Fruit shrubs

Processing grapes in the spring from pests and diseases

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Processing of grapes in the spring from diseases and pests is a pledge of a rich and intact harvest and the tranquility of a grower. Literate care measures will reduce the time spent on growing vines and avoid many problems with neighboring plants. The main thing - to know all the enemies in the face and the means that will help get rid of them, and even better - to prevent the appearance.

Phylloxera (aphid)

One of the most dangerous pests of the vine, which requires the mandatory processing of grapes in early spring. Such an aphid settles exclusively on the vine, has a greenish tint and small dimensions. Depending on what part of the plant strikes more, distinguish root, leaf and gall aphids.

The main harm is piercing of shoots or roots, leaves and sucking of life-giving juices from them. At the place of settlement characteristic swellings are formed, more often it is the lower part of the leaf plate.

Grape pruritus

Other names for this pest of grapes are phytoptus, felt mite. It occurs in different regions often enough, prefers to eat the foliage, inflorescences are less common.

The main features are characteristic tubercles on the upper part of the leaf plate and saucer-shaped depressions with hairs of pink-white and then brown-red color on the lower part of the leaf. It is also possible to shed flowers.

Sheet wrench

Leaflets are different, but they damage the buds, buds, young fruit ovaries, ripe berries, leaves. With large-scale infection can go to the next berry bushes.

A characteristic sign - twisting and yellowing of foliage, falling off of flowers and berries.

Spider mite

This pest is multifaceted, inhabits more than 200 species of various plants, including grapes. Therefore, you need to know what to process grapes in spring to prevent the spread of mites throughout the garden and garden.

In the place of his settlement, you can see the web, yellow and red leaves, as well as the drying out and falling off of the green mass.

Mealybug

These insects can not be missed, they stand out clearly on the vine. All parts of plants are methodically damaged, therefore, if we carry out the treatment in spring, we can say goodbye not only to the harvest, but also to the bushes themselves.

When such a pest appears in the garden, the plants begin to fade, wither, a whitish wax on the surface of the vine and leaves, and then black dots that indicate the appearance of soot fungi due to the sugary substances secreted by the insects.

Grape pad

Another pest, the larvae of which is able to completely deprive you of the crop and vine. The pincushion reproduces very quickly, therefore at the first signs it is necessary to take appropriate measures urgently.

Important! Also, grapes can attack wasps, which are dangerous not only for plants, but also for humans. They must be fought very competently in order not to provoke a great aggression and attacks.

When to process grapes in early spring

Terms of preventive treatments depend not only on the region. It is also necessary to take into account specific weather conditions. After all, spring may be early, or vice versa - to be late. You also need to focus on the development of the bush itself. Therefore, all recommendations regarding the calendar of ongoing work can be considered approximate.

In Ukraine, the grapes are very favorable climate. Vine is grown in every yard. Climatic conditions allow to do without the shelter of the vineyard for the winter. Already at the end of March, daytime temperatures reach + 5-10 degrees.

From this moment you can begin spring work on the care of grapes. Vines tie to the trellis and produce the first preventive spraying of diseases and pests. If the bush has been covered, processing is carried out immediately after its opening. Re-grapes are sprayed at the time of swelling of the kidneys, and the third prevention is carried out before flowering.

Why the grape bush dies?

Some gardeners are wondering when they see that a previously beautiful vine grows to dry. Why does the shrub become weaker and how does it process the grapes in the spring after opening?

Fade grapes can for several reasons:

  • Closely planted bushes.
  • Bad soil.
  • The plant receives little sunlight (located in the shade).
  • The branches do not stand a large number of berries.
  • In time not cropped crown.
  • Improperly selected fertilizers.
  • Weeds are not removed around the trunk.
  • When watering water falls on the leaves.
  • A large number of fallen leaves at the roots.
  • Excess nitrogen.
  • Mulching is not carried out.
  • Digging the soil.

Digging up the earth does not help the plant, but only aggravates the situation. When loosening, all the pathogenic bacteria immediately rise into the air and settle on the trunk and leaves of the grapes.

Spraying grapes in spring

After winter sleep, when the soil is already quite dry, spring grape processing is a must-have procedure. During this period, you need to remove last year’s leaves and other debris from the roots of the shrub. It is here that accumulates a large number of bacteria and harmful organisms. All dry shoots of grapes are pruned with shears. Clean the trellis from contamination, if any, after the winter period. To direct the branches of the bush in the right direction, tying the garden thread. Cover the soil near the roots with a protective layer. Only after such preparations, it is possible to process the grape bush by chemical means.

It is best to carry out spring spraying grapes in several approaches:

  1. Immediately after the snow fell, when the shrub has not yet become covered with spring buds.
  2. In the period of the appearance of the first leaves.
  3. At the very beginning of flowering shrubs.
  4. During the formation of the fruit.

It is advisable to handle gloves and a respirator, dilute the solution according to the attached instructions to the preparation. In case of an overdose of a chemical, the plant can get poisoned and dry.

Before spraying you need to make sure that the weather does not change for 3-4 days. If it rains the next day, then all the work will be a waste of time. The lower part of the plant is processed to a greater extent, since it is from the soil that various bacteria and pests rise.

Enemies of grapes and how to spray grapes in the spring after opening?

In fact, diseases of the vine is not so little. And they all leave behind themselves disastrous consequences for the bush.

In another way, powdery mildew is the worst enemy for the bush. The disease manifests itself in the form of bent leaves, the appearance of brown spots on the shoots and the subsequent death of the branches.

To fight the disease It should be at its first manifestation. The best "medicine" is sulfur. But, it is effective only if the air temperature is 20 degrees and above. It is better to work the bushes in the evening or early in the morning; in hot weather, burns may occur during the day. For the solution you need to dissolve 100 grams of sulfur in 10 liters of water. The resulting mixture abundantly spray the affected areas of the shrub. A similar procedure is repeated every 10–20 days, depending on the severity of the plant disease. For the prevention of powdery mildew, the concentration of the solution should be reduced to 40 grams of sulfur.

If the weather conditions are less than 20 degreesthen sulfur becomes an ineffective way. In this case, it is recommended to use colloidal sulfur. The drug can be purchased at any gardening shop.

No less dangerous ailment for grapes. Manifested in the form of transparent mucus, formed on the green shoots of the plant. Subsequently, white fluff appears on the back of the leaves and they fall. Berries fade, shrivel and become unfit for consumption. The disease progresses under wet weather conditions. In warm weather, mildew may occur for 4–5 days, while in cold weather, the manifestation of the disease may be delayed for a longer period.

To avoid the infestation of grapes with mildew, it is important to remove weeds and shoots in time. Treatment is based on the chemical treatment of the shrub with antifungal agents with the addition of copper. Spraying is best done before the appearance of white moss.

The most effective way to combat mildew disease is Bordeaux mixture. The solution is copper sulfate compound with quicklime. Minus Bordeaux mixture is instability to rain. After precipitation, the coating is completely washed off.

Preparation of Bordeaux mixture: 100 g of copper sulphate mixed with five liters of warm water, in another container 130 g of lime diluted in 5 liters of water and drain. Pour the bluestone into the lime, while stirring.

  • Phylloxera root and leaf.

The underground (root) phylloxera affects the roots of a plant, and when digging up from the roots, you can see the hillocks. Leaf bacteria harm the crown of grapes. In winter, the pests are in a state of sleep, in the spring when warming they begin to feed on the sap of the leaves, also forming tubercles.

An infected shrub can grow and bear fruit for another two to three years, depending on the age of the plant, the mature plant dies longer. This reduces the harvest and changes the taste of berries.

To avoid contamination of the shrub with phylloxera, it is recommended that prophylactic spraying of the shrub with insecticides and fungicides.

Processing is carried out in three periods:

  1. after blooming leaves
  2. before flowering,
  3. after the formation of ovaries.

Malathion is the best remedy against pest phylloxera. One bag is dissolved in eight liters of water. An alternative drug Kinmikson - 1 ampoule dissolved in 10 liters of water.

Phylloxera pests do not live in sandy soil. When planting, you need to dig a large hole and fill the bottom with sand. Such a soil will not allow rot and pests to develop.

Leaf-worm is a pest butterfly that feeds on leaves, buds, and berries. It is characterized by the presence of cobwebs on the bushes. Common types of shepherd - cluster, grape, two-year. Often spreads from weeds that are close to the bush.

The most popular drugs: DNOC, fosalon, chlorophos. Means of struggle used strictly according to the instructions.

If the affected area is small, you can install traps. On the back of the leaves are hung plastic bottles with grape juice. Insects switch to juice and drown in sticky liquid.

Insect pruritus can survive the winter by climbing under the buds of the plant. The affected area has an itchy oval convex white shape. If there are few leaves with such signs, then they can be simply collected and burned. If most grapes are affected, chemicals are needed.

In the autumn after abscission of leaves "naked" shrub completely covered with a lime mixture of 5%. In the spring when blooming leaves using a colloidal mixture. Repeated spraying is necessary if foliage infection continues.

Spray Safety

  1. In the evening in calm weather.
  2. Put the children in a safe area.
  3. Wear protective gloves, a raincoat, a respirator.
  4. Spray from top to bottom.

Grape care is very important for the plant and future harvest. Plain weeding, mulching and timely spraying will rid the grapes of pests and diseases.

Mealy false dew or perinospora

The most popular type of fungal disease that affects all parts of shrubs. On the shoots of the leaves are formed oily spots of a round shape, but of different sizes, then a whitish, fluffy patina appears. If you do not process the grapes in spring, the disease will lead to the death of the plant.

Oidium or powdery mildew

It is also a fungal disease, only the causative agent is another type of pathogenic microorganisms of this group. The disease begins with the fact that some shoots slow down in growth, then the leaves curl, on the surface of a white-gray dust.

Also a fungal disease that affects all parts of the shrub. May persist on plant up to 5 years. The main signs are the presence of brown spots with a dark white border, the dying off of tissues, the falling off of leaves, berries, cracking of shoots.

Gray rot

It affects the green mass of shrubs and annual plants throughout the year. It is especially dangerous during vaccinations, as it affects not only the place of the shoots themselves, but also the place of their engraftment. When infected on the eyes and young branches, a raid of gray color is formed, which then spreads to the clusters. The berries shrivel and turn into a mushy mass, the rest of the plant die off.

Black spot (escoriosis)

It affects both young and stiffened parts of the shrub. Characteristic features are discoloration of the cortex, spots in the internodes, black dots on the branches and their cracking. If you do not treat the bush, then it will die.

Important! Other diseases such as white, bitter, root rot, and necrosis also affect grape plantations.

When and how to treat grapes from diseases?

In addition to special tools, you can use folk remedies to spray grapes from diseases in early spring. Take note of the most effective ways to help solve various problems with the vine.

Important! It is not necessary to saturate the vine with different chemicals from every possible disease. It is enough to choose a drug that will provide comprehensive protection against several strains of fungi.

Bordeaux liquid

This solution helps from:

  • downy mildew,
  • gray rot,
  • oidium
  • anthracnose.

The concentration of the solution is selected, depending on the age and stage of plant development:

  • a young bush, which has not yet begun to grow, is treated with a 2.5-3% solution,
  • if the green cone has already formed, it is better not to exceed 1% concentration.

Important! Note that in case of overdose, the development of shrubs and young shoots may be inhibited.

inkstone

This compound is mainly used for chlorosis, but it will also help from other infections:

  • bacterial cancer,
  • anthracnose,
  • downy mildew,
  • spotted necrosis.

The optimum concentration of the solution includes 500 g of iron sulphate and 10 liters of water.

Important! The same tool will be an excellent preventive measure against the grape cushion and a worm, plus it will protect the plant from damage during frost.

Universal preventive drug that is ideal for processing grapes in spring. The degree of toxicity is relatively low, but the efficiency is quite high.

Important! The protective action after spraying is maintained for 2 weeks, and the product is not washed off by rain.

Ridomil will help with:

  • black rot
  • downy mildew,
  • gray spot,
  • late blight,
  • macrosporosis.

Important! When preparing solutions from any chemical means, strictly follow the recommendations specified by the manufacturer in the instructions. In this case, it will take 25 grams to 5 liters of water. Prepare a mixture of "Ridomila" immediately before processing bushes.

About the timing of spring processing and means

It is important to understand that different agents have different degrees of toxicity, penetrate the plant differently and are not kept there for the same time.

Therefore, deciding when and how to process grapes in spring, be guided by the recommendations of manufacturers of special preparations and practicing gardeners:

  1. Before the swelling of the kidneys. Here is useful solution based on iron or copper sulphate.
  2. When leafing and before the buds swell. The best choice will be Tiavit and Ridomil.
  3. When opening the kidneys, it is better to spray Bi-58 or Vermitek.
  4. Before flowering, recommended Topaz and Ridomil.
  5. After flowering, you can use the "Quadris" and "Strobe."

Protecting grapes from pests and diseases is not only possible but necessary. By completing the spring spraying several times, you save yourself from a lot of problems and get a bountiful harvest of usable, tasty berries!

In outskirts of Moscow

In the middle lane, grapes need constant care. With improper cultivation, bushes get sick easily, so spring treatment for diseases and pests is a mandatory measure for the vine in the Moscow region. Active work in the vineyard begins around mid-April.

To determine more accurate dates, it is necessary to observe the weather for several years and, based on these data, make a calendar of work schedules. As soon as you can be sure that the frosts will not return anymore, the bushes release from the shelter and fix the shoots on the trellis for airing. After that, the vine is cleaned with a brush from the remnants of the earth and conduct a primary spraying. Then during the spring the treatment is carried out twice more.

In the Urals, in Siberia

Due to the harsh climate in the Urals, grapes are grown only in the southern regions. When choosing a variety, preference should be given to zoned, frost-resistant varieties with early ripening periods. Due to the cool summer and abundance of rain, dark grapes cannot fully ripen here.

For cultivation in the Urals suitable white and pink varieties with a mandatory cover for the winter. The first treatment against pests and diseases is carried out immediately after removing the covering material towards the end of April. Через 7-10 дней опрыскивание повторяют. В третий раз виноградник обрабатывают перед цветением.

Климат Сибири характеризуется поздним наступлением весны и частыми весенними заморозками. Но и здесь есть энтузиасты, которые берутся за выращивание винограда. The solution may be the construction of a temporary greenhouse in the spring, which will open the vine earlier. If this is not possible, it is recommended to remove the shelter in early or mid-May. Then begin all the work in the vineyard, including preventive spraying. Only early northern varieties can be grown in this region.

How to process grapes in early spring

The preventive treatment of grapes from pests and diseases in early spring should not be missed. After all, it is at this time that the whole pathogenic microflora and harmful insects are activated, as there is an increase in temperature and humidity. Preventive spraying should be carried out as early as possible, if you linger on the deadlines, the work done will be useless.

They process not only the vine and the trunk of the vineyard, but also the ground under the bushes. Often it is from the soil that pests and microorganisms move to the plant and infect it. When processing, special attention is paid to the bends and irregularities of the trunk in the vineyard, it is in hard-to-reach places that the larvae and fungal spores can hide. The mass march of pests begins in the last decade of April, which is why processing is required to be carried out in advance.

Do not forget to inspect the vineyard. If, after the first treatment, the pests still appeared, it will be necessary to spray the bushes again. The interval between the first and second spraying should be at least 10 days.

What does the experts recommend to handle in the spring? What are the features of these drugs and what do they help?

Copper sulphate

Spring processing of the vineyard with copper sulfate (copper sulfate) serves two purposes at once. First of all, the drug is a powerful fungicide that kills fungal spores remaining on the shoots after the winter, at the same time its use scares off harmful insects. The basis of this substance is copper, which is easily digestible by plants, therefore, in addition to protection, copper sulfate also gives plants additional fertilizing.

This chemical is marketed as a blue powder. Gardeners value it for efficiency and low cost. In times of shortage, it was the only fungicide available to summer residents, its action has been repeatedly confirmed in practice and is not in doubt. Copper sulfate is universal in its application - it copes with both diseases and pests.

To prepare the solution consumes 50 g of copper sulphate per 10 liters of water. But note that the composition can not be cooked in a metal dish. Use plastic, glass or enameled container for this. The indicated dosage is suitable for young bushes, for a more mature vineyard, the concentration is doubled.

Bordeaux mixture

By itself, the copper sulfate solution is quite a strong acid. Its use can cause stress in plants. In order to mitigate the effects of copper sulfate, quick lime is added to the composition, which neutralizes excess acidity. For the first time this method was applied in the French province of Bordeaux, so this composition was called the "Bordeaux fluid".

Bordeaux liquid can be bought in the store, or cook yourself. The purchased mixture will need to be diluted with water to the desired consistency. If you decide to make the composition yourself, you will need 300 g of copper sulphate and quicklime per 10 liters of water. The cooking process is as follows:

  1. Water is heated until it becomes hot.
  2. Lime is poured at the bottom of the container and poured with two liters of heated water, as a result of which the quenching process begins.
  3. In a separate enameled bucket of the remaining water and copper sulfate powder, a solution of blue vitriol is prepared, which is then added to the lime solution.
  4. While combining the ingredients, the liquid must be vigorously stirred with a wooden stick.
  5. The finished composition is allowed to cool and filter it.

Bordeaux liquid is used for spraying immediately after production. Solution is not subject to long storage. After about 5 hours, the liquid will begin to thicken and become unusable.

Nitrafen

The insecticide nitrafen has proven itself well to eradicate the pests that have been wintering in the vineyard. The most effective drug acts just before the opening of the kidneys. The tool comes in the form of a paste of brown color, which is diluted with water. The finished solution should have a 3% concentration. Nitrafen kills eggs laid by pests, effectively fights all types of ticks and destroys fungal spores.

The tool is strong, so for the season it is used once - in early spring. In addition to pests, nitrafen destroys pathogens of scab, powdery mildew, septoria, rust and other diseases, disinfects the soil, that is, it is a preparation of complex action.

Drug 30B

This insecticide fell in love with many gardeners because of the effective impact not only on insects, but also on their larvae. In appearance, the drug is an oily brown liquid.

The emulsion is consumed at the rate of 250 ml per 5 liters of warm water. Spraying the drug is made before bud break. In the process of flowering and formation of ovaries to use insecticide is not recommended.

By means of Ridomil Gold

Ridomil Gold is a popular fungicide used for spring processing of grapes. He effectively copes with the most common disease of grapes - mildew. The main active ingredients of this drug are mancozeb and mefenoxam. The first component protects the surface of the leaves, and the second penetrates the tissues and provides internal protection against the disease.

Folk remedies

As popular methods used to process the vineyard, affordable and inexpensive means that act quite effectively are used. Some of them do not require the cost of the purchase.

  1. For example, plants will help to get rid of mildew. In particular, you can use a strong decoction of horsetail or a concentrated garlic extract, which is sprayed with the fungus-affected vine. It will take several treatments with an interval of 5-7 days for the complete healing of grapes.
  2. With the defeat of powdery mildew, the vineyard is treated with a milk solution prepared at the rate of 1 liter of milk per bucket of water. From the same scourge helps weakly concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. Powdery mildew and soap and soda solution, which is prepared from 40 g of soda ash, 40 g of soap and 10 liters of water.
  3. To prevent the attack of spider mites, you can spray the grapes in spring with tincture of garlic. For its preparation, 50 g of purified garlic is poured with 0.5 l of water and allowed to brew for 2-3 hours, then filtered and diluted with another liter of water. Will help from pests and decoction of potato tops. It is prepared from 2 kg of stems, which is poured with a bucket of boiling water. After 4-5 hours, the product will infuse and be ready for use.
  4. For the prevention of fungal diseases, grapes in spring can be sprayed with onion peel extract. Metal bucket half filled with husk, topped up to the top of the water and put to boil. After 20 minutes, turn off the fire and insist broth for a day, then filter, add 1 tablespoon of honey and diluted with 10 liters of water.

Calendar of spring grape treatments

Before the first spring treatment, it is necessary to give the vineyard a well-groomed appearance. Even before budding, it is necessary to have time to prune old and frostbitten shoots, remove all plant debris from the ground. If necessary, fix and repair the tapestries. Clods of earth break, clear the aisle of debris. The remaining shoots tie or fix in another way. After that, you can proceed to the prophylactic spraying. Many gardeners set it aside for May and June, but this is wrong.

The first treatment can be carried out around mid-April, when the air temperature is set at 11 degrees Celsius. Of course, the dates are adjusted depending on the region. It is necessary to focus on the temperature. You can't wait for the buds to bloom. Their swelling can provoke hungry pests to attack.

The second time the bushes are sprayed "on the fifth leaf." It is after the appearance of such a number of leaves on each shoot that the vine must be subjected to preventive treatment again. The interval between the first and second spraying is about 2-3 weeks.

Before flowering

The flowering of grapes may begin from May 30 to June 20, depending on the climatic conditions of a particular area. During this period, no work is recommended in the vineyard. But on the eve of flowering the vine is processed to prevent or destroy beetles and their larvae. You can use specialized drugs - Thunder-2, Pochin, Provotoks. Young branches during this period should be priten from the sun to avoid burns. Watering the grapes is rare.

Processing grapes from early spring: video

It is the spring treatments of the crop that are very important, as they help to preserve the health and strength of the vines, which is the key to a successful harvest. It is advisable to record all the work carried out in the form of a table - this will help with the time to create your own grower calendar. After all, the vine lives up to 100 years, which means that all the accumulated knowledge will be useful to you.

Colloidal sulfur

Colloidal sulfur (cumulus) is a therapeutic and prophylactic agent that is used to protect fruit crops from fungal diseases and ticks. Cumulus granules contain up to 80% sulfur. The substance does not accumulate in plants, does not pollute the soil layer, does not pose a threat to people and animals, but when working with it, you must observe precautions. The greatest effect of using the product is observed in dry and calm weather at air temperatures from 16 ° C to 18 ° C, and at temperatures above 35 ° C, leaves will be damaged.

This fungicide successfully fights with oidium, and also stimulates the growth and development of the plant. For processing 100 m 2 occupied by grapes, it will be necessary, with constant stirring, to dissolve 30–60 g of the drug in 10 liters of water. Get a suspension that you want to use immediately. The permissible number of chemical treatments per season is 4–6.

Colloidal sulfur can not be used in dry and hot weather, as the leaves can suffer from a burn

Ridomil Gold MC

Ridomil Gold MC is a low-toxic Swiss-made therapeutic and prophylactic agent popular among winegrowers. The active ingredients of the drug are mancozeb and mefenoxam. Ridomil Gold MC is used to protect leaves, shoots and soil on which the grapes grow, from mildew and rust during active growth of the shrub until the fifth leaf appears, with an interval of 7-10 days. The effectiveness of the drug is very high, the effect lasts 2 weeks and lasts during heavy rains. Spray need in dry weather without wind, preferably in the morning or in the evening.

For a vineyard area of ​​one weave enough 25 g of granulated chemical dissolved in 10 liters of water. The solution should be prepared only on the day of application and be used in full not later than 3 hours after preparation, as it quickly loses its properties.

The drug can be alternated with fungicides of similar action, for example, with Thiovit Jet.

Ridomil Gold MC successfully fights mildew and rust

Zineb - weakly toxic fungicide with the same active substance, has a system-contact effect on pathogens with mildew. It comes in the form of a white or pale yellow powder and has a sharp unpleasant odor. For spraying grapes, 40 g of the preparation is diluted in 600 ml of water, thoroughly mixed and filled in a sprayer, in which water is added to obtain 10 liters of liquid.

The effect of exposure to the active substance is maintained for 10–14 days. The drug is not recommended to be used on an ongoing basis for more than 2–3 years, since the development and growth of grapes is disturbed, and the development of oidium may also increase. For this reason, Zineb needs to be alternated with other copper-containing agents, for example, Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride, and only be used until the end of the flowering of the grapes, and after it spray the bushes with Bordeaux fluid.

In addition to the therapeutic and prophylactic effect, the use of Zineb at the time of flowering of grapes increases the number of ovaries, which contributes to improved yield.

The consumption rate of Zineb for mildew is 6 kg per 1 hectare

Why handle the vineyard in the spring

The main purpose of spring treatments of grape plantations is the prevention of diseases, reducing the likelihood of damage to crops by insects. The problem is easier to prevent than to spend time and effort later on treating hives, getting rid of a tick or aphids.

Spring activities do not exclude summer treatments, but they help to significantly reduce the risk of disease. It is difficult to predict what the weather will be in summer. Protracted rains, drought, coolness - all these factors affect the state of the vineyard, the yield. The treated plantings are unattractive for pests, the grapes are sick less, the yield is increasing.

  • spraying
  • soil treatment around the bushes.

Handle the sleeves of bushes, shtaby, vine, near-stem circles.

Apply chemical compounds, biological products, folk remedies. Effective and environmentally friendly formulations made from natural ingredients are suitable for prophylaxis. But with the appearance of infections, they often do not give results, it is necessary to apply "chemistry".

Tillage includes loosening the upper layer (up to 13–15 cm) in the barrel wheel, mulching with compost, peat.

Grape diseases

Among the most common culture-threatening infections are:

  • mildew,
  • gray and black rot,
  • oidium
  • anthracnose,
  • septoria,
  • chlorosis.

Fungal infections are dangerous because they spread too quickly over plantings, damaging shoots, leaves, berries themselves. Disease prevention is more effective than the treatment itself, with less financial expenses.

What grape pests need to fight in spring

Before the summer heat, it is desirable to treat the vineyards from dangerous and insidious aphid phylloxera. There are no effective drugs from the pest, therefore, the role of preventive sprays is especially increasing.

Among the insects that cause the vineyards the greatest harm:

  • grape mites (spider webs, leaf and felt),
  • leaf wrappers,
  • Khrushchi.

Pest larvae overwinter in soil and plant residues in near-stem circles. With the onset of heat, the pests are activated, moving from hibernation to the period of wakefulness and further development. At this time it is necessary not to miss the terms of spraying.

When to process grapes in spring

In most regions of Russia, the culture is grown by covering method. In early spring, with the arrival of warm days, the vine is gradually opened, tied to a trellis wire, aired after wintering. Fully removing the protection, proceed to the preparation of plants for the new season.

  1. Immediately after the opening of the bushes after wintering. In the middle lane - the first half of April, in the south - the end of March. Oriented according to the weather, not allowing vines that have become weak after winter to freeze. Use fungicides.
  2. The second time the grape bushes are sprayed in the second half of April. At this time, buds bloom, the first leaves appear. Use insecticides against the dangerous pests of culture. In case the insects were marked on the bushes last season, the treatment with insecticides is repeated (after about 10-12 days).
  3. The third treatment falls on the period after flowering bushes. The procedure is final, apply a mixture of drugs.

The selection of funds depends on the varieties planted on the site, the general condition of the plants. If the planting is healthy, there were no outbreaks of infection or insect infestation of the bushes last year, then it is enough to use folk remedies and low-toxic chemicals.

With large quantities of pests and the presence of disease in previous seasons, it will be necessary to pay more attention to spring treatments. Some popular recipes can not do, it is necessary to use highly effective insecticides and fungicides.

How to process grapes in spring

In the gardener's arsenal there must be various preparations for sprinkling the vine.

  • chemical (active substance - the combination of chemical elements),
  • biological (based on bacteria that cause the death of pathogens, microorganisms),
  • funds prepared according to popular recipes.

The compositions are also divided by purpose:

  • fungicides (suppress fungal infections),
  • insecticides (directed against insect pests).

When choosing, they take into account climatic conditions, grape varieties, their resistance to diseases and pest infestation.

Bordeaux mixture

Means of protective action, effective against mildew, anthracnose. Prepare compositions of different concentrations:

  • 3% - for spraying before budding
  • 1% - after flowering bushes.

Valid for 8-12 days. Совместима со всеми основными препаратами, исключение – средства, содержащие в составе тирам.

Медный купорос

Относится к фунгицидным средствам широкого спектра воздействия. Используется для профилактики грибковых инфекций, отличается высокой эффективностью.

Для первых обработок весной применяют концентрацию 300 граммов на ведро воды, для повторной профилактики – 100 граммов на 10 литров. Период действия – 7-14 дней. Запрещается применение препарата в период цветения винограда.

Коллоидная сера

The tool is a broad-spectrum, used to prevent the development of foci of mildew, oidium. It has a lasting effect, it is considered one of the best means for spring prophylaxis.

Application: spraying of grapes before bud break. Ingredients: 40 grams per bucket of cool water. It is recommended to process bushes simultaneously with copper-based preparations.

Vermitec saves ticks and grape pruritus. Means quickly gets into fabrics of plants, does not form spots on culture.

Active ingredient: abamectin. Working composition: dilute 5-8 ml to a bucket of water.

Spray Vermitekom landing immediately after the opening of the bushes, in the period of swelling of the kidneys.

Of the new generation of drugs for grapes used BI-58 - contact insecticide. Active ingredient - dimetoat. In the spring, as a preventive measure, grapes are sprayed with BI-58 solution from spider and felt mites, aphids.

Working solution: dilute one ampoule (5 ml) in a bucket of water.

Use the composition immediately after preparation. Storage of diluted solution BI-58 is not suitable.

Biological agents

As part of the means - the products of soil fungus, affecting insect pests. On grapes, it is effective to apply Aktofit (or agravertin, acarin) against a moth and a spider mite shaker.

Use: prevention, at the time of the appearance of insects. Working solution: dilute 20 ml of Actophyte in a bucket of water. It is recommended to add soap shavings or shampoo to the composition for sticking. The waiting period is two days.

Trichodermin

Non-toxic, perfectly combined with other means (preparation of tank mixes).

Working solution: dilute 50 ml of the product in a bucket of water. It is desirable to take water not chlorinated. The first treatment - from the period of blooming of the kidneys, then - after 20 days (for prevention). Recommended treatment of bushes in cloudy weather, after rain. At high humidity, Trichoderma shows high activity.

Phytosporin

At the core - hay stick, humic additives are also present. The drug is known among gardeners, gardeners due to its effectiveness.

There are no waiting periods, the result depends on weather conditions. In the spring, the grapes are processed during the bud period, the next time after flowering.

Working solution: dilute 15 ml of Fitosporin into a bucket of water. It is advisable to first make a concentrated solution (in two liters of water), and then bring it to a full ten-liter volume.

An effective biological product, based on the obtained and fungal cell substance mikosan. Application in the vineyards as a prophylactic agent provides protection against fungal diseases, contributes to increased resistance to adverse weather conditions.

Processing time: when the first leaflets appear. Working solution: dilute 100 ml of Mikosan with 4 liters. In tank mixtures with other drugs of biological origin is not used.

For watering the grape bushes under the root and spraying before the leafing leaves, Ecogel is recommended. It is based on the substance chitosan, which activates protective functions in plants and contributes to an increase in immunity.

As a result, grapes are able to withstand dangerous fungal and bacterial diseases. Planting before the first leaves watered at the root, after the blooming of greenery - sprayed.

The use of biopreparations Planriz, Nematophagin, Gaupsin in spring gives a good effect.

Folk remedies

From fungal spores, pest invasions help the treatment with formulations based on natural products. Among them:

In the spring it is useful to process the vines with the following compounds:

  1. Milk solution. A liter of nonfat milk is diluted in a bucket of water and stirred. Sprayed for prevention of powdery mildew.
  2. At the stage of blooming kidneys shows the use of a mixture of soap and ash. The products are diluted 1: 1 in a bucket of cool water.
  3. A solution of iodine will protect against the appearance of gray rot: the bottle is diluted in five liters of water, the vine is sprayed during the period of leaflets.
  4. Garlic tincture gives a good result. It helps from all types of ticks, itchy. 50 grams of crushed garlic cloves are stirred in 500 ml of water. Then everything is diluted with water, the volume - one liter. Treated vines in early spring, then in the period before flowering bushes.
  5. Before a set of color, and then after apply the infusion of peeled onions. To do this, take half a ten-liter bucket of husk, pour water and simmer for about 20-30 minutes. Then removed, left for 24-30 hours, filtered. Add a little honey (enough tablespoon), mix, spray the bushes.

What common mistakes gardeners make

Even experienced growers do not always properly handle planting in the spring. Major errors:

  1. Non-compliance with the processing time. Spraying is carried out immediately after the opening of the vines, then observe the intervals, taking into account weather conditions and the state of the plants. During the period of flowering of grapes, no procedures are performed. Next, renew prophylaxis, also monitor the plantings and adjust the patterns of use of funds.
  2. Concentrations of drug solutions are disturbed.
  3. Lack of prevention. Novice farmers because of the strong employment in the spring do not carry out treatment, which leads to outbreaks of disease and yield loss.

Spring treatments are an important part of the overall agricultural culture. Without preventive measures, grapes are vulnerable to pests and diseases. Treatment in the later periods is often ineffective, the risk of death of the crop and the plants themselves is high. Therefore, you should not experiment, it is better to listen to the advice of experts and handle the landing according to the recommendations.

Evgeny, Belgorod

I am always with the grape harvest, and I believe that spring processing helps a lot. Over the years I developed my own scheme, sometimes I make changes. Usually in the period before flowering I process with Thanos and Topaz. After flowering, I use Topaz in conjunction with Ridomil. It is possible to completely “close” the oidium. Sometimes slips mildew, but not enough.

Sergey, Kursk Region

In the spring I always spray the vines, but the main works still come in the summer. I always tie the circuit to the weather conditions. In my climate, the main enemies are mildew and oidium. Therefore, in April I pass with treatment with Topaz and Ridomil, after flowering with Topaz. The last three years the summer was good, dry, so there was no mildew. Including due to prophylaxis.

Table: Other Grape Protection Products

  • Anthracnose,
  • powdery mildew,
  • oidium
  • Pliers,
  • leafworms.
  • Anthracnose,
  • rubella,
  • mildew,
  • gray rot
  • black spot.
  • Mildew,
  • gray rot
  • Anthracnose,
  • mildew,
  • oidium
  • spotted necrosis,
  • chalcosporosis,
  • worms,
  • scythes
  • Anthracnose,
  • mildew,
  • oidium
  • gray rot
  • black spot.
  • Pliers,
  • flyers,
  • powdery mildew,
  • spotting
  • gray rot
  • Anthracnose,
  • rubella,
  • mildew,
  • escoriosis
  • Anthracnose,
  • mildew,
  • oidium
  • spotted anthracnose.
  • Rubella,
  • mildew,
  • oidium
  • gray rot
  • rust,
  • black rot
  • black spot.
  • Pliers,
  • powdery mildew,
  • oidium
  • Powdery mildew,
  • oidium
  • Anthracnose,
  • powdery mildew,
  • gray rot
  • Mildew,
  • powdery mildew,
  • oidium
  • fruit and gray rot,
  • leaf spot.

With repeated spraying, the interval between treatments is on average 10–14 days.

Terms of spring spraying

Spring processing of grapes is carried out in five stages:

  1. Primary spraying of grapes should be carried out immediately after the opening of the vines.
  2. The second treatment is carried out after swelling and disclosure of the kidneys (2 weeks after the first).
  3. The third spraying is carried out in late April - early May, when 3-5 true leaves appear.
  4. The fourth spraying anticipates the beginning of flowering.
  5. The fifth treatment is carried out when the grapes are in the pea stage.

The proposed calendar of treatments will not lose the next harvest. If timely preventive work is carried out, then nothing will happen to the vineyard even in rainy weather, which contributes to the development of fungal diseases.

Additional spraying will be needed only when there is evidence of disease. If hot weather has already been established, then from the oidium will help:

In case of wet weather, the following medications will be effective for the treatment of mildew:

Effective treatment for oidium in hot weather - spraying fungicides

First eradication treatment

In early spring, until the buds are swollen, the vine opened after winter should be completely sprayed with a special sprayer with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid.

How to prepare Bordeaux liquid:

  1. Into a non-metallic container pour 1–2 l of hot water, dissolve 300 g of copper sulphate, and then pour cold water to obtain 5 l of liquid.
  2. Pour 2–3 l of hot water into another container and dilute 400 g of lime in it, add cold water to a volume of 5 l and strain it through gauze.
  3. In a container of lime milk, carefully, with constant stirring, pour the solution of copper sulfate and stir. The result is a liquid saturated blue.
  4. Before using Bordeaux liquid, it is necessary to check its concentration with a litmus test: if it changes color to blue, it means that the mixture is prepared correctly. If the litmus test turns red, then lime is not enough.
  5. The prepared composition should be stored no more than 10 hours, and it is better to use immediately without residue.

Bordeaux liquid is not washed off by rain and protects grapes from pests for a whole month.

For spraying Bordeaux liquid, it is not recommended to use a metal sprayer, otherwise the oxidation process will begin.

Spray the grapes should be carefully and only in the wind, trying not to splash on clothing and soil. To avoid exposure to toxic fumes, you must use a respirator and protect your eyes with glasses. Work with Bordeaux liquids should be carried out in waterproof clothing and footwear, rubber gloves and a headdress.

Land should be sprayed under the bushes, and then between the rows. The next step is mulching, and it is not necessary to loosen the soil. The effect of treatment Bordeaux liquid persists for one month.

Treatment before kidney swelling

This stage begins after the air warms up above 5 ° C. The vine must first be cleaned from the ground and then sprayed with 2% Nitrafen solution or 1% DNOC solution. These drugs are indispensable for the prevention of the appearance of leaflets and ticks. It is better to use protective agents before the buds swell: if they are applied later, during the blooming of the leaves, the plants will burn and may die.

Vine protection during bud and leaf blooming

At the end of April - the beginning of May, when the buds swell and open, the grapes must be treated with drugs that fight mildew and oidium. In the fight against these diseases, it is recommended to use Aktellik or Bi-58 New in combination with Poliram or Horus. At 100 m 2 of the vineyard usually 10 g of the drug is enough. Processing is carried out in the evening at an air temperature not higher than 22 ° C.

According to unconfirmed information, if the air temperature rises above 25 ° C, then the drug Horus does not have the proper effect on the causative agents of grape diseases. At the forums of wine-growers and sites dedicated to the cultivation of grapes, such information is not available.

In the same period, one of the drugs that fight ticks, who like to feast on young leaves, should be added to the tank mixture. In this regard, the drug Sunmite perfectly proved itself.

When buds start to bloom and the first leaves appear, spraying chemicals will protect the plants from pests.

Spraying before flowering

Before the flowering of the grapes, the following spraying scheme is applied: Ridomil Gold MC + Topaz (can be replaced by Strobe) + Actellic:

  • Ridomil Gold MC successfully cope with mildew,
  • Topaz will help prevent oidium disease
  • Aktellik versatile insecticide is effective against leafworms and mites.

It is necessary to begin processing in 3–5 days prior to the beginning of budding.

Protective spraying of the grapes should not be carried out in sunny weather, as this provokes the formation of sunburn on the leaves. Morning hours are also not recommended for processing the vineyard: at this time of the day high humidity persists, and the dew has not evaporated yet. For these reasons, it is more efficient to spray the bushes of grapes on a cloudy day without precipitation or on a windless evening.

When spraying Bordeaux liquid, the bush must be completely covered with the prepared solution.

In drawing up the processing scheme, it is necessary to take into account the local climate. The proposed schemes are not an axiom, but an approximate plan, in which adjustments can be made depending on weather conditions. For example, with constant rainfall, the effect of exposure to protective agents will be weaker than in dry and windless weather.

It is important to remember that the use of drugs with the same spectrum of exposure in the same mixture will create an excessive load on the plant and will lead to phytotoxicity. Through trial and error, you can always find a suitable combination of fungicides and folk remedies that will help create a healthy vineyard with an excellent harvest of magnificent berries.

Video: spring sprinkling of grapes

To reduce the development of diseases in the vineyards, you can use long-tried folk recipes against mildew and oidium, anthracnose, etc. Skip a glass of garlic through a meat grinder. The resulting mixture is placed in a one-liter jar and topped up with water to the top and leave for a day in a dark place. Pour 6-7 liters of water into a 10-liter bucket, add potassium permanganate to make the water pink, two spoons of iodized salt and mix well. For sticking add household soap, strain the infusion of garlic into the solution and add up to 10 liters of water, mix. Process twice per season. The results are very good.

Sergey, Voronezh region

http://lozavrn.ru/index.php?topic=15.0

Though I am small, I still have experience. So, on my own mistakes, I can say that I will do this season: when I open the bushes, I will spray the blue vitriol, then during the season there will be at least three treatments of Ridomil Gold + Topaz or Strobe + Topaz.

Last season, I made one at the beginning on a leaf, but I didn’t do berries before ripening - in the end I had to harvest all at once, since it started with mildew. And at the end before the shelter of iron vitriol. And of course, dressing under the root and on the leaf.

Iyuluk, Zhytomyr

http://www.sadiba.com.ua/forum/showthread.php?t=14904

If we are talking about mildew and oidium, then Strobe helps very well. I understand that this is chemistry, but one such processing is enough and more I grapes and garden in the season (in the sense of chemistry) do not touch. Usually in April I process with one solution - Strobe, Sempai, carbamide, HB-101, microelements. There is a certain desire to switch to Fitosporin, but somehow I won’t make up my mind - there is a risk that it will not work. And then, a proven scheme, with 100% success. And with the opening of the winter shelter you should not be late, otherwise the vine will become covered in spots - as in the country it dries a little, I open the grapes and dry them.

Neighbor uses Bordeaux mixture or HOM, but he sprinkles several times over the season. I think this is not an option.

The drug Strobe and its derivatives are systemic drugs, they are best used as prevention, the reason is that the mushrooms quickly adapt to them, and the drug begins to act worse if used for the treatment of diseases, its duration is sharply reduced, so I use it at the beginning of the growing season and then before flowering or immediately after. I alternate processing, well recommended processing Ridomil Gold + Tilt or Topsin M.

Udachnik, Zaporozhye

http://dacha.wcb.ru/index.php?showtopic=41702&st=40

Each grower has his own scheme of treatments, but for the basis I take already tested over the years:

1. In the spring, on the closed kidney: Nitrafen or Double blow.

2. Growth of shoots 3-5 cm: Topaz from early oidium.

3. The growth of shoots is 50–70 cm and this is before flowering: copper-containing preparations and plus BI-58N, as prevention from the appearance of ticks and other evil spirits.

4. After pollination, when the berry with a pea: sulfur-containing drugs + insecticide from the leaflet.

These are all preventive works, and I do them regardless of whether the grapes are sick or not. It is like a commitment to sleep well. Of course, it happens that this is enough for the season, but just in case, I always keep Ridomil Gold in my possession, as a drug that has proven well in the rapid extinguishing of outbreaks of mildew.

I have long forgotten what Bordeaux mixture is, and I treat for the prophylaxis with any of the available drugs: Oxy, Polych, Hom, Fundazol, copper oxychloride, Abiga-Peak. The fact is that these are drugs of system-local or contact action, and that period, which is indicated as a period of disintegration, I can sleep peacefully, regardless of weather conditions. But if I treat the vineyard with Bordeaux mixture, then after the first rain I have to take the sprayer again and again, and this is exhausting.

Fursa Irina Ivanovna

http://vinforum.ru/index.php?PHPSESSID=ooiio635fsgglvhfu6fttdp7m2&topic=32.0

For the prevention of diseases, many of which appear in the rainy season, in dry weather you need to tie grapes bushes on the trellis. Upon detection of the first signs of disease and damage by pests, the treatment of plants with therapeutic and prophylactic agents should immediately begin. Better yet, in order to prevent them from spraying the plants from the time of the opening of the vine until the beginning of flowering.

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