Perhaps you already know the little kumquat fruit. It is found on the shelves of both fresh and dried. The remarkable citrus, similar to a reduced rounded lemon or an elongated orange, has a number of positive properties for the body. This is one of the citrus, which can and should be eaten right with the peel.
What is kumquat, what are the benefits and harms hidden under the edible skin and what properties does dried citrus have?
What kind of fruit is kumquat growing?
Homeland is considered, as, and many citrus fruits - China. There he is also called the Kinkan, which translates as golden apples or golden oranges. The first mention of it was discovered in the ancient chronicles of the 12th century. Europeans did not even know about kumquat, what kind of fruit. At the beginning of the 19th century, a group of Portuguese navigators brought strange little tangerines from their next trip. Later, in 1846, Robert Fortune - a Scottish botanist described the kumquat and brought it to England for the first time. In honor of the scientist, an orange mini-fruit, and a whole genus of citrus plants was named Fortunella.
Today, the plant lives in countries with a subtropical humid climate, in Southeast Asia, China, India, Japan, and is gradually developing the Mediterranean and the USA. In total there are 6 varieties of kumquat. It is grown in a pot or tub on the windowsill. The fruits received in house conditions, to taste do not concede at all grown up in wildlife.
A plant cannot be called a long-liver; on average, a kumquat has existed for no more than 40 years. During this time, the tree grows up to 2.5-4 meters in height, decorating itself with a lush, dense green crown. Dense but flexible branches are sometimes protected by thorns and densely covered with numerous small leaves of rich emerald green color.
In the middle of summer, delicate white flowers with five petals appear on the branches. Fruits appear closer to winter. The plant bears fruit from about November to April, depending on the variety. For the year tree brings from several hundred to several thousand small citrus.
The fruit itself is small: about 5 cm in length and 3 in diameter, weighing about 30 grams. The rind is thick, but thin, it is colored in different shades. Different varieties bring different fruits by color: from light yellow to rich orange.
Sweet, slightly tart edible peel blends perfectly with sourish pulp. Inside the fruit is divided into 5 large slices, contains a small number of small bones.
Regardless of the place of growth, kumquat is not fed by nitrates from the soil, therefore, does not accumulate them either in the peel or in the pulp. In modern environmental conditions, this is a unique and useful property.
Caloric content, chemical composition
It is hard to believe that kumquat may contain such a quantity of useful substances. But it is so! The fruit is very rich in vitamins, minerals, valuable organic compounds (lutein, pectin, zeacasanthin carotene) and fiber. Almost half of the vitamin composition is allocated to vitamin C, slightly less vitamin A, E, B3, B5, R. Potassium is the record holder among minerals. In addition to it, kumquat contains the necessary for the body calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, iron and sodium.
It is recommended to eat kumquat entirely, together with the skin, not only because of an interesting combination of tastes. Peel is a powerful source of copper, iron, manganese and molybdenum, polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential oil containing limonene, pinene, bergamonen, karyofillen, and gumulene.
In terms of nutrition, kumquat is valued for its caloric value. More precisely, for low calorie: only 71 kcal per 100 grams.
A hundred grams fruit contains:
80% orange fruit consists of water.
Of course, we are talking about fresh kumquat. In dried form, the energy value is much higher.
It is a unique vitamin and mineral composition that gives kumquat a whole list of various beneficial effects on the body:
- Antioxidant and immunomodulatory. A high concentration of Vitamin C protects health from several perspectives: it neutralizes and removes free radicals, improves the process of cell growth, activates the immune system, protecting it from fungi, infections and bacteria.
- Strengthening vision. Vitamin A and beta carotene prevent the development of cataracts.
- Hematopoietic. Manganese, iron, copper, Magnesium and folic acid are the elements necessary for the formation of red blood cells.
- Energy. Carbohydrates and fiber contribute to quickly satisfy hunger. Riboflavin, which is a part of it, is involved in the production of energy and replenishment of its reserves.
- Normalization of digestion. Cellulose increases the intestinal motility, facilitates its cleaning, fights against constipation and gas formation. Thanks to vitamins and organic compounds, the intestinal microflora is normalized. Vitamin C stimulates the liver, is involved in the breakdown of fat cells, removes toxins, normalizes metabolic processes.
- Purification and protection of the respiratory system is also associated with a high content of ascorbic acid and the bactericidal properties of dried peel.
- Antifungal. Organic matter furakumrin destroys fungi and parasites.
- Antiseptic. Essential oils found in the skin are effective against viruses.
- Antidiabetic. Dietary fiber normalizes insulin and glucose levels, acting as a prophylaxis for the development of type 2 diabetes.
- Soothing. B vitamins restore normal functioning of the nervous system. Essential oils also participate in the elimination of depression and bad mood. It is enough to conduct an aromatherapy session with the use of oil, make tea, or simply lay out the dried dried fruit peel next to it.
- Weight loss. A great combination of low calorie, high fiber and water make kumquat a diet product.
- Neutralizes nausea and discomfort in the stomach. Even pregnant women are shown eating fruit in small quantities, after consultation with the doctor.
- The source of beauty and youth. Vitamins and antioxidants protect skin cells from the harmful effects of free radicals, slow down aging, prevent the appearance of age spots.
- Antioxidant properties of the fruit contribute to the revitalization of the brain. The effect of kumquat against a hangover and its consequences is also connected with this.
- High concentration of potassium, especially in dried citrus, strengthens the heart, normalizes its work, minimizes the risk of stroke.
But this is not a complete list, for which fresh kumquat is valued. Its useful properties are shown not only at the use in food.
- Juice is a component of creams and face masks. It effectively whitens the skin, removes pigment spots.
- Oil fights cellulite, smoothes stretch marks, and is often used in soap making.
- Inhalation with peel or oils eliminates dry cough and nasal congestion.
Dried and dried kumquats
Popular options for preserving and preserving fruit are drying and drying.
Like dried fruits, kumquat is a dried fruit when exposed to temperature, preserving the unusual taste of the product.
Dried kumquat - the same fruit that has passed a long drying, at a temperature not exceeding 40 degrees.
No less popular candied citrus. Fruits are first boiled in glucose syrup, dried and then rolled in powdered sugar. Of course, in this case, about any dietary properties, not even a question.
The composition and properties of dried kumquat
Dried kumquat retains most of the trace elements contained in fresh fruit. After the removal of water, the concentration of nutrients and food nutrients increases significantly. Dried kumquat in the form of candied fruit has a calorific value of 284 kcal per 100 grams, contains:
This applies to products that have not been used to prepare sugar. Otherwise, the calorie content may be unexpectedly high, and the dried product will simply lose all its beneficial properties.
The use of dried kumquat in food is useful for vitamin deficiency, during illness and recovery. Dry fruit retains all the properties of a fresh product, which is especially important for problems with the gastrointestinal tract during colds. Also, dried kumquat effectively cleans blood vessels from cholesterol, prevents the development of atherosclerosis.
How is kumquat
Before moving on to gastronomic delight from Kumquat, you need to choose it correctly. When buying fresh kumquat, choose a firm, resilient fruit of bright orange color with a delicate citrus scent. The presence of stains, scuffs and skin integrity violations indicate a damaged and poor-quality product. Green kumquat will not be able to please you with an unusual palette of taste, since it simply has not yet matured. Excessively soft fruits, on the contrary, are already stale and begin to deteriorate.
When buying dried kumquat pay attention to the presence of whitish spots on the peel. Their presence indicates that the fruit was further treated with chemicals to prevent mold. Unpainted fruits of natural yellow and orange are considered the most useful. Prepared in a natural way, dried kumquat has a light, pleasant smell of citrus with a subtle mint note.
Now, you know how to choose a fresh or dried fruit. It's time to learn how to eat it.
Kinkan is used entirely, together with the peel. This is the only way to feel the unique tandem of sourish pulp of sweet, tart skin. Of course, the fruit can be cleaned, but whether it is necessary, if you remember the whole usefulness of the peel.
Fresh kumquat frozen, which allows you to save it for up to six months.
It is added to porridge, various desserts, ice cream, cocktails, and smoothies. From the fruit they prepare jam, jam, marmalade, juices and syrups, used as a filling for baking and casseroles.
Sour-sweet, sometimes spicy sauces for meat and seafood are prepared on the basis of kumquat. Often, the sliced fruit is baked in the oven along with poultry, fish and vegetables.
Also, it is used for flavoring liqueurs and as a snack to alcoholic beverages (wine, vermouth, champagne).
Dried kumquat is added to baked goods, but most often they eat on their own as a useful alternative to candy. And the fruit is surprisingly well combined with both tea and coffee.
Green or black tea with the addition of dried kumquat or its skin is a spicy drink enriched with vitamins. Its regular use will allow you to forget about colds, depression and poor metabolism.
Recipes with kumquat - a lot, both with fresh and dried. But, to avoid possible negative consequences, you need to understand how much you can eat kumquat per day.
To replenish the reserves of vitamins and microelements, 2-3 fresh fruits are enough, but twice as much dried.
Of course, fresh and dried kumquat has a number of limitations and contraindications.
- Fruit, like all citrus fruits, is an allergen. If you suffer from this, enter the product into the diet gradually, in small portions, carefully controlling the state and reaction of the body.
- During pregnancy and lactation, especially if you have not tried kumquat before, it is better not to be exposed to gastronomic risks. A new product can cause diathesis and an allergic reaction in a child.
- Do not get involved in a kinkan for people with high acidity of gastric juice.
- In the presence of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (ulcer, gastritis, inflammation of the intestines), especially in the period of exacerbation, it is better to refrain from eating the fruit in any form. A large number of acids will irritate the already sensitive membranes of the digestive organs.
- When inflammation of the genitourinary system, kumquat is prohibited, as in the previous case. Toxins and harmful substances that the fruit removes from the body can create additional stress on weakened organs. One of the questions is: “Can kumquat provoke cystitis?”. To provoke - no, but to complicate the situation - easily. The disease itself is caused by microorganisms and infection, with which kumquat, especially dried, effectively fights.
- People prone to rapid weight gain should not get carried away with dried kumquat due to its high calorie content and large amounts of carbohydrates.
- For the same reason, diabetics need to eat it in moderation, constantly monitoring blood sugar levels, and having previously consulted a doctor,
Composition and useful properties
All edible fruit varieties are not only surprisingly tasty, but just crammed with vitamins and healthy substances. Because of the rich and useful composition Kumquat is called the “golden fruit”.
Calorie and composition
Kumquat fruit belongs to low-calorie foods. So, for 100 grams of pulp there are only 71 kcal. Although the fruits are dietary, their excessive consumption can lead to weight gain, as there are a large amount of carbohydrates in the composition. Nutritional value per 100 g:
- carbohydrates - 9.2 grams,
- proteins - 1.9 grams
- dietary fiber - 6.6 grams,
- fat - 0.9 grams,
- water - 80 gr,
- ash - 0.5 gr.
The fruit is also saturated with vitamins, among them vitamin C (50%), A (retinol), E (tocopherol), and B vitamins. mineral compounds, essential oils and non-fatty acids.
The distinctive feature of the fruit is the absence of nitrates in the composition, which are so actively absorbed from the soil by other citrus fruits and accumulated in their fruits.
Unique and tasty dishes
From fresh fruits prepare a variety of delicious dishes. But in many restaurants it is customary to serve fruit in the form of fresh or dried fruits. We offer several common product variants that are made from kumquat.
Dried kumquat is a fairly common product that can be bought in a store as easily as fresh. And the amount of nutrients in it does not decrease. Even on the contrary: the concentration of useful components increases due to fermentation during drying, and useful properties are only improved. But the caloric content is increased to 282 kcal per 100 grams of product.
From the dried fruit, you can make various drinks (tinctures, compotes). If the dried peel of the fruit is heated, it will release healing essential oils. Therefore, it is used for disinfecting the premises during the period of flu and colds. To do this, dried fruit can be decomposed into radiators.
From dried kumquat can be prepared lotion for the face. Dried fruits should be poured with warm water and let them brew for several hours. The resulting lotion wipe face in the morning and evening. With regular use, the skin color improves, fine wrinkles are smoothed.
Aromatherapy using essential oils of kumquat is widely used to stimulate brain activity. Thanks to the essential oils in ancient times, this fruit was considered the “food of the sages”. A rich, bright citrus scent gives vigor and strength, removes fatigue from stress and depression. Apply the oil is recommended for diseases of the nervous system and for mental stress.
Essential oils are widely used in cosmetology. They are added to the compositions of creams, masks, peels. In combination with other components, they eliminate irritation, inflammation, cure acne and acne. Cream and lotion based on kumquat oil are able to get rid of stretch marks and stretch marks after childbirth, cellulite and pigment spots.
Whole fruits can be dried in the sun or in a dehydrator. The properties of this product are not much different from fresh citrus. Properly dried and unprocessed fruit looks unattractive and has a dull color. Dried kumquat smells like lime and barely perceptible mint.
Bright orange, green or red fruits are a sign of chemical processing, such a dried kumquat can be dangerous to health.
Dried and dried fruit is stored in a glass tightly closed container for not more than one year.
Contraindications to the use
Of course, the benefits of this exotic fruit is obvious. But unfortunately, citrus allergy is a fairly common ailment. Do not eat more than two pieces of kumquat at a time with a tendency to allergies. And if the fruit is tried for the first time, then it should be limited to half of the fruit. In the absence of undesirable consequences, the portion can be increased.
Due to the high content of organic acids, it is contraindicated to use fruit for people with gastrointestinal diseases in the acute stage. Contraindications are also diseases of the urinary tract and kidneys.
Pregnant women to eat fruit is not prohibited. But since the body during this period is very susceptible to changing food, abuse Kumquat not worth it. Although some future mothers claim that this fruit copes well with toxemia.
Despite the obvious health benefits of the exotic fruit, it is still more used to make delicacies than to treat. And this is not surprising: the fruits have an amazing taste and aroma. The combination of sourish pulp and sweet peel is pleasant to all. Однако следует помнить, что после термической обработки часть полезных свойств кумквата теряется.
Что это за фрукт кумкват, как растет
Кумкват (см. фото) — плод одноименного медленно растущего вечнозеленого дерева. В научной классификации растение относят к семейству Рутовых, подсемейству Цитрусовых и роду Фортунелла.
The tree grows up to 2.5-4.5 m tall, forming a thick beautiful sharo- or vase-like crown. On the branches of some types of kumquat citrus there are thorns. The leaves are small, dense, dark green in color, with a smooth edge. Prefers rich, well-drained soil without zinc deficiency.
Kumquats are extremely sun-loving and heat-loving plants, the best temperature for their active growth is + 28 + 30 C. At the same time, these plants are cold-resistant and can tolerate a drop in temperature to -8 ° C without any special damage to the trunk and leaves.
Due to the sensitivity to air temperature, these tropical trees have a long “winter” rest period. The peak of their flowering occurs not in the spring, but in the middle of summer. White self-pollinated kumquat flowers are very fragrant and decorative.
In favorable conditions, Kumquat tree fruits abundantly. Depending on the variety, each individual plant can produce from several hundred to several thousand fruits annually. Some varieties ripen from November to January, others from mid-December to April.
Kumquat - how to eat it right
Kumquat fruit is small, weighing 10-11 g, 1.5-4 cm wide and 3-5 cm long. The shape, depending on the variety, is oval or spherical. The color is usually bright orange, but can vary from yellow to slightly reddish.
The skin of a ripe fruit is thin and sweet, with a tart flavor, and the flesh is sour. The bones are not poisonous, but, like other citrus fruits, are slightly bitter. The smell is a bit like lime. It is not necessary to peel a small citrus fruit kumquat, it is eaten whole with the peel.
Selection and storage of fruits
When choosing a kumquat in the store, pay attention to the following points:
- evenness of color (do not take fruit with brown and greenish spots),
- frankly green kumquat and hopelessly solid will be very sour,
- the density and elasticity of the fetus (too soft specimens, most likely, have already over-ripened and started to rot).
Prefer organic citrus fruits. It is better to take the fruit, which has preserved the green "tail" - the rest of the stem. This is a sign that the fruits were collected correctly.
Outdoors, at room temperature, the fruit usually stays fresh for up to 3 days. In the refrigerator in a tightly closed container - up to 14 days.
For longer storage, fruits are frozen, dried or canned. In freezing, kumquat (or mashed potatoes) will last up to 6 months, and in dried form, if properly stored in a dry and cool room, will last up to 2 years.
Spread - where kumquat grows
Kumquat plant is cultivated in countries with warm climates. In the region of Southeast Asia - China, Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia, the mountainous regions of India, in the Middle East - in Israel and Northern Iran, in South America - Brazil, Guatemala, Suriname, and also in the hottest states of the USA - California and Texas . There is limited cultivation in Australia and South Africa.
In Europe, little is cultivated for harvest - in Greece, Italy and southern France. Most Europeans know the "golden orange" as an ornamental tree for hedges or potted specimens for home gardening.
Health Benefits of Kumquat
So, What is useful kumquat?
- Healthy digestion.
One of the main beneficial properties of the fruit is the regulation of digestion when consumed daily in food. Only 8 fruits are equivalent to 10 grams of plant fiber, and eating a handful of small, fragrant fruit is not difficult at all! This amount of fiber will provide normal peristalsis of the intestines, prevent intestinal cramps, eliminate constipation and excess gases.
An exotic fruit rich in fiber is an important product for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes, as dietary fiber helps to optimize the balance of insulin and glucose in the body.
- Support the immune system.
Kumquat is a good source of vitamin C - 47.9 mg / 100 g, which is 73% of the recommended daily dose for an adult. Vitamin C helps to stimulate the growth of new cells, removes free radicals from the body and increases the activity of the immune system, which protects the body from the attack of infections, bacteria and fungi.
Regular consumption of this fruit will enrich the body with B vitamins necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system. Foods that replenish B-vitamins are shown primarily to those who are experiencing increased neuro-emotional stress, stress, not sleeping enough or suffering from depressive states.
Kumquat contains manganese, magnesium, copper, iron and folic acid, which are necessary for the formation of red blood cells.
The product is rich in vitamin A and beta carotene, which are closely related to eye health. Betacarotene works as an antioxidant, reducing oxidative stress in the cells of the macula and thereby preventing the development of cataracts.
- The source of energy, vigor.
Despite its small size, kumquat fruits contain significant amounts of carbohydrates and are well saturated. Orange fruit is a suitable snack for active people who want to quickly and simply renew their energy reserves. Also in kumquat, riboflavin levels are high, a key vitamin involved in energy production.
The low calorie content of the fruit (only 71 kcal / 100 gr.) Along with its high content of fiber, water and carbohydrates make it an ideal diet product for people trying to lose weight. Kumquat (kumquat) quickly gives a feeling of satiety and fullness of the stomach, protecting from overeating.
The wonderful combination of antioxidants and vitamins found in the plant makes it an ideal product to protect the skin from the effects of free radicals. Eating foods rich in antioxidants, slow down the formation of wrinkles, pigment spots, coarsened areas.
Dried kumquat - useful properties
The pulp of the fruit also contains a special substance - furakumarin, which has a pronounced antifungal effect. Especially a lot of it in dried kumquat, which makes this variety especially useful.
With vitamin deficiencies, 2-3 fruits are enough every day for 7-10 days to correct the situation.
It is also invaluable for dried kumquat with a hangover syndrome, it allows you to get out of the state with the least loss of health. For the amendment of the situation it is enough just to chew the fruit.
Dried peel of the fruit produces essential oils with antibacterial and antiviral properties, so it can be used for inhalations for colds, for disinfecting rooms.
In addition to drying, drying is used in the sun, making candied kumquat. In the latter case (cooking fruits in sugar syrup) - the utility of kumquat decreases, its caloric content increases, and this type of natural sweets should not be consumed with diabetes and obesity.
Tincture with honey kumquat
It is recommended to humanities and other pros, actively working head. No wonder that kumquats are also called “food of the sages” in the East.
In addition to the beneficial effect on attention and concentration, tincture reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood, makes the blood vessels more elastic, is considered the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity.
Harm of Kumquat - Contraindications
Kumquat doesn’t have many contraindications:
- like other citrus fruits, this product can be a strong allergen,
- It is desirable to exclude fruit from the diet for the period of feeding the baby, as it is able to provoke diathesis in the child,
- Caution should be exercised to those who have serious diseases of the stomach, in the first place - an ulcer or gastritis.
- The annual Kumquat Festival is held in the town of Dade City (Florida, USA).
- In total, 6 varieties of this fruit are grown in the world.
- The fruits of ornamental kumquat grown in a pot on the windowsill are as tasty as they have ripened in natural conditions.
- It is believed that the plant’s birthplace is China. The first mention of it was found in Chinese written sources of the 12th century. In Europe, about the described fruit learned only in the 19th century.
- There are kumquat hybrids with mandarin and lime: mandarinquat (orange quat) and limequat.
- Kumquat fruits are treated for a hangover.
The history and origin of the fruit
The Kumquat fruit was presented to the Europeans by the Portuguese navigators at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1846, a Scottish botanist, Robert Fortune, a member of the London Horticultural Society, described and imported an overseas wonder from the continent to England. This kind of citrus fruit was named after him - “Fortunello”.
The plant has other names: in Cantonese dialect (dialect of Chinese) - kumquat, the Japanese version - kinkan. Both mean "golden orange".
What it looks like, where it grows
Kumquat is a tree of three or four meters high. With fruits like a Christmas tree dotted with tangerines. Homeland is considered the Indian subcontinent, southern provinces of China, Japan. That is why in the world citrus is known as “Chinese orange”, “Japanese orange”. Today it is cultivated in the tropics and subtropics all over the planet, from Florida to the Mediterranean.
Only color and structure combine kumquat with a familiar orange. Other options are different:
- oval fruits, with large plum (up to 5 cm long, 3-3.5 cm in diameter, weighing up to 30 g),
- the thick, sweet skin is edible, the sweetest is from the wild-growing species from Hong Kong,
- little pulp
- the number of grains coincides with the number of slices (usually four to seven),
- Different varieties have different colors - from light yellow to rich orange.
Dried kumquat reminds dried tangerines. The color scheme is as natural, only paler. Red is a chemically-treated specimens that are not useful.
Analyzing what the fruit tastes like, the majority names sweet varieties of mandarin. That is, kumquat sweet and sour, slightly bitter.
Minerals and Vitamins
Four fifths of each fruit is water. The main benefits bring vitamins plus minerals.
The vitamin list opens ascorbic acid - almost half of the total composition. It is supplemented with A, E, group B (3, 5), R.
Values of the fruit add fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated), essential oils, monosaccharides, lutein, pectin.
Fresh fruits are most useful, including peel and juice:
- Crushed fruits with honey treat cough, sore throat.
- Due to the high content of vitamin C, infections are suppressed, immunity is strengthened. A glass of juice benefits during flu epidemics as a prophylactic.
- A pair of fruit quickly neutralizes hangover.
- Acts like a tonic on the body as a whole. Liver and gallbladder feel a particular benefit.
- Vitamin A and beta-carotene prevent the development of cataracts.
- The benefits of fiber - in the normalization of insulin, glucose, inhibition of the development of type 2 diabetes.
- Aging, skin pigmentation is slowed down.
- Pectin, fiber, enzymes regulate the gastrointestinal tract. Excreted cholesterol, radionuclides, toxins.
- Helps with nausea, heaviness in the stomach from overeating.
- Exceptionally fresh fruits may be consumed in diabetes. The rate is determined by the doctor.
- If there is no allergy, kumquat is not contraindicated in early pregnancy. Little by little you can eat, all the more so since early toxicosis is neutralized.
Recipes from Chinese traditional medicine have become world heritage:
- tincture of kumquat with honey normalizes the work of the heart, levels the pressure, reducing cholesterol,
- juice or pulp citrus destroy the fungus.
Benefit will be from the fruit of the following conditions: solid, evenly saturated orange, without spotting, with intact peel.
Juice is added to masks, creams for whitening, depigmentation of the skin.
Dried and dried kumquat
Fruits are dried, dried in whole or in pieces, usually without stones. In the process only water evaporates, vitamins, trace elements do not go anywhere. Therefore, the useful properties of kumquats after processing are the same as fresh fruit.
Even additional advantages appear:
- The concentration of beneficial components is higher.
- A lot of potassium - useful for the treatment of heart disease, anti-stroke element.
- The bactericidal effect of the dried peel is enhanced.
- Dry or dried kumquat is beneficial for constipation, lazy digestion.
- Dried kumkvat prevents atherosclerosis, cleans blood vessels, is beneficial for hypertension.
- To quickly get out of a hangover, it is enough to chew three or four dried or dried fruit.
- Kumquat dried fruit can be stored for months to eat when there is no fresh fruit on hand (crops are harvested from November to April).
- The energy value of dried or dried fruit is higher than fresh. Therefore, their benefits are palpable for a weakened or growing organism.
- Calorie content is not always the stop factor for dieters. Pectins, polysaccharides, riboflavin in the dried product are also more, so the metabolism is accelerated, the weight is reduced.
When buying dried fruit, you need to carefully consider them:
- Colour. Dried fruits are obtained from different varieties or hybrids with other citrus fruits. Therefore, they have different color coloration. But they are always yellow orange amber scale. The benefits of red or green varieties are zero.
- Color saturation. Natural dried kumquat pale. Tinted copies get a bright shade.
- Surface. Whitish spots, divorces - a sign that the raw materials were defective, were processed when dried.
- Smell. Natural dried product emits citrus fragrance. "Chemistry" appears after treatment.
Properties of candied fruit
Candied produce by boiling the fruit in sugar syrup and dried.
Vitamins, other useful substances after heat sugar processing almost does not remain. The benefits of the product - instant energy saturation. If the strength at zero or overcame depression, it is enough to eat a few pieces of kumquat with tea or coffee, so that everything will work out.
Essential oil benefits
Exotic citrus oil benefits as a therapeutic or aesthetic agent:
- for inhalation with acute respiratory infections,
- for spa treatments
- with oils of other plants heals problem skin,
- eliminates cellulite, postpartum stretch marks.
The aroma of kinkan oil treats diseases of the nervous system, emotional disorders: stress, insomnia, anxiety. Aroma lamp or peel, placed on the heater. At the same time the room is disinfected, which is useful during seasonal epidemics.
How to eat a kumquat
There is no special etiquette for kumquat:
- Fresh fruit is eaten whole, with skin. Therefore, before use, carefully washed.
- The fruit is bite off or cut in half with the peel. Connoisseurs claim that only the composition of the tastes of the pulp (sourness) and the shell (sweetness and spicy bitterness) allow us to assess the uniqueness of the fruit.
- If eating the skin seems like something terrible, it is peeled, like an orange or mandarin. But you should not throw it away: ordinary tea with crusts becomes exotic.
- Fruit slices are served salads, desserts, pastries, cereals. Bake or stew with vegetables, meat, fish, seafood.
An adult can eat 250-350 grams per day (8-11 fresh fruits). Dried or dried - a third less. The daily rate of candied fruit - no more than 120-150 grams.
Contraindications and harm
Like any citrus, kumquat is not universal. It has beneficial properties and contraindications with limitations:
- If there is an individual intolerance to citrus fruits, but I really want it, the safe norm is no more than two fruits at a time.
- Tendency to corpulence. Abuse of fruit provokes obesity.
- Acids contained in the fruit make it undesirable for people with gastrointestinal problems (increased acidity of gastric juice, ulcers, gastritis), kidneys, urinary system.
- Banned during breastfeeding: it is not known how the child’s body will perceive it.
- In diabetes, kumquat is consumed only fresh, little by little, following the level of sugar. And only after consulting a doctor.
Even if there is no allergy to ordinary citruses, two or three cloves are enough for the first tasting. There was no discomfort - then you can eat kumquat as much as you want.
The benefits of Chinese “golden orange” are undeniable. They can dilute the traditional New Year's assortment of oranges with tangerines. Add to your personal "piggy bank" a new taste, flavor, exotic.
It has beneficial properties and contraindications. Therefore, it is better to consult a doctor.
Kumquat is not a year-round culture, but enjoyment can be extended. The fruit is stored for months in frozen, dried or dried form.
In stores, kumquat is sold fresh or dried. These are small fruits (about the size of large walnuts) of elongated shape and bright orange color. They are covered with thick skin, like an orange or mandarin. This is not surprising, since they all belong to the same genus - Citrus. Kumquat, you can say their younger brother. Внутри он состоит из таких же долек, только поменьше.
Можно встретить и другие названия фрукта: кинкан, плод мудрецов, золотой или японский апельсин. Латинское его наименование – фортунелла.
Чем полезен кумкват для человека?
Эти миниатюрные плоды – просто кладезь витаминов. Due to this, kumquat not only replenishes the supply of nutrients, but also strengthens the body as a whole. It also inhibits the development of fungi and many bacteria harmful to humans. The use of kinkan stimulates the immune system and helps to fight various infections.
Kumquat stimulates the secretion of gastric juice, which activates the process of digestion, and also speeds up the metabolism. Many problems with the digestive tract can be solved if you use this fruit. Kumquat also prevents many dangerous diseases, such as stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers.
The kinkan of knowledge workers is invaluable. Due to the fact that it contains a large amount of nutrients and essential oils, it activates the brain. Because of this effect, Fortunella is also called the "food of the wise."
This fruit can be used as one of the elements in the treatment of various diseases associated with mental, nervous or mental overstrain. Bright and fragrant fruit will help get rid of depression, apathy, neurosis and fatigue. This effect is due not only to the large amount of vitamins, but also to the combination of a cheerful orange color with an invigorating citrus scent.
You can make tincture, which includes honey and this fruit. Kumquat in this form will have a powerful cleansing effect. Tincture will reduce the content of bad cholesterol and clean the blood vessels, which will be an excellent prevention of diseases of the heart and circulatory system.
Kinkan is well known as an antioxidant. It contributes to the removal of toxins and other harmful substances from the body. After the feast is recommended to use this fruit. Kumquat will help get rid of hangover.
What substances make fruit bring so much benefit? First of all, these are vitamins. Alive, natural, not synthetic. It contains almost all the vitamins of group B: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, as well as vitamins A, C, E, P. Their combination provides good digestibility. In addition to vitamins, kumquat can boast a large amount of minerals (copper, calcium, potassium, zinc, sodium, iron, phosphorus) and pectin substances.
The multivitamin “strike” is supplemented with a large amount of essential oils due to which the fruits have a pleasant aroma (pinene, limonene, karyofillen, etc.). Antioxidants like lutein and carotene are present in the kumquat. In addition, it is rich in thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine and pantothenic acid.
Everything is very simple here. Kumquat is widely used in cooking. How to eat it? Just cut into slices with peel. It also contains a lot of nutrients. The fruits themselves are sour, but the skin is sweet, so a very interesting and rich combination with a tart flavor is obtained. Many come to the delight, having tried only a couple of slices. Do not eat seeds, because they are bitter and can spoil the whole taste.
From more acidic varieties, you can make marmalade, jam or candied fruits. Often kumquat juice is used in sauces. It gives an interesting touch to the dishes. Also slices will be a wonderful decoration of fruit sliced. You can add a kinkan to the salad as a dressing. It gives an unforgettable flavor to the dishes.
Fortunelle oil is well known in aromatherapy. It has a calming effect, helps relieve stress, reduces anxiety levels, and fights depression.
Fruit is also used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. Especially known is kumquat liqueur. In Europe, the kinkan is used as a martini snack. A curious alternative to olives.
Often on the shelves you can see dried kumquat. Its price is not too different from the cost of fresh. The benefits of dried fruit are also quite a few. The content of vitamins is not reduced, they become more concentrated. Due to this, the properties of the kinkan become more pronounced.
Dried fruits can be used in various dishes, compotes. You can make tinctures. Particularly useful is the peel: it releases a large amount of essential oils with a bactericidal effect. If you put the skin by the fire, the antibacterial properties will improve. Therefore, in the flu season and colds it will be useful to decompose in the apartment cleaning and inhale their scent.
Kumquat as a plant
Kinkan is used not only in the food industry. It is often grown as an ornamental plant in household plots or at home, without even knowing about all its benefits. During the flowering period, it produces a delicate citrus scent, which has a beneficial effect on the human nervous system. This small plant may well fit on a windowsill. Sometimes it even gives fruit at home. Well, its fruit - not like purchased. However, at home it is grown more for decorative purposes.
Such a wonderful fruit is kumquat. On all sides useful, having only one contraindication: idiosyncrasy or allergy to citrus. In other cases, it is not only possible, but also necessary to eat. Do not be embarrassed by his low fame. By the way, this is not an overseas curiosity, kumquats grow not only in the United States, China or Japan, but also in our country - in the Krasnodar Territory.
What is kumquat
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On presented photographs this fruit is in different forms - fresh, dried and in syrup. Outwardly, it resembles a small orange. It is small, with a diameter of not more than 3 cm, and a long one - up to 6 cm. But this fruit does not taste like an orange, it is something completely new, exotic and interesting.
For comparison with citrus, it is more like a sweet tangerine. In China, this fruit is called “golden orange”, which slightly explains its similarity to citrus and useful properties. The history of its name is quite unusual.
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The fruit of the ruta family has several names:
- its first name is Fortunella, it went because of belonging to this separate genus,
- in its historic homeland, in China, it is called Kumquat,
- in Japan it is called the kinkan,
- in Russia, little by little, various names are used.
Low-calorie kumquat, in 100 g of fresh fruit contains 70 Kcal. If you use it fresh, you can not be afraid for the figure. Fruits that are sold in stores, dried or dried, have more calories, about 280 per 100g.
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The composition of the fruit contains:
- 80% water
- lots of carbohydrates and monosaccharides,
- tropical fruit is rich in potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, sodium,
- vitamin C occupies 50% of the whole complex,
- it also has vitamin A, E, P, B3 and B5.
Solar fruit is just a storehouse of nutrients:
- fatty acids (unsaturated and saturated, polyunsaturated),
- essential oils,
Such a huge amount of nutrients makes him a welcome guest in the diet of each person.
Important! One of the interesting features of this fruit: - wherever it grows, it does not absorb nitrates from the soil, so they are not in the pulp and skin.
Kumquat is grown almost everywhere. The homeland of this citrus is China, and in America and Europe it began to grow already in the nineteenth century. In Asian countries and in the Middle East it is cultivated for commercial and industrial purposes. Mostly it is grown in pots, and in some places it grows like an ordinary wild tree. It grows in places with hot, humid climates.
How to grow a kumquat from a stone at home
In dried fruit there are bones, small and rather soft. But if you try to germinate them, nothing will come of it.
In order for the citrus tree to grow, flourish and give fruit at home, you need to make an effort.
Certain conditions are necessary:
In his homeland, he prefers places with a certain humidity and high air temperature, therefore, having provided him with the necessary care at home, in gratitude, the plant will delight its color and tasty fruits.
You can, of course, buy a ready-made lemon, mandarin or kumquat tree in the store. But those who like to grow, like the process itself. This indoor small tree with elongated leaves of rich green color and a round crown.
When the tree blooms - the air is filled with an amazing fresh citrus scent. The tree itself grows up to 1,5m in height, the flowers on it are small white or pink.
What should be the ground
This is the most important and crucial moment. You can buy a specially prepared mixture for citrus. To prepare your own soil, you must take in equal proportions of the earth and river sand, which must be calcined in the oven. In this mixture, you can add a little humus.
Sow the plant in a small pot up to 10 cm in diameter. There should be drainage at the bottom. To do this, pour 6-7 centimeters of fine rubble or expanded clay.
What seeds can be planted and how
For planting are not used bones from dried kumquat. Bones should be selected only from fresh ripe fruit:
- the grain shell must be dark,
- seeds should be thoroughly washed and dried on a clean cloth,
- Then put these grains on a cloth in a saucer and pour a little water on it,
- for swelling leave for a day in a warm place and make sure that the humidity remains at the same level,
- You can add a little growth stimulator.
The landing process is simple:
- seeds are planted in a moist soil to a depth of 2 cm, so that there is a thick layer of soil on top,
- it is better to plant a few bones in order to increase the likelihood of sprouting and the plant could be chosen stronger,
- shoots appear long enough, you need to be patient,
- The planted bones should be covered with polyethylene, left in a warm place, without access of direct sunlight,
- the soil should be wet, but you should not flood the ground so as not to rot the seed,
- the temperature at which the seed will sprout - not below +20 degrees,
- sprouts appear in about 1.5 months, then the polyethylene is removed so that the plant can breathe and carry the pot to a sunny place.
Watch the video! Kumquat
You can start this process when 4 leaves appear on the plant. The larger the pot, the more the plant will grow. The seedling does not like the transplant process, so you need to do everything very carefully. The seedling must be removed from the soil along with a clod of soil. Next, it is placed in a pot and watered abundantly.
Watering and fertilizer
Kinkan loves wet soil. It should be watered often enough to not dry up the roots. If the ambient temperature is high, water the plant you need every day.
Tip! For irrigation using water at room temperature.
In winter, you need to water the plant as needed, observing the degree of soil moisture and dry air in the room. Once in 5-7 days it is quite enough to water a plant in the winter.
For fertilizer, you can take universal or special tools for citrus plants. You can make the most fertilizer for citrus plants.
- 4g ammonium nitrate,
- 4g of potassium salt,
- 10g of superphosphate,
- 2 liters of water.
It is necessary to feed the plant two or three times a month during the growing season, from March to September. The rest of the time it will be enough to feed one in 1.5-2 months.
An excellent place to grow kumquat will be a place lit by the sun. So that he precisely felt "at home" you can put a container with water next to it, providing him with additional moisture.
How to properly transplant and care for kumquat
Fortunella loves light very much. So that in winter the plant does not suffer from a lack of lighting, you can buy a special lamp for highlighting. An ambient temperature suitable for a plant in winter should not be below +15 degrees.
In the summer, the Kinkan prefers diffused lighting and +25 .. + 30 degrees. It should be taken to fresh air and sprayed with a spray bottle. In the year the tree grows by about 6-8 cm. Active growth is observed in April-May. To crown had a spherical appearance, young shoots from the side can be carefully cut, but this should be done in the spring.
Kinkan transplanted approximately every 3-4 years. This should be done in the spring, before the active growth of shoots. These are all the features and subtleties of care for the solar fruit.
Tip! Kumquat is a bisexual plant, but for greater certainty you can plant two plants. Then, under cross-pollination, the fruits will appear for sure.
From planting the seed to the appearance of the first fruit, it takes about 10 years. If the plant is grafted, you can shorten it a little.
A tree blooms in the middle of summer, most often in the fifth year of its existence. It can flourish in a season up to 4 times. The fruits ripen in winter. From the appearance of flowers to ripe fruit passes 6-7 months.
Reproduction by cuttings
One of the possible methods of plant reproduction is cutting. It is better to take cuttings from an adult (fruit-bearing) plant in spring, although it can be done throughout the year. It should be with three kidneys, 7-10 centimeters in length. After processing the cut cuttings in activated carbon, they are placed in a preparation that will help accelerate the formation of roots, for example, “Kornevin”.
Tip! If the handle has large leaves, they are cut to half or two-thirds in size.
For disembarkation and rooting use perlite, vermiculite or special ground mixture. For cutting make a kind of greenhouse. Planted 3 cm deep and covered with plastic or glass container, left in a warm place with diffused light for a couple of months. This period is enough to form a root.
The cultivation of citrus in our time has become widespread. This is in some cases aesthetic pleasure, because the plant pleases with its unusual and harmonious appearance. Someone grows up as an element of the composition bonsai, giving it a rounded shape.
Why use fortunella
Fruit is eaten without even peeling. It is very useful, so you can get the most out of it. healthy fruit. They make candied fruit, marmalade, dried, dried. Often the fruits are used to prepare various desserts. Add to compotes and even boiled in jam. Used in the preparation of salads, fruit juice is often used as a marinade for chicken. It is used in the preparation of mulled wine or lemonade. Since in Russia this fruit is still quite exotic and not very common, many benefits and pleasure will deliver its use in any form.