The trees belong to the family of pink, are fast-growing and reach a natural height of 20 meters. Modern selection has about 400 varietal variants.
Cultivation of garden varieties is based on grafting and crossing cultivated species with spicy serrated wild cherry.
Sakura characteristic sprawling rounded crown. Its bark has a brownish-red color and is covered with a network of small cracks.
Cherry Sakura is an ornamental plant, its fruits are not suitable for ingestion.
Oval sheet plates with notches around the circumference in the autumn change color in the range from dark crimson to brown. Fruits are not suitable for ingestion.therefore cherry-sakura is considered to be an ornamental plant.
Planetary fame East Asian cherries won a colorful flowering. Petals of the plant have shades of white and pink tonality. There are species with yellow, red and raspberry tassels.
The value of the plant for the Hanami festival
According to one of the versions, in a reddish tint, the sakura petals were stained with the blood of family members of one of the village elders.
After he showed the ruler the scars on the backs of his children because of the cruel treatment of the prince's servants, the latter ruined them to death on top of the mountain, where sakura grew.
Fallen petals turned pink from bloody stains. Now they symbolize the fragility of children's destinies in the modern world.
The celebration of Hanami is symbolically carried out by the family atmosphere. The duration of the process depends on the flowering period of the legendary cherry.
When sakura blooms, working days in Japan are canceled and the national holiday is declared Hanami
Each of the trees blooms for several days.: sooner or later - depending on the species. As a result, a chain is formed - the flowering plants pass the baton to the unfolding.
Japanese mass media notify the residents in advance of the estimated time for the blossoming of the cherry blossoms and its duration: many people prefer to travel around the country to repeatedly catch a grandiose spectacle.
Traditionally Hanami falls on the end of March or the beginning of April.
The most suitable variety of garden melkopilchataya cherry for steppe and forest-steppe zones with moderate continental climatic conditions. Healthy trees grow to the level of 4 m, with an annual increase of about 30 cm.
Crohn in plants Kiku Shidare spreading and prone to thickening. Sheet plates have an elliptical shape with small frequent notches in a slice and a relatively large size (7-9 cm).
The decorative feature of kik shidare is enclosed in the early prolonged flowering period (the outcome of March is the first decade of April). Brushes of large-diameter (5-7 cm) dense-double pink flowers are numerous and abundantly cover the branches.
Self-fruited variety. Single-planted tree with qualified care intensively blooms and bears fruit.
For growth prefers sunny areas on sandy-clay, alkaline or neutral soils. The abundance of flowering depends on the regularity and timeliness of fertilizing with superphosphates.
Sakura Kiku Shidare is most suitable for steppe and forest-steppe zones with moderate continental climatic conditions.
This small-stalked tree species of garden sakura is lower than its decorative counterparts (up to 10 m in height in an adult tree). The shape of the crown - obratkonichna. By virtue of this, kanzan is recognized as an exotic and creative decoration of country sites.
The rate of growth of trees varieties - average. The foliage of an elongated oval shape with the arrival of autumn becomes fiery yellow.
Sakura Kansan blooms massive fragrant pink flowerswhich are grouped into hanging elongated inflorescences of 3-6 pieces. Duration of flowering is average.
The plant is light-requiring and gives priority to neutral or strongly alkaline soils.
Sakura Kansan is photophilous, blooms with massive fragrant pink flowers
Planting and growing
For planting decorative sakura need to pick up the illuminated and ventilated area without moisture stagnation during periods of floods and rains. The best choice will serve as a hill and elevation.
It is recommended to stop the choice on grafted seedlingswhich are traditionally purchased in the fall and aged to spring thaws in humid spaces at room temperature. Before planting, plants should have a height of about 1.5 meters, a mature trunk and a formed root network.
Planting is preferably done in the late fall or early spring., before swelling of the kidneys, with a well-established warm temperature regime. Simultaneous planting of several seedlings provides in the future a greater degree of flowering abundance and fruit formation.
Plants should be planted at a distance of 1.5-2 m from each other and between-row space of 2.5-3 m.
For planting decorative sakura, it is necessary to select an illuminated and ventilated area without moisture stagnation.
Pitholes for planting must be prepared in advance.. It is advisable to place in them a mixture of the upper fertile layers of earth and humus.
Immediately before planting it is necessary to fertilize the soil with 15-18 liters of potassium sulphate solution with the addition of superphosphates. Root neck sprinkled with earth can not.
At the end of the planting, the near-stem zone is watered and gently mulched with humus or a thin peat layer of 4-5 cm.
At the initial stage of tree growth, care of the tree circle should be careful and careful. Damage to the root system and promptly remove weeds. In this case, Sakura strengthened faster and without harm perezimuet.
Peculiarities of care
Successful growth of sakura is possible with proper care. and creating optimal conditions for development. Systematic drainage and regular feeding contribute to the growth of a healthy tree.
Depletion of the soil is eliminated by adding humus and compost (6-8 kg) at each root. Chemical dressing is carried out with a solution of the necessary elements at the rate of 15-18 g for one square meter of the forest zone.
A few plentiful irrigations of sakura are permissible at the stage of active growth. The rest of the time, it is sufficient to maintain the natural balance of soil moisture. Excessive hydration leads to a low degree of kidney formation., poor flowering and shredding petals.
Young Sakura needs additional feeding, infrequent watering, pruning and shelter for the winter
Before starting sap flow in early spring cutting of dry and damaged branches, thinning of the crown.
Adult plants are frost resistant, and young trees successfully winter in sheltered form. Before the beginning of the cold season, the sites of the scion, the stumps and the bases of the large branches are wrapped with agrofiber or improvised materials that do not create the greenhouse effect.
During the growing season Sakura is sprayed with chemicals: primary - before flowering, secondary - after a month after the ovary of berries.
Removal of affected and dried branchessprouts that prevent comfortable light absorption and sufficient air exchange, is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow.
Fragments with traces of activity of harmful organisms are subject to cutting and burning.
Cutting places should be treated with garden pitch.. It is important to ensure that gum does not form at the site of the cross sections. The appearance of adhesive growths is excluded in the case of proper drainage and irrigation.
Diseases and pests
If sakura is affected by harmful organisms, the flowering rate decreases, the petals frown, and the tree develops behind the norm. There may be evidence of stratification of the cortex and the formation of growths.
Unwanted neoplasms should be immediately removed and the localization of sections with healing agents should be removed.
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A common ailment of Sakura, like other cherry trees, is defeat of the fungus, which leads to drying of foliage, blackening and mummification of berries.
To help the plant in this unpleasant situation can spraying sulfur powder. It should cover the affected segments and prevent further spread of fungal aggression.
A common ailment of sakura is the defeat of a fungus, which leads to drying of the foliage, blackening and mummification of berries
Foliage that falls from unhealthy sakurashould not be left under a tree for the winter. Healthy and infected leaves and branches to be taken out of the site and burn.
Such a precaution prevents the spread of fungal diseases to neighboring cultures.
The effect of combating harmful organic matter is enhanced by the use of insecticides. Restrictions on the use of chemicals are imposed. for the period of flowering and fruit set. In case of urgent need, this rule can be neglected.
The reward for the works is the contemplation of the unsurpassed aesthetic impact of a natural miracle. Worth trying: the guru of sakurovedenie, Japanese, consider a person to be heartless if he is deaf to the manifestations of the surrounding beauties
Japanese cherry flowers
In fact, Sakura is a generic name for several forms of East-Asian melkilovilis cherries with double flowers. Belongs to the Pink family. In a natural environment in their homeland, in Japan, these trees can reach a height of 20 meters.
Crohn round shape, sprawling. The bark of the tree - from red to brown, with small cracks. Oval large leaves, serrated at the edges, green in color, stained in autumn from dark crimson to brown tones.
The flowers are colored from bright pink to white and are collected in brushes of 7–9 pieces. There are sakura with red, yellow and crimson flowers.
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The flowering of one tree does not last more than a week, but since there are many species of sakura and they bloom at different times, you can enjoy this beautiful sight for about two months.
Modern garden varieties of sakura are created by interbreeding spicy serpentine wild cherries with cultural relatives, as well as by means of grafts. Now there are about 400 varieties of this elegant plant. The desire of many gardeners to have such a charmer in their area is quite understandable.
Sakura fruits and their use
Sakura, as an ornamental plant, does not give valuable fruits, and this is different from ordinary cherries, which is a fruit tree.
Of course, there are fruits and in Japanese they are called sakura-no-mi. They are so small, hard and sour taste that the Japanese use them only in pickled form and for making wine and jam.
The size of the berries is about 8 mm, the skin is smooth, from pinkish to dark red color.
Good to know: The leaves of the tree are also suitable for food - after marinating or salting, they become sweet-salty, sour or sharp to the taste, and together with the fruits they are added as a seasoning to rice.
Planting in the garden
Blooming sakura tree
Given the homeland of growth, Sakura is very thermophilic and can die when the outdoor temperature is below -15C. For cultivation in Russia are best suited varieties grown on the northern islands of Japan, where the climate is at least a bit similar to ours.
The recommended planting time for seedlings is spring. If a tree is purchased in the fall, it is best to first pile it on the site to protect it from drying out and freezing, and in the spring, plant it in a permanent place.
The place for this tree is selected quiet, protected from drafts, having a high degree of illumination. The site should be well drained in order to avoid stagnation of water or prepared bulk hill from the soil on which the seedlings are planted.
Sakura loves light, loamy soil of neutral or weak acidity, containing a lot of humus. In heavy soil it is necessary to make any baking powder, for example, sand, compost, vermiculite.
As with the purchase of any planting material, it is necessary to carefully examine the root system so that it has a sufficiently branched form for better survival in a new place. Cut the roots can not, you can only gently straighten their hands.
Best of all are suitable annual trees not more than 1 meter high with mature wood (the color of the bark is reddish).
Gardeners Council: for a lot of flowering, plant a couple of cherries of another variety close by.
Sakura is more demanding to care than cherry. It needs not only regular watering, but also spraying the foliage, especially in hot summer weather. However, the overabundance of moisture in the ground also does not like - the root system may die.
In the spring, before bud break, it is necessary to make a careful thinning of the tree crowns, removing dry, excess branches. Since Sakura very poorly tolerates the cutting procedure, it is imperative to treat the cut sites with a garden pitch or other antiseptic.
Sakura requires regular spraying with fungicides to prevent the occurrence of fungal infections and damage by pests (such as aphid): first time to process before the bud break, then one month after tying berries.
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The introduction of organic and complex mineral fertilizers has a beneficial effect on the overall development of the plant and its yield, especially the cherry is responsive to potassium and phosphorus. Application rates depend on soil fertility. Nitrogen fertilizers are excluded from autumn dressings. In winter, young trees should be wrapped with some material in order to prevent it from freezing, as well as to protect it from rodents.
How to grow sakura at home, see the following video:
Japanese cherry Sakura: growing and care
Always fascinated you look at photos of Japanese cherry - Sakura, which blooms in spring. When you talk about Japan, just a few words immediately come to mind: the land of the rising sun, Tokyo, geisha, samurai, and of course sakura. It would be nice to be in Japan at this time, when the festival of admiring the flowering of this beautiful tree takes place. Feeling like a white-pink wave of flowers with a delicate aroma envelops you. Perhaps you want to plant such beauty in your backyard? Let's try.
The main problem in our middle latitudes is the winter frosts, which the Sakura is very afraid of. That is why you can plant a sprig of sakura on our winter-hardy cherry.
Budding (vaccination) is carried out in mid-May, when the threat of spring frosts will pass, but the summer heat will not be established. Using a sharp knife, make a small cross section on the bark of the stock, and then - a little longer - longitudinal. Peel back the bark. Cut off the peephole with a piece of bark from a sakura stalk. Carefully insert the peephole into the cut section of the stock, and rewind everything tightly with a strip of plastic tape. 2 weeks after vaccination, loosen the garter.
When the cherries would be wonderful flowers Amidst the outspread mountains always fragrant Day to the day, Such a big love, Such anguish, probably, we would not know! Yamabe no akahito
If the peephole of sakura on cherries will take root well and grow, then in the third year a pink beauty will blossom. If you live in the southern regions of our country, then planting sakura is optional. You can just plant the stalk and shelter it for the winter, like the rest of the trees in the garden.
Sakura sakura choose winter-hardy varieties, for example, "Sakhalin cherry" or melkopilchchatuyu year-long with a length of 70 cm with a well-developed root system. They buy planting material in the fall, after the foliage falls, and they plant it in spring, in April. Before planting the seedling should be stored in an inclined prikop.
Place and soil
Sakura loves well-drained soil, light loam, with a neutral pH reaction. A good soil mixture for planting sakura will be from equal parts of humus, compost, meadow and field soil. Plant better on the slope of the south-west. On the south side, the tree will suffer from a lack of moisture, and in winter from temperature differences and possible sunburn. In the lowland Sakura will not develop.
Dig a planting hole 45 cm wide, 35 cm deep according to the 3x3 m scheme. Sift the earth and mix it with soil mixture, fill the hole 2/3, set the seedling and cover it with soil around the post, forming a 15 cm high hill. tamp so that the roots touch the soil well. Dig in a peg and tie a sapling so that it does not shake in the wind. Around the landing, make a groove with a depth of 10-15 cm and fill it with water.
How enviable their fate! North of the bustling world. Cherries bloomed in the mountains. Basho
Do not allow the soil to dry out during the period of budding and ovary, as well as in particularly hot weather to provide additional watering.
Feed the soil with potassium and nitrogen. В бедную почву вносить перегной (10 кг на 1 кв.м) и калийно-фосфорные удобрения (17-18 г на 1 кв.м). В среднепитательные почвы объем удобрений сокращают вполовину. Хорошо подкормку совмещать с поливом.
Cut the sakura gently, before the start of sap flow, carry out only sanitary pruning, removing dry and thickening crown branches, not allowing gum cure (formation of adhesive substance in places of damage to the branches). Place slices handle garden pitch. Treat frost.
In early spring or 14–20 days after flowering, spraying with nitrophene is carried out (200 g of the drug is applied to a bucket of water), which prevents the occurrence of the fungal coccomycosis disease. And also to protect the cherry tree from the ants, the stem is coated with petroleum jelly so that insects cannot move around the tree.
For the winter, the sakura is covered: they tie a shtamb, close the place of vaccinations with agrofiber.
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Japanese cherry tree is well known for many of its sophisticated beauty in spring, curved branches and wide crowns. In the Land of the Rising Sun, celebrations and cultural festivals are beloved by the flowering of this tree, loved by residents not only throughout the country, but also by many connoisseurs around the world. Those who do not want to stay away from the beautiful, it is worth asking about information about planting and the necessary care for sakura. Outside of Asia, this plant will look unusual, and in cold lands - to bring a sunny aura into everyday life.
Before deciding whether to buy such a tree for yourself, and whether its maintenance in a healthy state will not result in great difficulties, it is useful to inquire about how to properly care for sakura.
With active growth, this tree prefers abundant watering, therefore, in the absence of natural rainfall, such a question will have to attend to independently. Moreover, if the soil is poor in nutrients, such a plant will need a significant top dressing in the form of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Naturally, not everyone will be ready for this. But for someone who does not have the ability to grow this tree in his own garden, experts laid up an alternative option.
How to plant bonsai sakura seeds at home
It would be interesting to find out how you can plant bonsai sakura in your own home. Such knowledge will be extremely useful, as it will allow you to start a unique plant that will bloom even in a city apartment. For these purposes, it will be necessary to purchase a suitable pot of relatively flat shape, reaching a diameter of 20 cm in diameter. It will also be necessary to approach the choice of soil responsibly: as already mentioned, for proper germination, you will need a soil rich in minerals. Organic fertilizers need to be applied manually.
To find out how to plant classic bonsai sakura, you should consider certain aspects. For such a plant will require careful care, a sufficient amount of sunlight and fresh air. It is also important to keep the temperature warm enough for active growth. Some experts advise to purchase an already sprouted tree, planted in advance, and continue to monitor it at home. This simplified version is suitable for those who would prefer to avoid the inconvenience of hand planting and growing seeds, but still interested in the answer is not a question of how to plant the Japanese sakura.
However, for someone who wants to start the process of planting on their own, it is recommended to find out how you can plant purchased seeds of bonsai sakura on your own. It will be helpful to consult the seller in a specialized store about the choice of seed varieties. He will help with advice in choosing a plant and detailed guidance on its further maintenance. These trees are quite whimsical, so it's best to listen to the instructions down to the details.
For example, follow how to plant sakura from purchased seeds using the points below:
- prepare seeds a day before diving into the ground by placing in water at room temperature,
- transfer from the water into the soil, pre-moistened, 2 cm deep,
- carry out the preparatory process, covering the pot with film and leaving in the refrigerator for up to 2 months,
- take care of the plant already under normal conditions, watering steadily, observing the temperature and light.
Thus, planting the seeds of an acquired sakura may look rather unusual, but such steps are necessary so that the seeds of this miniature tree can form into a full-fledged plant. Further observation of the sprouts is in constant monitoring and regular watering, and this painstaking process will take up to several years.
In addition, you should be prepared for the fact that the seeds need to stock up as much as the budget allows, since few of them will actually grow. But in the further departure from the developed ritual it is impossible to deviate: watering, feeding and other procedures are vital for a new pet. Thus, perplexed by the problem of how to properly plant a real sakura from seeds, it will also be necessary to take into account that on one landing, the concerns will not end.
Having figured out how to plant the seeds of home bonsai sakura, and successfully growing them, the happy owner of new seedlings will need to plant them in separate pots so that they do not interfere with each other and have enough space for further formation. Transplantation must be carried out annually, moving to a new land rich in nitrogen and potassium. Organic fertilizers are applied in advance, approximately one month in advance, and the roots, if necessary, are shortened before being placed back in the container.
Reproduction of sakura tree cuttings
The reproduction of sakura trees is possible due to various methods: for example, seeds propagate wild-looking trees, while varietal subspecies - cuttings. In the case of the latter, there are also several options, the simplest of which is to buy ready-made seedlings in a specialty store, which runs the risk of not being in the smallest amount.
However, a more natural way to reproduce sakura is by actually grown cuttings that are prepared in the middle of summer, in July, when shoots about 10 cm long are cut from the tree and placed in a mixture of peat and sand. The main thing is to maintain the required temperature, which is approximately 18 degrees, and after the cuttings of roots begin to look through the cuttings, transplant each of them into a separate glass. Connoisseurs are advised to leave them wintering at 5 degrees of heat, in the spring to replant in a larger container, and after only a couple of years it is allowed to plant sprouts in open ground.
Sakura planting in spring and autumn, care and cultivation in the Moscow region and Siberia
Residents of cold habitats want to please the eye with a bright color no less, and perhaps even stronger than the settlers of the southern lands. To plant a whimsical cherry tree in Siberia, as well as caring for it, is not the easiest task, but with the right approach, it is completely solvable. Since today there is a rich variation range of varieties of this tree, it is always possible to choose something for everyone who is not indifferent to such an unusual, and in part recognizable beauty. It is realistic to plant a bright sakura in frosty Siberia if you choose the right variety of this plant that will be resistant to frost and will not require additional shelter. And the Siberian color, by the way, can last up to several weeks, dissolving in the usual spring, in the last month of the warm season - May.
Also, there are useful recommendations and tips on care, interesting for those wishing to undertake planting sakura in the suburbs. Flowering in this area takes place in April and continues in May, depending on weather conditions and acquired varieties. It is likely that a lot of time will pass in search of sprouts, since they are not sold in all the stores in the region. Solving this problem, you should definitely consult about the conditions of their germination, as some varieties prefer wetter places, while others - more dry. In general, the plot is selected sunny, not planted with larger trees, whose crowns can block the sun. It is strongly recommended to remember that Sakura needs careful cultivation and care, and this is the main component of success in this difficult, but exciting business.
The families of these crops are most suitable for planting in the spring, which is often the most favorable season, however, it is also possible to plant sakura in a cool autumn. What is really important in any case is to monitor the wintering, not allow the tree to freeze through, and fulfill the additional conditions described above so that the plant can please the owner with the luxurious flowers of a delicate delicate shade.
Sakura, or Japanese cherry, (Prunus serrulata) is an ancient symbol of Japan and a plant characterized by amazing pomp and elegance of flowering. In fact, under the name "Sakura" hides several East Asian tree species, but they all have pink terry flowers. In height, Japanese cherry can reach 25 m, the leaves are large, flowering occurs from March to June.
The value of cherry blossom for the Hanami festival
In late March - early April, the Japanese celebrate the flowering of cherry blossoms every year. Celebrate this day in the family circle, in nature or in the park. In Japan, cherry blossoms everywhere - near rivers, in the mountains, in the park. The holiday of its flowering is called Hanami and is a weekend for all Japanese.
In the media, before the sakura blooms, it highlights what day the holiday will be and where it will be most convenient to watch it from. The process lasts from a couple of hours to several days. Hanami is very popular in the country, and some Japanese travel around the cities to catch cherry blossom several times.
What makes Japanese cherry different?
Japanese cherry grows quickly and is able to reach a considerable height. The width of its crown reaches about 10 m. Sakura differs from ordinary cherries in some biological features and growing requirements.
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Growing requirements and value of Sakura
The flowering of Japanese cherry occurs in early spring. The tree is not able to endure low temperatures - the temperature value below 15 degrees for sakura is deadly. The tree should be planted only on humus soils and in well-lit places.
The main purpose of Japanese cherry - decorating the site.
Differences of Sakura from ordinary cherry
The main difference between sakura and ordinary cherry is that Japanese cherry does not produce fruit. Sakura - an ornamental plant, cherry - fruit. Japanese cherry fruit is also there, but they are sour, small and not so tasty. The berries of ordinary cherries are tasty and are actively used for food applications.
Eating Sakura Fruit
Despite the peculiar taste of sakura fruits, they are used in food by the inhabitants of Japan. The fruit of Japanese cherry is called Sakumbo, and its color can be pink or red. Different varieties of plants have fruits of different tastes.
Sakura leaves are also used in food. They are pickled or salted like tomatoes. Sweets are wrapped in Japanese cherry leaves. The taste of the leaves is sour, spicy or salty-sweet. Another way to use them is to add rice. Sakura fruits can be used to make jam and wine.
Main varieties of sakura
Modern varieties of sakura are created by crossing it with a cherry (Cerasus yedoensis), (S. Lannesiana) and (S. Incisa). The most famous varieties are:
- "Shirotae". The tree reaches a height of 4.5 m, the flowers are white, non-double. The variety is actively used in England and Japan. Homeland cherry - England.
- "Hally Tolivett." Frost-resistant grade with a crown in the shape of a ball. The flowers are 4 centimeters, pink, the diameter of the inflorescences is 8 cm. The tree is propagated by green cuttings.
- "Kwanzan." One of the most famous varieties. The flower contains 30 petals, color - purple. Of the minuses - the tree does not differ longevity.
- Kikushidare-zakura. The tree reaches a height of 5 m. The flowers are double, pink, 6 cm in diameter. Of the minuses - the cherry is not able to withstand severe frosts.
- "Amonogawa". The height of the tree reaches 8 m, width - only 1.25 m. The flowers are numerous, pink, fragrant.
Sakura requires not only watering, but also periodic spraying of the leaves. Particular attention should be paid watering in the hot summer. During the first three years after planting, while the root system has not yet fully strengthened, watering is carried out once a week. If it rains, no moisture is required.
Japanese cherry will not bear fruit if it does not have enough nutrients. Wood requires organic, nitrogen and potassium. The following amount of mineral substances is applied per m2 of soil:
- average for the presence of nutrients of the soil - mineral substances 8 g, organic matter - 5 kg,
- poor soils — mineral substances — 16 g, organic matter — 9 kg.
Shaping and trimming
Sakura pruning is carried out to prevent thickening. It is produced in the spring, until the juice went. Dry and excess branches are removed, and after the work is done, the sections of cuts are processed by garden pitch.
Care for pruning must be done carefully so that the gum does not start to stand out. To eliminate the appearance of adhesive matter, the plant needs good drainage and proper watering.
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Tree protection from pest diseases
If you do not protect the cherry from pests, the flowers will be spoiled, and the plant itself will develop slowly. In some cases, the branches of Sakura begin to exfoliate. To prevent this, you should remove the growths on the branches, and cut-off sites should be treated with healing preparations.
Sometimes the cherry suffers from drying leaves. This is a fungus that a mixture of sulfur and coal can help get rid of. A pest, for example, a ringed silkworm (Malacosoma neustria), can also provoke a fungus. Fight against the pest will be by removing the branches on which he laid his eggs. It will be necessary to collect and caterpillars, as well as the use of insecticides.
Sakura in the country: landing (video)
Sakura is one of the most beautiful flowering trees on the planet. To grow a graceful plant will have to try pretty, but the result is worth it. Nowadays, the opportunity to admire the flowering of sakura on your site is with everyone, and not just among the inhabitants of the country of the Rising Sun.
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How does it look
Few know that sakura is the “sister” of a cherry, namely - fine-cherries. Speaking about how the Sakura looks like, it’s worthwhile to submit not a copy of our cherry, but a tall tree with a spreading crown, which on average reaches a height of 8 meters. It has oval-shaped leaves, with teeth on the edges, which are painted in green glossy color (in spring they have a bronze tint). The bark is smooth, covered with fine cracks.
It is interesting that there is a lot of resin in the sakura wood, so the shoots are very flexible.
When and how to bloom
If you have ever been fond of Japanese folklore, then you might have noticed that sakura blooms profusely during the winter holidays. The tree begins to bloom in January, but flowering does not occur evenly, but from South to North.
At the same time, it is difficult to say when the plant will start blooming in the middle lane, since it depends not only on the weather conditions, but also on the variation. There are species that bloom in late autumn, in winter, in early spring or closer to June.
Let's talk about bloom. Sakura blooms incredibly beautiful pink flowers. On each hand, about 7–9 inflorescences are formed, which completely overlap the shoot. As a result, it seems that the tree turns into a huge ball. Speaking about how many sakura blooms, it is worth noting that each flower lives no more than 10 days, after which it fades and crumbles. Repeated budding does not occur, so 1.5 weeks is the maximum flowering period.
Breeders were found interesting species that emit huge buds with 45-50 petals. From the side it may seem that the tree was decorated with rosebuds.
How to choose seedlings when buying
When choosing a seedling, it is imperative to focus on winter hardy varieties. The whole problem with growing a tree is precisely that it cannot survive our frost. Therefore, preference should be given to the Sakhalin cherry variety, which is perfectly acclimatized.
Next, inspect the upper part and the root system (if the roots are not in the earthy coma). There should be no wounds and dry branches. The root system must be developed, healthy, without blistering and rot.
It is necessary to get a sapling at the end of autumn when the tree already dropped foliage. Высота однолетки должна составлять 65-75 см. Однако посадку проводят только весной (апрель), иначе неокрепший саженец погибнет за зиму, не принявшись на новом месте за такое короткое время. До этого разместить деревце можно в погребе или непосредственно в жилом помещении, посадив его в большой горшок или ведро.
Выбор места для посадки
Для выращивания сакуры в средней полосе необходимо правильно подобрать место в саду или на приусадебном участке. If you plant a beauty "as it will," then the tree can wither, even to the point of drying.
So, choose the south-western slope of a small hill and plant a young tree. In case you plant it on the south side, the tree will suffer greatly from temperature changes. But if the place is in a lowland, then get ready for the fact that Sakura dries quickly.
You should also take care that the sunlight does not overlap the buildings, otherwise the tree will begin to stretch and deform strongly, as if it lacks mineral substances.
The soil. Be sure to check the pH of the soil, as the Sakura grows in the soil with a neutral reaction. Deviation should be negligible. Also, make sure that the substrate is well water missed, and lay drainage before planting. Light loamy soil is preferred.
Step-by-step process of planting seedlings
Now consider in detail the landing of Sakura.
Starting with digging a hole. We will need a hole with a diameter of 45 cm. When digging a hole, separate the upper fertile layer from the lower one. We will not need the lower one, but we will use the upper one for landing.
We mix in equal proportions humus, compost and the top layer of soil that we got after digging the hole. If the mixture is not enough, then add the purchased land or take the soil of the nearest field.
We lay drainage using pebbles, expanded clay or crushed stone. Layer should be about 10 cm, not less. Next, fill 2/3 of our soil mixture so that there is a mound in the center of the pit.
Immerse the sapling clearly in the center, leveling it (we do not need sakura growing sideways). We pour out the remnants of the mixture, then we tamp and pour. As soon as the ground settles a bit, we’ll get some more. We need to remove the air pocket around the roots so that the tree will stick faster.
After landing, we set up a support and tie up the sakura. Make a ditch around the perimeter, about 10 cm deep, and fill it with water.
This landing is complete.
Seasonal care features
After the planting stage, sufficient attention should be paid to the fragile tree to meet its needs in time. Let's talk about the formation of the crown and the need for fertilizing.
We water as the soil dries, but moisture is especially important during the swelling of the buds, as well as at the beginning of flowering and over the next two weeks. Should not be allowed soil dryingthat is extremely bad for the tree.
Let's start with the fact that fertilizing must necessarily be, and they should be made during watering.
It is necessary to close up in the near-stem circle not only humus or compost, but also mineral water. Mineral fertilizers require nitrogen and potassium in the tree, which can be applied both individually and as a pair using complex fertilizer. If the soil is poor in organic matter, then once a year up to 10 kg of humus / compost and up to 15 g of mineral fertilizers should be applied (meaning the total weight of all elements).
If the substrate has average values, then 5 kg of organic matter and 8 g of "mineral water" will suffice.
Formation of the crown and removal of dry, sick and frozen branches should be done only before the start of sap flow, in order to avoid the appearance of gum (resin).
In the first years, a sapling should be cut only in case of dry or diseased shoots; the formation at an early stage is not performed.
Sakura is not adapted to the "real" winter, so it must be prepared exactly with the instructions below. If you are sure that in winter there will be only minimal frosts, then you can at least warm the wood. For a good wintering at the end of the summer we introduce potash and phosphate fertilizers. In no case do not use complex options that contain nitrogen, as they will provoke further growth of green mass, and the tree will not have time to lose foliage before frost.
A week before the anticipated first frosts, we wrap the trunk and grafting sites with thick covering material, and the lower part of the skeletal shoots with dense agrofibre.
At the same time it is impossible to use a film or any material that does not allow oxygen to pass through.
What is Japanese cherry?
This perennial tree of the Rosaceae family, widely distributed in Japan, symbolizes the cloud, the charm and the ephemeral flow of life.
Cherries are relatively fast growing (on average they grow by 20–35 cm per year). Sakura has beautiful delicate pink inflorescences, from which blows wonderful aroma.
In honor of this beautiful tree, the Japanese even invented a whole celebration - the Hanami. It lasts 7–10 days, during which the Japanese admire the flowers of ume and sakura. Some people think that the bird cherry belongs to sakura varieties, but it is not. These are two different types of plum, and they should not be confused.
Many characteristics of sakura (height, crown, the beginning of flowering, and so on) depend on the plant variety. When choosing the type of cherry, it is important to consider which climatic conditions are optimal for this tree. Here is List of the most popular varieties of sakura:
- Kanzan has a long straight trunk up to 10 meters in height, the branches are wide, slightly saggy, the crown of the tree reaches 5 to 8 meters in diameter. The inflorescences are large (2-5 flowers each), starting to bloom in May. In Russia, this variety is often called melkopilchatoy cherry. It is believed that kansan is resistant to frost and adapted to life in the temperate latitudes of our homeland. Successfully gives the black fruits of small size, bitter taste.
- Kiku Shidare has a weeping crown shape (about 3 m wide) and beautiful pale pink double flowers. The trunk is very thin, as a rule, these trees do not reach a large size (maximum 4 m). Blossoms at the end of March, inflorescences are not so lush compared to Kanzan. Kiku Shidare resistant to frost.
- Cherry serrated has a relatively long stem of up to 15–25 m. Flowering begins in March, and ends in June. Flowers are bright pink, gathered in a brush of 7–9 pieces. Maintains frosts to minus 29 degrees.
- Short-cherry cherry has a height of 3 to 10 m. A distinctive feature - light beige flowers. She was also called “shaggy” because of the crown and inflorescences. Flowering begins in early spring, growing in areas of moderate heat.
There are other types of wood, but these options are the most common.
First you need to choose in advance a place to grow Japanese cherry. High elevations and slopes facing south or south-west will do well. Water should not stagnate near the tree. Sakura - light-loving plant, it needs a large amount of sunlight. You should not plant cherries in the lowlands, as there is a high risk that the tree will freeze and die.
Sakura does not tolerate strong winds, so she needs protection. For this, other trees or a decorative fence are well suited.
Other trees should be 1.5–2 m apart, and the fence should be about 1–1.5 m in height to protect the plant.
Like all other trees, Japanese cherry is best planted in spring or early autumn. If the sakura is planted in the spring, over the summer it will have time to adapt to the new conditions and will tolerate the winter well. In autumn, all plant life processes slow down, so trees react to a new place more easily. It is highly not recommended to replant in winter, as there is a great chance that the cherry will freeze and will not tolerate cold. In order to increase chances, it is necessary to cover it with spruce leaves or other warming materials.
Most often for planting choose a sapling, but sometimes give preference to the seeds. The principal difference between them is that additional care is needed for the seeds (they need to be soaked in water, grown in a container until they are ready to be transplanted to the site). This, on the one hand, is very interesting, and on the other - a very difficult task.
The seedling can be bought in nurseries or at special exhibitions. Experienced nursery specialists will help you choose the most suitable variety and tell you the basic rules for planting. A small tree about 70 cm in height is best suited.
The soil should be well drained. If the ground does not pass water well, you can make an artificial drainage, for this you need to add 20–30 cm of sand to the landing hole. Sakura grows well in loamy soil with a neutral pH.
Making a hole in the ground
Landing hole must be prepared in advance. The place is cleared of weeds, stones and debris. Sakura is very susceptible to the soil. The earth should contain all the necessary macro and micronutrients, namely:
- potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate),
The hole should be about 45 cm wide and 35 cm deep (with a 70 cm high seedling). Add fertilizer to the well (superphosphates and potassium sulfate), pour half a bucket of water. We can not allow the root neck to be below ground level.
After planting, it does not hurt to tie the cherry to the peg in order to protect the trunk from strong wind. The plant is mulched with a small layer of humus or peat. Around the tree make a ditch with a depth of 10-15 cm and fill it with water.
How to care for Japanese cherry?
During active growth and fruit formation, the tree needs additional watering. It is impossible to allow the land to dry out, if precipitation is not enough, then it is worth watering the plant additionally.
Spring fertilizer or compost (6–8 kg per tree). Superphosphate, urea and potassium sulfate are added in the calculation of 18 grams per square meter. With a lack of mineral substances, the cherry stops blooming and begins to shed its leaves.
Sakura is very sensitive to the lack of micro and macro elements.
In the spring should be pruning plants. Cut dry, broken and excess branches. It is very important to do this before the start of sap flow (approximately the end of March - the beginning of April). It is necessary to cut off with sharp garden shears. The cut angle should be 45 or 65 degrees. Slices need to be treated to prevent gumming and to protect against parasites.
In early spring, the tree is sprayed with nitrophene (200 g per 3 liters of water). This substance kills spores and prevents the spread of fungal diseases (for example, coccomycosis, which causes dark spots on the leaves). Sometimes they also use a decoction of wormwood or nettle tincture.
It is important to periodically carry out prevention and inspect the tree for the presence of parasites and diseases. Cherry is susceptible to parasites, such as cherry slimy sawfly, aphid, cherry weevil, hawthorn, cherry moth. The following symptoms may indicate the presence of the disease and parasites: the appearance of plaque on the leaves, discoloration, yellowing or establishment of leaves, curvature of the trunk or the appearance of cracks. At the first signs of infection, it is important to immediately begin treating the sakura and prevent the disease from spreading.
It does not hurt to put a special frame or net around sakura, which will save the plant from small animals, such as moles or mice. If nearby there are large mammals such as deer, then it is better to wrap a tree trunk with special polymer materials.
Young trees should be sheltered for the winter. Mature plants are frost-resistant, but it doesn’t hurt them to prepare them for winter. Sakura is covered with agrofiber, and the inoculation and trunk are tied up.
Japanese cherry - planting
Japanese cherry loves the light, so for planting it is necessary to choose a well-lit area. It is desirable that it was not stagnant rain or melt water. The best option for planting sakura will be a small hill or mound. From the cold winds the tree will save the wall of the building. When planting saplings of Japanese cherry, it is necessary to keep a distance of 1.5-2 m between them. The best time to plant sakura is early spring, before the buds swell. Although you can plant a plant in late autumn.
For planting should prepare in advance the hole size 45x35 cm, filling it with a mixture of humus with the upper fertile layer of earth. When planting, the root neck of the seedling should be at ground level. The ground around the sakura should be compacted a little and, having dug a peg next to it, attach a plant to it. So the wind will not loosen it. After planting, the plant should be watered and mulched pristvolny circle with peat or humus. Proper planting sakura and care for it in the future will make the plant an excellent decoration of your backyard.
Japanese Sakura - Care
At home, caring for sakura is to conduct several mandatory activities:
- regular watering is especially important during hot weather and in the spring, during budding and ovary,
- in early spring or two weeks after the end of flowering, it is necessary to spray the tree with nitrophene, which is the prevention of fungal diseases,
- to protect Japanese cherries from ants, aphid vectors, its trunk can be coated with vaseline,
- for the winter, the sakura should be warmed: tie up the bole, and close the grafting sites with agrofibre. To protect against sunburn, whitewash the trunk and the base of the branches.
Japanese cherry - pruning
Growing and caring for sakura is impossible without regular, but gentle pruning of the tree. In early spring, before the start of sap flow, remove all dry or unnecessary branches that interfere with air circulation. Places cuts should immediately handle garden pitch. This will help avoid gum therapy - a thick, sticky yellowish substance. It will not appear if the plant provides good drainage, as well as proper watering.
Japanese Sakura - dressing
If you want to have flowering Japanese cherry on the plot, you need to feed the tree regularly. Care for spring sakura is to apply nitrogen and potash fertilizers. And at the end of the summer, the tree should be fed with fertilizer containing phosphorus and potassium. On poor soils make humus at the rate of 10 kg per 1 sq.m. For medium soils, the amount of fertilizer can be reduced by half. Insufficient feeding or lack of it adversely affects the growth and development of the tree. Making feedings is best combined with watering.
Japanese cherry - reproduction
Japanese cherry tree propagated in two main ways:
- Seeds. To do this, they are soaked in water for a day, the soil for sowing should consist of sand, sawdust and ash. Seeds are buried in soil mixture by 1 cm, watered and covered with foil. Within 2 months in this form, they should undergo stratification in a cold place, and then they are germinated at room temperature.
- Cuttings. To do this, in the middle of summer, it is necessary to cut a semi-woody shoot about 12 cm long and place it in a mixture of sand and peat. The optimum temperature for rapid rooting of the cutting is approximately + 18 ° C. After the roots appear, the stalk should be planted in a cup. Its wintering should take place at a temperature not higher than + 8 ° С. In the spring, the sapling of Japanese cherry must be transplanted into a large container, and after 2-3 years, it can be planted in open ground.
Sakura or melkopilchataya cherry is an ornamental tree from the Plum family. Also very often this name designates a whole group of different types of cherry trees. All of them are grown only for decorative purposes, as their fruits are small and inedible.
The natural habitat of sakura is the entire territory of Japan, a part of China, the Korean peninsula. It occurs in the south of Primorsky Krai and middle Sakhalin. For its growth, this culture chooses mountain slopes in mixed forests.
In nature, Sakura is a tree whose height can be up to 25 meters. It is characterized by an egg-shaped crown and smooth gray-brown bark. Young shoots are small-leafed, almost bare yellow-gray.
Sakura leaves are elliptical, reversely egg-shaped, their length is about 10-12 cm. Their distinguishing feature is the base of the heart-shaped or wedge-shaped form. Flowers with a rim of white or pale pink with a diameter of not more than 3 cm. They are collected in brushes from 2-4 pieces.
The fruits of this tree are inedible stone fruit rounded slightly pointed to the top of the form. Their length is about 7-8 mm. Sakura bloom occurs in April or May. In the culture of melkopilchataya cherry introduced for a long time. It is successfully grown in St. Petersburg, in several areas of the Baltic States, Transcarpathia and on the Black Sea coast.
Planting seedlings and growing conditions
The main problem in growing sakura in Central Russia is low winter hardiness.
This problem can be solved with the help of vaccination. A winter-hardy variety of local cherry is chosen as a stock.
Inoculation carried out by the method of budding in the first half of May. It is very important to have time before the beginning of the summer heat, as well as to avoid return frost.
The technique of vaccination is as follows:
- On the bark of the rootstock in the place of inoculation, a t-shaped incision is made with a sharp knife.
- The bark at the incision site is gently raised with a knife and slightly bent down.
- A pre-prepared peephole of a sakura with a viable kidney is inserted into the incision site.
- Vaccination site tightly wrapped with a special ribbon for vaccinations. In its absence, you can use the usual electrical tape.
- After 15 days, the bandage must be loosened.
- Sakura, grown by the method of grafting, usually blooms in 3 years of cultivation.
При выборе места для размещения сакуры в саду предпочтение стоит отдавать суглинкам с нейтральной почвенной реакцией. Также обязательным условием является наличие хорошего дренажа.
При посадке саженца в яму желательно добавить половину ведра хорошо перепревшего навоза. При наличии склона сакуру следует размещать с юго-западной стороны. On the southern tree will suffer from insufficient moisture in the summer and from the temperature difference and sunburn in the winter.
The process of sakura planting is as follows:
- A pit is laid 50 cm wide and about 40 cm deep.
- In the center of the pit a small mound is made of a mixture of excavated soil and humus.
- A sapling is placed on the top of the hill.
- Root system neatly covered with earth.
- The soil around the trunk of the seedling is compacted.
- Next to the seedling driven peg for binding.
- Sapling with the help of twine is tied to a peg.
- Landing place carefully watered.
Carefully follow these rules and you will succeed.
Caring for sakura tree consists in timely watering and loosening of the soil in the tree trunks.
This is especially true for seedlings and young trees in the period of bud formation. If the tree at this moment will experience a lack of moisture, then abundant flowering can not be expected from it.
Also, when growing this crop, it is very important to add nitrogen and potash fertilizers in time.
The lack of these elements adversely affects the abundance and duration of flowering. When grown on poor soils, it is necessary to introduce humus every two years. All dressing is best done after abundant watering of the tree wheel.
Beautiful spring blossoms of sakura
Every spring before the start of sap flow, it is necessary to carry out sanitary and formative pruning of the tree. During it, all diseased, damaged and dry branches are removed. In order for the tree to have a neat and well-groomed appearance in the process of pruning, it is necessary to remove all shoots thickening and growing inside the crown.
Attention! After pruning, all cuts are necessarily processed by garden pitch. This will prevent such an undesirable phenomenon as acupuncture.
Very often adult specimens of sakura suffer from frost cracks. They can not be ignored. To help the plant cope with the damage, all dead tissue is cut to a healthy place.
After that, the cleaned places are treated with 1% solution of copper sulphate. After such treatment, the damage sites are additionally plastered with garden pitch or a mixture of clay and mullein.
When growing sakura in Central Russia, trees for the winter must be further sheltered.
For this, in the autumn after the onset of stable frosts, the boles and the inoculation site are wrapped with several layers of nonwoven covering material. For example, you can use "Spunbond" or "Lutrasil".
The main method of reproduction of sakura, especially varietal, is grafting. The cuttings of this culture can be used both for independent rooting when grown in warmer regions, and as a graft in the middle part of Russia.
You can purchase planting material for vaccination from amateur collectors. The purchase is best planned for the second half of February or March. With a later harvest, the survival rate of the cuttings is significantly reduced.
Mature sakura trees
If available, cuttings can be cut independently from mature trees in February. For these purposes, it is best to choose well-matured shoots without external signs of damage. The optimal length of the cutting should be no more than 15 cm.
Immediately after harvesting, the planting material is wrapped in a plastic bag and placed in the vegetable section of the domestic refrigerator. There it will be stored until grafting, if reproduction is carried out by vaccination.
If reproduction will be carried out by rooting, then semi-larch one-year shoots should be used. Harvest them after the end of the flowering period. Usually they look like thin green twigs. The rooting process itself is as follows:
- From the tree are cut young shoots with a length of not more than 10-15 cm.
- Sections of the cuttings are processed by a root formation stimulator, for example, you can use such a preparation as “Kornevin”.
- Treated cuttings are put in a jar of boiled water.
Further, depending on the possibilities and personal preferences, there are two options for rooting planting material. The first is the use of the aquatic environment. In this case, the cuttings are left in a container with water until the roots appear. To prevent the development of putrefactive processes, a piece of charcoal is put into the container.
To accelerate the process of rooting can also use the lower heating, but in this case you need to very carefully monitor the water level in the tank and to prevent its full evaporation. As the simplest heating, you can use a central heating pipe. A piece of cloth or just a towel is placed on it, on top of which is placed a jar of cuttings.
When rooting in the soil, cuttings after a daily exposure in the aquatic environment are planted in loose and nutritious soil. Plant them should be slightly inclined. After planting, the soil surface is carefully watered. To create the greenhouse effect, the container on top is covered with a piece of plastic film.
Further care of the cuttings is to maintain the temperature in + 20-22 ° C, periodic ventilation and watering. Under all conditions, the rooting process lasts no more than 1.5 months.
Types of Sakura, tying the fruit, you can multiply with seeds. Like all stone-seed cultures, they need to undergo a stratification process for emergence. For this, two duck bones are soaked in water with the addition of a growth stimulator. For example, you can use Epin or Zircon.
Then they are sown in a small container with loose nutrient soil. You can make it yourself from equal parts of peat, sand and humus or use a ready-made universal substrate for growing seedlings. For greater looseness and moisture capacity, perlite or vermiculite can be added to it.
The depth of seeding should be no more than 1 cm. After sowing, the container is well watered and wrapped in a plastic bag. Further, for stratification, it is placed in a refrigerator for 2 months or, if possible, is taken out on a cold balcony. After the end of this period, the container is transferred to a bright place with a temperature of about 20-22 ° C. Within 1-1.5 months shoots should appear.
One of the varieties of sakura
In the absence of opportunities for stratification at home, you can use podzimny sowing seeds in open ground. To increase the percentage of germination before planting, they can be scarified. This can be done with sandpaper.
After preliminary preparation, the seeds are sown in a small greenhouse prepared in advance. A place for him to choose such that there was no spring water stagnation. The best time for sowing is the second half of October. After completion of sowing, the soil surface in the greenhouse is mulched with a layer of leaves or peat.
Attention! Sowing seeds is best in the year of collection. When storing them, germination rates are greatly reduced.
In the spring for 2 or even 3 months, do not disturb the sowing site. Very often, the process of emergence of seedlings can be delayed until mid-summer, and individual bones can ascend only in the second year.
In summer, the care of seedlings consists in regular watering and removal of weeds. It is recommended to shelter them in the fall at the onset of a steady cooling. Young plants are quite sensitive and can easily die during their first wintering. In a permanent place they are planted in the second or third year of cultivation.
Pests and diseases
One of the most common diseases of sakura is coccomycosis. It is a dangerous fungal disease of all stone fruit. It affects mainly the leaves and young shoots of trees.
Its first signs are small reddish spots on the surface of leaf plates. With further development of the disease, they continue to grow in size and begin to merge with each other.
Especially strong damage to trees occurs in cool and wet weather. In such circumstances, the pathogen additionally manifests itself with a touch of a characteristic pink color.
The fight against coccomycosis should be comprehensive. Protection measures must include not only chemical treatments, but also sanitary measures. The first treatment of trees is carried out at the time of bud break. For this purpose, solutions of various fungicidal preparations are used. For example, you can use a 3% solution of the Bordeaux mixture.
Sakura is very resistant to pests.
The following spraying is carried out after the end of the flowering period. For him suitable copper-containing drugs. For example, “Skor” or “Topsin”. Last processing is planned for the end of August - the beginning of September.
A pathogenic coccomycosis fungus successfully hibernates in fallen leaves. Therefore, as a prevention of its spread, foliage should not be collected and burned. Also, it is recommended to dig the soil in the near-stem circle in spring and autumn.
Of the pests on sakura most often you can find such pests as ants and aphids. It is enough to destroy only the ants and the aphid will disappear by itself. To combat them, you can use both chemical and passive methods.
The former consist in the use of various insecticides in the form of powders, gels or solutions. Their method of preparation and use can be found in the accompanying annotation.
While watching the video, you will learn about growing sakura.
The latter provide for the arrangement of various adhesive traps or the creation of barriers to their movement. For example, a layer of ordinary medical vaseline can be applied around the stem. For ants, it will become an insurmountable obstacle.