bush, you need to cut off the strong side branches.
Cranberry snow mold (Latin Microdochium nivale)
Fungal disease, actively developing in March and April, the pathogen Microdochium nivale. The little buddies and foliage of the plants turn brown, with the naked eye you can see the yellow mycelium of the fungus. If you do not fight the disease, the whole plant will gradually die.
For protection and prophylaxis, they carry out autumn treatment with Fundazol in accordance with the instructions. In winter, the bushes are gradually poured with cold water, freezing it in layers, until the plant is completely covered with ice.
Terry cranberry (lat. Ribes virus)
A disease of viral origin in which shoots are deformed: the leaves curl and fit snugly to the branch. The escape struck with terry reminds the broom. The plant ceases to bear fruit.
Affected bushes need to be eradicated and burned. Drug treatment against viral diseases does not exist.
Protection against harmful insects
The most frequent pests of this culture are:
- cowberry leafworm (lat. Rhopobota naevana Hubn),
- cabbage scoop (lat. Barathra brassicae),
- silkworm unpaired (lat. Lymantria dispar),
- peppered moth (lat. Ematurga atomaria).
These insects are not particularly dangerous. Their effect on plants is insignificant. To protect against pests, it is enough to comply with agricultural practices and remove weeds. If absolutely necessary, you can use insecticides: Metaphos, Malathion, Aktara.
Cranberries are fairly easy to grow on acidic soils, but the moisture-loving nature of the culture is fraught with a high probability of being affected by fungal diseases. The undoubted advantage is resistance to pests.
Varieties and types of garden cranberries
Culture is distinguished by the size of the fruit, the places of growth. Large-fruited varieties come from North America. The distribution area is very large. They are grown in Canada, Western Europe, China, Japan, Western Siberia, in the Far East. Creeping shrubs, reaching a length of one and a half meters, have erect stems up to 20 cm high, large berries.
- Loves wet peaty soil. The shrub blooms 2 weeks later, and the berries have less ascorbic acid than the marsh plant, common in Europe and Asia.
- Marsh cranberries are creeping bushes with leaves, the reverse side of which is white.
- In the tundra, forest zone, mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere, small-fruited cranberries grow, whose fruit is smaller than that of marsh shrubs. This view is not of commercial interest.
- In Russia, there are two types: common cranberry and small-fruited. These species inhabit the lowlands, swampy forest areas of the northern, northwestern regions. Grow on Kamchatka, Sakhalin, in Siberia.
The greatest interest among breeders and gardeners cause large-fruited varieties. Since this crop blooms later, it is less frost-resistant than ordinary cranberries, they grow mainly early varieties. Consider the characteristics of some of them:
Red Star. High frost resistance. Technical ripeness reaches mid-September. Fruits up to 2 cm with wax and sweet-sour taste. Because of its simplicity, high yield (up to 2 kg per 1 sq. M) is considered one of the best varieties of world selection.
It is also used as a decorative culture.
Ben lir. Fruits are large, up to 2 cm in diameter, ripen in late August. The plant is early ripened medium, yield up to 1.6 kg per 1 sq. M. m. Burgundy berries with a waxy coating, juicy, sweet-sour taste.
Due to short storage (14 days) it is used in processed or frozen form.
Stevens. Oblong fruits of red color with a wax coating reach a diameter of 2.4 cm. They ripen from late September to early October. Shrubs tall, erect stems. Used in fresh, processed form. Shelf life up to a year. Average yield up to 1.3 kg per 1 square. m
Frost-resistant view with evergreen creeping shrubs, fruits of spherical shape. The most popular varieties include:
Scarlet Reserve. Late variety. Fruits of light red color of rounded shape with a smooth surface ripen by the middle of September. Fruiting begins at 3 years after planting. Yield up to 1.5 kg per 1 square. m. The advantage of the variety is the one-dimensionality of the berries, long shelf life, resistant to transportation.
Disadvantages - the small size of the fruit, unstable to drought.
Dar Kostroma. Early variety. The shoots reach a length of 7.5 cm. Large round fruits ripen by the end of August, have a sour taste. Color from red to cherry color, sour taste. Productivity reaches 1.6 kg per 1 sq. M. m. The advantages of the variety include early ripeness and large-fruited. Culture is not subject to disease, damage from pests.
The disadvantage is a small number of ovaries.
Beauty of the North. Late variety. Ripening of large oval fruits of all shades of red occurs in the second decade of September. The length of the shoots 7 cm. The yield of 1.6 kg per 1 square. m
The disadvantage of the variety is the direct dependence of the size of the berries on the watering.
This species of heather plants differs from the others in small sizes.
The shrub has a length of up to 50 cm, pointed leaves with curved edges. Fruits reach a size of not more than 1 cm, ripen in September. It grows in the same place where the marsh view, and a little to the north. He likes tundra, peat bogs, marshy forest, mountainous areas of the northern hemisphere.
In Russia, small-fruited cranberries are listed in the Red Book as an endangered species. This type does not cause interest among breeders due to the lack of use of fruits in practice.
Where does garden cranberry grow?
Country sites usually do not correspond to the natural growing conditions of the berry crop. But since the plant is attractive for gardeners with exceptionally useful properties, the conditions for it are artificially created.
Shrubs need high humidity. This may be the occurrence of groundwater is not lower than 40 cm, or the presence of any source of water nearby.
The attractiveness of the culture for garden cultivation lies in the fact that once preparing a site for it, it can be grown in one place for up to 60 years. It is also well suited for decorative purposes. She can decorate the coastline of the garden pond or alpine slide.
For good fruiting bushes need good lighting. If this condition is not met, the yield is reduced.
The best option for preparing the soil for planting will be a dug pit filled with peat. Peat is diluted with coarse river sand at a ratio of 1: 5, a pair of needle buckets, forest humus is added. If the site is located on natural lowlands, peat fields, fields bordering the forest, the adjustment of the soil is not required at all, or only slightly.
Since the culture will have to constantly irrigate, there must be good drainage on the site. To keep the site shape, it is desirable to fence it sides. The soil should be sufficiently loose, permeable to oxygen and moisture.
Great importance is attached to the acidity of the soil. For large-fruited varieties, soil with an acidity of 3–5 pH is suitable, bog and small-fruited crops grow well on soil with acidity of a wider range from 2.5 to 6.5 pH.
Determination of soil acidity
To create optimal conditions for the cultivation of cranberries need to prepare the soil of a certain acidity. For this you need to know how to define it.
The most accessible are the methods in which the indicator is:
- Litmus paper. Strips of paper treated with natural dyes that change color when submerged in an acidic environment. A small amount of earth is placed in a container with distilled water. If the blue indicator turns red, it means that the soil is acidic.
- Test strips. The principle of operation is the same as in litmus paper, but more accurate. The package shows a color scale with indicators with which you can compare the result.
- Vinegar. Simple common method. The earth is placed in a glass jar and filled with vinegar. If foaming does not occur, the earth is acidic.
- Weed grass. On acidic soils grows horsetail, sedge, nettle, clover, chamomile, cornflowers.
- Device for measuring soil indicators. More costly, but reliable method of determining the acidity. The kit consists of a set of reagents, test tubes and a scale to verify the results obtained. The device also determines the humidity, temperature.
The most reliable soil acidity test will be laboratory analysis of a sample of the earth.
Where to get planting material
The best places to buy crops are nurseries, large farms specializing in the cultivation of cranberries and gardening partnerships.
You can be sure that the planting material will have varietal qualities, it will take root well. It is important to know the age of the plant. Saplings better take root in 2 years, and the four-year-old culture bears fruit faster.
For planting, you can use bushes that grow in their natural habitat. Choose healthy plants with the largest fruits. From them cuttings of about 20 cm in length are cut, which are buried in moist peat, transplanted in the spring to a permanent place.
The most suitable time for planting is the period from the beginning of April to the end of May. The soil should be thawed at least 10 cm to be able to dig a hole.
You can plant cuttings and seedlings in the autumn from October to early November. In this case, there is a likelihood of extinction due to the fact that culture does not have time to take root. But if wintering was successful, then next year the plant will develop faster planted in the spring.
When purchasing an adult three-year-old culture with a closed root system, it can be planted on the site in the summer.
Planting Rules for Cranberries
Planting should take place in the ground prepared in autumn on a well-lit, fenced site.
Dig holes 10 cm deep. The distance between rows is maintained at 20 cm, in the row between seedlings of 15–20 cm. Before planting, the wells are moistened with warm water.
If the planting material is represented by cuttings, they must be deepened, leaving up to 3 cm on the surface with a growing point. Placed in the hole for 2-3 pieces, compacted the earth, watered again. The length of the cuttings can be from 5 to 20 cm.
The seedling is immersed to the same depth at which it grew before planting. If it is transplanted from another container, it is very important not to damage the root system. For this, the roots are lowered into the hole along with a lump of earth.
Seeds are sown in peat or moss to a depth of 5 mm. Watered, covered with film. Sprouts will appear only in a month.
Gardeners will see the first berries only in the third year after planting. A full harvest will be harvested only in the fourth year.
With the right selection of varieties, good care can be collected up to 3 kg per 1 square. m
Frequency of watering and fertilizing
The main agrotechnical works in the care of the crop are watering and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
The soil on the site should be constantly wet. The plant does not tolerate drought. If possible, you need to organize drip irrigation. But it is impossible to swamp the soil, since the putrefactive processes will start to develop, the taste of the fruits will deteriorate.
Drought needs to be watered daily. If it is not possible to visit the dacha every day, you can pour plenty of water once a week and grind the soil.
3 weeks after planting, fertilizing is made with complex mineral fertilizer (Universal, Kemira) at the rate of 20 g per 1 square meter. m. Such feeding should be carried out every 2 weeks until the end of July. In late August and mid-October, the bushes are fertilized with the Osenne mineral complex - 10 g per 1 sq. Km. m
To maintain the acidity of the soil, 2 years after planting, acidify the water for irrigation. To do this, make a solution of a teaspoon of citric acid and 3 liters of water. You can make sour water, if in a bucket of water pour 100 g of vinegar.
For these purposes, a mixture of peat with sawdust of coniferous trees is poured over the bed every year.
Manure, chicken droppings, compost are not suitable as fertilizers.
Reproduction by cuttings
For varietal culture, the plant is best propagated by cuttings. For their preparation in April, last year’s horizontal shoots are cut into 10–20 cm segments. They are placed in a bucket filled with water until the middle of the length of the planting material; the reconciliation is covered with a damp cloth.
In this way they can be stored for several days. If there is a need for longer storage, the cuttings are wrapped in wet moss and kept at a temperature close to 0 ° C.
For rooting cuttings greenhouse is not needed, they are planted immediately into the ground. When planting deepen not less than 2/3, while the growth point should be located in the upper ground part. Up to 3 cuttings can be planted in one well. The planting scheme depends on the variety, the amount of planting material. On average - after 20 cm in the row and between the rows. Survival rate of at least 95%. Rooting occurs after 3 weeks.
You can plant the cuttings in peat pots. After 1.5-2 months, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Seeds after harvesting until spring are kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of 3–4 ° C to obtain more friendly shoots. In April, they are sown over peat in pots or containers. Top sprinkled with 2 mm sand or moss, watered, put in a warm place.
A month later, with regular watering appear shoots. When 4–5 leaves are formed, the plants dive. They are seated in individual pots or in the greenhouse ground. By the end of the summer, they remove the film from the greenhouse, cover it for the winter. Spring transplanted to a permanent place. You can get the harvest for 5 year.
Harvesting and storage
You can harvest at different times. In the spring, they collect fruits growing in the natural environment. After wintering, they become sweeter.
If the cranberry is needed for long-term storage, it is removed when it is fully matured. Terms of technical ripeness last from the end of August to the beginning of November.
The immature berry, having lain down, will acquire the color of ripe fruits.
Harvest can be done manually or using scrapers. The second method is easier, but injures the plant, which is undesirable. In order for the berry to survive longer without processing, it is better to harvest in dry, sunny weather, after the morning dew has dried.
Large farms harvest in a different way. Checks are flooded with water, the fruits float to the surface. After that, they are quite simple to assemble.
Until the next harvest, ripe fruits can be stored in water, then put into the cellar. Получается клюква мочёная, а если ещё добавить сахар и немного уксуса, получится маринованная ягода. Срок хранения при этом увеличится.
Без воды клюква хранится до 3 месяцев. Houses are placed in plastic containers and placed in a refrigerator or stored in wooden boxes in a cellar at a temperature of 0–8 ° C.
Fruits collected in the spring is better to recycle or freeze. Before freezing, the fruits are washed and dried.
When frozen berries are laid out in containers or bags, taking into account their use at a time. Repeated freezing leads to lower quality and loss of beneficial properties.
Frozen berries are used to make desserts, compotes, jelly, added to sauerkraut.
Fresh fruits are used to make jam, fray with sugar.
Diseases and pests
Failure to comply with preventive measures such as weeding, thinning the culture, compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering leads to diseases. Cranberries are susceptible to diseases of fungal and viral origin. Consider the most common.
- Snow mold. The disease begins to develop in March, when the plant is still under the snow. The leaves become brown in color, become gray by summer, then die. Not only the leaves are affected, but also the plant buds. As a result, the ovary is not formed, yields are reduced. They fight the disease by spraying with a foundation or a harmless method of freezing the culture in layers.
- Fomopsis. The disease manifests itself in hot, dry weather. On the stems gray spots and ulcers are formed, because of this they gradually dry out. The leaves turn yellow at first, later they turn orange, but they do not fall off. Berries are covered with rot, change color, they appear swelling. The method of fighting the disease is the treatment of fungicides, spraying Bordeaux fluid.
- Monilial burn. In wet weather, the stems are covered with a yellow coating, the tops turn brown and dry. Mushrooms gradually spread to the rest of the culture. Rot can occur during the growing season, storage. The most dangerous time of infection is the period of bud break, the growth of new shoots. Fungicides help to defeat the disease.
- Terry. Viral disease. Manifested in the deformation of the leaves, shoots. Bush becomes like a broomstick. Fruiting stops. Treatment methods do not exist. The diseased plant is removed from the site, recycled.
The most dangerous insect pests that feed on all parts of the plant, including the root, include the following species:
- cabbage scoop,
- weevil caterpillar,
- heather peppered moth
Breeding grounds for pests are weeds. Therefore, regular weeding will help fight them. It is also necessary to monitor the amount of mineral fertilizers applied, especially nitrogen.
If the plant grows in favorable conditions, it becomes stronger, more durable, less prone to diseases, pests.
When soil is mulched, the focus of infections is isolated, and it dies under a layer of mulch.
If only agrotechnical techniques do not help, then insecticides are used.
The properties of cranberries, its usefulness for health is priceless. It is fascinating and interesting to grow up on a summer residence or a personal plot. With a little effort, you can get a good harvest of healing berries.
Dates (spring, autumn)
Cranberry bushes are planted, usually in early spring, when the land in the plots is already sufficiently thawed to an approximate depth of 5 to 10 cm. Autumn planting is not involved, they only prepare the ground (in September) for spring planting delicious berries.
How to plant cranberries in the garden
The process of planting cranberries and further growing it in my garden is very simple. To begin with, it is necessary to form a special bed for it - dig a trench about 30 cm deep and remove the ground, and since the root system of the cranberry is superficial, then such a small depth will be sufficient for its landing. The plantation of the cranberry plant is as follows: the plants are placed in holes with dimensions of 10 × 15 or 10 × 10 cm, if possible, planting is thicker so that the shoots close as quickly as possible and completely cover the surface of the ground. Then the plant should be watered with water, lightly sprinkled with soil and mulch - this is quite enough for it to stick to your garden bed.
Proper care of a flowering plant
Immediately after planting the cranberry seedlings, you must carefully follow some important rules of care.
- After planting, the soil should immediately cover the film and hold it until the formation of lashes.
- After germination of 15–20 cm, the lashes are pinned with a stick so that they do not leave the site.
- Watering cranberries should be regular, the soil should always be hydrated, and once a week it generally needs to be poured strongly enough. On hot summer days, hydration should be carried out daily.
- During the growing season, one should not forget about feeding the plant with solutions of complex mineral fertilizers, this should be done once every two weeks, while not forgetting about water pouring (with the content of citric acid and vinegar solution).
In the spring, when the cranberry berry becomes green, it is necessary to carry out thinning pruning of the bush and feed it with complete mineral fertilizer. It is also important to remember the timely loosening of the soil, which, moreover, must always be in a slightly damp state. Since the cranberry is well pollinated by bees, the best solution would be planting honey plants near its bed - oregano, savory, etc.
In the hot summer period, especially in the second half, it is very important to ensure that the soil in the garden does not dry out, and by regular watering you should not forget about the love of the berries for an acidic habitat, therefore water should be used with the addition of citric or acetic acid. Necessary conditions for good development of the shrub are also timely cleaning of the beds from unwanted weeds and good loosening of the soil.
In the autumn, in September-October, it is already possible to safely harvest a generous cranberry crop. Fruits need to be selected slightly immature, they must ripen during storage.
Other breeding methods
Cranberry shrub propagation occurs in two ways - vegetative and generative. Since in this article we looked at the vegetative reproduction of seedlings, then we will discuss the less popular among the summer residents of the method of planting cranberries - seed.
Seed propagation It is mainly used only for breeding purposes, the berries are extracted from well-ripened fruits and immediately sown or sent for storage in small paper packages.
Usually, after drying, the seeds germinate worse, but fresh produce excellent shoots after two weeks. Planting in such circumstances is carried out in the summer time in this way: the seeds are scattered over the surface of the soil (substrate) and sprinkled with a light layer of sand (2-3 mm), then watered, covered with glass and placed in a warm place.
When the sprouted shoots grow 4–5 leaves, they dive into pots or beds in a greenhouse at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other. The seedlings are fertilized from April to July at intervals of two weeks, in August the protective cover is removed from the greenhouse, and in October the garden bed is mulched with a 5-centimeter layer of peat and again covered for wintering, only with two layers of spunbond.
Before planting in a permanent habitat, seedlings are germinated for another couple of years, and the crop from seed-grown bushes can only be obtained after two or three years.