Rules for the care of orchids require a mandatory transplant every two years, with a complete replacement of the substrate, which contains their roots. Soil for orchids cannot be called a breeding ground in the full sense of the word; its main tasks are to maintain the plant, giving it stability, and absorb the optimal amount of moisture without interfering with the evaporation of its excess. For example, the soil for Phalaenopsis should dry out in 3-4 days, if the moisture stays longer, the substrate thickens, prevents the roots from getting air, and can cause rotting or fungal diseases.
To create comfortable conditions for tropical beauties, you need to know what kind of soil they need, that is, what conditions they have in their homeland. The substrate for Phalaenopsis orchids, which live on trees, should have a maximum capacity for moisture and air, and for Cymbidium, which grows on the ground, it is necessary to include nutritional supplements in the substrate. It is advisable to know how to prepare the soil for orchids with your own hands in order to be able to experiment with the purchased mixtures, achieving the maximum comfort for your plants.
Shops sell ready-made soil for orchids, you can change the composition with your own hands in accordance with the needs of plants, but for this you need to know what ingredients are included in it. Substrates consist of the following elements: tree bark, charcoal, fern root, sphagnum moss, coconut fibers, peat, perlite, vermiculite, expanded clay or small stones, husks of various nuts, fallen leaves of trees, humus or leaf earth.
- The bark is used oak, with larch, pine. It is better to take it from a tree that fell or was cut down a year ago, the bark should be easily separated from the trunk, be dry, but not rotten. The bark of living trees contains too much resin.
- Charcoal taken from the burnt-out trunk of birch, oak, beech. It is advisable to burn the tree yourself in order to know for sure that no polymers or toxic substances were burning with it.
- Fern root can be dug in the summer by choosing a larger plant. Then it is cleaned from the ground, washed, cut into small pieces, dried.
- Peat moss and peat can be self-recruited in a swamp or bought in a store, like coconut fibers or chips. They retain moisture well, and peat slightly acidifies the whole soil, so it must be combined with coal.
- Skins of forest, walnuts, pine nuts or sunflower seed husks - this is a great baking powder of organic origin.
- Perlite and vermiculite are of mineral origin, they do not nourish the plants, but protect them from the occurrence of mold and the development of fungal diseases. In addition, they are excellent baking powder, inhibit the inevitable caking of the soil, equalize the temperature during its sharp changes in the external environment.
- Expanded clay has excellent drainage qualities, with a similar function used foam, polystyrene.
- But the leaves are not used for all orchids, only for those that grow on the ground and are able to obtain nutrients from it.
The substrate prepared according to all the rules must meet the requirements of the variety, the only indicator confirming the optimal choice of ingredients is the lush blooming of the orchid. For different types and varieties may require different components, does not mean that all of the above components can be found in the same pot.
If the substrate purchased in the store does not suit the plant with something, you need to experiment - add or remove some of its parts, then look at the condition of the flower. If the air is too dry, then you need to add more moisture-retaining components. With large daily temperature drops, it is better to increase the amount of perlite and vermiculite.
Most of the elements collected independently, can not be used without special training and sanitization. All components need to be washed, then heat treated, crushed to the desired size, dried. In this form, they can be folded in linen bags for long-term storage. Parts of the substrate can be collected gradually, stored for a long time, used as needed.
Bark is recommended to be taken from a tree that fell a year ago, if there are no traces of rot on it. A suitable bark itself easily lags behind the trunk, it does not need to be cut off. The resulting pieces need to boil in water for several minutes, cut into pieces up to 2 cm in diameter, dry and after a few days boil again. Some growers bake it for 10–20 minutes in an oven at 200 degrees.
The moss is first poured with water for several hours to get rid of insects, then dried. After that, dry moss pour boiling water for 10 minutes, then dried. Some experts advise treating it with insecticides.
Peat and nutshells are dried and crushed. Experienced growers recommend that all components, including inorganic ones, be first washed, then boiled or heated in an oven, dried and cooled. Only after that they can be used for planting orchids.
For orchids, Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium take 3 parts of pine bark and 1 part of charcoal, moss, and coconut fibers. Miltonia, Dracul, Wanda need a wetter substrate. For them they mix moss, sand, peat, perlite with small pieces of pine bark and cones.
For rooms with normal humidity this substrate is suitable: 5 parts of bark, 2 parts of moss, 1 part of coal. If the humidity in the room is high, then take 4 parts of pine bark, 3 parts of cork bark, 2 parts of foam pieces, 1 part of peat.
Phalaenopsis orchid soil is not a primer in the usual sense of the word. In nature, this plant does not take all the nutrients from the soil, but from the water that washed its roots during the rains. Therefore, at room content, the soil is needed mainly for supporting and holding the plant in a pot. It should provide:
- Air permeability
- Moisture permeability
- Drying in 3-4 days:
- Retention of nutrients.
Compliance with the requirements will provide air access to the roots of the plant and eliminate stagnant moisture.. All this will bring the room conditions of the orchid to natural.
An important requirement for the soil is its ability to retain nutrients. In the wild, an orchid feeds on substances washed away from the bark of a tree by rain flows.
The house maintenance provides regular top dressing of a plant by specialized fertilizers. They must be kept in the ground so that the orchid consumes them during watering.
Another important point in the choice of soil for phalaenopsis is its large fractionality. The substrate should not be compressed and contain a fine fraction and dust.
Not only air and water, but also light pass through large fragments of the substrate. This is very important for the development of phalaenopsis, as in its roots, as well as in the leaves, there are processes of photosynthesis.
What can be used for the substrate
There are several traditional materials that are used in the composition of the soil for phalaenopsis orchids:
- Crushed bark. It is usually used as a base for the substrate. Most often used pine bark, but you can use oak or poplar. Usually the crust in the substrate should be no more than 50%. Use pieces of bark in the size of 1-2 cm.
- Dried roots of a forest fern. They look like a coil of fine wire and have a good moisture capacity. They are cut into small pieces and used as an additive to the substrate base. Typically, the composition of the soil is not more than 20%.
- Chopped sphagnum moss. This component is used both dried and live. Moss has a high moisture capacity, so the composition of the substrate should be no more than 20%. Otherwise, there is a risk of over-wetting the orchid roots, which leads to their rapid decay.
- Coconut Chips Can also be used in the composition of the soil for orchids, as it is quite nutritious and moisture-absorbing.
As additives to the main components of the substrate use:
- Pieces of charcoal,
- Ground Foam,
- Coconut fiber.
These materials are used to loosen the soil and prevent it from clogging.
Possible popular compositions
The easiest way to plant phalaenopsis in the purchase of soil. Today, there is a large variety of orchid based substrates based on natural ingredients. There are domestic and foreign compositions.
It should be remembered that the quality soil for phalaenopsis should not contain land and peat. Also, there should not be small fragments smaller than 0.5 cm and dust.
If the purchased soil contains these components, they can be removed by sifting the substrate through a large sieve.
It is much more difficult to make a soil for phalaenopsis with your own hands than to buy in a store. You will need to buy or collect all the necessary ingredients. But if there is time and desire, here are some popular soil compositions for orchids based on natural plant ingredients.
When growing orchids in a greenhouse or orchidarium, where the humidity is significantly higher than in a city apartment, you can use the following composition:
- Chopped bark of oak or pine - 5 parts,
- Charcoal - 1 part.
This soil provides good air access to the roots of the plant and does not accumulate moisture.
Such a composition is very popular:
- Oak or pine bark - 5 parts,
- Ground sphagnum - 2 parts,
- Charcoal - 1 part.
Sometimes instead of sphagnum use chopped fern roots.
Growth conditions in nature
Phalaenopsis, which we grow at home, are specially bred hybrids, and their ancestors grow in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. Their genus includes about 40 species and hybrids.
In nature, phalaenopsis prefer wet and shaded places. with a temperature of 19 to 27 o C without drops. They live on the stems and ages of trees. They twist the trees with their roots. Moisture is obtained thanks to them from rain, fog and moist air. This flower is not a parasite, a tree for him is just a support.
If the soil is heavy for the plant, then sufficient air and nutrients will not get into the roots. And from this the plant will simply die. Therefore, when choosing a soil for a flower, it is necessary to take into account some requirements of the plant. It should provide:
- moisture permeability
- retain nutrients and dry out in 3-4 days.
The composition is of paramount importance. Phalaenopsis soil is called substrate. It can be purchased ready-made in a special store, or you can make it yourself by choosing the right and high-quality components.
The composition of the best substrates should include:
- Leafy ground.
- Pine cones.
- Rockstone perlite.
- Mineral vermiculite.
- Peat moss sphagnum.
- Fern roots.
- High or low peat.
- Coconut fiber.
- Expanded clay.
- Bark of pine or deciduous tree.
If you do not have the ability, desire or time to make the soil yourself, then just buy it in a specialized store. There are a lot of store substrates, but as practice has shown, not all of them are of good quality.. So, buying a substrate, you need to pay attention to some features:
- The bark should be of good quality - dense, strong, without damage and not too shallow. The pieces of bark in the substrate should be as much as 3 cm, in any case not crumbled.
- Moss must be disinfected and dried.
- Charcoal - the pieces should be 2 cm in size (the smaller one will easily collapse).
- The substrate should not be like a lump of earth, because it will accumulate moisture in itself and do not allow air to flow through.
- The composition should not be land, only pieces of charcoal, bark, fern root, poured and coconut fiber.
What requirements must meet?
In order for the plant to take root and be comfortable, it is necessary to follow certain principles of choice:
- It should not be too tight and rammed.
- The substrate should dry in 3 days - this is the ideal soil for phalaenopsis.
- The lower the humidity of the room - the more soil you need. It must have a sufficient amount of moisture-absorbing components.
The easiest way is to plant your plant in the ready purchased soil.. Now there are a large number of foreign and domestic compositions.
The compositions may be as follows:
- 1 part of charcoal and 5 parts of pine bark - has reduced moisture capacity and excellent air circulation.
- 1 part of charcoal, 2 parts of small moss, 5 parts of pine chips - for orchids planted in a basket, pot or block.
- On 1 part of pine bark, peat and charcoal, 3 parts of the deciduous earth - for plants which need top dressing.
- Bark - 5 parts, charcoal - 1 part.
- Bark of 5 parts, the crushed sphagnum of 2 parts, charcoal 1 part.
Experienced growers have developed the best formulations for the development of phalaenopsis. Consider them:
- Such a composition is popular:
- pine bark - 2 parts
- gravel or pebbles - 2 parts,
- claydite - 1 part,
- charcoal - 1 part.
- You can apply the following composition:
- pine or oak bark - 3 parts,
- pumice pieces - 1 part,
- charcoal - 1 part,
- fern roots - 1 part,
- claydite - 1 part.
Do it yourself
- Oak or pine bark. Take from a fallen or felled tree. It should be easily separated from the tree, be dry and not rotten.
- Charcoal taken from the burnt-out trunk of birch, oak, beech. It is advisable to do it yourself, to be sure that it burned without polymers and toxic substances.
- Fern root - dig in the summer, clean from the ground, wash, cut into small pieces and dry.
- Sphagnum moss and peat can be self-recruited in a swamp or bought in a store.
- Skins of wood, pine or walnuts, sunflower seed husks or eggshell - baking powder.
- Minerals perlite and vermiculite - buy in the store.
- Expanded clay, polystyrene or polystyrene, pebbles, gravel, pumice - drainage.
Step by step instructions for production:
- Collecting components.
- Sanitization - most self-assembled components cannot be used without disinfection. They need to be washed, heat treated, grind to the desired size, dried. Can be folded into bags for long term storage.
- Parts of the substrate can be collected gradually.
- Using mixing recipes, prepare the primer.
Watch the video about making a substrate for orchids with your own hands:
Comparing the store substrate with those prepared by yourself, it’s hard to say which one is better.. On the one hand, you can give preference to the shop - it is already prepared according to all the rules and for all the needs of the plant, it also has natural components. But unfortunately it does not always have good quality.
On the other hand, if you give preference to a substrate prepared by yourself, you will certainly be confident in the quality of the assembled components and select them for your flower maintenance conditions. But you will encounter such a problem - not all components can be found. Therefore, the universal substrate for phalaenopsis will be shoplifted with the addition of selected components.
For your plant to be healthy and delight you with beautiful blooms, you need to be very careful about the choice of substrate for orchids, without it, cultivation is doomed to failure.
And then you can avoid problems and complications in the care of the flower. Now you know which substrate is best to plant phalaenopsis at home. Successful to you floriculture!
Phalaenopsis Orchid Soil: main components and their characteristics
The choice of soil is an integral part for the full development of orchids.
Phalaenopsis land called the substrate and his choice is crucial for the full development of the plant.
Composition determined by climate in the place of cultivation - temperature, humidity, light.
Structure and components are selected according to the conditions., and on hybrid characteristics, sizes of a flower, the characteristic of capacity, etc.
Only lush flowering and development will give the answer to the correctness in the selection of the composition of the substrate.
The composition or mixture may include such components:
- Bark of trees
- Sphagnum moss,
- Coniferous cones,
- Vermiculite, perlite and expanded clay,
- Fern roots,
- Coconut fiber, etc.
In the modern flower outlets for sale available specially selected composition for orchids.
But everyone, in principle, can prepare it independently, following certain rules and recommendations.
Unlike natural ingredients, synthetic have more flawsthat are worth paying attention to when choosing and preparing a soil mixture.
При использовании полимеров стоит знать, что под действием света, элементов, содержащихся в воздухе и воде, происходят процессы разложения, в результате которых образуется свободная форма стирола.
And he, in turn, penetrating into the roots, causes no harm to the plant.
In most cases modern hybrid phalaenopsis forms not very demanding on the traditional composition of the soil.
But still, everyone maximally reveals his hybrid characteristics, while respecting certain proportions and the composition of components.
Soil or as it is called by experts - the substrate, must meet certain requirements:
- Be easy
Orchidists use as main component substrate pine barkwith good aeration and moisture capacity.
Types of soil for phalaenopsis
There are quite a few species on sale. soil for orchids.
There are natural ingredients, there are artificial or their mixture. Altogether different proportions in the compositions.
Very beginners difficult to decideWhat kind of soil is needed for such a choice, and doing it yourself can be time consuming or simply lack desire.
It is important to know the characteristics of your plant. and understand the purpose of each component of the substrate and understand the proportions.
The proportions are determined by the conditions of the place of cultivation.
With high humidity You can do with only one pine bark with a small addition of charcoal, not more than 5%.
With average humidity indoor air (50-60%) should be added to sphagnum moss to increase moisture capacity in proportions of 2 to 1.
If the humidity is lower, then add moisture content components in proportion 1 to 2.
The composition of the substrate is also very diverse., but the bark remains the main components and very rarely some florist use leafy ground.
Different types of soil for phalaenopsis orchids.
The composition is determined by understanding the existence of plants in nature.
Like epiphyte phalaenopsis does not require rooting, and grows due to symbiosis with cultures of woody origin.
At home this function is performed by the bark, in which a large number of fungal cultures parasitizes.
The remaining components are of secondary importance, but still necessary for the full development.
Little about flower
Phalaenopsis orchid is a type of epiphyte. Under natural conditions, the plant is forced to survive in the difficult conditions of the rainforest. Due to the dense crown of trees, the vegetation receives an insufficient amount of sunlight and experiences a high level of humidity. Orchids always tend to the sun, live practically without soil. Thanks to the air roots, the flower has the ability to easily attach to the mountain slopes or trees. The whole complex of nutrients the plant receives from the air and the "donor". The flower gets the right amount of moisture during the rainy season.
For cultivation at home, specialists have developed special varieties of orchids. Phalaenopsis flower leaves are located on a high peduncle and resemble beautiful butterfly wings. The range of colors of this type of orchid is very diverse:
Orchids are considered difficult to grow by plants, and beginning flower growers are often disappointed because of the death of a flower. Phalaenopsis is considered to be one of the most unpretentious types of hybrids and for beautiful abundant flowering it is only necessary to take a responsible approach to the issue of soil selection.
How to choose a primer
Today, in some flower shops you can see flowering orchids without land. This option is suitable if the goal is temporary decoration of the room with a flowering plant for a short period of time. After a certain time, the flower will have to be thrown away, as the ground for any kind of orchid must be very nutritious. It is also worth knowing that the usual land for orchids is not suitable. If the plans have the task of growing a flower for long and repeated flowering, then the first thing to ask is the need to purchase good soil for an orchid.
The soil is needed for planting and transplanting plants in a new pot. On the change of soil in the pot should think in the following situations:
- insects appeared in the pot
- there is a decay of orchid roots,
- soil defects are visually visible, the formation of a tribe and lumps is observed.
Experienced growers call the soil for plants substrate. Buying a substrate for orchids in the store is the easiest way. It is worth paying attention to a number of significant points, according to which it is necessary to choose the desired type of soil. These nuances include:
- features of external conditions
- period of flowering varieties
- flower size
- pot volume
The finished substrate for orchids in most cases is produced and sold in five-liter plastic bags. The most popular substrate today is Ambulance and Flower Happiness, each of which can be used for all types of orchids.
The less expensive way is to make the soil at home with your own hands, since with a large volume of landings, the purchase of the finished substrate will require significant financial costs. When making the soil with your own hands at home, you can endlessly experiment with the mixture. Abundant flowering is the main sign that the plant liked the soil and it gets the right amount of nutrients.
There are rules regarding the presence of mandatory components in the composition of the soil for orchids and respect for their proportions. Most orchid soil contains the following elements:
- leaf earth
- pine cones,
- mineral vermiculite,
- moss and peat,
- fern roots,
- expanded clay
- coconut fibers,
- tree bark.
A special role among all components belongs to vermiculite, which has a layered structure. This mineral is very useful for the flower, it is responsible for sufficient friability and airiness of the soil, protects the roots from drying out and the appearance of mold. Due to vermiculite, orchid roots develop evenly and the plant does not experience significant temperature drops, as the mineral retains heat well.
Where to find components for soil
With self-made soil at home inevitably the question will arise about where to get the necessary components. All required components can be found in the nearest park or forest. At the same time, there is no need to spend money, and there are practically no limitations in the volume of the extracted material. Collect the required amount of materials for the manufacture of soil will not be difficult and does not take much time.
Foliage and pine bark are essential components of any orchid substrate. If the bark does not peel off or you have to make an effort, then you should look for another tree. It is recommended to collect dry bark from fallen trees or hemp without rot, but such material can also be taken from healthy growing pines with signs of bark detachment. Only dry pine bark is to be harvested, as when adding wet bark to the soil, its pathogens can also be brought in at the same time. The bark of healthy trees is inferior to stumps and dead trees, as it contains an increased level of moisture and tar.
In the warm season in the forest you can always find moss without effort, and dig up the roots of a fern. When collecting moss should pay attention to the marsh species, which usually grows in abundance in the lowlands. When making the soil with your own hands at home, you can add a small amount of dry foliage, which after decomposition becomes an excellent source of food for orchids. It is recommended to collect the leaves of certain types of trees:
Charcoal is easy to find in places popular with campers and campers. Coal has no restrictions on the shelf life, so it can be harvested for future use. It is recommended to store it in a dark dry place.
It is recommended to add expanded clay to the soil for phalaenopsis. In fact, it is a building material in the form of sand and rubble. Expanded clay is used as a drainage, therefore for the soil it is recommended to take small crushed stone. Brick, foam plastic, polystyrene are well suited as drainage material.
All components must be sanitized and disinfected before making the substrate.
For the manufacture of soil for phalaenopsis orchids, you can use all of these components. It will be enough to include the required components and properly maintain the proportions. The most popular are the following compositions:
- When mixing coal and wood bark in proportions 1: 5 is obtained soil, which has good moisture capacity and air circulation. This substrate is ideal for flower pots and growing orchids in a greenhouse.
- Charcoal, moss and pine chips are mixed in a ratio of 1: 2: 5 for growing phalaenopsis orchids in small pots and baskets.
- In addition a mixture of bark and peat in equal proportions with three parts of deciduous soil is well suited to the substrate.
Home-made soil at home should not have a dense structure, so when planting a plant, the soil does not need to be tamped.
Before you start mixing the main components, you need to prepare all the ingredients. The preparation of components consists in performing a sequence of actions:
- moss soaked in advance for a day in the water and dried,
- fern roots washed under a warm stream of water, boiling water over, dried,
- charcoal crushed to a size of 2 centimeters,
- peat divided into small parts
- crust is crushed disinfect on a steam bath for 30 minutes and dry thoroughly.
The bark has the property of gradual accumulation of moisture, which can, over time, negatively affect the orchid root system phalaenopsis. To prevent rotting of the roots, it is recommended to lay large pieces of bark in the center of the tank for planting. For good air circulation, it is recommended to chop the orchid bark with your own hands until the size of the pieces is at least 2 cm.
The peat used should have a good coarse-fiber structure and should not contain elevated salt levels. Do not shallow too small peat. The use of charcoal increases the pH of the soil, which has a positive effect on the growth of orchids.
How to lay the ground
Spring is considered the best time for planting phalaenopsis orchids. It is during this period that the flowering of the plant ends, and the period of active growth begins. When planting plants are necessary to perform the following manipulations with the ground:
- orchid with care removed from the old pot, it is necessary, if possible, to prevent the breaking of the roots,
- flower roots are washed warm stream of water and aged for some time to be able to dry,
- at the bottom of the pot falls asleep a layer of drainage material is not more than 2 cm,
- under the root of orchids a small piece of foam is placed to prevent rotting in the future,
- orchid fixed, and the root system is evenly distributed in the pot,
- substrate layer neatly poured into free space, but not rammed.
The soil is poured into the pot to the neck of the plant. It is impossible to sprinkle the neck of the orchid with the substrate, otherwise the plant will begin to rot. When planting orchids should not immediately water the plant. It is recommended to water the flower only after 6 days after planting, but after planting an orchid, you can spray water on the leaves and flower stalks.
With very dry air in the room, it is recommended to lay out a small layer of peat moss on the top layer of soil to prevent excessive evaporation of moisture.
Failure to follow a number of essential rules is guaranteed to lead to the death of your favorite plant. It is worth listening to the following tips:
- when planting orchids in the ground you need to pay attention to whether the flower is well enough sitting in a pot, the trunk is kept straight and the plant does not hang out,
- root decay is the first sign of improper irrigation and insufficient air circulation, so it is worth making the decision to replace the soil and revise the irrigation regime,
- if after watering within 3 days the soil does not dry out, it is recommended to change the mode of irrigation and review the composition of the soil,
- worth considering age features of plants, since adult orchids require less watering, and young flowers are more demanding of moisture,
- orchids are not well tolerated the soil is of a dense structure, so do not tamp it,
- packed substrate It is not recommended to loosen, it is better to transplant the flower into a new soil.
What soil is suitable for orchids
In the maintenance and care of these flowers are fundamentally different from other indoor plants. Ordinary garden land does not suit them. In such a ground they die quickly enough. Need a special soil for orchids. It can be made independently by preparing and mixing certain ingredients. But in order for the nutrient medium to be optimal for the plant, it is necessary to know exactly which species the orchid belongs to.
The composition of a suitable soil for orchids will depend on which of the two groups this or that plant belongs to:
- flowers that grow on trees in nature - their aerial roots do not require a rich nutrient medium, but the ground must be loose and well permeable to moisture,
- Orchids growing in the ground - although their root system is located in the soil, it is quite different in composition from the soil used for planting other indoor flowers.
In the indoor floriculture species of orchids from growing on trees are more common. The substrate for them can be purchased, already fully prepared for planting the plant, or partially change it depending on the needs of the flower. But in order to be sure of the safety of the soil for orchids, you can make it yourself.
What is included in the composition of the substrate
The basis of the soil for these colors are:
- Bark - often used pine or oak bark. But it can also be taken from larch or aspen. The bark does not need to be cut from the tree, it should be easily separated from the trunk, be dry and without signs of mold. And it is better to remove it from a tree that fell at least a year ago.
Attention! Fresh bark for the substrate is not used, since with it you can bring any disease.
- Charcoal - it can be taken from a burned birch, oak or beech trunk. And in order to be sure that there are no impurities that can be harmful to the plant, it is better to burn a suitable log on your own.
- Moss - sphagnum is best suited, it can be bought or brought from the forest.
- Expanded clay, pumice, pieces of foam - used for drainage when planting orchids.
Other parts are used to make the soil for orchids. In the substrate add the skins of nuts, coconut fibers, husks of sunflower seeds - this is a good baking powder of organic origin. You can also add pieces of fern root, having dug up a healthy and fairly large specimen of this plant in the summer.
And to protect the flower from the development of fungal diseases and to loosen the substrate make small pieces of such minerals as perlite or vermiculite.
In the preparation of the soil, sand (white river or large quartz sand), peat and sheet earth are also used, which can be prepared independently during the warm period. They are used to substrate certain orchid species. Fallen leaves are also not added to all species.
Processing components for soil
All components of the substrate harvested in the forest or in the swamp must be properly treated before use. All components should be well washed in clean water and then dried. Bark and moss must also be boiled or calcined in an oven, then dried, and after a few days, repeat this procedure.
Other components are also desirable treatment with boiling water. A moss, many gardeners are advised to further handle more and insecticides. After such treatments, the bark, moss and everything else can be safely used to prepare the soil for planting.
The simplest recipe for soil can consist of only 5 parts of bark and 1 part of charcoal. But it can not be called the best option for plants. Optimally for most orchids it will be if moss (1 or 2 parts) and expanded clay or crushed pumice stone for drainage are also included in the soil.
Other components can be used for the substrate, depending on the needs of the flower, adding them to the soil if necessary. It is important that all parts are disinfected, well dried and thoroughly mixed. It is also necessary to disinfect and plant capacity.
Orchid can not be called an ordinary indoor flower, because it requires a special approach to growing. Soil for her, too, must be prepared very carefully. And although this procedure is somewhat troublesome, many gardeners always prefer to prepare the substrate on their own. For those who do it for the first time, it is better to first see the whole process of preparation step by step on video or photo.
The most common component of the substrate.
To some extent not a natural environment для орхидных, но при домашнем выращивании обладает всеми свойствами, так необходимыми растению – равномерностью распределения влаги и обеспечивает максимальное поступление воздуха.
Содержание смолы и вредных насекомых, требует термической обработки перед использованием.
It has the same properties and requires heat treatment.
If in pine bark resin is removed, then at oak, tannins. Not bad recommendations for cork oak.
Mainly used peat:
- Having a very high water capacity
- The ability to absorb and retain nutrients.
One of its main advantages is that even with full moisture saturation, it able to hold a decent amount of air.
Of the shortcomings should be noted increased aciditywhich needs to be neutralized.
Organic component, by some characteristics superior sphagnum peat.
Good guide and moisture absorbent. Regulates the soil moisture.
Unbreakable and caking lumping.
Good passes air.
Found widespread use in growing on blocks.
Contains composed of K, Ca and a little bit of N.
Many growers use as clay drainage.
Of course, he also has certain advantages.
But its porous structure is not only retains moisture wellbut also has the ability to accumulate saltincluded in any water, which is watered orchid.
Expanded clay is moisture resistant and able to accumulate salt in water.
Later on the content of the whole substrateand the ability to absorb vital moisture is lost.
Another disadvantage is its not needed ability. draw out moisture from the roots with its drying.
Used as drainage component And How sustainability element. Good breathable.
According to orchid growers no harmif light and neutral foams are used.
Fine baking powder any soil. Does not allow it to dry up and crumple.
Effective regulator air - water balance.
It has the property soak up moisture several times its own weight, which reduces the time spent on watering.
Contains a sufficient amount of beneficial trace elements. Reduces salinity and acidity.
One of the widely used components when creating a substrate.
It has a high ability absorb water vapor from the air (hygroscopicity).
It also contains a lot beneficial trace elements and nutrientswhich is not in the bark.
Poverty of microflora does not allow the development of pathogenic bacteria.
One of the frequent components of the soil, but no more than 5%.
Recommended as a substance improves air and water permeability.
Does not allow overmoistening of the soil, prevents acidification.
Great antisepticpreventing the formation of putrefactive processes.
PH increase considered mandatory in use as an absorbent component.
Whole bumps do not recommend to apply because of the presence of the resin and the properties, when the humidity changes, it opens and closes.
Pine cones are used as an additive to the main substrate.
Used as an additive to the main substrate lumber scales.
Some growers use pine cones in the form of a unit for growing.
Original, but rather time-consuming exercise in the creation and maintenance.
A small amount of substrate can be used. high-quality leafy humus.
The danger is being in it. pathogens and insects.
This also applies to diluted horse humus. Him must be disinfected or not at all.
Substance volcanic origin.
The functionality is similar to vermiculite, but does not contain nutrients.
The most popular purchased substrates and soils
A wide selection is currently offered. different composition of the substrate for orchids:
- "Flower happiness" (Fusco),
- Soil mixture for orchids "Effect",
- "Orchid Focus Repotting Mix",
- "Florin for orchids" and many others.
Not a few on sale components for soil preparation.
You can buy separately and prepare a high-quality substrate necessary for your conditions.
- Pine bark - 50%,
- Polyfoam - 15-20%,
- Expanded clay - 15-20%
- Sphagnum peat - 10%,
- Charcoal - 5%.
The most common composition. Option 3:
- Bark - 5 parts
- Moss - sphagnum - 2 parts,
- Charcoal - 1 part.
How and why to sterilize and rinse?
It may contain harmful microorganisms and bacteria.
Non-bona fide manufacturers may not allow proper storage. fungal diseases in the components.
When self-collecting, you can also collect the same bark stuffed with pests.
For disinfection taken to expose it:
- Heat treated
- Boiling method
- Watering with boiling water
- Roasting in the oven.
After heat treatment is carried out soaking in cold water, and then complete drying.
What to disinfect?
Some experienced orchidists recommend treatment with furatsilina or potassium permanganate solution.
Basically, a good heat treatment is enough to protect the plant from harmful microorganisms and pests.
Besides the moss itself is a good antiseptic.
Video instruction, what substrate is needed for orchids:
See the video for varieties of orchid substrates:
Video recipe, how to prepare the soil for orchids with your own hands:
Video advice on the preparation of soil for orchids:
Substrate Composition Option
- Pine bark - 5 parts.
- Moss - 1 part.
- Charcoal - 1 part.
- Expanded clay and pumice stone - drainage.
The remaining components can be added to the individual characteristics and needs of the flower, or when changing modes of temperature and watering.
Medium difficulty substrate
- Charcoal - 1 part.
- Moss - 2 parts.
- Pine bark and chips - 5 pieces.
It is important to mix the constituent parts of the substrate well and in no case do not press it with your hands while strengthening the flower, as this threatens to lose the circulating abilities.
Also, it is very important that all components are well dried, because this will help avoid the occurrence of diseases and parasitic infections.
The container that is used for planting must also be disinfected.
Soil is a much more moisture-based base, which differs from the standard substrate in composition and affiliation. This version of the soil is selected for moisture-loving orchids. To choose exactly what soil is needed for orchids, consider the possible composition.
The composition of the soil for orchids
Scales of pine cones. One of the smallest fillers. Great for creating land for orchids at home. You can collect them in any pine forest with cones. The scales gently peel and immerse in clean water for a day, and then dried.
Before you prepare the soil for orchids, you must carefully consider the scales from all sides to avoid contamination.
The composition of the soil for orchids:
- Land. One of the very important components of the soil. For a long time retains moisture. It is better to collect it in the pine forest from under the layer of fallen needles. Needles can be left.
- Moss sphagnum Soil for orchids with their own hands can not do without this component.
- Peat. This component is a product of the decomposition of moss. It can be purchased at the store, or you can collect it yourself. Only the top peat layer is selected.
- Fallen leaves. Represent a natural nutrient medium for orchids. Perfectly fallen oak leaves. Thanks to the substances included in their composition provides a useful microflora and a barrier against infectious diseases for orchids in the soil. Also suitable are apple and peach leaves that protect against mildew.
- Sand. It is worth using white river sand and large quartz. Less commonly used is yellow.
Sand needs to be cleared of clay inclusions and boiled. It is a good neutral soil disintegrant.
It is easy to prepare a soil for orchids with your own hands. You need to know the correct ratio of components. You can also buy ready-made soil for orchids in a specialty store. Decide which soil is best based on the individual characteristics of the flower.
- Earth - 3 parts.
- Sand - 1 part.
- Charcoal is half a part.
- Peat - 3 parts.
It is important not to add wet soil and unwashed sand. Land for orchids during the movement should be dry.
Many gardeners have a question, is the ordinary land suitable for orchids? The answer is unequivocal - no. Any member of the orchid family needs a good supply of oxygen to the roots in order to avoid rotting. Simple ground or garden mix, bought in a specialty store, unfortunately, are destructive for this kind of flowers. Orchid in the ground - the right way to its death.
For lithophyan species, that is, representatives of orchids, who do not need a substrate and soil in general, landing on the block is provided. The following materials are suitable for creating a block:
- Pine bark.
- Vine grapes.
A block is formed for disembarking in this order:
- First of all, the blank is given the desired shape.
- A hole with a flexible wire for fixing the orchid is made in the middle of the blank.
- The marking is carried out, according to which the flower will be installed.
Then the plant is installed on the block so that the leaves are hung. A small amount of moss is laid under the root, and part of the roots are covered with it.
In this article, we discussed what kind of substrate is needed for the orchid family, how to prepare the soil, and what kind of land is needed for mixtures.