Today I want to tell you in detail how to grow a lemon from a stone at home. And not just a lemon, but a real tree with fragrant and healthy fruits. Last year I wrote about the cultivation of mandarin from the stone and in the comments was a request to tell about the lemon. There are some points that need to be considered in order to drink tea with your lemons in a few years.
Growing lemon from the stone at home
Lemon is an evergreen shrub with glossy, fleshy leaves. On them and the branches of the bush are many pores that emit essential oils and volatile production - this is a familiar wonderful lemon scent.
Lemon grows at home a small tree, but it can be up to three meters. On the branches it has small spines, the leaves are dark green. Lemon has beautiful small flowers - pink-red or purple on top and white inside.
It’s just that you don’t surprise anyone with a lemon tree, but a tree with fruits is not so common. But this is quite a feasible task for everyone.
Let's start from the beginning. You need to choose the right seeds for planting and prepare the ground. Choose a beautiful, smooth, ripe lemon fruit. From it we choose the best - large seeds. And we plant in a wet state - it is not necessary to dry, otherwise they will grow for a long time or will not germinate at all.
Before planting, you can treat the seeds with any biostimulant for fast germination and the formation of good roots in the future. To do this, prepare the solution according to the instructions for the preparation - and soak the seeds for the night.
It is necessary to prepare tanks for sowing and good soil. You can buy pots for seedlings in the store or use for this a glass of yogurt or sour cream, cut plastic bottles. At the bottom you need to make holes and put drainage. These can be shards from pots, nutshell, pebbles, a layer of vermiculite up to 1.5 cm.
Maybe it will seem to someone that the information about the holes in the cups, about the need for drainage is known to everyone and there is no need to write about it in such detail. But I remember myself as a novice gardener and not always I knew all the subtleties of planting and care. And the plants died.
Now you need to prepare a loose, fertile soil. No problem, you can plant lemons in the purchased ground for citrus or cook yourself. We mix humus, leaf soil in equal amounts and add peat and sand for ease. We moisten the earth and lay the bones in pots. Seeds are planted to a depth of about 2 cm.
The temperature for the germination of the lemon seed should not be less than 18 ° C. To create the best lemon conditions for germination and development, cover them with cut plastic bottles. Or just cover the seed cups with a film and put in a warm place. This will create the conditions for greenhouses for lemons.
Lemons under plastic bottles - mini greenhouse
Growing lemon at home in a pot
When the seedlings will be 2-3 true leaves, choose the strongest, and transplanted into pots. For lemon, it is better to grow only in clay pots. The diameter and depth increase as the tree grows. A few hours before transplanting the pot should be soaked in water. At the bottom, be sure to put a layer of drainage. You can cover the hole with a shard, putting its convex side up. From above we fill small shards, pebbles, coarse sand, coal, expanded clay.
Pour the soil is the same as prepared when planting lemon seeds. After transplanting, we again lay the seedlings in a can or half bottle. We remove it only after full engraftment. At the same time begin to grow new leaves.
How to choose the best seedlings for transplanting. Here are the main things to pay attention to:
- We look at the density of the crown. See the distance between the buds on the seedling - take with the smallest.
- The presence of needles. Less is better.
- Leaf quality. They are many, firmly hold, do not fall from the touch.
- All weak, thin shoots with bad leaves immediately reject.
Jubilee lemon variety
Unpretentious, productive, decorative variety. It grows up to 1.5 meters. It blooms very copiously - like a white ball from the abundance of flowers. Fruits weighing 500 grams with a thick, yellow skin. Begins to bear fruit in the 2nd year of life. Shade-tolerant, grows fast and adapts well to different conditions. Fruits tied in any conditions.
Pests and diseases of indoor lemon
The most common pests of lemons at home are scale insects, aphids, spider mites, and insects. All of them suck the sap from the plants, leading to the curvature of the shoots, drying of the leaves.
With all the pests there are general rules of the fight to save the lemon:
- To clean insects from the twigs with a soft toothbrush. Leaves can be removed with a cotton swab. Moisten tools in a soap solution of anabazine sulfate.
- A day later, the solution from the plants wash off. A week later, repeat the treatment.
- In case of severe damage by pests, we treat bushes with infusions of onion, garlic, celandine, tobacco. Or use drugs Aktellik, Fitoverm (biological product). Use chemicals very carefully at home - these are strong poisons.
The main diseases of all citrus fruits at home are blackgrass and gommoz. From the fungus, the leaves are covered with gray bloom, in which they have broken food. And when homoze appears gum on the ground damage to the bark - branches and leaves gradually shrink.
- We clean the bark or the place of the disease - we process the vitriol (copper).
- Smear the drug RanNet (or garden pitch).
- Wipe the leaves with a fungus with a wet cloth.
- Feed fertilizer to maintain the strength of the plant to combat the disease.
How and in what quantities to use drugs for the treatment of plants or pest control can always be read on the packaging of each drug. In any specialty store you will find them in large quantities.
Growing lemon in a greenhouse
As mentioned earlier, the lemon tree loves:
- Strong but diffused light
- Good root breathing
- Constant positive temperature all year round.
Growing lemons and other citrus fruits in a greenhouse has its own characteristics. You can plant lemons directly in the ground or put in pots. For cultivation in the ground greenhouse must be heated.
Let's take a closer look at the requirements for the greenhouse in which the lemon will grow:
- A prerequisite is that even in severe frosts, the temperature should not fall below + 6 ° С, and better than + 10 ° С.
- It takes a lot of ambient light. In the autumn-winter period, additional lighting should be used, and in spring and summer, on the contrary, should be shaded from direct sunlight.
- Remember that lemons do not tolerate stagnation of air, with high humidity - you need to ventilate the greenhouse. But do not create drafts!
The rest of the cultivation and care of plants is completely the same as described in the article.
Lemon in the greenhouse
I will repeat the main points that are important for getting full seedlings:
- Choosing beautiful fruits
- We sow freshly picked wet seeds - do not dry!
- Carefully water as the soil dries.
- We cover pots with film or bottles - we create a mini-greenhouse.
- When fertilizing, we remember the rule: it is better to underfeed than to overfeed.
- In time we form and transplant young lemons
Plant and grow lemon with pleasure!
On this I finish. How to grow a lemon from the stone is now no secret to you. If you have any questions or comments - write in the comments.
Is it possible to grow a lemon from a stone at home?
About the benefits of lemon people know firsthand. Lemon is an excellent remedy for many ailments.. It strengthens the immune system, normalizes hormones, improves eyesight, stimulates the digestive tract.
It is used for colds, as there is a huge amount of vitamin C in it and many just like the sour, aromatic taste.
The man who decided to plant a lemon at home It is important to consider the following rules.:
- the fruit must be yellow, the most ripe, because if the lemon is green, then due to the fact that it has not ripened, the embryos of the seeds in the pits of such a lemon may not sprout,
- for planting it is important to choose a few large bones - from 10 to 15 pieces, so that later you can choose a beautiful and actively growing seedling,
- It is important to choose a suitable variety that will grow well at home.
Suitable grade for the house or apartment: Pavlovsky, Meyer and others
There is a large number of varieties. Below are some of them that are suitable for growing in a house or apartment:
- Pavlovsky - differs from other varieties with its large fruits, which can reach 500 grams, has a sweetish taste, and the tree of this variety is quite large - more than 2 meters. This variety has aromatic leaves. The aroma is so sharp and strong that the whole house will be filled with it.
- Meier - a hybrid of a lemon with a grapefruit, has a sweet-sour taste, a small tree with a rich harvest, the size of one lemon can reach 150 grams, blooms with bunches of bunches, there is a seasonal rest period.
- Ponderosis - a hybrid of a lemon with a grapefruit, differs bitterish taste, and also presence of a large number of stones. I am glad that constantly blooms. According to the people who grow this type of lemon, a very grateful plant and quite unpretentious.
- Genoa - An average tree, gives a big crop already for 4-5 years of life. Fruits with tender pulp, have a sour, fragrant taste. You can also eat peel. This variety is not considered capricious. For 2-3 year sapling already blooming.
- Anniversary - The tree is of medium size, it is considered a variety that gives a rich harvest, the fruit is distinguished by its thickness. Very suitable for growing in a house or apartment.
After the stage of choice of the variety has been passed, it is necessary to proceed to the planting of the seeds in the pot itself.
Varieties that are suitable for growing in a house or apartment: Pavlovsky, Meier, Genoa, Jubilee, Ponderose
How to plant a plant seed: highlights
Some active citrus owners with a wealth of experience advised to free the bone from the top huskthat in their opinion allows you to get seedlings in the shortest possible time.
This should be done very carefully, as any damage to the bone can lead to the fact that seed germination will not occur.
But you can plant bones and without the above procedure.
Lemon bones must be wet before planting.. It is advisable to soak them for a day in water or in a solution of sodium humate. You can buy this growth stimulator in any botanical shop.
Next, you need to find a suitable small, shallow pot or cup, pour earth into it. There should be holes in the bottom of the pots. They are important so that excess moisture, due to which the roots of sprouts may die, flow down.
Make holes in the bottom of the pot, fill it with small pebbles, primer
Put 1.5-2 cm of expanded clay, fine pebbles or very coarse sand on the bottom of the pot. Soil for planting can be bought in the store, and you can prepare yourself. To do this, mix the garden soil, sand, humus and some charcoal.
Plant bones better to a depth of no more than 1.5-2 cm. Soil before planting is important to moisten. It should not be dry, but excessive moisture is also undesirable.
Spray the soil once every 2-3 days. If the ground is completely dry, then you can water it a little. After the first sprouts appear, the film must be removed.
It is better to rearrange the pot with sprouts in a bright place and water with settled or rain water at room temperature.
The first shoots will sprout no earlier than 3-4 weeks after planting.
According to experienced citrus breeders, The best time to plant a lemon is the end of winter, the beginning of spring. Since the increasing daylight hours will only benefit the emerging young shoots.
Will the indoor lemon tree give fruit?
Many people think that growing lemon from a stone is a thankless job. So how to wait for the fruits of such a lemon will have 5, 7, or even all 15 years and its fruits will be of small size.
For, in order not to wait for decades when the lemon tree begins to bear fruit, it must be planted. This can be done in two ways in the warm season (summer or warm spring):
- In split - more preferred type of grafting. It is necessary to take a stalk of a cultural fruiting lemon. On the seedling pruned branch, and the remaining stem of the seedling split. On the stem of a fruiting lemon, wedges are sharpened, which is then injected into the splits in the stem. Next, you need to tie the vaccine with tape. On the stem of a fruiting lemon, 2-4 buds are left, the rest is cut off. Vaccination covered with a plastic bag. When the vaccine grows together the package can be removed.
- Vocabulary - shoots are cut from a seedling, a “stump” with a height of 10 cm remains from the tree. Next, take a sprig of a cultured fruit-bearing lemon. Under each leaf of the branch there is a so-called “sleeping kidney”. It is necessary to make a cut in front of this kidney. Next, cut the leaf plate, but leave it petiole. On the seedling's “hemp”, make a cut of the bark and insert a cut down the stalk there. To tie a place of an inoculation an insulating tape. The scape of the cut leaf plate will serve as an indicator. If the petiole disappears in 2-3 days, then we can assume that the vaccination turned out, if it dries out, it means that the vaccination failed and must be repeated.
Interesting thing is that grown lemon from the stone adapts to home conditions faster and better, it is less picky than cuttings and grafted seedlings.
Why does not lemon fruit grown from seed:
Optimum conditions for growing, care after planting
It is advisable to be very attentive to a lemon that has risen in a pot. When on lemon seedlings 3-4 leaves will appear, they are transplanted into separate pots.
Young lemon trees are recommended to replant up to 2 times a year. It is advisable to do this very carefully so as not to damage the root system.
And the best solution is not to change the place of residence of the lemon. The best place for a lemon will be the south or south-west side of the apartment. As for the temperature, the lemon can tolerate temperatures from + 14 to + 27.
The best place for lemon will be the south or south-west side of the apartment.
Lemon create conditions without sudden temperature fluctuations.since they can kill him. It is desirable to maintain a moderate humidity of air - 60-70%.
Water the plant Best at room temperature rainwater. Hot summer is better to do it 2 times a day. And on cloudy and cold days, it is important to add lighting to the lemon through LED or fluorescent lamps.
In the summer to feed seedling can be a solution of humus and liquid mineral fertilizers.
Lemons, like all indoor plants susceptible to disease and pest attack. Therefore, they require careful care, and it is recommended that you carefully examine the plant every day in order to detect the occurrence of a pest as early as possible and take the necessary measures in time.
Take care and protect: the main enemies of citrus
Lemon is sick if you do not follow the rules of care. If the tree is not watered, it will dry. If the ground in the pot overwhelm moisture, then yellow leaves will appear on the lemon, and this will be a sign that the roots of the tree are beginning to rot.
Also the appearance of yellow spots on the foliage, after which the leaves dry and fall off, indicate that the tree lacks iron.
Drying leaves They say that the tree needs phosphorus. A lack of potassium and manganese leads to wrinkling of the leaves and falling off of the ovary.
The following are some common parasites that can attack home-grown lemon:
- Mealybugs, popularly known as "furry lice" - on the tree they can be recognized by white bloom. They prefer dry conditions, they are afraid of moisture. A good prevention of this parasite will be regular washing of all the leaves of a lemon.
- Shchitovka - on the leaves are small shiny droplets, sticky to the touch. Leaves dry and fall off. Against this pest use soapy or garlic water. Soapy water is prepared as follows: 2 tablespoons of liquid soap are dissolved in 1 liter of water. The resulting mixture is treated with the affected tree. An hour after the procedure - wash under the shower. Repeat treatment preferably after 2 days.
- Spider mite - small, light dots on the sheet plate. Leaves fold. On their reverse side the web is visualized. If this parasite was found on a lemon, it is necessary to treat the tree with sulfur. In order to prevent the lemon washed under running water, paying more attention to the lower side of the leaf plates of the tree. Well helps to deal with mite spraying with a solution of water with soap.
Существуют несколько простых мер профилактики, которые позволят предупредить нападение паразитов или поражение дерева болезнями:
- устраивать лимонному дереву купание под душем горячей водой. The plant will not suffer from this, and the unsung parasites will be neutralized and washed away,
- spray leaves (especially from the bottom),
- wipe lemon leaves once a week with soapy water (it is better to use soap).
Lemon tree is not geranium, it needs competent care and for a beginner it is very difficult to figure out what, how and when to do it.
Having put efforts and having studied rules of care for a lemon, it is possible to receive pleasant result. Home-grown lemon will delight not only with its aroma, but also with tasty fruits.
Growing lemon from the stone:
Preparation of seeds for growing lemon
If you are going to grow a lemon out of the stone at home, you need to be patient and some knowledge.
The main mistake of indoor plants lovers who failed in the cultivation of lemon or other citrus fruits was that seeds sown for a long time from the fruit and had dried out were used for sowing.
It is much better to remove the bones from ripe fresh lemons, rinse them with warm water and embed them in the substrate immediately, without drying. This will greatly increase the number of shoots.
And experienced citrus growers recommend another way to increase the speed and quality of germination. To do this, wet, intended for growing at home, lemon stones with a sharp knife are carefully released from the solid surface shell, which is the main obstacle to the germ hidden in the seed.
Following this advice, you need to be extremely careful and cautious. Invalid movement threatens to damage the cotyledons or the tender embryo, and then the lemon from the stone just does not appear.
If the lemon seeds remain in the shell, it is useful to immerse them in a growth stimulator solution for several hours, preventing the surface of the seeds from drying out between processing and planting.
Care of seedlings of lemon seed
With the emergence above the soil surface of green shoots, they gradually begin to accustom to room conditions, aerating and opening the greenhouse. When 3-4 leaves appear on a young lemon from a bone, the film is removed altogether, and the seedlings are sorted and transferred to their own small pots.
Since the seeds of the hybrid fruits do not always carry parental signs, citrus fruits, seeking to get a lemon out of the stone at home, are at risk of growing wild.
To understand how soon the tree will begin to bear fruit, and of what quality mature fruits will be, it is already possible by external signs. First of all, citrus cultivated trees are distinguished by a small number of thorns on the shoots.
Further care in the first year of seedlings is timely watering, transplanting and pinching for the initial formation of the crown of the future tree. In addition, plants:
- in the summer months in 10–14 days they feed, alternating between the humus solution and liquid mineral fertilizers,
- On cloudy days and in the cold season, additional lighting is provided using fluorescent or LED phyto lamps.
The duration of illumination largely affects flowering and fruiting of plants from the tropical zone. Therefore, the acquisition of such lamps should attend to before you grow a lemon from a seed.
Transplantation for young lemons is carried out annually, and the plant should be transferred very carefully, without disturbing the root system. If the roots have not yet mastered the whole earthen room, you can get by replacing the surface layer.
Being interested in how to grow a lemon from a stone, many enthusiasts are looking forward to seedlings first, and then the first flowers. But in order not to weaken the plant, the lemon should not be allowed to bear fruit until it reaches the age of 2-3 years. A lemon from a stone ripens for flowering, when there is only one flower per 15 leaves of its crown.
If earlier the formation of the ovary weakens the tree, nipping at the age of about a year only contributes to the formation of the crown and will lay the foundation for future good crops. Therefore, from a very young plant, it is necessary to remove all shoots directed deep into the crown, pinch the tops of excessively long shoots, and also sometimes turn the pot with a tree so that it is lit and developed as evenly as possible.
We grow lemon from the stone - video
Part 1. Planting pits
Part 2. The appearance of the first shoots
Part 3. Transplanting seedlings
How to plant a lemon?
To achieve success when growing lemon from a stone at home, first of all you need to select the right seeds for planting and prepare a suitable primer. It is necessary to take only ripe fruits without external defects and select the largest, uniformly colored seeds from them. Planted them better without prior drying. The seed time of dry seeds is much longer, some may not even climb.
Pre-planting seed treatment with a biostimulator will contribute to rapid germination. It will also have a positive effect on the development of the root system of a young plant. Seeds should be soaked overnight in the preparation prepared according to the enclosed instructions.
First grown seedlingsrequiring small tanks and soil. In order to plant the seeds, both purchased peat pots and self-made from jars of yogurt, sour cream, or cut plastic bottles will do. Holes are made in the bottom of the tanks, and a half-centimeter layer of any drainage is laid inside.
Bones should be planted immediately in large quantities - at least 20 pieces. Not all of them will sprout, and a large number of seedlings will allow you to choose from among the most powerful plants that have come up for further cultivation. In addition, not every tree that has come up is well tolerated in grafting.
For seedlings should use loose, rich soil.. You can plant seeds in the purchased soil, and you can prepare the soil for citrus fruits yourself at home. To do this, combine in equal parts humus with leafy ground and add a mixture of sand with peat to give lightness to the soil. The finished mixture, after wetting, can be laid in a container for seedlings. Planting seeds produced at a depth of 2 centimeters.
For the fastest possible germination, it is important to observe the temperature regime. During this period, the lemon requires an air temperature of +18 degrees or slightly higher. Pots with seedlings can be covered with cut plastic bottles or plastic film and placed in a warm place.
Abundant watering after sowing can be harmful to seedlings - it can become covered with mold. Better to confine spray spray. Watering is necessary only when the earth is cracking from dryness. After the emergence of shoots need to maintain a mode of limited irrigation, in order to avoid rotting of the roots.
How to grow lemon at home
The appearance of the first shoots in room conditions can be expected in the range from a couple of weeks to a month, sometimes a little more. Young seedlings should be left in mini-greenhouses until four full sheets appear. Adapt seedlings to room air should be gradually, often spraying them. After adaptation, the plants should be moved to a well-lit place, but do not place them in direct sunlight. Watering must be done only after the final drying of the soil.
- It is preferable to use separated water at room temperature. If there is such an opportunity, it is good to water the plants not with cold rain and melt water.
- In the first months of the lemon is not fed. In spring and summer, you can feed the plant with liquid organic fertilizers. It should be remembered that excessive feeding is detrimental to lemons.
- We should not forget that the lemon tree at home is very demanding to care. It does not like fluctuations in temperature and humidity. A sharp change of microclimate and regime will immediately affect the state of the plant.
- Hot, excessively dry air, direct sunlight, and, on the contrary, constant drafts and overcooling - all this can lead to wilting and falling off of the leaves, and the loss of the plant.
- In the autumn, watering is cut down, only after the final drying of the soil is required to slightly moisten it. Care must be taken to ensure that excess moisture does not stagnate in the pot, but can flow out unhindered. Top dressing is needed no more than once a month.
- In the first year of the seedling's life, it is required to start forming its crown by removing all deformed and weak branches.
How to grow a lemon at home?
After the appearance of 2-3 full-fledged sheets on saplings, the most viable of them should be planted in permanent pots. Best for growing lemon at home clay fit. According to the growth of the tree, it is transplanted into larger pots. A new pot should be prepared for transplanting, pre-soaking it for several hours in water. The bottom is necessarily lined with drainage material. The hole in the bottom of the pot can be closed with a convex shard to avoid spilling the soil.
Soil should be prepared in the same composition as for seedlings. Immediately after transplanting, seedlings again need to arrange mini-greenhouses from cut bottles or glass jars of a suitable size. They can be removed after the formation of new leaves, which will mean a complete adaptation of the plant in a new place.
Choosing suitable for transplanting seedlings
Here are the main things to pay attention to:
- Determine crown density. The closer to each other are the buds on the seedling, the better.
- It is preferable to choose plants with the least amount of needles.
- On good seedlings a lot of leaves, and they do not fall from the touch.
- In the marriage go weak, thin plants with falling foliage.
Rules of care and the difficulties of growing indoor lemon
- When growing indoor lemons need constant attention and responsible care. Only by following all the prescriptions can we expect flowering and even fruiting of this plant.
- Lemon needs additional lighting - it is especially important in the spring and autumn periods.
- Indoors it is required to create a wet microclimate. This can be achieved by frequent spraying the plant. You can arrange a lemon shower and wash the leaves - a tropical tree prefers moist air.
- Young lemon needs frequent transplants. The soil is prepared in the same way as during the first landing. Transplanting is done only with a lump of earth. Each new pot must be taken 5-7 centimeters larger than the previous one. Young plants need an annual transplant, and adults - once every 2-3 years. In summer it is best to transplant lemon in June, and in winter –in February.
- From February to September, the lemon continues the phase of active growth, and it needs additional feeding with alternating mineral and organic fertilizers. It is necessary to use only fertilizer in liquid form. It is necessary to introduce them with care, as overfeeding harms the plant.
- Particular attention is paid to the crown. For pomp, fluffy and active growth of lateral shoots - usually pinch the top of the head. It is better to do this in the first year, while the plant is young.
- For a well-formed crown, the pot is rotated 90 degrees once a week. A well-formed stem will affect the quality of the fruit in the future.
- At the beginning of color formation in the first year of plant life, all flowers are required to be removed. Otherwise, the lemon will use up too much force, and this can destroy the plant. The optimal ratio for harmless flowering is 15 or more leaves to one flower.
Whether to wait for fruiting from lemon grown from the stone?
Healthy fruit trees can be grown from seed, but their fruiting begins later than that of the cuttings. But such plants are distinguished by good adaptability to room conditions, in contrast to cuttings, in which adaptability is noticeably lower.
Crown formation has a major impact on future fruiting. When the seedling reaches a height of 20 centimeters, it is pinched at the top of the head. Child branches pinch at a length of about 18 centimeters. The process is repeated until branches of the fourth order appear on which the first flowers develop. Before the beginning of the flowering period, lemon needs rest. In winter, it is better to rearrange the lemon in a cool place.
It was introduced to Russia (Pavlovo) in the XVIIIth from Turkey. It quickly became popular even in Moscow. This bushy lemon grows to 0.8-1.5 meters, the crown a little more than a meter in diameter. The branches are covered with spines up to one and a half centimeters. The leaves of the Pavlovsk lemon can periodically fall off. Fruiting begins at the age of 3-4 years.
Like all lemons, it is demanding of heat, moisture and light, but, like all lemons, does not tolerate direct sunlight. It is better to grow it near the windows facing south, shading in the summer. In the fall and spring needs additional lighting.
The second name is Chinese Lemon. It is believed that this is a natural hybrid of orange and lemon. It was introduced to the USA from China in 1908. Lemon Meier is the smallest species, these plants rarely reach a height of one and a half. It tolerates adverse conditions, in particular, low temperatures. Differs in high productivity. Flowering and fruiting occurs year round.
Bred in Uzbekistan as a result of vaccination of Tashkent lemon Novogruzinsky. In the open ground produces fruits weighing about one kilogram.
The plant is up to one and a half meters tall, well tolerate shade, dry soil and air. Almost does not need crown formation. Flowering and fruiting begins around the second year. Large flowers are collected in inflorescences of 10 pieces or more.
Thorny tree without thorns. Got to the USSR in 1937 from Florida (USA). Adult plants with an oval, sometimes spreading crown reach a height of 3 meters. Large flowers bloom singly or gather in small inflorescences of 2-3 pieces. Good illumination is important for this species.
The fruit of amateur breeding. Formed about a century by selecting the most hardy seedlings in seed reproduction. It will grow to two meters, there are no spikes on the branches. Perfectly transfers indoor conditions, as it was displayed for maintenance in the premises. If possible, in the winter it is better to transfer it to a cool room.
Lemon Pests and Diseases
The most common enemies of homemade lemons are a variety of worms, aphids, and spider mites. They feed on the sap of plants, which is fraught with curvature of the shoots and wilting of the foliage.
To save a lemon, there are general rules for dealing with all types of pests:
- It is best to remove pests from the branches with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and from the foliage - with cotton buds, after having moistened these tools with anabazine-sulfate soap solution.
- The solution should be removed from the plant after a day and repeat the treatment after a week.
- For extensive insect damage, infusions, garlic, tobacco, onions, or celandine can be used to treat the plant. You can apply and industrial products such as Actellic and Fitoverm. But to use them at home should be with increased caution, because these are potent poisons.
More often than others, homemade citruses affect two diseases - black fungus and gum treatment. When the fungus foliage covers the gray plaque, from which the plant is disturbed diet. And with gum therapy, gum protrudes in places where the bark is damaged - the branches and foliage begin to dry.
- Clean off the bark at the site of the disease and process the vitriol (copper).
- To impose a garden var or the preparation RanNet.
- Rinse the leaves, affected by fungus, wet sponge.
- Produce unscheduled feeding to maintain immunity.
Methods of use of drugs sold in specialized stores are given in the instructions.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Lemon from the stone
- 3.1. How to grow
- 3.2. How to plant
- 3.3. How to care for seedlings
- 4. Lemon pot care
- 4.1. Growing conditions
- 4.2. Temperature
- 4.3. Watering
- 4.4. Fertilizer
- 4.5. Pruning
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 5.1. Why does it turn yellow?
- 5.2. Why does it fall
- 5.3. Why dries
- 5.4. Pests
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. Cuttings
- 6.2. How to vaccinate
- 7. Types and varieties
- 8. Properties: harm and benefit
- 8.1. Beneficial features
- 8.2. Contraindications
Planting and care for lemon (in short)
- Bloom: at home - at different times.
- Lighting: plant of short daylight. The best place in the apartment is the southern and eastern windowsills with shading from the sun in the afternoon. In order for a lemon to develop symmetrically, it must be rotated around 10 оси every 10 days around the axis. In winter, additional artificial lighting will be needed for 5-6 hours daily.
- Temperature: in the period of growth - 17 ˚C, in the period of budding - no more than 14-18 C, during the growth of fruits - 22 ˚C and more. In winter - 12-14 ˚C.
- Watering: from May to September - daily, then no more than 2 times a week.
- Air humidity: Periodic spraying of leaves with warm boiled water is recommended, especially in summer heat and in winter when heating devices work.
- Top dressing: complex mineral fertilizers. During the period of active growth, young plants are fed once a month and a half, adults - once every 3-4 weeks. From mid-autumn, fertilizing is gradually reduced: if a lemon grows in a heated room in winter, it is fed once a month and a half, if the tree has entered a period of rest, it does not need additional feeding. Раствор удобрения вносят в предварительно увлажненный субстрат.
- Период покоя: зимой, но ярко не выражен.
- Пересадка: весной, в начале активного роста. Молодые лимоны пересаживают один раз в год или два, зрелые – один раз в 2-3 года, когда корни покажутся из сливных отверстий.
- Breeding: seeds, cuttings and grafting.
- Pests: spider mites, whiteflies, root and common aphids, mealybugs, scale insects.
- Diseases: chlorosis, tristeza, citrus cancer, gomosis, scab, anthracnose, leaf viral mosaic, root rot, mellseko.
Homemade Lemon - Description
Indoor lemon is a perennial evergreen short growing plant with strong thorny branches. The tops of his young shoots are purple-violet. Lemon leaves are leathery, green, oblong-oval, toothed, with a large number of pieces of iron containing essential oil. Each leaf lives 2-3 years. The buds of the plant develop about five weeks. The opened flower of a lemon lives from 7 to 9 weeks, and all this time the blooming of a lemon is accompanied by a wondrous fragrance.
The ripening of fruits from the moment of formation of the ovary to full maturity can last more than nine months. The fruits of the room lemon have an egg-shaped form with a nipple on the top; they are covered with a yellow pitted or tuberous skin with a strong characteristic odor. The greenish yellow, juicy and sour flesh of the fruit is divided into 9-14 slices. White, irregular egg-shaped lemon seeds are covered with a dense parchment shell.
We will tell you about how to create conditions for growing a lemon in a regular apartment, how to grow a lemon from a stone at home, how to water a lemon, why leaves grow yellow in a lemon, what pests and diseases of home lemons are most dangerous, how to plant a lemon at home , what are the valuable properties of lemon fruits, and you will definitely want to decorate your home with this beautiful and useful plant.
How to grow lemon at home.
The easiest way to grow a homemade lemon from the bone. Seeds for germination can be taken from the fruits purchased in the store. Fruits must be ripe, uniform yellow in color, and the seeds in them must be mature and mature. Lemon from the stone needs a substrate of a certain composition: mix peat and flower soil from the store in equal parts to make the composition light and permeable. Hydrogen indicator of the soil should be in the range of pH 6.6-7.0.
How to care for lemon seedlings.
Lemon from the stone at home is poured with water at room temperature, the pots carefully loosen the soil, and when the sprouts develop a pair of true leaves, the strongest seedlings are transplanted into separate pots with a diameter of 10 cm and covered with a glass jar to create the desired microclimate. Once a day, the jar is briefly removed to air the seedlings. In this dish, lemons can stay until they reach a height of 15-20 cm, after which they are transplanted into more spacious pots. Planting lemon is carried out by way of handling. Before transplanting a lemon, remember that each subsequent pot for an adult lemon should be 5-6 cm larger than the previous one in diameter, because the soil that is not occupied by the roots begins to sour from moisture in a too spacious container. At the bottom of the pot must be laid a thick layer of drainage - expanded clay, broken foam, charcoal or pebbles. As the soil is quite suitable flower mixture from the store or garden soil, fertilized with humus. When transplanting, do not dig the root collar into the ground - this may cause it to rot.
Conditions for growing indoor lemon.
How to grow a homemade lemon? Growing a homemade lemon is not easy, but grateful. First of all, it is necessary to create optimal conditions for it. Since lemon is a short daylight plant, it tolerates lack of light. A long light day stimulates the rapid growth of lemon, but it delays the onset of fruiting. The best place for a plant in the apartment is the southern and eastern window-sills, however in the afternoon the windows should be shaded. So that the tree does not grow one-sided, turn it every 10 days around the axis by 10 º. In winter, if a lemon does not rest, it is advisable to arrange artificial light for it daily for 5-6 hours.
17 ºC is enough for a leaf to grow. The most comfortable temperature for a lemon in the period of bud formation is 14-18 ºC, in hotter conditions the lemon drops ovaries and buds. And during the growth of the fruit, the temperature content should preferably be increased to 22 or more ºC. When warm days come, the lemon can be taken out to the garden, to the balcony or to the terrace, but make sure that the plant does not suffer from a sharp temperature drop - wrap or cover it overnight. In winter, the lemon is comfortable in a room with a temperature of 12-14 ºC, away from heating devices, where the plant will be at rest in order to gain strength for the next fruiting.
Lemon in room conditions needs daily watering from May to September, the rest of the time, the frequency of moistening is about twice a week. Drink the substrate with moisture, but before the next watering, let it dry. It is advisable to use water filtered or at least separated during the day. Water temperature for irrigation should be the same as the room temperature. If, for any reason, the lemon will be subjected to excessive moisture for a long time, it will be necessary to completely replace the substrate in which it grows.
Growing lemon at home requires spraying the leaves. plants with warm boiled water, especially in winter, when the heating devices in the room work at full capacity. However, in this matter it is necessary to observe moderation, otherwise there may be problems caused by fungal diseases. If the lemon is resting in the cool in winter, you can not spray the leaves.
Lemon at home needs regular feeding. Complex mineral compounds can be used as fertilizers. Young plants are fertilized once a month and a half, adults more often: the frequency of fertilizer application in the spring-summer period is once every two to three weeks. From mid-autumn, fertilizing is reduced: if your tree grows without rest all year round, in the winter time fertilize an adult lemon once a month and a half, and if it rests in the winter, do not need additional feeding. Two hours before fertilizing, be sure to pour the substrate in a pot with clean water.
From organic fertilizers, lemon prefers ash extract, infusion of leaves of quinoa or birch (half a can of crushed leaves is poured with water and infused for 2-3 days), diluted 5-6 times the infusion of fresh manure. The frequency of organic application is the same as for mineral fertilizers.
If you notice that there is an intensive growth of green mass, and fruiting does not occur, remove the nitrogen component from the dressings, and increase the phosphorus component.
Lemon care includes regular pruning. A lemon crown is formed depending on what it is grown for. If you need it as an ornamental plant, then the crown is formed compact and small in size, but if you need lemon fruits, then the crown is formed differently. Fruit bearing lemon must have a certain number of main branches and the necessary mass of growing shoots, and most of these shoots should consist of fruit wood. The crown is formed by pinching: as soon as the first zero shoot extends to 20-25 cm, it is pinched, the next pinching of the shoot is made at a height of 15-20 cm from the previous pinching, leaving 4 developed buds between the two pinching, which subsequently form 3-4 main escape, aimed in different directions. First-order shoots pinch after 20-30 cm, and when they ripen, they are cut about 5 cm below the nip. Each subsequent shoot should be about 5 cm shorter than the previous one. The formation of a crown on fourth-order shoots is completed. If you do not cut lemon, its branches grow too long, and the formation of shoots of the third and fourth order, on which fruits are formed, is delayed.
Pruning, in addition to the forming function, is also sanitary: as needed, it is necessary to remove weak shoots and those branches that grow inside the crown.
Lemon turns yellow.
Amateur flower growers often ask us why a lemon turns yellow. The reasons for this phenomenon are several. Lemon turns yellow:
- - if the room is dry air,
- - if the plant is under nutrition,
- - if in winter it is in too warm a room,
- - with the defeat of spider mites.
All the reasons, except the last, are easily eliminated, and as for spider mites, such drugs as Actellic, Akarin, Kleschevit and Fitoverm will help to cope with them. Do not violate the rules of home lemon care, keep it cool in winter, do not forget to humidify the air in the room where the lemon grows, make the necessary supplements in time, and your tree will be healthy and green.
To the question why lemons fall, which our readers often ask, the answer is also ambiguous. We, of course, do not mean the fruits of lemon, which can hang on a tree after ripening up to two years. The phrase "lemons fall" in the letters of the readers means the loss of leaves by the plant. Lemon leaves are eaten by spider mites that feed on plant sap. We dealt with these pests with insecticides in the previous section. But you can, without resorting to pesticides, process the lemon with a two-day infusion of a teaspoon of grated onion in a glass of water.
Leaves and sometimes lemon buds fall off from a lack of moisture in the soil and in the air around the plant. Do not forget to regularly water and spray the tree, especially in the hot season.
It happens that the tips of the leaves of a lemon dry and turn brown. The reason for this - the lack of moisture or dry air. And if the leaves dry up and curl, this is evidence that you are caring for it incorrectly. Reconsider the rules of plant care: lemon needs bright lighting with shading in the midday hours, humid air, frequent but moderate watering, regular feeding and good winter rest.
In addition to spider mites, lemon can be harmed by whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs and scale insects. As a folk remedy for getting rid of pests, many use an infusion of 150-170 g of minced garlic in a liter of water. Insist the garlic in a tightly closed container for five days, after which 6 g of strained infusion is diluted in 1 liter of water and treated with lemon. Effectively means only if there are few insects. If the lemon is populated with a large number of pests, it is necessary to resort to treatment with insecticides.
Lemon from cuttings.
In addition to the seed method of propagation of lemon, in the room floriculture also use cuttings and grafting. For cuttings, shoots are taken of a thickness of at least 4 mm and a length of 10 cm. The lower cut must pass directly under the bud, and the upper cut above the bud. On each handle should be 2-3 leaves and 3-4 buds formed. Treat the cuttings with a stimulator of root formation and lower them half way down into water. After 3 days, the cuttings are planted to a depth of 3 cm in pots with soil mixture consisting of equal parts of coarse sand, humus and flower soil. Since the absence of roots in the cuttings does not allow them to obtain moisture from the soil, it is necessary to spray their leaves several times a day with warm settled water. The soil in the pot should be slightly wet. The optimum temperature for rooting cuttings is 20-25 ºC. With proper care, the roots of the cuttings will develop in a month and a half, and then it will be possible to plant them in separate containers.
How to plant a lemon.
For grafting a lemon it is important to have a good stock. Such is a two-three-year-old seedling grown from a stone with a trunk diameter of not more than 1.5 cm. They are grafted on a lemon on the rootstocks of other citrus fruits. Graft cuttings are taken from mature, but not lignified, annual shoots of healthy trees. With harvested cuttings cut off the leaves, leaving only their stalks with buds in the sinuses. Cuttings before vaccination can be stored wrapped in a damp cloth for 2-3 days in a cool place or 2-3 weeks in the vegetable box of the refrigerator, but it is better to cut them immediately before the procedure.
Vaccinated during the active growth of lemon, and the most suitable time for this - spring. The best tool is an abutment knife, but if you do not have it, you can do with an ordinary sharp and sterilized knife. How to plant a homemade lemon? Make a T-shaped bark incision on the stem of the stock and gently bend its corners. Cut from the graft the kidney along with the stem and shield - part of the bark with a thin layer of wood - so long that it fits into a T-shaped incision. Taking the scion by the scape and not touching the cut, place the shield under the bark turned in the T-shaped incision, then firmly press the bark and wrap the stock stem over and under the kidney with a scouring tape or plaster. For insurance, it is better to vaccinate two or three buds at the same time. Engraftment lasts for three weeks. If the bud of the grafted kidney turns yellow and disappears, it means that the vaccine was successful. In this case, cut the stem of the scion 10 cm above the grafting site, remove the tipping tape and remove the shoots appearing on the stem below the graft.
In addition to the vaccination by the kidney, such budding methods are used as graft cutting and side grafting.
Types and varieties of homemade lemon
At home, usually grows stunted and sredneroslye plant varieties. Lemons varieties differ, except for the size and shape of the crown, the degree of adaptability to the growing conditions, as well as the quality, appearance and size of the fruit. We offer you an introduction to the most popular home-made lemon varieties:
- young high-yielding variety - tree height can reach 2 m or more. Crown sprawling, with numerous spikes. Yellow fruits of round or elliptical shape, weighing up to 150 g, with a thin, shiny skin, have a pleasant taste. Every year, with good care, the tree can produce from 100 to 200 fruits, while the Novogruzinsky lemon is one of the most undemanding varieties of culture,
- this lemon comes from Portugal, and it gained popularity only after it came to Australia. This is a fast-growing tree, reaching a height of 2 m, with a dense crown, strong branches with lots of thorns. In a year a tree can produce up to 60 fruits weighing an average of 150 g, although fruits weighing up to half a kilogram occur. The fruits of this variety have a classic oval shape with a slightly sloping tip, their skin is thick, slightly ribbed, yellow. The flesh has a pleasant sour taste. The variety has good adaptability to the conditions of detention, which helps the plant to tolerate low air humidity,
- imported to us from America, a productive variety of Italian selection. The height of the tree of this variety reaches only 130 cm. The crown is dense, and there are practically no thorns in it. Small fruits weighing up to 120 g of elongated shape with a rough, greenish-yellow skin with a fragrant, juicy, pleasant-tasting pulp appear on the tree several times a year. In total, for the year the variety produces up to 180 fruits,
reaches a height of 130 cm, is distinguished by unpretentiousness and high yield, has several forms. Fruit weight 150-170 g, oblong-oval shape, with a slight thickening at the bottom. The peel of the fruit is thin, ribbed, shiny,
- this variety was obtained by Uzbek breeders as a result of crossing varieties Novogruzinsky and Tashkent. This hybrid is distinguished by unpretentiousness, shade tolerance and precocity. Fruits Jubilee varieties are large, rounded, with a thick yellow skin. Fruit weight reaches 500-600 g,
- a natural hybrid of citron and lemon. This is one of the most unpretentious citrus, resistant to drought and heat. In height, plants of this variety reach 1.5-1.8 cm, crown are sprawling. Fruits Ponderoza oval or rounded, weighing up to 500 g, with a thick bright yellow rough skin. Their flesh is juicy, pleasant sour taste, light green color. The variety is characterized by precocity and demanding of soil composition,
- a decorative and high-yielding hybrid of papad and lemon, bred in the nineteenth century in Sicily. The name of the variety is related to the fact that it blooms on the new moon. Lunario is a tree no more than half a meter high with a large number of small thorns. The fruits of an ovate or oblong-elliptical shape with a smooth and shiny rich yellow skin contain a weakly but aromatic flesh of a greenish-yellow shade with 10-11 seeds,
- A variety of American selection, which is a tree with almost no thorns up to 130 cm in height with a large number of emerald-green leaves. Smooth, oblong-oval with a blunt nipple, wedge-shaped fruits with a juicy, fragrant, pleasant to taste light yellow flesh reach a weight of only 100 g. The skin of fruits is dense, almost smooth to the touch,
– недавно выведенный светолюбивый российский сорт, представляющий собой средней высоты деревце с кроной, не нуждающейся в формировании. Плоды со средней толщины бугристой кожурой очень крупные – весом до 700 г, но некоторые могут достигать полутора килограммов,
– тоже российский сорт, полученный путем экспериментов с сортом Новогрузинский. Сорт Курский отличается скороплодностью, засухоустойчивостью, теневыносливостью, относительной холодостойкостью и высокой урожайностью. Plants of this variety reach a height of 150-180 cm. The weight of thin-skinned fruits reaches 130 g,
- a very popular variety of Italian breeding in its homeland, featuring a high yield. This plant is of medium height with a dense crown and a small number of small thorns. The fruits are large, oval, almost free of seeds, with a juicy, fragrant, tender flesh of a very sour taste. The peel is of medium thickness, slightly bumpy.
The varieties of indoor lemon of New Zealand, Tashkent, Moscow, Mezen, Ural room and others are also grown in culture with success.
Useful properties of lemon.
In the popular literature, the beneficial properties of lemon are described repeatedly. But since it is always pleasant to write about good things, we are ready once again to elaborate on the topic “The Harm and Benefits of Lemon” in detail. So, What is the use of lemon? Its fruits contain:
- - citric and malic acid,
- - trace elements iron, potassium, copper, manganese and iodine,
- - sugar,
- - pectins,
- - flavonoids and phytoncides,
- - fiber,
- - vitamins A, B, P, D, C and groups B - B2, B1, B9.
Due to the presence of these components in lemon fruits, it has:
- - tonic,
- - refreshing,
- - antipyretic,
- - bactericidal,
- - strengthening action.
In addition, lemon juice is a source of citrine, which, in combination with vitamin C, has a beneficial effect on redox processes, metabolism and strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
Possessing a strong bactericidal action, lemon helps the body to cope with the flu, but for this it needs to be consumed with mint tea, plantain, horsetail and sage.
Restoring digestive processes, lemon helps to eliminate toxins and wastes from the intestines, helps to cope with an infection of the respiratory tract and oral cavity, relieves or relieves pain during migraines, eliminates rashes and boils on the skin. In addition to the listed advantages, it must be said that lemon is a good diuretic.
Despite the sour taste, lemon is able to lower the acidity of gastric juice. Lemon juice and its skin are excellent antiseptics, and the leaves of the plant are successfully used to lower the temperature. Due to the high content of vitamin C, lemon strengthens the immune system.
Lemon is a part of many medicinal drugs that reduce inflammation, kill germs and worms, heal wounds, strengthen the body and reduce the manifestation of sclerosis. Eating lemons is indicated for atherosclerosis, lung disease, poisoning, vitamin deficiency and hypovitaminosis. It is useful even for pregnant women.
Lemon juice baths relieve sweating and tired feet, mouth rinsing with lemon juice strengthens the gums and tooth enamel. If you regularly eat lemons, you will not be in danger of such diseases as cold, tonsillitis, tonsillitis, vitamin deficiency, urolithiasis and gallstone diseases, gout, atherosclerosis and diabetes. And this is not a complete list of health problems from which you will save yellow sour fruit. Isn't that enough reason to grow a room lemon at home?
Lemon - contraindications.
And in what harm of a lemon can be shown, and for whom it can be harmful? Lemon is contraindicated in hepatitis, increased acidity of the stomach, gastritis, inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, gallbladder and intestines. Moderation in the use of lemon fruits should be observed hypertensive patients and patients with pancreatitis. In rare cases, the use of lemons can cause an allergic reaction, since the supplying companies treat the fruit with chemical agents that prolong the shelf life. For some, lemon can cause heartburn, and in people with sore throat or nasal mucosa, lemon juice will almost certainly cause irritation.