We all know the beneficial properties of sesame seeds. They not only give a certain savory taste to the products, but also have a very large set of trace elements, vitamins and nutrients that are indispensable for the human body. In the bakery industry, one of the most popular additives is sesame. How does it grow in nature?
This is an annual plant that, under favorable conditions, reaches 0.60-1.5 meters in height. He has a strong taproot. The stem is green or reddish, very branched, starting from the ground.
Flowers and fruits
The leaves of this plant can be smooth or slightly corrugated, up to 10-30 centimeters in length - this is traditional sesame. How does the fruit grow and form? At first large flowers appear with five stamens, but only four are developed normally. Sometimes there is a failure in nature, and as many as ten stamens appear on the flower.
After a certain period, the fetus appears. This oblong pointy box, which has a size of only 3-5 centimeters - this is how the fruit of the sesame plant looks. How it grows — whether there were favorable conditions, whether the plant received enough moisture, and so on — such high-quality seeds are obtained.
Sesame: how it grows and where it occurs
It is worth noting that this culture has long been domesticated, it is grown for industrial purposes. In the wild, sesame can only be found in Africa. In Russia, it is grown mainly in the Caucasus, in Central Asia and the North Caucasus. Large plantations of this plant can be seen in Korea and China, India, in tropical Africa.
Of course, it is interesting to see how sesame grows. Photos of this plant clearly show the powerful vast plantations of this culture, which requires a lot of sun and heat. That is why this plant grows mainly in southern latitudes. Although some gardeners have learned to cultivate this culture in the middle lane. Surely they studied how and where sesame is growing, what conditions are necessary for the normal ripening of seeds. And now, many lovers of digging in the beds grow this exotic plant in conditions not at all peculiar to it.
How to collect seeds
We all remember the eastern tale about Ali Babu, where he told the cave: "Open sesame". Remember that sesame is sometimes called sesame. And such a fabulous password is attributed to the fact that the sesame pods are very fragile. The slightest wind or touch - and they immediately burst, and valuable seeds are on the ground.
This feature is taken into account when harvesting when it comes time to collect sesame. As it grows and matures - the field growers are closely monitoring this, therefore it is important not to miss the harvest. Fruits are not allowed to finally ripen, the pods are torn down slightly underripe. Otherwise all the seeds will be scattered.
Interestingly, the mention of this culture is found in ancient times. For example, in the Egyptian papyrus, as well as in the Assyrian myths. The latter tells that before the creation of the world the gods decided to drink sesame wine.
In ancient China, 7 thousand years ago, sesame oil was used for lamps. The seeds were overcooked and made them soot for ink.
According to historians, sesame came to America through African slaves, who were massively imported to the mainland. This plant quickly gained popularity on the new continent.
But the inhabitants of Babylon made sesame wine and brandy, baked sesame pies. They actively used the oil obtained from the plant in the kitchen, as well as toiletry for body hygiene.
The ancient Egyptians used sesame as a medicine.
No wonder the ancient people considered sesame plant, which gives immortality to man. Indeed, in the seeds, which contain up to 60 percent of oil, there are a lot of useful substances, trace elements and vitamins.
Here is the incomplete chemical composition of sesame oil. It contains the glycerides of the following acids:
- stearic (4-6%),
- oleic (35-48%),
- arahinova (up to 1.0%),
- linoleic (37-48%),
- palmitic (7-8%).
It is worth noting that these unsaturated fatty acids are perfectly absorbed by the body.
Also in the sesame are:
- sesamin (chloroform),
- vitamin E,
But the usual for other vegetable oils, vitamin A in sesame is not.
Indispensable in the kitchen
Here is such a useful product - sesame. Its use in cooking is quite common in all countries. We all know fragrant sesame buns, pastries, bread, crackers. For many nations, it is customary to add roasted seeds to salads and vegetable dishes. Sesame can sprinkle fried fish or pork chop. Seeds will perfectly decorate any hot dish and give it a savory taste.
White sesame is used for desserts. Very popular are sesame halvah, which has a delicate flavor and an absolutely charming milky shade.
In Korea, sesame leaves are used for food - they are fried and seasoned with sauce. The leaves are also wrapped in vegetables and rice, pickled and stewed.
In medicine, sesame oil has long been used both internally and externally. It improves the rate of blood clotting. Applying the oil inside, you can achieve an increase in blood platelets. Just do not get involved and care should be taken.
Actively sesame oil is used as a base for creams, various ointments and patches. Sesame seeds have a mild laxative effect.
It is good for a cold to rub the chest area with oil heated in a water bath to 36-38 degrees. Perfectly treats sesame oil for ulcers and gastritis.
In these diseases, it is recommended to take orally one tablespoon of sesame oil 1-3 times a day. It will perfectly relieve you from constipation - one tablespoon in the morning, and no intestinal problems.
High calorie oil is indispensable for restoring.
If skin irritation occurs, lubricate this area with ointment, which includes sesame oil. It is excellent for dermatitis, skin lesions. You can apply a bandage, which is impregnated with oil, or just lubricate the skin.
If you catch a cold, you can drip a drop of oil in the nasal passages, but preheat it in a water bath.
Sesame seeds can be used to cleanse the body. Pound 15 g of seeds into powder, mix with water. This mixture should be consumed 3 times a day before meals.
Some useful tips
To scent of sesame seeds manifested, it is necessary to fry them. This should be done on a dry hot frying pan, until the seeds start to “bounce” slightly.
Do not put a lot of sesame oil in dishes. Even a small amount of it will give a delicate nutty flavor.
Do not buy a lot of seeds for the future - because of their fat content, they may eventually start to taste bitter. To avoid this, store them in an airtight container and always in a dark place.
Sesame history tour
Sesame, as it grows today in the countries of tropical Africa, India, China, Korea and some others, it also grew in them at the dawn of human development. The first mention of it can be found in the Assyrian version of the creation of the world. It was the sesame wine that their gods drank before starting their grand work. Apparently, it motivated them to create an Assyrian state, which for more than 2000 years was the strongest empire in the world.
Since the Assyrian civilization began its existence in the 24th century BC. Oe., it can be assumed that sesame seeds already in those days were used as a seasoning and as a prophylactic agent for many diseases.
The written evidence that this plant was used for medicinal purposes in antiquity is the famous Ebers scroll containing 10 papyrus. This guide dates from the 16th century BC. er and contains practical recommendations for the manufacture of drugs for the treatment of various diseases. Its compilers, apparently, were the priests and physicians of ancient Egypt.
At the same time, in China they knew about its medicinal properties as far back as 5000 years BC. er Thus, it can be concluded that sesame (plant) began to cultivate in ancient times, passing on from generation to generation information about how to use it. Among these data were not only its useful qualities, but also recipes of pies, sesame wine, brandy and many other products.
In various cultures, it is called differently: sesame (Hindus), Simsim (among Arabs), or takhin. Sesame is a plant belonging to the genus Sesamum, in which there are more than 30 species. The most common is the Indian variety, which is a grass with a straight, branched stem up to 2 m high.
Its flowers, white, lilac or pink, bloom directly from the sinuses of leaves and "live" all day. During this period, they have time to self-dust, which leads to the formation over time of the boxes with tiny seeds. Depending on the variety, they are black, white, red or yellow.
There is still no exact data on which region is his homeland, but it is known where sesame is growing today. The largest amount of it is cultivated in India, America and North Africa; it has not grown in wild form for a long time. Available information about him suggests that:
- this plant is thermophilic,
- the most useful types of sesame were cultivated in antiquity, and the agricultural technology for its cultivation has changed little,
- it is massively grown for the production of oil and the sale of seeds.
It is interesting to know: in one box of the plant there are up to 80 pips, and a thousand seeds will weigh from 2 to 4-5 kg, depending on the variety.
As practice shows, although the places where sesame is growing are tropics, it can be grown in the south, and with proper care in the central regions of Russia and Ukraine. The main condition for its growth is warm soil. Sowing can be done when the soil warms up to +18, and the air is from +25 to +30 degrees.
It is important to remember: if the temperature drops to +2. +3 degrees, as the plant will die, therefore, with the first hints of its lowering, it is necessary to cover the beds with a film.
Before sowing the prepared area must be fertilized. It is possible that in countries where it is cultivated, sesame grows from year to year on fertile or loamy soils and produces high yields, but not every summer resident is lucky with high-quality black soil.
Therefore, to obtain excellent results, you should give this plant what it loves:
The number of components is given per 1 m 2. Sesame seeds should be planted in well-moistened soil to a depth of 3 cm, leaving a distance of 50 to 70 cm between rows. On average, up to 1 g of seeds is required per 1 m 2.
After sprouting, they must be thinned, leaving the strongest sprouts, at a distance of 6-7 cm from each other. While the plant stem is gaining momentum, regular watering is required with loosening the soil and weeding, but when it is strengthened, it will no longer need frequent care. In ordinary gardens, sesame behaves in the same way as it grows in warm countries on large plantations.
It is important to know: since this plant successfully withstands hot winds and lack of moisture, it can be planted to protect crops less drought-resistant.
The fact that the time has come to harvest, "say" the leaves. When they turn yellow and begin to fall off, you can gently tear the seed boxes. On large plantations, the crop is harvested until they turn brown, and still hang green. The property of this plant is this: it costs him to ripen, as the fruits unfold from the slightest touch.
On a small area, sesame grows and matures as it is collected in its time when the boxes become brownish in color. With 1 m 2 harvest will be more than 200 g of seeds. Gardeners often plant this plant for decorative purposes, as it looks spectacular in flowerbeds.
Types of Sesame
Distinguish sesame white and black, brown and reddish, and even golden. In terms of the composition of nutrients, they differ little, but their use may be different. For example, black seeds have a brighter flavor, therefore they have long been used in marinates in the East, while whites are ideal for baking.
Black sesame is used for the production of oil, as from it it is more fragrant and of higher quality.
No wonder in eastern and African countries, sesame cultivated for thousands of years. Its nutritional properties and rich vitamin composition are beneficial for the human body. So, it includes:
- up to 46-48% fat,
- more than 12% of carbohydrates
- protein - the amount exceeds 19%,
- vitamins B1, AT2, PP, E, A, C (it all depends on the variety of sesame, for example, A and B dominate in black seeds, and E and C dominate in white seeds),
- magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, iron, sodium, manganese and zinc, and by the amount of calcium it is equal to cow's milk.
It is important to know: if you are allergic to dairy products, the daily calcium rate can be obtained from 100 g of sesame seeds.
The benefits of sesame
The seeds of this plant, due to its rich composition, are able to cleanse the body of toxins and slags, normalize the metabolism and clean the vessels of cholesterol. If you eat daily up to 3 tsp. sesame, it will prevent diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis, and strengthen the skeletal system. Prolonged use of seeds rejuvenates the body, restores strength and shine to hair, makes the nail plate smooth and strong.
Prohibited sesame with thrombosis and poor blood clotting, sometimes it is contraindicated in urolithiasis.
It is important to know that in order to get the maximum benefit from this product, only raw seeds should be eaten, it is better if they are germinated.
For the sake of oil, mainly, and farmers grow this plant. It is crushed from both fried and raw seeds. In the first case, it turns out darker and more fragrant, in the second - lighter and healthier. It contains polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and stearic. It is also rich in vitamins A, F, B, C and E, lecithin, amino acids and minerals. Thanks to special substances in its composition, it can be stored for up to 7 years.
Sesame oil has antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic properties. This is an excellent immunostimulant and antidepressant. In small quantities, it is recommended to be used for the prevention of diseases and aging.
It is important to know: for people with excess weight sesame oil consumption should be limited, since 100 g of the product contains almost 900 kcal.
About sesame and its growing climate
The plant belongs to the genus Sesame. To date, there are more than 10 types of sesame, which are annuals. The difference between them is also in the color of the seeds. So, they are white, black, yellow and brown. Most often used in cooking the first two types.
To date, there are more than 10 types of sesame
In the wild form grows only in Africa, where it was found for the first time. In addition, India, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia are considered the birthplace of sesame. Today, the major exporters of this plant are India, the Far East, the Transcaucasus, and Central Asia, because the climate here is most suitable for sesame growing: most of the year is dominated by heat and average precipitation falls.
Does it grow in Russia
Indeed, the widespread cultivation of sesame in Russia is observed in the Krasnodar Territory, where the temperate continental climate prevails. According to scientists, it is possible to establish cultivation in other regions of our country, but this will be very troublesome, because bad conditions for development will not allow sesame to grow above 80 cm. In turn, this will affect the number of fruits and their sizes.
Conditions for growing
Sesame loves heat and a lot of light (daylight should last at least 12 hours), so the most favorable climate for its growth is considered to be subtropical and tropical, where the annual precipitation varies between 100–500 mm. It is characteristic of North and South Africa, South and Southeast Asia. With an insufficient amount of heat, the seeds cannot ripen completely and are quite scarce. For the normal development of seedlings need a temperature in the range of +18 or +20 degrees. As for the seeds, they develop best of all with indications on the thermometer at +15 or +16 degrees.
Sesame loves warmth and plenty of light.
If after emergence of shoots the temperature deteriorates a lot (it often rains, the temperature drops), then the plant begins to rot and perishes. Frost is unacceptable for him in general, as well as high humidity. It is strictly forbidden to plant sesame on waterlogged or too wet land.
Of all the sesame types, black and white are the most popular.
When planning to plant sesame near the house, do not forget that the air temperature during the day should not fall below +25 or +30 degrees, and the soil should be warm enough (at least to +16 degrees).
Как развивается растение от маленького ростка до момента формирования и созревания семян в коробочках
Взрослое растение может достигать 3-х м в высоту. Вблизи листьев имеются пазухи, из которых в процессе роста кунжута появляются яркие розовые, белые или сиреневые цветы.
The flowering period lasts from June to July. The peculiarity of flowers is that on the second day they wither, and in their place grows a pod up to 5 cm. It is in it that there are sesame seeds. According to some estimates, their number can reach 100 pieces. Gather the fruits in August or September.
Agrotechnika: growing rules
For planting this plant using gray seeds, which are best purchased in specialized stores. The most acceptable soil for it will be light loamy land or sandy black soil. The groundwater level should not be too deep. At the same time, it is not acceptable to exceed the humidity, because its sesame does not tolerate.
Before starting the sowing process, the soil is carefully plowed, moisturized, weeds are selected from it and leveled. The less weed will be on the site, the better the plant will develop. The correct fertilizer can also help him in this: phosphate, potash, nitrogen, manure, humus.
Before starting the sowing process, the soil is carefully plowed, moisturized, weeds are selected from it and
In a well warmed land begin to sow the grain. To do this, make furrows up to 3 cm deep. The distance between them should not be less than 50 cm. From above, seeds are sprinkled with earth and tamped. The first shoots appear already after a week, but until this point, the agronomists ensure that no hard crust forms on the surface of the earth, which will prevent the rapid emergence of sprouts. As a result, the soil is loosened and weeded.
With the emergence of shoots they are thinned out, leaving one sprout every 6 cm. Harvest when the plant becomes not green, but brown.
Is it possible to grow sesame seeds yourself at the cottage or at home?
Sesame can also be grown at home, but it is important to follow the main recommendations of specialists:
- Grow sesame can in the case, if you prepare for him seedlings
- Think about fertilizing before planting seeds in it,
- Do not water the sprouts too often and much, otherwise they will rot,
- Choose the sunniest and warmest place on the plot or in the house.
Sprouting sesame seed to seedlings
For faster germination of seeds, it is necessary to soak them. For this, ordinary water is suitable, in which you need to add 1 teaspoon of honey and aloe juice. Having filled the grain in the prepared solution, they are kept in it for at least one day.
After the allotted time, in advance prepared fertile soil poured into a shallow box, spread the soaked seeds. Their depth in the ground should not exceed 3 cm. Cover the container with plastic wrap, put it near the battery or other warm place. For the grains to sprout faster, they need a temperature not lower than +25 degrees.
When the first shoots appear (after 6–8 days), the box is removed on the window sill closer to the light and they are waiting for their best germination. A prerequisite is to thin out the seedlings, leaving one sprout every 6 cm.
Annual sesame herb: description
The plant has long been used for various purposes by many nations, therefore it has several names:
- Kunjat (Persian),
- sesame (Latin)
- Simsim (Arabic),
- Tyla (Sanskrit)
- Til (Hindi).
Stems and leaves
Sesame is a herbaceous annual plant, quite tall (can reach 3 meters). Stem - upright and branched. Its surface is covered with glandular hairs.
Color green or anthocyanin. The number of side branches can be from 3 to 15 pieces. The leaves have a thin and long light green color.
Natural habitat: where sesame grows
Sesame is a heat-loving and light-loving crops and lives in tropical and subtropical climatic zones. Initially, the culture was grown in countries such as North Africa, India, Pakistan, Arabia. Later, culture reached Central and Southeast Asia, as well as the Caucasus.
In these regions, the plant is particularly popular and is used in a variety of dishes. A special place among the possible uses is tahina - Sesame paste.
Is it possible to grow in the country?
Depending on the climate in which you live, you can assess the chances for a favorable outcome of sesame sowing. In the southern regions, the plant has already been developed and is quite well grown.
But more northern latitudes still can not boast of serious results. The plant is being developed in this climate, but rather slowly and uncertainly. Therefore, many believe that the game is not worth the candle and it is better to grow a plant where it feels comfortable. In any case, wherever you decide to try to grow sesame, you should adhere to certain rules, because the plant is very whimsical to environmental conditions.
Especially capricious sesame against the soil. Best of all it suits loamy soil. It must be fertile and well drained. Excessive moisture is not allowed, and the presence of even a light crust on the surface of the soil can prevent the seeds from rising.
Selection and preparation of seeds
The final yield depends on the quality of the material for sowing:
- the seeds must be healthy, pure, dense, full-bodied and with high germination. It is advisable to buy them in verified places from reputable sellers and familiar brands of seed producers,
- Before planting, seeds can be treated with products containing a fungicide. This procedure will protect them from many diseases and pests,
- Some experts advise soaking the seeds a day before sowing in ordinary water.
Terms and plan of sowing
Sesame can be sown when the soil at a depth of 5-8 cm is warmed up to +17 ° С. More favorable is the temperature of about + 27 ° C. For maximum results, you should follow the rules of sowing:
- Sowing sesame is necessary in a wide-row way, the aisles should be 45-70 cm,
- the seeds are placed in the ground at a depth of 2-3 cm,
- at the time of sowing, the soil should be wet, loose and free from weeds,
- it is better for the plant if the soil is pre-fertilized with potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and superphosphate,
- just before sowing, the ground should be well filled with water,
- in case of frost threat, crops should be covered with polyethylene.
Some maintain seeds in the ground on the window until the risk of frost has passed, and only then they are planted in open soil.
Do I need care for the culture?
Under favorable conditions, the crops sprout for 4-5 days. In order for young sprouts to strengthen and grow into full-fledged plants, you need to take the necessary care:
- prevent the formation of crusts on the ground, especially until sprout shoots,
- when the shoots are clearly visible, they must be thinned out. The distance between them must be at least 6 cm,
- in the process of sesame growth, it is necessary to make regular weeding, loosening and watering.
When and how to harvest
Willingness yield can be determined by such external indicators:
- the plant starts to turn yellow,
- the lower leaves gradually dry out,
- seeds get the desired color depending on the variety.
Slightly wet boxes should be torn off completely and let them dry completely in the room (spread out on a cloth or paper in a well-ventilated and warm place). After that, you need to put the entire harvest in a canvas bag and gently crush your fingers.
The contents of the bag should be sifted in the wind or through a sieve so that the seeds are separated from the husk. Checking ripened sesame seeds
Having shown a little patience and attention (and if climatic conditions allow), it is quite possible to grow your own sesame. These are very useful seeds that can be used for culinary, medical and cosmetic purposes. And since the product will be your production, then you will be sure of its quality.
Video: growing sesame in Transnistria
Sesame growing experience: reviews
What does a sesame plant look like
Sesame is a genus of plants called Sesamum in Latin. From here comes the second name of the genus - til. The famous fairy tale "Sesame, Open" seems to have to do with the eastern legends about the magic grass that can open the locks.
All sesame are herbaceous annuals or perennials. Since there are many forms, it is difficult to unambiguously describe how a sesame plant looks.
As a rule, it has one vertical powerful stem, but some species are capable of branching. The leaves have a rich green color, arranged oppositely or alternately. In the leaf sinuses along the entire height of the stem are flowers with a bell-shaped or funnel-shaped corolla. Of them subsequently ripen the fruit-boxes with small seeds.
Types and varieties of sesame
The genus Sesamum unites over 20 different species. But only one of them came into the crop as a valuable oleaginous plant - Indian sesame (Sesamum indicum).
Indian sesame is a strong-growing annual. Its stem has a slight pubescence, and the flowers have a pinkish, white or lilac color. From 60 to 80 seeds ripen in each box. In the nests of the box they are packed "piles".
To date, the State Register of breeding achievements includes only 2 varieties approved for cultivation in Russia:
Early maturity and resistance to soil and climatic conditions is a very important factor. It has been observed that the adaptive properties of Indian sesame are rather weak. For example, ecotypes of plants, which successfully grow in arid regions of Central Asia, do not survive in the humid climate of the North Caucasus. Therefore, when choosing seeds for sowing, it is necessary to take into account recommendations for the growing area.
Natural habitat: where and how to grow
Indian sesame, in fact, is of African origin. In its natural environment, it grows in the southeast of the continent, in the zone of humid subtropics. In India, this plant was introduced during the Great Geographical Discoveries. Similar climatic conditions allowed sesame to settle down successfully in a new place, and it is India that is now the main region of its industrial cultivation.
The countries where sesame grows are located in different parts of the planet:
- Southeast Asia (India, Pakistan, Burma, China) - 70% of the acreage,
- Africa (Sudan, Nigeria, Sierra Lyon, Ethiopia) - 23% of the acreage,
- North and South America (Guatemala, Venezuela, Mexico) - 7% of the acreage.
In Europe, sesame is cultivated in small quantities. In Russia, they started sowing fields with this crop quite recently - mainly in the Krasnodar Territory and in the North Caucasus.
Analysis of the natural conditions in which Indian sesame was formed as a species gives a general idea of the ecological characteristics of the plant:
- High demands for heat. The optimum average daily temperature required for the formation of the vegetative mass is from +22 to +25 C. During the flowering and fruit formation, the need for heat increases, and cooling can cause a massive drop of buds and ovaries.
- High need for moisture. Since sesame is a subtropical plant, even its drought-resistant varieties are sensitive to air and soil moisture. With a lack of irrigation, the set of fruits decreases sharply and the yield of the crop decreases.
- High demands on soil fertility. High-humus chernozems, chestnut soils, light structural loams, sandy loams are optimal for growing sesame. Heavy cold clay soils, boggy and saline, less humus sandy and peaty soils are unsuitable.
All these requirements must be considered before sowing on the garden plot.
The agrotechnology of his sowing includes the following activities:
- presowing treatment of seeds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- sowing in the soil heated at a depth of 10 cm to a temperature of 16-18 C,
- embedment of seeds to a depth of 3-4 cm and careful watering until germination.
Sesame sowing is done in rows, the interval between which should be at least 50 cm. The seeding rate is 1 g of seeds per 1 square meter. If the air temperature is unstable, crops should be protected with a spunbond.
After the emergence of shoots performed two mandatory operations:
- thinning - between shoots in a row is left 6-10 cm,
- mulching - covers the top layer of soil, both between shoots and in between rows.
For sesame mulching, it is better to choose organic, rapidly decomposable mulch - fine straw chop, peat, compost, mowed grass.
These materials will help achieve four goals simultaneously:
- Protection of topsoil from drying out. The root system of seedlings develops slowly, is located at a shallow depth and quickly dies from a lack of moisture. Mulch does not allow irrigation water to evaporate quickly, sintering the soil into a crust.
- Natural top dressing with carbon dioxide. Plants grow vegetative mass, absorbing carbon dioxide from the air. Organic mulch, decomposing, allocates it directly under the plants.
- Increased activity of soil flora. Under the layer of mulch creates a favorable environment for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria, many of which are antagonists for various pathogenic fungi. Also increases the activity of earthworms and predatory insects, eating pests.
- Maintain a constant soil temperature. Under the mulch, the soil will neither overcool nor overheat. Stable temperature in the root zone allows the plant to absorb nutrients from the soil normally.
When the budding phase begins, the plant must be fed. There are no special fertilizers for this crop in Russia, so you need to focus on the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Determine the time of maturation can be a number of external signs:
- yellowing of the plant
- drying of the lower leaves,
- drying up the boxes.
However, harvesting may be difficult, since the boxes on the stem do not mature at the same time - the lower ones are faster than the upper ones. Therefore, they begin to mowing only after the cracking of the lowermost boxes begins.
The beveled sesame stalks are laid out on a clean sheet and the boxes are carefully removed. Then the stems are removed and the fruits are dried. Fully dried boxes are easily opened with your fingers, and the seeds are poured into the hand.
It is better to store sesame seeds in the form unpeeled from the outer shell. To ensure optimal storage conditions of the product, you need to pour the seeds into paper bags, close tightly and put in a dry unheated room. At a temperature close to 0 ° C, the seeds are well preserved for six months.
Sesame is suitable not only for culinary purposes. Traditional medicine marked its healing properties. Therefore, its independent cultivation in the garden plot, although it is associated with large labor costs, but pays off with the benefits that the plant brings.
How to replant seeds that have sunk into the ground
Sesame is planted in the soil when the soil is warm enough (at least up to +18 degrees). Choose the most sunny place that is recommended to fertilize at the beginning of spring with a special mixture: for 1 sq. M you will need 100 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium chloride and 25 g of ammonium nitrate.
When the stem is strengthened and the first leaves appear on it, sesame seeds are transplanted to a permanent place. It takes about 35–40 days.
Is it possible to grow seedlings on the window sill in winter
Growing sesame in winter is not prohibited, because it is located near the battery, which is favorable for its development. Provide enough sesame sunlight and weed it regularly. Do not forget to periodically process the culture with special means that will help avoid the development of diseases and the appearance of pests.
Planting seedlings in open ground
For planting, the ground is deepened by 8–10 cm and seedlings are planted alternately. Pre-soil needs to be well loosened, fertilized and completely cleaned from weeds. The distance between seedlings should be at least 6–10 cm, and between rows should be from 50 to 60 cm.
It is a simple process, because it requires frequent loosening of the soil, not too much watering and weed removal. It is necessary to feed the plant only when the flowering period has not started (this happens on the 50–60 day), but the second leaves have already appeared.
In order to prevent sesame from attacking the disease (bacterioses, wilt), timely weed control will help, as well as the use of special agrotechnical means.
Sesame is an extremely useful plant, which can be grown both in the fields and in the garden near the house. Чтобы этот процесс происходил правильно, нужно постараться, обеспечив все необходимые условия для правильного развития растения и вызревания его семян. Только в таком случае вы получите зернышки, богатые витаминами и микроэлементами, способными заменить многие продукты питания.
Что же такое кунжут?
There is an opinion that sesame is a wild plant, but it is fundamentally wrong. Growing it is possible only in warm climatic conditions. Sesame outwardly represents quite tall plantwhich grows up to three meters. White, lilac or pink flowers grow from the leaf axils. And these flowers bloom only one day.
Immediately after the flower fades, it forms at this place. peculiar podIn which are sesame seeds. The length of the pod varies from 3 to 5 centimeters, which can be up to hundreds of seeds.
Where sesame grows
As mentioned earlier, sesame is a plant that grows only in a warm climate. This is very heat-loving culturetherefore, in Russia it does not grow in the wild.
Initially sesame started growing in India, Arabia and North Africa, as well as Pakistan. Then breeding took Central and Southeast Asia. Mass cultivation and cultivation of sesame in Russia originated in the Krasnodar Territory.
In the temperate climate of this region, sesame does not grow very well. The maximum plant can reach 80 centimeters in height. In principle, sesame, if desired, and ensuring the necessary conditions can be grown in central Russia. But agricultural specialists say that this is a very troublesome and painstaking process.
In sesame seed contains a large amount of nutrients, proteins and oils. Its composition is rich in:
Seeds of very small size come in different colors:
How is sesame grown?
This culture loves loamy soil. You can grow it in fertile soil, but then you need to provide high-quality drainage.
It grows in the summer, and landing is made in the spring. When the soil reaches an average temperature of +17 degrees, this means that it is completely ready for planting seeds. With a sharp decrease in air temperature to zero, the plant may simply die.
Before planting should thoroughly prepare the site. The soil is dug up, while removing all weeds, as it thoroughly hinders the development of the plant. Then the soil needs to be fertilized. Per 1 square meter of soil should apply:
- 100 grams of superphosphate fertilizer
- 30 grams of saltpeter,
- 20 grams of potassium chloride.
Under the sowing of seeds, it is necessary to make furrows 3 centimeters deep. Row spacing should be about 50 centimeters wide. Growing up in such conditions, sesame will develop well and at the same time it will be very easy to care for it. Seeds should be sown in slightly wet soil, so it must first be watered a little.
When the first shoots appear, sesame must be thinned out. For the development of the plant to occur as best as possible, the distance between them should be about seven centimeters. Subsequently, the care of sesame will consist only in watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds.
It is incredibly interesting to watch the growing sesame. On the Internet, you can even find a video or photo with a phased development of the plant. There are also many recipes on the net with this wonderful seasoning.
As the plant grows, fluffy leaves that are resistant to winds begin to appear on its stems. Thanks to its leaves and resistance to gusts of dry wind, sesame is grown as a rock cultivar that protects weaker plants like a wall.
In September, when the sesame leaves turn yellow and then disappear, it is time to harvest the sesame crop. It should be carried out very carefully and carefully, as the pods with seeds open from the slightest irregular movement, while clicking loudly.
When you open the pod, the seeds will just spill out completely. That is why you should first take care that the woven fabric is spread under the plants. It will help to collect one hundred percent of the crop without losing a single grain. You need to store the seeds in a dry room where the humidity does not exceed 10 percent.
Diseases, pests and control
In this aspect, the cultivation of sesame is not very troublesome. The smell of the leaves of the plant repels insects, but, unfortunately, not all. Plant may be affected by aphids and whiteflies. In such a situation, it is simply impossible to do without the use of specialized preparations - insecticides. But it is beneficial only in a small area. If an insect invasion has occurred, such treatment will be economically unprofitable, since a large number of preparations will be required.
Diseases that can affect sesame are mostly microorganisms that reproduce in a wet environment. They can even kill a young plant.
What is useful sesame?
The use of plant seeds was mentioned above, and now let's talk about the beneficial properties of this beautiful seed:
- it is a necessary element for the human body, increases the body’s resistance and improves metabolism,
- used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis,
- regular use reduces cholesterol,
- The plant contains a female hormone called lignan. He has proven himself in the treatment of mastopathy,
- Sesame is considered an excellent and very effective means of traditional medicine in coughing and asthma.
Having decided to grow this crop in his plot, a gardener will be able to provide himself and his family with a very useful harvest. At the same time, the process of growing sesame is a very entertaining sight, from which it is impossible to take your eyes off. Although it is a difficult, painstaking process, it is very entertaining and you should try to grow such a useful and such ancient culture in your garden at least once. Dishes flavored with sesame seed, get completely magical taste, and its benefits to the human body is invaluable.
Detailed culture description
Sesame is an annual plant. It is herbaceous, belongs to the family of the same name sesame. In height, this culture can reach up to three meters. In addition to the impressive height, the plant has quite strong roots that are able to penetrate one meter deep. The branches of the plant have about 4−6 faces. The leaves, which are located below, are opposite, and then, when they grow, they observe the sequence. The leaves are large and may be yellow, white and cream.
It blooms during the first half of summer, but the fruits can be seen in the beginning of autumn. They are presented in the form of a large number of egg-shaped seeds. Such seeds can be both black and white. In one such box can be about 80 seeds, and the length of the cavity does not exceed three centimeters.
This plant is widely spread in Asia, the Far East, and Africa. It should also be noted a thriving place in the cultivation of this culture. This place is Myanmar, followed by India and China.
To a large extent such a serious popularity of the plant due to the fact that it produces oil.
Composition and calorie
Contains 100 g of sesame:
- proteins - 19 g,
- fats - 49 g,
- water - 9 g,
- food-grade fiber - 5.5 g,
- ash - 4.5 g,
- saturated fatty acids - 6.4 g,
- monosaccharides - 2 g,
- vitamins B1,2, E, PP.
The calorie content of this plant is also relatively high. Per 100 g of product accounts for about 565 kcal. If we talk about the oil that is produced from this plant, then its energy value is slightly higher and amounts to 884 kcal. When trying to lose weight, it is better to avoid using sesame-based oil in the diet. But in this case, vegetarians and people who adhere to the principle of raw food, can use this oil in their diet. It is important to note that sesame bloom lasts only one day.
It contains antioxidants, namely sesaminol and sesamol. It is important to note that such components are found in very small quantities in other products. Sesame is an example of a regulator of metabolic processes in the human body. With the help of sesame cholesterol plaques are removed from the walls of all vessels.
Sesame also prevents such diseases:
- heart attack
- other diseases that are related to the cardiovascular system.
If you use sesame on a regular basis, the composition of the blood changes, its clotting rate increases. With it, you can eliminate pain in the joints, as well as prevent their occurrence. The use of sesame prevents diseases that belong to the thyroid, pancreas, and respiratory system.
As for sesame-based oil, it acts as a laxative. For effect it will be enough to take a tablespoon of oil before bedtime. It helps the oil in the first stages of gastritis, stomach disorders. It will also help moms who start feeding their children, especially in the early stages of lactation.
In the case of mastitis, you can apply a compress from sesame seeds. Also, experts attribute sesame to aphrodisiacs. Also, with the help of sesame produce preparations for injection on a fat-soluble basis. Oil is widely used in cosmetology. From sesame oil, face masks are made for irritated skin. In a small amount added during baking and added to salads.
It is in cooking that sesame has been widely used for many millennia. In the history of certain frescoes are known, which show how bakers in ancient Egypt sprinkled bread with seeds. All sesame-based products have found application in the field of cooking. The seeds have a sweet taste, but the taste of the leaves is almost identical with pepper.
If you fry the leaves, they can give the dish a savory taste. It is also important to note that the taste of seeds directly depends on the stage of their maturity. If they are immature, they will be sweet, and if ripe, they will resemble a nut to taste. Sweet seeds are used for sprinkling various baked goods. Also today, breading is used for cooking meat, fish, various cookies and so on.
Use in traditional medicine
Few people know, but sesame is a healing plant, its properties are widely used in medicine for more than one generation. Even the eastern medieval healer Avicenna proved that sesame oil has a positive effect on the tumor, helps to get rid of a headache, and also improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
For example, several centuries ago it was due to sesame oil:
- got rid of a toothache
- stomatitis was treated,
- destroyed periodontal disease.
In order to get rid of plaque on the teeth or tongue, it is enough just to take a teaspoon of oil in your mouth in the morning on an empty stomach and rinse for 5 minutes. Experts say that this method of cleansing the oral cavity is very useful, but it is important to understand that it is necessary to do this procedure every day without interruption.
Also, sesame is very widely used in the treatment of colds: the oil is heated on a steam bath and rubbed into the chest and back. It is also used in sore throat and pharyngitis: the oil must be taken orally in a heat of 0.5 tsp. 2 times a day. If you have stomach problems, you need to drink half a teaspoon of sesame oil on an empty stomach. For otitis, it is recommended to warm up sesame oil and bury 2 drops three times a day in the ears.
After reading about such a large number of useful properties of sesame and about its wide range of applications, the question arises whether it is possible to grow it at home. Since sesame itself has come to us from Africa, the southern regions are an ideal place to grow it.
Preparing for landing
First of all, before embarking on planting this useful plant, it is necessary to find high-quality seeds, because further harvest will depend on them. Experts recommend to go shopping for sesame seeds in a specialty store. It is there that you can buy raw seeds that are intended for planting. Sesame is a plant that is very demanding of the sun, it is also picky about the soil.