Barberry is an amazing plant, its application is wide and varied. This shrub is used as a living, impassable fence, as a decoration of the site. It is beautiful at any time of the year: in the spring it is enlivened with young leaves, a little later the branches are covered with foam of yellow flowers, in autumn and winter the barberry stands out with clusters of red berries. Berries contain many nutrients and vitamins, berries, leaves, roots and bark are used as medicinal raw materials. There are varieties of barberries that just bloom beautifully, other species have attractive colored leaves, others have relatively large, sour berries used in cooking, there are species that combine several advantages at once.
Pests and diseases
Insects harming barberries are aphids, sawflies, and a peppered moth.
When an aphid appears on a plant, leaves shrivel on a bush and dry out. Moth spoils the berries. All pests are well destroyed by means such as Fitoverm or Biotlin.
There are a lot of diseases affecting barberry bushes, most of them are caused by various fungi. This powdery mildew, bacteriosis, rust, wilting, spotting.
Mealy dew. The leaves, branches and berries of barberry, affected by this disease, look as if sprinkled with flour. To combat it, the infected parts of the bush are burned, the remaining parts are treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur, with a concentration of 1%.
Rust. Orange, bright spots that appear on the outer side of the leaves, on the inside look like red pads, more often found on the barberry growing next to the cereal fields. Diseased bushes lose their leaves.
With the disease struggling solutions of colloidal sulfur or Bordeaux mixture. Processing must be carried out at least three times. Prophylactic treatment begins immediately after the appearance of the leaves and repeat every twenty days.
With various spots on the barberry they struggle with the use of the preparation HOM, used according to the instructions, before and after the flowering of the bush.
Wilting. From the side they look like prematurely withered leaves and shoots. If you do not treat the hive from an infection in time, the disease can damage the entire hive. It is necessary to begin the fight against wilting by removing the diseased parts of the hive, and what remains will be sprayed with copper-containing preparations (Bordeaux mixture or copper chloroxide).
Bacteriosis or as it is also called bacterial cancer, on the barberry bushes can be found on the cracks of the bark, tumors on the branches and the growth of sprouts. The affected parts of the shoots are removed, capturing a healthy part of the bush. All remote parts are burned, the remaining branches are treated with copper-containing preparations.
Barberry can be obtained by sowing seeds. Bones are taken out of ripe berries, they are treated with potassium permanganate solution for several minutes and dried to flowability. In the fall, beds are prepared: humus is introduced into the intended area, they are dug up, level the surface and mark furrows of about 1 cm in depth. In the furrow lay out the seeds and sprinkle with soil.
In the spring, when two true leaves appear on the seedlings, thinning is carried out. Between shoots leave three centimeters. Young seedlings remain on the seed bed for two years. In the third year they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Sowing the seeds in the spring, they must be prostratetized - keep the mixture of seeds and wet sand for at least two months at a temperature of + 2-5 ºC
Planted on a permanent place, grown from seed bushes bloom in the second third year.
Fruits will be tied only if several barberry bushes grow nearby - cross-pollination is necessary to obtain berries.
Propagate barberry cuttings is very simple. Early June morning, strong, annual shoots are cut into cuttings, leaving 3-4 buds on each. The bottom two sheets are removed completely, and the top is cut in half.
For several hours, the prepared cuttings are immersed in a root-forming solution, then washed with running water and planted in a greenhouse or covered with plastic bottles with a cropped bottom. Leaving the cork on the bottle, we get a fully sealed greenhouse, unscrewing the cork - let's organize the airing.
The soil for the cuttings consists of equal parts of humus, fertile soil and peat mixed with half of the sand. After 10-14 days, airing is arranged, and after the appearance of new shoots, the shelter is gradually removed. Just as when sowing seeds, cuttings remain in the cuttings until the age of two, then planted in a permanent place.
Reproduction by layering
Growing a bush from the layers is even easier. In the spring, a strong one-year shoot escapes to the ground, is laid in a trench 20 cm deep, make a small incision on the bark of the shoot, cover the trench with soil and water it abundantly. Only the tip of the shoot should remain on the surface. On a buried branch, roots will appear by autumn, then at the same time or in spring the seedling can be separated from the mother bush and planted in a permanent place.
Low varieties of barberry can be propagated by dividing the bush. Three-to-five-year-old bushes are dug out in spring and divided into approximately equal parts. The wounds obtained by the seedling are sprinkled with crushed charcoal and planted in a permanent place.
This method is suitable for bushes with shoots from the ground, from the roots. If the planted bush forks above ground level, then it will not work.
Useful properties of barberry
Gardeners grow barberry not only for its attractive appearance, but also as a medicinal and spicy-flavoring plant.
Compot, kissels, syrups, sauces, pickles and much more are made from barberry berries. Harvested pickled berries for the winter complement roasted meats, vegetables and rice. Without dried berries do not cook classic pilaf.
Edible berries of a barberry contain irreplaceable organic acids: malic, tartaric and citric, carotinoids and microelements. With the help of drugs created on the basis of barberry plant raw materials, lower blood pressure, suppress the manifestations of psoriasis, raise the tone of the body, fight parasites, stop blood.
Everything goes in the business - fruits, leaves, bark, roots.
Berries are picked fully ripe, unripe they are poisonous.
The bark is harvested from the beginning of sap flow until bud break, the roots are late autumn or early spring.
Raw materials are quickly washed and dried at low, up to 50ºC, stored in a dry place for not more than a year.
Barberry - contraindications to use
The main contraindication for drugs from barberry is allergy and personal intolerance. You should not take compounds with the addition of medicinal raw materials from the barberry during pregnancy, diseases of the digestive system, bleeding after childbirth.
Now you can safely grow barberry on your site. Choose a variety to your liking and enjoy the beauty of the barberry in spring and autumn.
Varieties and varieties of barberry
Barberry - a spectacular ornamental plant with elongated fruits of bright red, yellow or white. It is an unpretentious, drought-resistant and frost-resistant shrub with elliptical leaves of the most diverse colors: green, yellow, red, purple. Barberry berries are edible and widely used in cooking and medicine. They have a pleasant sour taste and are used to prepare compotes, jelly, jam, marshmallow, syrups, etc.
Due to the presence of many useful substances - malic, tartaric and citric acids, carotenoids, vitamins, mineral salts, the fruits and leaves of the plant are used for the manufacture of drugs:
- lowering blood pressure
- impeding the development in the human body Giardia,
- to stop bleeding,
- relieve fatigue
- combat psoriasis.
Exists three main varieties of barberryEach of which has many varieties:
- Barberry ordinaryreaching 3 m in height. The most popular varieties are Atropurpurea, Alba-variegata, Aureo-marginata, Captured, Large-Fry.
Also distinguish the types of barberry, which are similar in appearance to the barberry ordinary:
- Provencal barberry hybrid, obtained by crossing common and Siberian plant species,
- growing in the Himalayas Spiny,
- barberries of Zimbold, James, Diels.
In order for saplings to develop well, bloom profusely and bear fruit, it is important to carefully consider the choice of a site for planting and preparing the soil. For barberry, the most suitable soil with a normal acidity, if its pH is more than 7.0, it is recommended to add slaked lime before or during planting.
The optimal distance between the bushes during a single planting is 1.5 m, while creating a hedge is 0.5 m. The barberry does not tolerate stagnation of water, therefore it should be planted on the most highly located sites of the site and drain the soil by introducing sand to improve aeration of the plant root system.
Attention! Despite the endurance and unpretentiousness, the barberry is photophilous, when planted in the shade, the bright shades of the color of its leaves fade, decorative elements on the leaves may disappear, for which this plant is especially valued: spots, stripes and other patterns.
- A landing pit with sides of 40 x 40 x 40 cm is being prepared.
- At the bottom of the pit is placed a small layer of sand, then - a mixture of sod land with 8-10 kg of humus or compost. If organic fertilizers are absent, mineral fertilizers can be used instead (200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate). With a high soil pH (high acidity), 400 g of lime or 200 g of wood ash is added to it.
- The plant is placed in a pit, filled with free space prepared earth mixture, watered abundantly, mulch the surface with peat or compost. The root neck of the bush should be at the level of the ground surface.
- The top of the plant is cut off, leaving 3-5 strong buds in the lower part.
The best time for planting or transplanting in the fall is from September 15 to October 15, in spring from the 20th of March to April 15th. Plants that are in the purchase in the container can be planted in the summer, by choosing a cool day and protecting it from direct sunlight for the first few days.
Care of seedlings
The main operations for the care of barberry bushes are:
- loosening the soil, facilitating the access of oxygen to the roots of the plant,
- watering in arid weather, weeding with removal of weeds,
- pruning weak and diseased branches, forming a bush,
- top dressing.
In the first 2 years after planting, the seedling should be covered for the winter with sacking to protect it from the cold. Adult bushes tolerate negative temperatures quite easily. If the winter is harsh and the frost damages the branches, they are pruned with the onset of spring to healthy buds.
Barberry is a fast-growing shrub that is recommended to be pruned regularly in spring or autumn. This will allow not only to remove the skeletal branches located in the central part of the bush, leading to its excessive thickening, but also to give a beautiful decorative shape with the help of a haircut. The first pruning is done one year after planting, removing half or two thirds of the growth of the branch. The best time to tidy up the barberry hedge is June and August.
Fertilizer and fertilizing barberry bushes
Barberry does not need too frequent feedings. The first feeding of the plant is carried out a year after planting, then at intervals of 3-4 years. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied (1 bush dissolves in 10 liters of water 20-30 g of urea), in the fall - phosphorus, potash (15 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt per plant), organic fertilizers. It is good to combine these preparations with microelements.
In July, plants can be fertilized with the complex drug Kemira-Universal at a concentration of 15 g per 10 l. Nitrogen fertilizers - ammonium nitrate, urea contribute to powerful growth, the formation of leaves and stems of seedlings, potash and phosphate provide abundant flowering and fruiting bushes.
Propagation of barberry
With propagation of barberry seedsThey are separated from the bone, kept for 3-5 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Dried seeds are buried in the ground by 1-2 cm, with the arrival of spring, the seedlings are thinned, leaving a distance of 3 cm or more between them. After 2 years, seedlings can be transplanted to another location. When sowing seeds in spring, they must be stratified beforehand: mix with sand and place in a refrigerator for 2-5 months. Stratification temperature should be within 2-5 ºC. In order for the plants to produce fruits in a few years, several specimens should be placed side by side, as this is a cross-pollinated shrub.
Cuttings produced in the morning in the middle of July. Preparation of the cuttings consists in removing the lower leaves, shortening the upper leaves by 2 times and placing them for 3-5 hours in an aqueous solution of heteroauxin or another root-forming agent. After washing with water, the cuttings are planted in the greenhouse. The soil should consist of equal parts of turf land, humus and peat, to which a small amount of sand is added. For two weeks, the greenhouse is regularly ventilated and the soil is moistened, and when the cuttings are fully rooted, the film is removed.
For breeding barberry by the branch in the spring, a powerful annual shoot escapes at the bottom of the bush, bends down, stacks and fastens in a small groove, which is covered with earth in such a way that only the upper part of the branch peeks out of the ground. By the end of the season, the layering can take root, it is separated from the bush and transplanted.
Diseases and pests affecting barberries
The insects most dangerous to the barberry are the flower moth, aphid and sawfly. Symptoms of plant damage by aphids - drying out and shrinking the leaves. The pest can be eliminated by spraying the bushes with soapy water (300 g of soap is used for 10 liters of water). Other pests can be destroyed with a 1-3% solution of chlorophos.
Also, the barberry can be affected by fungal diseases, for example, powdery mildew, as seen in the photo, leaf spot, rust and other diseases. To destroy the powdery mildew pathogens, the bush should be treated with 1% of the solution of colloidal sulfur, cut off the diseased branches and burn. If a plant is damaged by rust, it should be treated three times with 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or colloidal sulfur once a week. Copper oxychloride (30–40 g per 10 l of water) is applied twice in bloom before flowers bloom and at the end of flowering. Plants affected by wilting caused by fungi are treated with copper oxychloride or bordeaux mixture. When a bacteriosis occurs, which manifests itself with cracks and tumors on the stems, it is necessary to cut off the diseased shoot, capturing the healthy part of the plant and burn it, and spray the bush with Bordeaux liquid or its equivalent.
Having planted a barberry on a private plot, you can get great pleasure from the amazing beauty of this plant, create beautiful compositions using its branches densely covered with fruits, and also use berries for preparing many dishes and medicinal tinctures.
Growing barberry: photo
- How to grow at home apricot from the stone
- Pecan ordinary or Kariya - a miracle nut from North America
- Planting garden cherries and proper care for her
- Korean Abelia Sweet Beauty
Very beautiful shrub, but prickly and unstable to diseases. We'll have to wait until the barberry is thornless and resistant to any infection)))
Features landing barberry
Barberry is an evergreen shrub, which is often used for planting as a fence.
The shrub is marked by the presence of thorns - these are modified leaves, which in most cases repel gardeners. But, if you look closely, taking care of him is not so difficult.
Shrub berries are edible in any form, have a slightly sour taste, which served as the formation of the second nickname Kislyanka.
Shrub planting is carried out as follows:
- The planting of shrubs is carried out in spring, but in warm regions it is possible to plant in early autumn, with leaf fall.
- The choice of location is the basis for excellent fruiting. It is better to choose sunny places, for lack of which one can give preference to semi-shaded places.
- Barberry does not like acidic soil. If you have this, it is better to spend liming. To do this, prepare a mixture in compliance with the following proportions: 8 kg of humus, 400 g of hydrated lime, 100 g of superphosphate and 200 g of wood ash. All components are thoroughly mixed and dispensed in advance at the site where the seedlings will be planted later. After the mixture is completely scattered, the site is better to dig.
- The same mixture can be used already after planting the seedling. It is simply placed in a pit in which the seedling will be placed later.
- The wells are dug up in dimensions of 40 * 40 cm and with a depth of at least 40 cm. If there is a desire to plant a hedge, between the bushes make a distance of at least 50 cm.
- Для лучшего удаления влаги в лунки или траншеи можно всыпать песок, а уже потом засыпать приготовленную смесь для известкования.
- Высаженные кусты барбариса засыпают выкопанным грунтом и тщательно утрамбовывают его. Затем следует каждый куст обильно полить нехолодной водой.
- At the final stage, mulching of the trunk with peat or compost is carried out.
Surprisingly, gardeners and experienced specialists advise that after planting, the seedlings should be completely cut off, leaving no more than 5-6 buds on each shoot.
Barberry care features
Caring for the barberry is carried out in the same way as for any other plants. Here it is important to remove weeds from the beds in time, loosen the soil, if possible and if necessary, for better moisture penetration.
If the summer is not dry, additional watering should not be carried out. In the case of several days of heat and scorching rays, you can resort to watering with sun water.
Therefore, we should not neglect the additional layout of the wells or drainage trenches on the bottom. It is enough to use rubble, large brick chips, or at least sand.
Pruning shrubs should be carried out necessarily.
First of all, Thus, the issue of the growth of new shoots with the subsequent enlargement and increase of fruits is solved.
Secondly, With the help of trimming, you can give the desired shape to the shrub, especially if a barberry hedge has been planted.
Then pruning should be carried out twice during the flowering and fruiting season: in early June and early August.
Here, old shoots should be removed, which only take away the useful components from the shrub, but cannot bear large fruits or even a complete absence of flowering is noted.
Top dressing shrubs
If fertilizers were abandoned during the landing period, then no additional actions should be taken in the first year of growth.
In the spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be used. To do this, in a bucket of lukewarm water dilute 20 g of urea and water the bushes.
Such dressings are carried out for the barberry no earlier than every 3-4 years.
Here are used potassium and phosphorus component, taken in an amount of 10 g and 15 g, respectively. Bring the submitted amount of nutrients under each bush.
Little about pests and diseases
If traces are found, spray it with a special solution purchased from the gardener's store.
Attention should also be paid to diseases that affect a fairly stable shrub. Powdery mildew, bacteriosis, rust, wilting or leaf spot may be present.
These diseases are easily cured by removing the affected parts of the shrub and the corresponding treatment.
Preparing for the winter
Barberry needs preliminary preparation for cold and wintering, if grown in cold areas. Some species do not need sheltering for the winter, but the trunk soil should be loosened in autumn and a new layer of peat should be laid out.
If you expect severe frosts or you are simply afraid that the barberry will die in winter, use the following method:
- The shrub needs to be tied up with a rope, gathering together all the shoots and branches.
- The resulting assembly is wrapped in metal mesh so that there is a gap of 10 cm. You should also take into account the height of the grid - it should be not less than 10 cm above the collected bush.
- In the resulting gap pour yellow foliage to the top.
- The resulting structure is covered with any covering material and tightly fixed.
With the help of a similar bush preparation for the winter, no frosts are terrible. Thus, it should be covered within 5 years of full growth of the barberry.
Contraindications to the use of barberry
Despite its beneficial properties, it does not do without contraindications here. So, experts prohibit the use of any components of the bush:
- women during pregnancy and lactation,
- in the presence of cirrhosis of the liver,
- in the presence of hepatitis in the liver in the severe form,
- in the presence of stones in the gall bladder.
Barberry due to its useful properties is gaining popularity among people who prefer traditional medicine. They are planted in their suburban areas given shrubs.
Pay attention to the shrub because of its beautiful appearance during flowering and fruiting. Such beauty on the site will delight its owners.
Planting and caring for the barberry (in short)
- Landing: If necessary, in the fall, in the fall, but it is best in the spring, as soon as the snow melts.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: neutral, the composition does not matter.
- Mulching: desirable.
- Watering: In a season with normal rainfall, the barberry does not require moisture, but if there is a drought, water the plant once a week at the root. Weekly watering is needed and just planted bushes.
- Top dressing: one year after planting and thereafter every 3-4 years in early spring the plant is fed with nitrogen fertilizers, and after flowering and in the fall - potash-phosphate fertilizers.
- Trimming: The procedure is carried out for the first time in the spring on a one-year bush, later the barberry is also used for sanitary purposes, and the crown is cut twice a year: in the first half of June and in the beginning of August. Crowns of stunted species and varieties can not be formed.
- Reproduction: seeds and vegetatively: layering, dividing the bush and cuttings.
- Pests: barberry aphid, sawflies and floral moths.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, bacteriosis, wilting, drying of shoots and leaf spot.
Shrub barberry - description
The barberry shrub is deciduous, evergreen or semi-evergreen prickly plants with alternate, simple, and sometimes leathery leaves. Barberry spines - modified leaves, of which only the middle vein remained. In the sinus spines develop such short shoots that the leaves of barberry grow in the form of bunches. On the shoots of the current year, the leaves are arranged in a spiral, singly. The flowers of barberry - small, fragrant, yellow-golden or orange with the inclusion of red shades - usually collected in the corymbose or racemose inflorescence, but sometimes they are single. Each petal has two nectaries. The smell of flowering barberry attracts bees - the barberry is a wonderful honey plant. Barberry fruits are diverse in color and shape, depending on the type and variety of plants. Barberry tolerates urban conditions, it suits any soil, it is drought-resistant and completely unpretentious. Barberry - the best shrub for hedges.
When plant barberry.
Planting barberry is carried out most often in the spring, as soon as the soil thaws, but you need to have time to plant seedlings before budding. In rare cases, the barberry is planted in the fall, during the period of massive leaf fall. Due to the unpretentiousness of the barberry, it can grow in open areas, because it is not afraid of drafts and strong wind, as well as in partial shade, but under the bright sun varieties and species with purple leaves look brighter. As for the acidity of the soil, the barberry prefers neutral soils, however, it normally withstands soil with a pH not higher than 7. If the soil is strongly shifted to the acid side, it should be limed. This can be done in advance or directly during planting, by pouring into the planting pit a mixture of 8–10 kg of humus or compost and garden soil, 100 g of superphosphate, 400 g of slaked lime and 200 g of wood ash.
How to plant a barberry.
With a single landing, the distance between the bushes is complied with from one and a half to two meters, but if you decide to plant a hedge from a barberry, then two bushes are planted for one running meter. The size of the pits for seedlings that need to be dug 2-3 weeks before planting is approximately 40x40, and a ditch for a hedge is dug about 40 cm deep. To increase the aeration of the roots, a layer of sand is poured on the bottom of the trench or each well. If the pH of the soil is slightly shifted to the alkaline side, neutral or slightly acidic, then the mixture, the composition of which is indicated in the previous section, but without lime and ash, is poured into the pit before planting. Then a barberry sapling is lowered into the pit, sprinkled with earth, compacted, richly watered, and then the tree trunk is mulched with peat or compost. After planting, the ground part of the seedling is cut, leaving only a part with 3-5 well-developed buds.
How to care for the barberry.
Planting and caring for a barberry is possible even for a novice gardener, and it does not matter much what type he belongs to, since planting and caring for the barberry of Thunberg, for example, which is a purely decorative type because of too bitter fruits, differs little from caring for species, fruiting edible berries. So, once having learned the instructions for the care of barberries, you can grow barberries in the garden of various varieties, types and forms. The list of necessary work on the care of the barberry includes timely watering, weeding, loosening the soil at the site, pruning and feeding. Watering the barberry with normal rainfall is not necessary, and only in strong heat and drought the soil in the area with the barberry still needs to be moistened weekly - with cold water at the root, trying not to get on the leaves. The newly planted bushes are watered with the same regularity until they take root. Dangerous for the barberry is not dry, but frequent and heavy rains, because of which moisture can accumulate in the roots, which the plant is afraid of much more than drought. In time, remove weed grass at the site, as well as radical growth, which grows abundantly around the barberry bushes, and do not forget to loosen the soil. To make it easier for you to take care of the barberry, grumble the area with peat, sawdust or walnut shells.
The barberry fertilizer used for planting in the soil will last for a year. The following spring, each barberry shrub is fed with nitrogen fertilizer in the form of a solution of 20-30 g of urea in a bucket of water. From now on, it will be enough to apply nitrogen fertilizers once every three to four years, but if you grow barberry for its healthy edible berries, then after flowering and at the end of the season you need to feed the bush with phosphorus and potassium - 10 g of potash and 15 g superphosphate under each bush. The optimal complex fertilizer for the barberry is Kemira-Universal's solution, which is applied in early July at the rate of 15 g per bucket of water.
Like other garden shrubs, weak, dry and thickening shoots are removed from the barberry when pruning. The first pruning of ornamental species of barberry is done in the spring on a one-year-old bush, shortening the shoots by half or even two thirds, then the bush is pruned twice a year - in the first half of June and in early August. In addition to the sanitary function, pruning has a formative value. Low-growing varieties and types of barberry can not cut.
Growing barberry seed.
Collect ripe berries of barberry, separate the seeds from the fruit pulp, hold them for a few minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate, and then dry. In the fall, seeds are sown directly into the ground of the training bed to a depth of 1 cm; in spring, seedlings after the appearance of two true leaves are thinned out so that there is at least three centimeters between them. Seedlings are grown on a training bed for two years, and then transplanted to a permanent place. If you decide to sow barberry seeds in the spring, then you will have to stratify them beforehand - mix the seeds with sand and keep them for two to five months in a refrigerator at a temperature of 2-5 ºC. Barberry seedlings, transplanted to a permanent place, give fruit in 2-3 years from the moment of emergence, but only if the barberry in the country will be presented not one, but several bushes - barberries bear fruit only during cross-pollination.
Barberry - we will be familiar
The barberry family combines several hundred species of trees and shrubs. Deciduous and evergreen forms are known. In the wild, this plant is found on almost all continents.
Barberry is found on almost all continents.
It prefers a warm climate, but can tolerate moderate frosts. In severe cold requires shelter. The plant is prickly, the fruits are small, edible. In the culture they grow barberry or Thunberg barberry, less often Amur, Canadian (Ottawa) and Korean barberries.
Large decorative plants are popular in landscape design and are widely used. This contributes to a huge choice - from dwarf forms (30 cm) to giants (3 m), with a spherical, columnar and sprawling crown. Barberry gets on well with various plants and does not seek to seize the territory, as it does not have root shoots. Resistant to drought, tolerates shade, unpretentious.
There is a small drawback - spines. But it can be made a virtue: a hedge of barberry will become an insurmountable obstacle for uninvited guests and a beautiful frame of your site.
The maximum decorativeness of the plant falls on the age of 7–8 years. Can live for 50 years, with good care fruits up to 35-40 years. Blossoms in May, about 3 weeks. Good honey plant.
Barberry looks spectacular in joint plantings
Young barberries up to the age of five need to be covered with winter twigs, especially evergreen species. If the barberry bush is too voluminous, it is covered for the winter just like garden roses or hydrangea: firmly tighten the branches with a string or rope, build a cylinder from a metal mesh around the barberry, which is 10 cm more than a bush, and dry in the gap between the bush and the mesh foliage, and then the cylinder is wrapped with covering material.
Types and varieties of barberry
A huge number of species and varieties of barberry can be confusing, especially since they are all incredibly attractive. When choosing, you should focus on what purpose you are pursuing. If you are interested in edible berries of barberry, then some species are planted for this, but if you want the plants to decorate your garden or become a picturesque hedge around the plot, then there are others for this. But there are species and varieties that can successfully cope with both tasks.
Berberis vulgaris (Berberis vulgaris)
- The main species of the genus barberry. It is a shrub up to three meters high with gray-brown shoots, on which grow three-part spines up to 2 cm long. The leaves are elliptical, thin, membranous, with ciliate-serrate edges, the upper side of the leaf plate is dark green in color, the bottom is dim, gray green Crusiform inflorescences up to 6 cm long consist of brilliant yellow fragrant flowers blooming from two to three weeks. Numerous bright red fruits reach a length of one and a half centimeters. This species has a large number of varieties - albé-variegata with white-variegated leaves, aureo-marginate with leaves edged with a golden rim, barberry of atropurpureya with red or dark-purple leaves. And the berries of the seedless form of barberry ordinary asperma are very convenient to process.
There are a number of species similar to the common barberry: Provencal barberries (hybrid of Siberian barberry and Siberian barberry), spinous - view from the Himalayas, Canadian, Zimbold barberry, James barberry and Diels barberry.
Barberry Thunberg (Berberis thunbergii)
- the most beautiful of deciduous barberries, champion of the genus among ornamental species. The height of the barberry of Thunberg is from 50 cm to 1 m, its branches extend horizontally, the yellowish or bright red young densely branching shoots are arcuately deflected, with age they are made brown or purple-brown. Spines 1 cm long are very thin and elastic. The leaves are elegantly shaped - oblong or obovate, small - no longer than 3 cm, bright green above and bluish below, painted in bright red in autumn. Single or bunched flowers, red on the outside of the petals and yellow on the inside, bloom for a week or two. Coral-red shiny elliptical fruits up to 1 cm long ripen in early autumn and long adorn the autumn and even winter bushes. The berries of this species contain a lot of alkaloids, so it tastes bitter, but for birds it is an excellent food in winter. Planting barberry Thunberg and further care for him does not cause any trouble, but the aesthetic pleasure that you get, growing this species or its varieties on your site, above all expectations. The barberry of Thunberg has several decorative forms: multicolored (pluriflora), dark purple (atropurpurea), silver-edged (argenteo-marginata) and others. From varieties are popular:
- – barberry golden ring Up to three meters high with a rounded crown, ovate leaves up to 4 cm long, dark purple-red shade with a yellow border along the edge. In autumn, the leaves become an intense red hue. Collected in bunches of 2-5 pieces of flowers with a diameter of up to 1 cm from the inside are yellow, outside are red. Coral-red shiny berries ripen in October,
- – barberry red pilar - an attractive column-shaped form, up to one and a half meters high and with a crown width up to 45 cm with reddish-purple leaves that become bright scarlet in the autumn,
- – barberry orange rocket - a columnar form, reaching a height of no more than 120 cm, and 60 cm wide. Small smooth ovoid leaves on the shoots of the current year are orange with a yellow border, the leaves on last year's shoots are red-purple - the bush looks incredibly attractive against the background of spring and summer greens. In autumn, the leaves get different shades of red,
- – Корник – листопадный кустарник полутораметрового роста с бледно-зелеными листьями, покрытыми беспорядочными кремово-белыми пятнами всевозможных очертаний, как будто забрызганными краской. Осенью зеленый фон листьев становится шарлахово-красным. Сорт прекрасно выглядит рядом с розами, хвойными растениями и другими сортами барбариса.
Барбарис оттавский (Berberis x ottawensis)
is a decorative hybrid between the form of atropurpureya the common barberry and the barberry of Thunberg. It is one of the most spectacular representatives of the genus: from one and a half to two meters in height, looks like an enlarged copy of the barberry of Thunberg, but the color of the leaves is closer to the purple-leaved form of the barberry, dark pink-purple, almost black in the sun. In the fall, the leaves turn purple and long blaze with fire in a bleak gray garden. Barberry Ottawa winter-hardy, unpretentious in the care and grows very quickly. Popular varieties:
- – Auricom - up to 2.5 m high, leaves are rounded, up to 5 cm long, bright red in spring and summer, orange in autumn, red-yellow flowers up to 1 cm in diameter are clustered in racemes up to 5 cm long, fruits of bright red color,
- – Superba - up to 4 m high, leaves are rounded, from 3 to 5 cm long, dark red in color with a bluish bloom; in autumn they are painted in various shades of orange and red. Yellow-red flowers are collected in the brush, red berries,
- – Silver Miles - this variety needs to be viewed from a distance, as it does not look attractive near: purple leaves in dirty gray random strokes. From a distance, the bush acquires a lilac shade due to the merging of gray and purple flowers.
In addition to these kinds of barberry in the culture around the world grow barberries Juliana, Beana, Tischler, Morrison, Wilson, green, willow, polyanthous, Oriental, Iberian, setchatolistny similar, bluish-white, samshitolistny, notched or neokaymlenny, krupnokolyuchkovy, provincial, spring , Ili, montato, Korean, Tibetan, Siberian, transparent, krugopilchaty, twisted, Amur, Turkmen, entire, oblong, round-fruited, Asian and many others.
The most popular varieties of barberry shrubs belong to the Thunberg species:
- Harlequin - a rounded crown about 1.2 m in diameter and 1.5 m in height. The leaves are bright red with uneven pink spots. White inside and yellow outside flowers appear in early May.
- Golden Ring - sprawling bush reaches 1.5 m in width and 1 m in height. The leaves are large obovate up to 5 cm in length and have a yellow border on a dark green background.
- Aurea is a thorny shrub with a compact, lemon-colored cushion crown. In October, the fruits ripen from blood-red inflorescences and remain until the end of winter.
- Burgundy Carosel - an ornamental tree up to 2 m high, with a dark-violet color of leaves. Orange fruits are not edible.
- Concorde - spherical crown is not more than 0.5 m in diameter. The purple color of the tree stands out against the background of garden shrubs and looks great in front gardens.
- Indian Summer - a large variety of barberry Thunberg grows up to 2 m in height. The summer green color of the leaves to autumn becomes rich orange.
- Kobold is a dwarf tree with a spherical green crown, up to 0.5 m wide. In autumn, the foliage acquires a red-yellow color.
- Natasha is a fast-growing shrub with a crown up to 0.8 m in height. Glossy leafy plates of green color with white specks and spots.
- Kornik - sprawling shrub up to 1.2 m. On the green leaves can be traced white spots with jagged edges.
- Coronet - narrow columnar crown of a tree reaches 1 m in height. Motley leaves in the autumn season get a bright red color.
- Laymglou - the bush has the roundish form with small green leaves. Large pink fruits are used to make spices.
- Pauwau - slow-growing barberry variety up to 1.5 m in height. With the onset of cold weather bush changes color from light green to bright orange color. Abundantly fruiting at the end of October.
At the end of August, the mature fruits of the plant are harvested and the seeds are separated. The bones are washed in distilled water and soaked overnight in a weak solution of manganese. Dry naturally in the open air.
Seeds are planted in early autumn in the ground. In mid-April sprouts appear that thin out, leaving the largest seedlings. The following year, the barberries are transplanted to a permanent place. To shrub began to bear fruit, it must be planted.
Reproduction by cuttings
At the end of May, cuttings of 20 cm each are cut from the side branches of the tree. The lower part of the planting material is treated with a solution for root formation (“Heteroauxin”, “Kornevin”). Planted in containers with the substrate (garden soil, peat). Cover the seedlings with perforated polyethylene film. A month later, the barberry is transplanted in open ground to a permanent place.
The best time to plant a decorative barberry is in early spring, when the buds of the plant have not yet opened. Dig a trench to a depth of 40 cm and fall asleep with a mixture of humus and ash (20: 1). Then seedlings are rooted in the pit at a distance of up to 1 m from each other. Due to its resistance to climate change, the plant can be located both in open areas and in shady places. If the tree is grown exclusively for the sake of berries, then the barberry is not recommended to be planted close to the sewage drain.
All parts of the shrub have healing properties and are widely used in traditional medicine.
Raw materials are harvested during the flowering of the bush, the branches of the plant are collected in bunches and hung to dry in a room with ventilation. Dry leaves are stored in a paper bag in a dark place. Infusion: 3 tbsp. l rubbed leaves of barberry pour 1 liter of boiling water. Capacity wrapped with a towel and left overnight. Take in the form of warm 200 g as a choleretic agent.
The bark is harvested in early spring before the buds swell. A thin layer is placed on a newspaper sheet and dried for a month.
Broth: 0.5 liters of water take 30 g of raw materials. Boil for 20 minutes over high heat, filter. Spend every night douching with cervical erosion, vulvitis, inflammation of the appendages. With hemorrhoids, broth is diluted to 2 liters and put an enema.
- glucose, fructose,
- essential oil,
- Apple acid,
- beta carotene.
Freshly harvested berries of barberry are covered with sugar (1: 1) and stored in the refrigerator. On the basis of the preparation make fruit drinks and drinks that perfectly quench thirst and increase immunity. Tea with fruit syrup will improve blood circulation and relieve inflammation in liver diseases.
Broth: 50 g of fresh barberry root rubbed on a fine grater and pour 0.5 liters of milk, bring to a boil and insist 2 hours. The drink helps to increase the body's resistance to tuberculosis, relieves pain in case of gastric diseases.
Use in official medicine
Berberine alkaloid - the main active ingredient of the plant. In pharmacology, preparations are made from the berries and leaves of the barberry for general health improvement and treatment of the following diseases:
Berberine relieves the symptoms of toxemia in early pregnancy - eliminates nausea and increases appetite. Berries have diuretic properties, regulate metabolic processes in the body, and are indicated for emotional shocks and stresses.
Barberry in cooking
Due to the sour-tart taste, the berries of the plant are widely used in pickling cucumbers and zucchini. Dried shredded fruit goes well with vegetables and fish. In Asian cuisine, barberry is indispensable in the national dishes: kupat, kebabs, kebabs. Young leaves of the plant are used to prepare sour sauces and marinades. Barberry spice will bring a touch of exotic in traditional broths from poultry and meat.
Watering and feeding
Barberry better tolerates the lack of moisture than its excess. In rainy weather, the adult plant has enough rainfall. In the heat you need a bucket of water on a bush 1 time in 2 weeks. A freshly planted barberry is watered 1-2 times a week until it is rooted. Then - as needed.
The first 2-3 years, the plants enough of those fertilizers that are made during planting. Next, for ornamental shrubs in the spring, urea is added (30 g dissolved in 10 liters of water) 1 time in 3 years. If the plant is berry, then, except for urea, it is fed with potassium phosphate fertilizers every year after flowering (according to the instructions).
Preparing for the cold
In winter, young plants (the first 3-5 years) require shelter, regardless of the frost resistance of the variety. If in your region winters are mild, then the barberry will well endure this period. In severe frosts, especially in Siberia or the Urals, adult plants are also sheltered. To do this, from the branches and spruce branches do something like a hut and additionally throw snow.
The first 3-5 years the barberry needs shelter for the winter
Sanitary pruning is required annually in spring and autumn. Remove broken, dry and diseased branches. If the barberry is planted for decorative purposes, then begin to form it from the second year after planting. All plant species tolerate a haircut well, and to maintain a given shape, the bush is pruned at the beginning and at the end of summer each year.
Proper bush formation requires annual pruning
Dwarf barberry species, as a rule, have a dense compact crown and can do without formative pruning. They look great in curb plantings and alpine slides.
Barberry dwarf forms do not need formative pruning
Barberry as a houseplant
For growing at home are suitable dwarf varieties of barberry Thunberg:
Since the species tolerates pruning, the shape of the crown and the height of the plant can be easily adjusted. Barberry in the apartment gives you no more trouble than any houseplant. Growing miniature trees as an art originated in Japan many centuries ago. This is a well-known bonsai. To do this, use coniferous and deciduous plants, which in nature may not be small. Barberry is ideal for creating bonsai. He tolerates pruning and is very plastic in creating such compositions.
Barberry produces amazing miniatures
Features care home barberry:
- Planting is done in a mixture of coarse sand, turf soil and compost (2: 2: 1). At the bottom of the pot must be poured a layer of stones or expanded clay. When planting a little pruned roots and shorten shoots by 2/3.
- Water as needed. In spring and summer, frequent irrigation has a beneficial effect on the plant, especially on hot days. In autumn and winter, the frequency of watering is reduced. Since during the heating season the air in the apartment is very dry, it is useful for the plant to periodically spray it with a spray bottle, but not during flowering.
- For fertilizing use any organic fertilizer in the form of powder or granules (according to the instructions) once a month from May to September.
- When pruning, the cut point quickly becomes indistinguishable in color from the bark and does not require additional treatment.
- The barberry can grow on a sunny window and in a shaded room, but for variegated varieties to not lose their brightness, the plant needs good lighting and additional lighting in the winter.
- In summer, the plant will feel good on the open balcony.
- Diseases and pests in the room barberry are the same as in nature, and the same drugs are used to combat them.
Dwarf barberry varieties can be grown in a container (for placement on terraces). Planting and caring for such a plant is no different from growing in a garden or in an apartment.
Features of cultivation in the regions
Barberry can grow in different climatic conditions. In the southern regions, it easily tolerates drought. Mild winters do not require high frost resistance. The plant tolerates gas pollution of the city air, which allows it to be widely used for landscaping parks. The warm climate makes it possible to choose for planting almost any kind and barberry variety.
In central Russia for growing it is better to choose plants with frost resistance not lower than -20 o C. This requirement is answered:
- most varieties of barberry Thunberg,
For the suburbs suitable barberry with frost resistance up to -20-25 o C. You can choose varieties:
- Canadian (Ottawa) - Superba,
- common - Alba variegata,
- Thunberg barberry:
- Green Carpet,
- Carmen and others.
Since in the Moscow region the soil is often with high groundwater levels, it is necessary to plant a good drainage during planting (or seedlings should be placed on a hill or a hillside). Young plants of the first 3-5 years should be covered for the winter. In the Golden Rocket variety, it is recommended to tie the crown for the winter or to wrap it with a net, since it can fall apart during heavy snowfalls. During a humid cool summer, possible fungal diseases, so prevention is the best way to prevent them.
In Siberia, cultivars with high frost resistance are most suitable for growing:
- Canadian barberry,
They are adapted to the harsh conditions and tolerate frost well with a large amount of snow. For these plants, shelter is needed in the first 3-5 years. Barberry Thunberg can also be grown in this region, but with mandatory shelter for the winter, not only young but also adult plants. In this case, dwarf varieties are suitable for the Siberian climate. Alternatively, it is possible to grow plants in a container, wintering in a greenhouse or a room where the temperature will not be very low.
Barberry ordinary love for a long time. As a child, she ate the barberry bushes with her friends, not only berries, but also leaves. Perhaps because of this, I was sick a little - the vitamins were to the point, and the real ones. Today, from the barberry I cook delicious jam and make syrup.
This shrub is completely whimsical and absolutely edible. Can grow on any soil and in any climate. The berries ripen by August. You can eat them fresh, make jam or compote, but do not freeze, after freezing they turn into porridge. Personally, I prefer to dry berries and use as a seasoning for second courses. The same pilaf, for example. The leaves of the shrub are also edible. Mostly they go to the salad, but the jam is excellent.
Wonderful bush. Especially beautiful varieties with red foliage. There are undersized. There are variegated forms. We are now combining plantings with conifers. Good in hedges.
They sit everywhere with me. And in the sun there, and in the penumbra. Normally they carry both. They love to cut their hair! And if you do not periodically cut them a little, then the shape they will have is not beautiful, and the branches are long and alone, and so - the bush will be! But the prickly branches cut off immediately lift and collect. Even a tiny bit.
Barberry - stunningly decorative and completely unpretentious plant. It looks great in single and group plantings with trees, shrubs or flowers. A rich palette of colors gives a wide scope of your imagination when you make a plot. Berries will be an excellent vitamin supplement. And do not forget that it is also a medicinal plant. Having planted a barberry bush on your plot, you will not regret it.
Barberry - useful properties
Long before our era the berries of barberry were used as an effective remedy for rejuvenation, blood purification, treatment of many diseases. Mention of this found on clay tablets made by ancient Assyrians.
Now scientifically proven the great value of barberry. The set of useful substances contained in it is able to remove toxins, cleanse the body, slow down the aging process, repair damaged cells, cope with inflammatory processes in the body, prevent cardiovascular diseases, resist atherosclerosis.
And this is just a small list of curative qualities of the “caramel tree”, which is able not only to give us health, but also to bring into our lives a piece of beauty, harmony and charm.
Barberry shrub in the garden
In gardening and landscape design barberry bushes have been used for a long time and quite successfully. This plant is effective at any time of the year, and can also bring tangible benefits to you and your garden.
In spring, the aroma of a flowering barberry will attract industrious bees, in summer bright greens will delight the eye with its freshness, in autumn a fantastic combination of bright foliage colors will enliven the sad garden, and in winter ruby drops of berries on a snow-white snow cover will remind you of hot summer.
Due to its decorative effect, the barberry looks great in single plantings, and in compositions with other plants, and in hedges. Shrubs lend themselves well to the formation and pruning, and low-growing varieties are great for borders and adorn the rock gardens. A variety of leaf color allows you to make interesting color compositions, combining purple with greens, and variegated varieties with fringed.
Care and planting barberry
Despite its unique utility and high decoration, the barberry is completely unpretentious, and taking care of it is not difficult.
His only "whims" - good illumination and moderate soil moisture.
The composition and fertility of the soil, changes in temperature and humidity do not affect its decorative effect. Если вы ещё будете устраивать ему регулярные «стрижки», то благодарный барбарис будет расти, цвести и плодоносить с поистине царской щедростью.
Способов размножения барбариса существует много, всегда есть возможность выбрать наиболее удобный для вас. Seeds, cuttings, division of the bush, root cuttings, self-seeding, vaccination - at your disposal the entire arsenal of tools.
Propagation by seeds makes it possible to get a lot of planting material, but it is quite a long process. Sowing seeds is better in the winter, before the start of severe frosts. For spring sowing, seed stratification is carried out for 3-4 months at a temperature not higher than + 5 ° C. At the site of seedlings, the seedlings are left for 2 years, and then left for additional 1-2 years to grow in the shkolka. And only after that determine them to a permanent place. The fastest method of reproduction - the division of the bush and root suckers. For grafting, summer cuttings are taken and rooted in moist soil.
Do not forget that the older the barberry bush, the worse it adapts after transplants.
Landing methods depend on the final goal. With a single placement of the bush, the distance to the nearest plants is at least 2 m.
A single-row hedge usually includes 4 plants, a two-row hedge - 5. A free-growing hedge implies planting 2 plants per 1 running meter.
Due to its simplicity, barberry can grow on any soil with any level of acidity. However, if possible, it is desirable to provide him with the most comfortable conditions by adding humus and sand to the soil mixture and liming the acidic soil.
One of the elements of care is fertilizing, which allow for a long time to maintain the decorativeness of bushes and abundant fruiting. Top dressing is recommended to begin in the second year after planting. The first dressing is carried out in the spring with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 30 g of urea per 10 liters of water. In the future, it is enough to make complex mineral fertilizers once in 3 years.
Traditional watering, weeding and loosening are carried out once every 2 weeks, and immediately after planting new plants it is necessary to mulch the soil under them.
An important point to maintain the decorativeness of the bushes is pruning. Hygienic pruning is carried out annually in spring, all old, dried, weak and poorly developed shoots are removed. Forming hedgerows begins in the second year. It initially removes up to 2/3 of the above-ground part of the plant, and in subsequent years, in June and August, it is cut to 1/2 the height of the fence.
Like all plants, barberry needs protection from pests and diseases. His main enemies are barberry aphid, flower moth, powdery mildew and various fungal diseases.
As a preventive measure in spring, it is necessary to treat with a solution of household soap prepared from 30 g of soap and 10 liters of water. When caterpillars are found, barberry bushes are treated with chlorophos or decis, according to the instructions.
To protect against fungal diseases, spraying with a solution of Bordeaux liquid or colloidal sulfur is considered effective; spraying is carried out in three stages: after the leaves appear, and then two more times with an interval of 20 days.
Barberry - contraindications.
The benefits of barberry for human health is obvious, but there are a number of limitations in the use of drugs from it. It is not recommended to use them to children younger than 12 years old and people suffering from individual intolerance to the product. Barberry is also contraindicated in liver cirrhosis, a complex form of hepatitis, cholelithiasis, pregnancy, menopausal and postpartum hemorrhage. And do not forget that the unripe berries of barberry are poisonous!