A good onion is not easy to grow, but the gardeners of almost all regions do it anyway. Most often onions are planted with sevke: it is easier and more reliable. Features of onion farming in the Urals are associated with harsh climatic conditions.
Onion varieties for growing in the Urals
The climate of the Ural region differs in a short summer. It may be warm, but comes late, and autumn comes early. It leaves a mark on the choice of cultivated varieties of onions. Early ripening varieties are most suitable for the Urals; they are planted and varieties of medium maturity adapted to local conditions. True, the only middle-late variety, Mannito, included in the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2011, has been bred specifically for the Ural region, and it can be grown directly from seeds in an annual crop.
A number of varieties recommended for the Urals, and for some other regions. One of the most popular old varieties is the early-ripe onion Annual Siberian. It has a semi-sharp taste, is well stored, the bulbs are flat or rounded flat, weighing about 50 g. Even older is the variety grown since 1943 - Bessonovsky local. This is an early ripe high-yielding onion of sharp taste, the onion mass is about 40 g, the shape is from flat to rounded-flat. Used both in fresh form and in the canning industry, with winter storage, the waste is only about 10%. Bessonovsky local - one of the most famous varieties of onions
Comparatively new variety Botherus belongs to medium early, transversely elliptical bulbs grow up to 80 g, the taste is sharp. Subject to long-term storage. Onion Sputnik - mid-season, flat bulbs weighing up to 80 g, semi-sharp taste. It is characterized by good longevity, stable yield, high resistance to downy mildew.
Among the varieties of foreign origin in the Urals, it is recommended, for example, the cultivation of Sterling onions, although it is late-ripening, and Middle Onion Music. Varieties Wellington and Sanskin are mid-season, bulbs are round, large, reach a mass of 110 g, semi-sharp, suitable for winter storage. Bow Sterling suitable for winter storage
In addition to the above, the following varieties are recommended for growing from seed in the Urals:
- Handsome man
- Black Prince,
- Myachkovsky 300,
- Arzamas local,
- Strigunovsky local.
Of course, not all Ural regions and regions are homogeneous in climate: the choice of varieties in the Southern Urals is somewhat wider, there are also varieties that are suitable, for example, for the Middle and even the Lower Volga region. Yes, and gardeners - people are fond of, experimenting with varieties, planting and those that are not always suitable for a particular climate.
Planting onion sets
In addition to growing onions from seedlings, the seedling method and direct cultivation from seeds are known. Rassadny way labor-consuming, they rarely do. The method of growing onions in the annual crop from seeds is very attractive, there are many varieties designed specifically for this purpose. But the method is more suitable for regions with a long summer: from a seed of chernushki to a full-fledged onion in the conditions of the Urals, onions do not always have time to grow. Traditionally, onions are grown in the region from a seed obtained from seeds last season.
In any region, onions can be planted early, but in order to grow commodity bulbs from it, not just a feather, and even less so that it does not go away in the arrow, too early planting is not good. The landing time is determined by the following circumstances:
- night temperatures should not fall below +5 o C,
- the soil at a depth of 5–6 cm should warm up to 7 ... 10 o C,
- after winter the soil should dry out a little, not be slushy, swampy,
- the duration of daylight should cross the line at 9-10 hours.
In most parts of the Ural region, such conditions develop by mid-May. If the heat is delayed, the bed is temporarily covered with a dark film, trying to warm it by the deadline.
Some enthusiasts plant a small amount of sevka and before winter, but this is a risky option in the Urals. Landing should be carried out 2-3 weeks before the arrival of frosts. It is important that heavy snow falls on time, wrapping a garden bed. The advantage of an autumn planting is the minimal risk of destruction of the onion fly culture.
Site selection and preparation of beds
Onions normally grow only on breathable, loose soils, they can be both loamy and sandy, with a neutral reaction environment. Sour soils are necessarily lime. Stagnant water should be excluded, it is better to choose a small elevation. Shading beds should be absent: onions are grown in sunny areas. Onions react negatively even to the penumbra formed by shrubs or hedge. In the Urals, the beds rise above the ground: on light soils by 10 cm, on heavy ones a little more. Onion beds must be well lit by the sun.
It is better if cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, and radishes grew in front of the onion. Do not plant onions after garlic, radish, sunflower, any onion varieties. But the carrots planted next door, the best way to get rid of onions from many pests.
High soil fertility is the main condition for obtaining good yields. The bed must be prepared in the fall, deeply digging the soil with fertilizer. At 1 m 2 add at least a bucket of good humus, but not fresh manure: it will lead to abundant growth of foliage and will not allow ripening onions. From mineral fertilizers, it is more convenient to apply 60–80 g of nitrophoska per 1 m 2 simultaneously with humus.
If the soil is too clayy, add river sand and peat.
In the spring, the cooked bed is loosened with a rake, having previously sprinkled it with wood ash (handful per square meter). If during the winter the soil is too compacted, re-dig the forks: it is important that it is loose to a depth of 15 cm.
Usually gardeners do not grow their own trees, but buy them. If the sevok is bought in the fall, it is sorted and stored in the winter in small linen bags or in boxes no more than 15 cm high. It should be stored either at room temperature or, on the contrary, in the cold (about -2 ° C). If sevok is stored at intermediate temperatures, it goes strongly in the garden in the arrow. Periodically sevok inspect, reject diseased and dried onion.
Finally sevok sorted out 3-4 days before planting. Sprouted bulbs better planted separately on the greens. The best is the 1st grade sevok: these are onions 15–22 mm in size (it is often called a sample). If in the winter sevok was stored in the cold, it is heated at 30 o C for at least a week. On the day before planting, semi-dry tops are removed, after which the onion is soaked in warm water. The optimum temperature is 35–38 o C, the time is 1–2 hours. Some gardeners believe that it is better to leave onions in the water for a day.
Another method of preparation requires accuracy, but it guarantees the almost complete absence of marksmanship. The bulbs are filled with hot water for only 2 minutes, but its temperature should be between 65–70 ° C. Then it is rapidly cooled in cold water. A half-hour treatment with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate also makes sense: this is both disinfection and saturation with a microelement.
In addition to potassium permanganate, you can hold sevok 8-10 hours in a nutrient solution: 1 tablespoon of azofoski per 10 liters of water. After this treatment, it is placed in a solution of copper sulphate of the same concentration for 8–10 minutes. These measures strengthen the immunity of the planting and eliminate potential pathogens. After treatment, the onions are washed with water and dried slightly. Among the drugs that are treated sevok before planting, birch tar is also listed
Traditionally sevok planted in a tape way. At the same time between the rows leave about 20 cm, and between plants in rows of the distance depends on the size of the onion. So, the smallest sevka is planted in 5–6 cm, medium, with a diameter up to 2 cm, a little less, and the largest - in 8–10 cm.
Of great importance is the depth of landing. Usually it is 3-4 cm. If planted deeper, the onion will germinate longer, and in cold climates it may partially rot. If the planting is too small and the bulbs look out, then in hot weather they stop growing. The depth also depends on the size of the set: the reference point - the tip of the neck of the bulb should be close to the soil surface.
When marking the beds is to choose the correct direction of the grooves. In the Urals, they are oriented in the east-west direction. The grooves are made, for example, by the corner of a hoe, sand is poured on the bottom with a layer of 1 cm and powdered with ash. The bulbs are slightly pressed into the soil and covered with it, then the bed is leveled, which is convenient to do with the back of the rake. The bed is carefully watered from a watering can, always with a strainer. If the soil is prone to cracking, you can mulch it with a thin layer of humus.
Features care for onions in the Urals
The peculiarities of onion care in the Urals are the need to grow them in a short time and, therefore, careful observance of all the rules of care for this crop. It is necessary to monitor all negative changes in the weather and take timely measures to minimize their impact on plants. This applies to both possible cold spells and heat in the middle of summer, which often comes to this region.
Onions especially require moisture in the first half of the season. In May and early June, in the absence of rain, no less than a bucket of water per square meter of bed is spent weekly. By the middle of summer, watering is reduced, but if it is hot, “dry watering” is required - shallow loosening of the soil after each watering or careful mulching of the bed, but without getting the heads above the shoulders. Simultaneously with loosening throughout the entire growing season, weeds are carefully weed out. Watering completely stopped for 15-20 days before harvest.
During the season, onions planted with a sevka are fed 2-3 times. In dressings, infusions of mullein (1:10) or mowed herbs are used. Bucket infusion is poured into 3 m 2. Onions are fed for the first time at a feather height of 10–12 cm, the second - after two more weeks, and the third - when the size of the walnut is reached by the bulbs. Onions are trying to feed organic fertilizers
Despite the fact that the onion is a cold-resistant culture, with an unexpected sharp drop in temperature in the first half of the growing season it is worthwhile to cover the planting with a spanbond, otherwise the risk that the onion will go to the arrow increases. If a small number of plants underwent shooting, the arrows cut off, and it is possible that among them small bulbs will also develop. In case of mass leveling, the situation cannot be rectified: one must look for the reasons for this, so as not to repeat crop losses in the future.
Diseases and pests of onions in the Urals, protection from them
An effective measure for the prevention of onion diseases with fungal diseases is the spraying of plantings with 1% Bordeaux fluid at a time when the feather grows to about 15 cm. Instead of the copper-containing drug, you can use and folk remedies. So, in the Urals, it is customary to water onions with salt water (100 g of salt per bucket of water). Although it must be admitted that salt will more likely help from onion fly larvae than from diseases.
Fungal diseases appear in conditions of high humidity than in the summer, the Ural region is not very different. Therefore, it’s not worth mentioning that some selected diseases of the onion are especially manifest here: onions can equally well catch any of the diseases characteristic of it. Most common:
- fusarium (at the same time, the bottom of the bottom rots, the onion tissue dies, then the feather turns yellow),
- peronospora (downy mildew): signs of the disease - gray plaque on the leaves,
- gray and white rot - both leaves and bulbs rot,
- mosaic - a viral disease in which the leaves are covered with a yellowish mosaic pattern, the plants die soon, does not respond to treatment,
- neck rot (bulging of the bulbs, starting from the neck after harvesting). Perinosporoz - one of the most common diseases of onions
Any viral disease is useless to treat, the plants must be destroyed. Yes, and other diseases, although treated, it is difficult, so it is important to prevent their occurrence. In most cases, this can be achieved by preventive measures:
- correct crop rotation
- disinfection of sev before landing,
- non-crowded landing
- preventing bogging of the ground,
- moderate supplements with nitrogen restriction,
- weed control, soil loosening,
- thorough harvesting after harvest,
- drying onions before storing,
- accurate transportation of the crop to the disinfected storage.
When fungal diseases occur, limit watering and fertilizing, dust the beds of ashes, loosen the soil and sprinkle onions with the necessary preparations. Chemicals can be used only in the first half of the growing season, so they try to do with folk remedies. Help can infusions or decoctions of dandelion, marigold, tobacco. When individual plants are diseased, they are pulled out, and the soil is disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulphate. From the "chemistry" in the summer effective copper oxychloride (40 g per 10 liters of water), which is used 2 times during the week. But the leaves after that can not be eaten for a month.
Among the pests most common:
- tobacco thrips (looks like small white specks on the leaves, which merge into large conglomerates, the leaves dry up),
- onion moth (small moth): the caterpillars of a greenish color, about 10 mm long, are harmful to plants
- onion fly: large, about 1 cm, gray, white larvae. They quickly make their way inside the bulbs and gnaw them,
- onion mite (oval-shaped creature up to 1 mm long): harms bulbs that rot,
- onion hover (large fly, the larvae of which feed on the pulp of the bulb). Onion fly is more common than other pests.
It is difficult to fight with pests, especially with ticks. Folk remedies can destroy pests only in insignificant quantities, and most chemical insecticides and acaricides are dangerous to humans, therefore, they are used in extreme suburban areas only as a last resort. To prevent the attack of pests, take precautions:
- careful selection of sevka and its preplant treatment,
- correct crop rotation
- digging the beds after harvesting and disinfecting the soil with weak solutions of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate,
- timely weeding beds.
Usually, on well-groomed areas, the onion is not sick and is not subject to attacks by pests.
Harvesting and Storage
Onions are harvested as lodging and drying feather. In the conditions of the Urals, this is in August; the earliest varieties are ready for harvest at the end of July. Harvesting is carried out necessarily on a dry day, carefully undermining the bulbs with a pitchfork. If the sun is shining, onions with the leaves are left to warm up and dry for a few hours. Then it is folded in a thin layer under a shed or in a well-ventilated room for 2-3 weeks to dry completely.
Usually during this time, even not quite ready-made bulbs ripen, “dress”. After that, dry roots gently cut off, and the leaves are cut, leaving no more than 2-3 cm. However, many owners keep onions in braids, braiding them like a female haircut, in this case the leaves are not cut. Having dug up onions, it is left with feathers for a long time.
If onions are stored in bulk, this can be done in any cardboard or wooden boxes and even in nylon pantyhose. It is important that the onions are well dried and stored in a dry ventilated room in the dark. Temperature does not play a big role: a good onion is stored until the new harvest and in a city apartment. But periodically it is necessary to sort it out: even in a seemingly ideal product once a month, you can find 1-2 rotten specimens on a bucket of onions.
Video: cleaning onions in the Urals
The main method of planting onions in the Urals - sevke. This is due to the short summer, for the same reason, and the cultivation of onions in the region requires special care in performing the usual procedures. It is important and correct to choose a grade: it is undesirable to plant late varieties in the Urals.
The ancient Egyptians spoke about the amazing onion vegetable. During the excavation of one of the pyramids, on the murals of the pharaoh's tombs images of onions were found. To understand, their age reaches about 6000 years. The inhabitants of ancient Egypt valued the culture at the expense of a highly effective fight against the open sea, because of which they were engaged in cultivation everywhere.
Such a vegetable was in the daily diet of slaves who were forced to build pyramids. It is important to understand that the number of slaves reached 100,000 people, so the risk of developing various epidemics was very high. And all of them were on relatively small construction sites. In turn, the Roman legionnaires were of the opinion that the bow is a very strong energetic, capable of increasing the supply of strength and making the soldier fearless. Цветки лука часто использовались для увенчивания храбрых воинов в Германии.
В период Крестовых походов французские рыцари даже пытались выменивать своих пленных по цене восемь луковиц за каждого. Древние врачи, не имея никаких оснований, считали, что лук может использоваться для борьбы со всевозможными заболеваниями. And though today a huge number of different types of culture is grown, each of them enjoys its own demand and respect.
Few people know but useful properties of onions so unlimited that they are still not fully understood. Of the most priceless properties of the root:
- wound healing
And many others.
Onions can be a valuable find for people suffering from disorders in the circulatory system and edema, being reliable cardiac stimulation and the activity of such important organs:
Onions can also reduce blood clotting, sugar levels and cholesterol, which makes it a truly indispensable product on each table. In modern medicine, a variety of useful properties of onions are mentioned, which are explained by the rich content of valuable:
- pectic substances
- mineral substances (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, sulfur and others),
However, before you start to use onions for preventive or therapeutic purposes, you need to make sure that you do not have any contraindications. For example, the active substances of onions have a bad effect on the body in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which is explained by the strong effect of essential oils, which causes the aggravation of the disease. Persons suffering from any problems should first consult with their doctor and make sure that they can eat onions.
The main features of growing onions at home. When and how to plant in spring
It is known that onions are not considered fastidious culture, so it can be grown in any conditions, even in the Urals. However, in order for planting and subsequent planting to succeed, due attention must be paid to many subtleties in terms of care and maintenance.
It is important that the soil is hydrated, enriched with nutrients and loose.
When choosing a seat, preference should be given to open, sufficiently lighted areas, since with abundant light, the productivity of growth will be maximum. An important condition for full development is the length of the daylight hours. Onions tolerate well and reduced air humidity, provided that the soil is sufficiently well moistened.
Watering is carried out during the mass regrowth of the feather and at the stage of bulb formation. At the end of the growing season, the procedure is best shortened, since High humidity helps delay onion ripening and reduces keeping quality. If the groundwater level is too high in the chosen location, it is better not to start landing there.
The culture reacts badly to the strong overgrowing of the bed by weeds, so it needs to be weeded regularly. It is known that very good yields are seen when planting after potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, and tomatoes, because similar cultures were carefully fertilized with all possible organic fertilizers. However, planting after other types of onions is strictly prohibited, because of the high risk of developing various bacteria and other microorganisms that contribute to the development of dangerous diseases. Also, experts do not recommend planting onions after garlic and carrots.
At the same place, the plant can be planted at least three years later, and better after 5. The onion grows poorly on a substrate with high acidity, where it absorbs food worse and is more actively exposed to all sorts of diseases, including downy mildew. The diseased culture begins to weaken and ceases to cope with pests, which makes it vulnerable.
When to plant sevok in the Urals
The exact date when you can plant sevok in the harsh conditions of the Urals, depends on the current climatic conditions and terrain. For example, the bulbs do not survive well in cold soil, or they begin to form arrows there. However, too late planting in a dry substrate with low humidity is also undesirable. In most cases, Ural gardeners start the procedure at the beginning of the last month of spring - May.
An important feature of successful rooting is warming the soil to +12 degrees Celsius. If you are guided by natural tips, then the period of planting can be determined by the flowering of bird cherry and crocuses.
If you intend to plant a crop in your garden in the spring, follow some mandatory recommendations:
- Soil composition should be loose and fertile, however, it is not recommended to use organic fertilizers in the form of manure,
- When choosing a place Preference should be given to well-lit places with diffused light due to the slight shading. The main thing is that there is no solid shadow. Otherwise, the culture will begin to grow upwards and early in the field, not allowing the bulb to form normally,
- It is best to plant the plant after garden crops such as: cabbage, cucumbers, legumes, tomatoes. Good growth productivity is seen near the carrot, which contributes to the reliable protection of onions from a variety of pests. Sometimes gardeners plant them on the same bed,
Planting with carrots
When planting with carrots, the rows should be relatively rare, with a distance of 15-20 centimeters to prevent the overgrowth of carrot tops, which may corny the onions. With joint planting it is difficult to determine which edible greens and which ones are not. When planting small bulbs should adhere to a distance of 5 centimeters from each other. If we are talking about medium specimens - 10 centimeterat.
When planting, sevok need to be directed by the bottom down, deepening it to the height of the onion. Such a distance can be filled with humus, with the result that the onion will quickly release green feathers. The growth of onions is carried out very quickly, and within 20 days from the moment of planting the culture needs careful feeding.
Not bad manifest themselves nettle or mullein fertilizer. During the period of active weight gain, the tip should be located above the ground. When loosening the soil should periodically rake the land from the bulbs. If you chose the option of joint cultivation of onions with carrots, such a soil composition is perfect for hilling.
How to grow onion turnip from seed
Grow a productive and beautiful onion head possible in a short time, if the landing was carried out by seminal means. Most often, this solution is used by residents of the southern regions, although in the Urals it gives good results. For the successful implementation of the goal, it is enough to sow good seeds into the prepared soil (preparation starts from autumn), making it in April.
Seeds are sown infrequently, and for thinning seedlings leave a distance of 5 centimeters between the onionsso that their sizes are large. Guaranteed harvest is possible when growing seedlings.
If we are talking about greenhouse or room planting in special containers, it starts at the end of March. After sowing, the seeds are abundantly watered, which speeds up their rooting. How to grow onions in the Urals is up to you, but experienced gardeners recommend using sevok.
Anyone who is a summer resident and a gardener can grow onions in the Urals. In this case, there are no secrets or impracticable algorithms. Everything is very simple: the right care and care is the key to a great harvest. The main thing is that you are ready to pay due attention to the culture at the early stages of its development. In this case, any incomprehensible situations in the future will be excluded, and all spent efforts will turn into you in a tenfold form.
The best varieties of onions for the Urals
In the climatic conditions of the Urals, onions have a hard time. Late spring and short summer make it impossible to plant late varieties. Therefore, experienced gardeners for planting choose early and mid-season sevok. To harvest in the fall a harvest of full-bodied and healthy bulbs, it is advised to sow such varieties:
- “Family” - it is distinguished by its excellent germination and unpretentiousness to weather conditions; the variety is planted and obtained decent results not only in the Urals, but also in other regions of the country,
- "Moldavian" - mid-season, among the advantages include good keeping quality and drought tolerance,
- "Siberian" - early, high-yielding onion sets, resistant to bolting,
- "Strigunovsky local" - ideal for planting in the Urals due to precocity and undemanding to growing conditions,
- "Arzamas" - this variety of onion seedlings is planted by many generations of gardeners, its benefits include yield and good keeping quality.
Good results are achieved by planting in the Urals “Karantalsky”, “Bessonovsky local”, “Kabo”, “Myachikovsky 300”, “Botherus”, “Timiryazevsky” varieties. Try to plant sevok until the end of May, until his main enemies appear - onion flies.
How to plant: step by step algorithm
Before planting sevok, carry out obligatory warming up. A few days before planting, it is brought into a warm room. When landing is required immediately, there is no time for gradual warming up. To sow onions urgently, it is poured over for 2 minutes with hot water (temperature of about 60 ° C), poured into it and poured with water at room temperature. For disinfection before planting the bulbs are placed for half an hour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then rinsed with clean water.
Bow sevok loves the warm spring sun, he responds to his rays early green shoots. Therefore, highlight the sunniest place in the garden for a set. If the ground is not warm enough, cover it with a black film a few days before planting. The main feature of an onion bed is to dig it up shallowly, only 15 cm. Plan your planting beds with onions next to a carrot. It is necessary to protect against onion flies.
Landing will be successful if planted on a cloudy cloudy day or a warm evening. In order for the onions to accumulate strength and earn resistance to pests and diseases, apply mineral fertilizers to the soil. It is very useful to take care of the onions in advance and feed the earth with manure (2 kg per 1 m 2), just not before planting, but in the fall.
Plant and care for sevke properly
For the hostess, who personally planted sevok, beds with juicy and fresh greens - a great consolation and pride. Some particularly tidy gardeners break up their garden under the twine and plant all the crops in perfectly straight lines. For others, it is enough to plant, keeping the distance between the beds of 20 cm, and between the onion heads - half of the palm. When planting seed in the ground do not dig it, each bulb should leave a tail on the surface.
In the first month after planting sevok particularly watered. It is at this time that its root system is laid. The abundance of moisture for onions planted in the Urals and in other parts of Russia is a guarantee of its rapid and proper development. Irrigation intensity gradually decreases, and to ripening of heads is reduced to a minimum. Excessive moisture leads to rotting onions, deterioration of its keeping quality.
Bow sevok does not require a large amount of fertilizer, just a couple of weeks after planting pour it with urea. This procedure will help him to grow and accumulate a green mass faster at the beginning of the growing season. In the future, the onion will require only irrigation with a pink solution of potassium permanganate twice a month. This is a good prevention of diseases and attacks of onion flies.
Weed the onions as often as possible, it badly needs oxygen. When in a few weeks after planting, good green shoots appear, arrange an air bath for them - gently loosen the ground between the rows. Experienced gardeners must break up a dried soil crust formed after watering or rain.
In the Urals, onions are harvested in the first half of August. If the feathers are yellowed and laid down, this is a sure sign that the harvest time has come. Two weeks before cleaning, watering is stopped completely. On a dry, windy day, the onions are broken in with forks and removed from the ground. The bulbs are laid out to dry with uncut feathers. The useful substances contained in them accumulate in the heads as the greens dry out.
Roots require very careful pruning. If you damage the bulb, it will not lie for long. Feathers are cut, leaving 2-3 cm. Prepared onions are placed in wooden boxes or in nets. The ideal conditions for winter storage is a dry room with a temperature of + 5–10 ° С.
A brief overview of the climatic features of the Urals
The climate of the Urals is rather complicated, the length of the region from south to north is more than 1500 km. A short summer, compared with the central regions of the Russian Federation, begins 7 ... 10 days later, the autumnal cold weather comes on average a week earlier. Even in the summer months snow is possible.
In reality, 60 ... 75 days remain for growing crops. During this period, you need to meet or build structures of protected ground, in which you can extend the season comfortable for vegetables to 90 ... 115 days.
With the presence of heating systems, it is possible to have a longer active use of greenhouses. Residents of the Urals report that the simplest stoves allow them to grow grapes and other heat-loving crops.
Selection of onion varieties for cultivation in the Ural region
Not every variety can give a good harvest in a short summer. Therefore, it is desirable to use onion sets of varieties that will allow the gardener to get a crop in the conditions of the Urals.
Terms of cultivation, days
The choice of varieties for cultivation in the conditions of the Urals is extensive. Before winter, it is not recommended to sow sevka, since frosts occur before the appearance of sufficient snow cover, and there is often freezing of autumn crops.
Video about onion variety "Red Baron":
How to select sevok for planting
Not every planting material will grow normally. Practice shows that for spring planting you need to sort the sets. In the laboratory of VIRA of the Ural region, statistics of onion cultivation from sev of different sizes were given.
The average size of the set, diameter, mm
Seeding rate during planting,%
Not all varieties take root in conditions of a cool spring. The size of the planting material is also important. It is not surprising. Larger material contains more nutrients that promote germination.
Important! For planting it is necessary to choose the largest sevok. Then you can count on getting a good harvest.
Preparation of beds
For landing you need a light fertile soil. If there is a heavy clay soil, then it is desirable to carry out agrotechnical measures to improve the structure. For each square meter you can pour up to 3 ... 5 kg of sand and dig up.
Onion also cannot grow normally on clean sand. Therefore, sandy soil gypsum. Up to 3 kg of gypsum is poured into each square meter and dug. The soil begins to retain moisture, and with it - nutrients.
Loosening should be carried out to a depth of at least 18 cm. Onion Donets sprout so deep. Align with a rake before planting.
It is advisable to prepare the soil in the fall. In the autumn it is useful to add phosphate fertilizers at the rate of 25 ... 30 g of superphosphate per 1 m 2, adding wood ash (30 ... 50 g) would be helpful.
In the recommendations of the XIX century, you can read that crushed charcoal was added to the soil. He served as a battery of moisture. Therefore, a small handful of charcoal will not be superfluous.
In the spring, a complex top dressing is necessary, 1 m 2 is introduced:
- 5 ... 10 g of hydrated lime. The soils of the Urals are characterized by high acidity and require regular addition of alkali,
- 25 ... 30 g of ammonium nitrate, it will help plants to grow faster,
- 10 ... 15 g of superphosphate, the dose of introduction is small. With subsequent feeding, it will be increased,
- 5 ... 7 g of potassium salt or 10 ... 12 potassium nitrate.
Does the use of crushed charcoal in the spring? Practice shows that 10 ... 20 g per square meter will only improve the soil structure. This was written by Ovsinsky I.E., the same idea is often repeated by a modern author - a specialist in organic farming N. Kurdyumov.
Warming planting bulbs will have a positive effect in the future. Some authors recommend to warm, putting the bag with sevke on the battery. But the best is warming up under the incandescent lamp.
- The bulbs are laid out on a table or other flat surface.
- Install a desktop with a 100 watt lamp.
- Around at a distance of 35 ... 40 from the center, sevka is scattered.
- Heat at least 3 hours. It is necessary to mix, so that all the onions get their flare.
- Under the lamp it heats up not higher than +40 ° С, it dries out completely. Existing fungal spores die.
After rejection of small things, you can go out on the field and start sowing onion sets.
Planting onions in the open field
How to plant onion sets in the spring in the Urals? Elementary.
- A groove with a depth of up to 5 ... 6 cm breaks through.
- Spilled with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, preferably heated to a temperature of 60 ° C. You can pour ash.
- Onion spread out at a distance of 10 cm.
- A shovel destroys the sides, planting material is sprinkled with earth.
- Finally, the bed is leveled with a regular broom.
In a couple of weeks, the onions will take root, start growing. А к началу июня зазеленеет грядка лука, которая в августе подарит репки лука.
Если возникнет необходимость, то грядки можновременно укрыть нетканым полотном. Оно предохранит высаженные луковицы от заморозков. При сильном ветре полотно укрепляют шпильками или кирпичами, выложенными вокруг молодого лука-севка.
Лучшие сорта для Урала
Лучшими сортами лука севка для Урала являются:
- Арзамасский –Lukovitsy grow from 40 to 80 g, have an elongated-rounded shape, yellow coloration of the outer scales, inside it is white. In terms of ripening refers to the mid.
- Bessonovsky local - early variety, bulb size from 35 to 55 g. Form - rounded flat, scales outside are yellow, inside - white. It has good keeping quality.
- Buran - refers to the late varieties. Bulbs large - up to 100 g, have a rounded shape, grown two-year cycle. The husk is bright yellow.
- Botherus –– weight of bulbs 60-80 g, flat-rounded shape. The outer scales are yellow, inside - white. Suitable for long term storage.
- Moldavian - mid-season variety with rounded fruits weighing up to 130 g. Outside the scales are pinkish-brown with a slight violet shade, inside they have a pale-violet color.
- Myachikovsky 300 - Early large (up to 110 g) variety, flat shape. It has yellow outer scales and white color inside. Good storage performance.
- Red baron - bulbs are completely dark purple, weighing up to 120 g. It has a mild taste, recommended for storage in winter.
- Siberian one-year - refers to superearly varieties, matures in two months. Flat bulb, with a mild flavor, reaches a weight of 200 g
- Strigunovsky local –It refers to acute early varieties. Bulb rounded, medium-sized, weighing from 45 to 80 g, white inside, outer scales yellow with a pinkish or grayish tint.
- Black Prince - mid-season variety with round bulbs weighing 60-100 g, has a mild taste. The husk is dark purple.
- Exibichen - cold-resistant, mid-late variety. The bulbs are very large - up to 800 g, have a sweetish taste. The outer scales are yellow, the inner ones are white.
- Timiryazevsky - early variety with flat-rounded bulbs weighing up to 70 g. It has light brown, rarely yellow external scales. It has good keeping quality.
To obtain a good harvest, it is important to responsibly consider the choice of a place for planting.
Well-lit areas are suitable for onions, preferably on higher ground.
Preference should be given to loamy or sandy soils with neutral acidity. In the autumn, before planting, it is recommended to introduce humus.
As a predecessor, it is better to choose crops such as white and cauliflower, cucumbers, radishes. It is better not to plant onions in the same area two years in a row. Bad predecessors are carrots, radishes, celery, greens.
For planting onion seed in the Urals, it is important to properly prepare the site. In the spring, the area where the sevines are supposed to be planted should be dug to a depth of 15 cm. Then beds of about 60 cm wide are arranged, and ridges are formed on clayey soil. When sandy soil fit and grooves. Next, they must be covered with a film to warm the soil and do not remove it until planting.
Requirements for planting material
Preparation of planting material consists of five stages:
- quality control and sorting,
- warming up
- disinfection and soaking,
- washing and airing.
First, onions intended for sowing, it is necessary to sort out and throw away rotten or withered specimens. Then the onions are sorted by size and first planted one that is larger. Next, the onions are dried in a warm, protected from moisture place. To avoid early formation of arrows, sevok heated near the batteries.
For hardening the future harvest, the bulbs are soaked in water with a temperature of 40-50ºС for about 15 minutes, and then for the same time in cool water. After that, onions are placed for 6 hours in a solution of mineral fertilizers.
Watering, weeding and loosening
In the first two weeks after sowing and for three weeks after emergence, the onion needs to be plentiful in watering, since it is at this point that the root system forms. Further, the abundance of irrigation should be reduced. You also need to timely remove weeds and loosen the soil, to mulch it.
When planting seedlings in the grooves make compost. In the summer the beds are watered with organic fertilizers.
Pest and disease control
One common pest is the onion fly. The larvae are dangerous, they penetrate into young bulbs and eat them from the inside. A sign of damage to fly larvae is yellowing and drying feathers. For the prevention of sevok before planting disinfect. Also, the soil is treated with a solution of salt (300 g per 10 l of water).
Onions can strike powdery mildew.In this disease is observed:
- withered leaves
- vague pale spots on the shoots
- raid on feathers
- yellowing and drying greens.
When detected, the affected shoots are removed. Plantings sprayed "Oxyhom".
Gray rot is formed due to the presence of spores of the fungus Botrytis, manifested during storage. The treatment is carried out with the help of drugs "Bravo", "Switch" and "Quadris". Folk methods of struggle - this is a restriction of nitrogen supplements and strengthening of potash-phosphorus. This will help speed up ripening and premature closure of the cervix, as a result of which the spores do not penetrate the pulp. Another similar disease is bacteriosis. Methods of control are similar to gray rot.
Harvesting and storage of the crop
If you notice that the new leaves have ceased to appear, and the old ones are dying off, this indicates the need for harvesting. For better drying, it is recommended to collect onions in windy and dry weather. After the onion dries out during the day in the air, it is moved to a ventilated room for 2-3 weeks. It should not be allowed to dry out - the scales will crack and go, such a bow will not be stored for a long time.
Growing onions in the Urals does not represent special difficulties. The main thing is to choose the right time for planting and adhere to the elementary requirements regarding care.
Features of landing in the Urals
Regions such as the Urals or the North-West (Leningrad region) require attention during the planting of vegetable crops, since the climatic conditions here are difficult. In order for each bulb to be of good quality, you need to choose a suitable variety that can withstand frost or strong wind if necessary.
There are requirements regarding the predecessors, the location of the site where the onions will be grown:
- a good soil for vegetable is sandy or loamy,
- the site should be located on a hill (to avoid stagnation of water after heavy watering or rain),
- precursors that create a favorable environment for growing onions: cucumbers, cauliflower, white cabbage, radishes,
- substances such as urea (the initial stage of the growing season), a solution of potassium permanganate,
- the acidity of the fertile soil must be neutral.
In the autumn you need to make humus, dig the ground. Fertilizers will require 5 kg per 1 m². If you are planting later (May 20), then the yield drops. In order for the onions to be large, regular watering is necessary. Here the main condition is not to create swamps, so as not to cause decay.
An important condition! For a good growth and development of onions, it is required that the top layer of soil at the time of planting is loose (depth - up to 30 cm).
How and when to plant onion sets
The sowing year begins in the Urals, when the earth warms inside to + 5-7 degrees, the north-west requires similar indicators. The optimal time frame is the first May decade. Proper planting assumes that the plot of land selected for the onion will be pre-dug to make the soil light and to provide a sufficient supply of oxygen. Digging depth should be 15 cm.
The beds should be 0.8-1 meters wide, 10 cm high - on light soil types and 15-20 cm - if the ground is heavy. When clay prevails, it is necessary to create ridges, excessive sand in the soil indicates that grooves should be created.
It is necessary that before placing sevka in the soil, it is well warmed. For this purpose, the selected area (beds) must be covered with black film. Then the existing planting material (sevok) is required to sort out in order to get rid of rotting bulbs and damaged specimens. After this is sorted by size.
Attention! In the event that the planting material was stored at a room temperature of + 18-20 degrees, then it will not need additional warm-up before planting. When the temperature readings are lower, it will be necessary to put the prepared sevka 7 days closer to the heaters (the temperature should be set at 30-35 degrees).
The effective popular way of warming up is to pour the seed into a container with warm water (its temperature should not exceed 65 degrees) for 2–3 minutes. Then get sevok and move to a container with cold water (30 degrees). You will also need to lay out the onions to dry, then trim the dry necks - this will speed up the process of germination and development of the vegetable.
The next preparatory moment: sevok should be placed in water (25-28 degrees) for 10 hours. You can also use a slurry for this purpose. Planting onion seedlings in the Urals suggests that the material must first be disinfected: the bulbs are placed for 5 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate. At the end of the preparatory activities sevok need to pour cold running water.
The sowing year begins in the Urals, when the earth warms inside to + 5-7 degrees
The next step is landing and care. It is necessary to keep a distance of 20 cm between the beds and 20 cm between the rows. Prepared bulbs should not be planted deep in the ground, as they need to sprout up.
Attention! In the case of deep planting, the growth of the onion will go to the arrow.
In some cases, it is recommended to do mixed plantings: onions and carrots on the same bed, since then natural protection against pests (onion flies) will be provided. Leaving for 2 weeks after planting assumes that watering will take place, this stage will also need to be observed when shoots appear (within 14 days). There is a formation and development of the root system and leaves, moisture allows you to deliver the required amount of nutrients.
After 21 days have passed after the emergence of shoots, the intensity of watering should be reduced, as the onions begin to develop, the excess water will slow down this process or cause rot. In the case of arrows, they should be immediately removed so as not to reduce the amount of nutrients. This should be done when there is a thickening, otherwise the arrows will appear again. If they managed to germinate, but there was no removal, then the likelihood of the development of rotting processes increases.
Also, care involves carrying out weeding and fertilizing. During planting, compost should be placed in the prepared furrows, and mulching is carried out after germination. You can water it not only with ordinary water, but also with a solution of organic components or with a special bionastoem.
Onions are harvested when new leaves no longer appear. Also indicate the readiness of the vegetable to digging the drooping leaves (they fall on the garden bed). It is recommended to clean in dry weather so that the bulbs dry faster. Then for 2-3 weeks onions need to be dried in a well-ventilated, but protected from moisture room (barn, balcony).
Need to consider! The crop should not be overdried, as bare specimens will be stored worse.
It is necessary to leave the neck 2-3 cm, remove the root system completely. In the case when the arrow has grown before harvesting, it is recommended not to leave this bow for long-term storage (you can use it for blanks). Suitable for storing onions should be placed in a cool and dry room (period - winter-spring). If the vegetable is stored in the room, then you need to choose a dark place for it. Airing the room in this case is necessary.
Attention! If the room is too humid, the onions will quickly begin to rot, if it is too warm, dry out.
The best varieties for planting
To get a good harvest, you need to know not only when to plant onions in the Urals, but also which variety will show the best germination capacity. In the difficult natural conditions of this region, not each of them will be able to germinate and form, Therefore, experienced gardeners recommend using one of the following options:
- Family variety - ideal for growing in the Urals, as it has a high germination rate. It is unpretentious to weather conditions. It can be planted in flax. region A distinctive feature - small bulbs, formed by 4-10 pieces, forming nests. The total weight is an average of 250 g.
- Centurion - turnip bulbs, rounded shape, slightly elongated. Weight - 90-150 g. Yields are high - up to 4 kg per 1 m². Treats the early grades capable to maintain light frosts (to-4 degrees). Shows good storage - does not deteriorate and does not rot, if all the norms are observed for half a year,
- Moldavian - is mid-season variety. Distinctive features - good rates of keeping quality, high yield. The shape of the bulb is rounded (maybe slightly flat). Weight - an average of 100 g. Collection period - 110 days after landing,
- Red Baron - a sort of sweet red onion salad. The color of the vegetable is purple, the mass of the bulb is 90 g. The taste is soft, good yield. Well kept in winter.
If the landing site is South Ural, then varieties such as:
- Timiryazevsky - small bulbs (50-70 g.). The variety is early ripe, well kept. The taste is average in sharpness,
- Myachikovsky 300 - is an early grade of ripening. Bulb weight - 90-110 g. Taste is pronounced. The shape is flat. Storage is good, productivity is high,
- Buran - late variety, bulbs large, rounded shape. Weight is 100-110 g. The recommended cultivation method is a cycle in 2 seasons.
Tip If you follow all the recommendations for planting and farming, the crop can be harvested using other varieties.
Proper planting of onions in the Urals, the timing of which is determined by temperature indicators during the night period not lower than +5 degrees, assumes that other agrotechnical conditions will be taken into account.
It is forbidden to plant onion sets in poorly heated land.
Since the weather in the region is unstable, it is very difficult to name certain dates that will be used as a determinant from season to season. One of the main conditions is warm nights for 4-5 days. On average, it is recommended to choose one of the days in the first decade of May. The best time for planting is morning (9-11 hours, not needed too early). It is advisable to choose a day when there will be no wind or heavy precipitation.
Important! It is forbidden to plant onion sets in poorly heated land.
Cultivation is determined by the growing season. It differs in varieties, so you should be more careful about the selection of onions. The earliest has a growing season of 90 days, the average maturity is 110 days, late varieties 120 days.
One of the main conditions for landing is the choice of location. The plot for the formation of beds should not be located in a shady area or in a valley. Optimal conditions - a hill with good lighting. Light shade of fruit trees is allowed.
Fertile land must be neutral in acidity. Optimal types of soil on which the onion quickly germinates and develops:
Early autumn is a good time for applying supplements (humus is introduced before planting before winter). Among the predecessors is considered good radish. The peculiarity is that in order for the yield indicators to always remain high, you need to change the plots every season.
Undesirable predecessors for onions:
For proper soil preparation, timely fertilizers and dressing should be carried out. If plantings are made in the spring, it is best to dig up the earth to a depth of 15 cm.
Recommendations of experienced gardeners
Experienced gardeners will tell you when to plant onion sets for a good harvest in the spring in the Urals. There are certain rules that indicate the timing of collection. In this region, it is customary to clean between 1-15 August. In the event that the onion feathers become yellowish and ducked to the ground, you can safely collect onions.
Experienced gardeners recommend 14 days before harvesting to completely stop watering in order to reduce the drying time of the bulbs. For cleaning you need to choose a dry, but windy day (accelerates the natural drying process). It is best to dig the onions out of the ground with a pitchfork, but be careful not to damage the vegetable. Lay the vegetables to dry with uncircumcised feathers. The root system needs to be cleaned very carefully, try not to damage the bulb directly, since the storage period depends on it - the damaged specimen is stored less.
In this region, it is customary to clean between 1 and 15 August.
Feathers also need to be trimmed, leaving 2-3 cm. Bulbs prepared for storage should be put in wooden boxes or nets. Ideal temperature conditions for long-term (winter) storage are +10 degrees, additional recommendations are for a dry and ventilated room.
The process of planting vegetables requires attention. In the case of the Urals, it is important to remember that here the weather conditions are more severe than in the center of the country or in its southern part. Именно поэтому основное описание агротехнических мероприятий требует поправок по срокам. Выбранная для посадки сортовая разновидность должна быть посажена не позже 20 мая, так как активный процесс сбора заканчивается уже 15 августа.
Также нужно помнить, что сеять лук требуется в теплую почву, так как в холодной он не сможет развиваться. It is recommended to choose a number for planting taking into account the fact that on this day there should be no wind, no rain. Folk omen on the weather is not the main way to determine the optimal time to perform agrotechnical measures. It is important to observe the rules of storage: the bulbs like cool and dry. If you follow all the recommendations, the harvest will be perfectly stored all winter.