Actinidia - a popular plant in the subtropical zone, belongs to the genus of shrub vines. Actinidia Kolomikta and its varieties for the suburbs, the photos of which are presented in the article, are known for tasty fruits. Many varieties are suitable even for the harsh Russian climate, and their characteristics will be described a little below.
Characteristic features of actinidia colomicta
Thanks to the work of breeders, such a strange plant as actinidia colomicta is successfully grown and bears fruit even in the regions of the Russian Federation. This species is frost-resistant, tolerant of the harsh conditions of our climate zone and quite unpretentious in maintenance.
Externally, the actinidia colomikta resembles a liana with branches twisting and large leaves in the shape of a heart. The color range of foliage is not constant and changes with the seasons. The flowering of actinidia begins in mid-May and can last for several weeks, flowers of irregular shape, have a pleasant fragrant aroma. Fruits plant since August, but often this phase is delayed until October.
The fruits of actinidia contain a whole range of vitamins and nutrients:
- vitamins C, P, group B,
- citric, malic, oxalic acids,
- biologically active substances.
Actinidia Kolomikta acts as a champion on the content of vitamin C, leaving behind lemon and black currant.
As blanks for the winter, many housewives rub fruits with sugar or dry them. However, when using should take into account the fact that the berries have a strong laxative effect, and dispense their use.
Actinidia kolomikta refers to dioecious plants, there are male and female types. When planting in a garden plot, it is necessary to place male and female plants nearby in order for the crop yield to be full. Propagated by cuttings that are best planted in the ground in the spring.
The best varieties of actinidia kolomikta for Moscow region
The climatic conditions of the Moscow region are rather severe. Here there are frosts in spring and winter and dry summer days. The optimal area for cultivation of actinidia kolomikta - the southern regions, but with the help of breeders, some varieties of tropical plants are suitable for cultivation in the suburbs, presented photos of each of them will help determine gardeners belonging to a particular variety.
The most recommended varieties of actinidia kolomikta for cultivation in the Moscow region:
- Dr. Shimanovsky,
Actinidia Colomicta Dr. Shimanovsky is a type of plant with small oval-shaped berries that ripen in August. This variety is preferably planted in a sunny place, but not under direct scorching rays, the presence of light shade is mandatory. The berries have a pronounced apple flavor with pineapple.
Actinidia Colomikta Adam - decorative variety with unusually colored foliage, which blooms in green, turns white to the end of spring, and becomes pink in color by autumn, the saturation of colors is constantly increasing. This variety loves sunny, low-winding places, perfect for use in decoration purposes when creating hedges, arbors, arches, landscaping balconies and loggias. Adam is the male type of actinidia colomicta. During flowering is covered with small white inflorescences, emitting a pleasant aroma, similar to the smell of lemon. Growing variety very quickly, reaching four meters in height.
Actinidia Kolomikta September - frost-resistant form that can withstand temperatures as low as 40 C. It is characterized by high yield, greenish-yellow fruits have a pleasant taste. For pollination, planting near the actinidia of the Adam variety is recommended. The plant creeps along the ground or winds around trees, installed supports.
Actinidia Colomikta Vitacol - variety has large oblong fruits, gathered in a brush of two or three berries. Vitakola begins to mature gradually by mid-August. Leaves inherent decorative color in white and green or pink tones. The plant begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting in open ground, refers to the female type, grows to a height of three to four meters.
Actinidia Colomikta Gourmand different large size berries. The cylindrical fruit is bright green in color with white stripes, with a rich pineapple flavor. The ripening time is in August-September.
Features care Actinidia Colomikta
A distinctive feature of actinidia colomikta is its frost resistance, but to ensure a safe wintering, it is necessary to additionally cover the plant in late autumn. Given the love of culture for branching, it should be provided with additional supports.
It is preferable to choose a soil mixed with clay or sand to be loose and quickly moistened. Planted actinidia recommended in early May, between plants to observe a distance of at least two meters. Topsoil should be enriched with humus or rotten organic fertilizer. For good fertility, it is necessary to regularly feed the culture with nitrogen-containing compounds.
It is necessary to organize the irrigation of the actinidia colomikta in an airborne manner in the evening, on hot days it is imperative to additionally moisten the soil around the plant. Loosening often with the subsequent mulching of the stalk area.
The rhizomes of actinidia are well developed and located shallowly underground. This fact should be taken into account during the loosening of the soil in order not to damage the roots.
Given all the above recommendations, each gardener can grow Actinidia Kolomikta on his plot, choosing one of the recommended varieties for the Moscow region from the photo.
The average plant height reaches three to four meters, with an annual increase of one and a half meters. The plant is characterized by decorative colored leaves that have a very original color. In early spring, the color of foliage is white-green. In the summer, its color changes to a pronounced pale pink color.
It should be remembered that decorative effect is manifested only in adult plants grown in conditions of sufficient illumination. The fruits have an oval shape and a greenish-yellow surface with a fairly bright blush on the most illuminated side. Fruits of small size, with an average weight of not more than 2.5−3 g Aging begins in August. At the phase of active fruiting, the plant leaves four years after planting the seedlings to a permanent place.
Actinidia kolomikt Lakomka is a mid-level liana no more than seven meters high. The peculiarity of this fruit-decorative liana-like shrub is represented by entwining the support in a counterclockwise direction, as well as by the presence of thin and smooth branches with large and relief leaves. The flowers are white, similar to lily of the valley flowers. Have quite a strong flavor. Flowering occurs in May and lasts a little less than a month.
The fruits are cylindrical, compressed from the sides, weighing no more than 5.1–5.3 g. The surface of the ripe fruit has an olive-green color with light longitudinal stripes. The covering peel is relatively thin; it covers sweet-and-sour pulp with pineapple aroma. Harvesting takes place in the middle of the last summer month. The variety favorably differs in resistance to low temperature conditions and a high content of ascorbic acid. The variety is characterized as fruitful and large-fruited.
Characterized by fruits of average weight up to 16.5−18.5 g green color with excellent taste and quite subtle, delicate aroma. The fruits ripen in the last decade of September. The plant enters fruiting two or three years after planting fruit seedlings in a permanent place. The average yield of an adult productive plant subject to the technology of cultivation can be at least 10−12 kg of ripe berries.
Adult lianoobraznye plant reaches a height of 18-20 m and belongs to the category of winter-hardy and dioecious. A distinctive feature of this variety of berry-ornamental crops is a high and stable yield, which is successfully supplemented by good indicators of unpretentiousness to the growing conditions, resistance to damage, the most common diseases and pests in our country. In central Russia, young plants are recommended to bend down to the ground and be insulated with peat, dry foliage or fir spruce. In the southern regions, plants are able to winter without using a shelter.
Delicious actinidia, or Actinídia deliciósa, is the result of the Chinese actinidia crossing work. New Zealand breeders were able to significantly increase the size of the fruit and improve their taste. The height of the tree-vine can reach eight meters or more. The plant has strong stems and long petioles, on which are dark green oval-rounded leaves with a heart-shaped base. The surface of the foliage is smooth and shiny. The reverse side has a fairly pronounced white pubescence.
The flowers are white, over time, turn yellow. Plants of many varieties of this variety are not self-bearing, therefore, to obtain fruiting, it is necessary to plant bushes with male flowers. One of the most popular varieties of this species is the Jenny, a bisexual self-pollinating variety, as well as a very fragrant, delicate and sweet fruit variety Actinidia deliciosa Boskoop.
The average length of the fruit does not exceed 6.3−6.5 cm They are covered with peel with hard and short hairs of brownish color. The fruits are known to consumers under the name of "kiwi" and are widely distributed not only in foreign countries, but also in Russia due to its excellent taste and nutritional value.
The most popular varieties and their description
To choose the right planting material, you need to familiarize yourself with the description of the most popular varieties and learn how to plant and care for the plant.
The height of the plant of this variety reaches three to four meters, each year it grows to one and a half meters. Liana has a decorative brightly colored leaf cover. In the spring, the leaves have a white-green color, and in the summer they become a pale pink color. Decorative properties appear only in adult actinidia, which is grown in conditions with sufficient lighting.
Fruits are small, weight reaches no more than two and a half - three grams, have an oval shape, color - greenish-yellow. Mature in August. Actinidia hermaphroditic actively begins to bear fruit four years after planting young seedlings in a permanent place.
Sredneroslyaya liana, which reaches a height of about six and a half - seven meters. The peculiarity of this liana-like shrub is that it twists around the support in a counterclockwise direction, has thin smooth branches with large relief foliage. Flowers have Lakomki white color with a pronounced aroma, which resemble in appearance the inflorescences of lily of the valley. Actinidia gourmet blooms in May for about thirty days.
The fruit weighs about five grams, has a cylindrical shape, pressed on the sides. Ripe fruit is olive-green in color with longitudinal light stripes. The peel is rather thin, the flesh tastes sweet and sour with the aroma of pineapple with a high content of ascorbic acid. Rip out in August. Variety Lakomka sufficiently resistant to low temperatures.
Actinidia variety "September"
The fruit of the plant is green in color with a delicate and delicate aroma; when ripe it reaches a mass of sixteen to seventeen grams. The flesh of the fruit has a very pleasant taste. The fruits ripen in late September. In September, the actinidia of the variety begins to bear fruit two to three years after planting. If you comply with the technology of cultivation, the yield of an adult plant can reach ten to twelve kilograms.
The height of the vine is about eighteen to twenty meters. The variety of this actinidia, unpretentious in the care, resistant to diseases, pests and frost. A characteristic feature of this variety is a high and stable yield. Young plants should be bent to the ground, mulched with peat, fir branches, or dry leaves.
This variety is the result of cross-breeding Chinese anemone. Thanks to this process, breeders from New Zealand managed to significantly increase the mass of the fruit and improve its taste. In height actinidia deli can reach more than eight meters. Stems from creepers are strong enough with long petioles, the foliage is smooth and shiny, rich green color, oval. On the reverse side there is a fluffy cover on the leaves. White inflorescences, which eventually become yellow color.
Many varieties of this variety are not self-fruited, therefore, to get a crop, you should plant bushes with male flowers. In length, the fruit reaches six centimeters, which are covered with brown skin with a hard and fluffy cover. Also, these fruits are also called kiwi, which are popular in many countries due to their pleasant taste and beneficial properties.
Actinidia Clara Zetkin
Perennial liana plant, reaching six meters in height. The fruits of this variety are green in color from two to three centimeters. In suitable conditions, the fruit begins in late August. The flesh of the fruit is soft and sweet, has a pronounced aroma. The average yield from an adult plant of this variety is about six to eight kilograms. This is an ornamental plant, inflorescence white-pink color. This variety of actinidia is the largest, resistant to fungal infections.
American variety. Fruits of round shape reach up to four centimeters in length, ripen in September. Unripe fruits have a red-brown color. The fruit has an unusually sweet taste with a delicate aroma. If the plant is abundantly watered, the fruits ripen much faster, become soft and fall off. The yield of this variety is quite high, the plant begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting. For this bush is not terrible frost, even at thirty degrees. In the care, this variety is unpretentious, it is important only in the spring, after the snow melts, to loosen the ground near the plant so that it is saturated with enough oxygen.
This is a variation of the Argut actinidia. It has large fruits that are about four centimeters in length and three in diameter. The fruit is tasty, the pulp is dense, not having a pronounced flavor. In the sun, the fruits have a bright red color, and in the shade - greenish. Ripening occurs in mid-autumn, the fruits are of sufficient hardness, which allows them to be easily transported.
Actinidia Purpurna Sadowa
A popular Ukrainian variety that is bred by crossing Actinidia Argut and Actinidia purpurea. The fruits of this variety are very tasty and juicy, have an oblong shape, reach medium size - three and a half centimeters in length and two and a half centimeters in diameter. The berries have a bright red saturated color. The plant begins to bear fruit three to four years after planting the seedlings at a permanent place. The harvest begins in mid-autumn. The plant is resistant to low temperatures, can tolerate frosts up to twenty-five degrees. Purpurna Sadowa prefers abundant watering and regular fertilizer. Shrubs should be treated for diseases and pests before flowering.
Growing from seed
For reproduction, you must choose fresh healthy seeds. They can be purchased at the store or prepare yourself from the ripe fruit:
- the pulp should be kneaded through cheesecloth,
- wash and dry the seeds in a dark cool place
- Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in water for four days, while the water must be changed daily,
- then the seeds should be placed in a mesh bag and immersed in the sand for three weeks, while the sand must be constantly moistened, and the temperature should fluctuate between eighteen to twenty degrees. Every week the bag should be removed and rinsed,
- In January, a container with sand and seeds should be buried under snow or refrigerated for two months. Seeds are also removed and washed weekly,
- after such a long preparation, the seeds should be sown in containers with the substrate to a depth of half a centimeter. When planting, some seeds may slip, shoots will begin to appear in a few days. They must be grown at room temperature and in bright light,
- it is necessary to water and spray crops daily,
- in summer, sprouts with three leaves should be transplanted into a greenhouse, where they must be grown several years before the onset of flowering,
- когда появится возможность определить пол растения, их можно будет высадить на участок, на постоянное место.
Плюсом вегетативного размножения является то, что пол растения можно сразу определить, не дожидаясь цветения.
- зеленое черенкование — в начале летнего периода с верхушки лозы следует срезать побеги длиной пятьдесят — сто сантиметров. It should be cut in the morning, and then put the processes in a container of water. Then the branch should be cut into cuttings of ten to fifteen centimeters with three leaves. The lower cut must be done under the sheet, and then removed, the top cut four to five centimeters above the sheet. Root should be in the greenhouse in a wet substrate. Cuttings must be placed at a distance of ten centimeters from each other. Scions must be regularly watered and sprayed. In the autumn, cuttings should be mulched with fallen leaves and left until spring. The transplant can be carried out before the start of the sap flow process.
- rooting of lignified cuttings - in the fall, shoots should be cut, tied up in small bunches and stored upright in a container with sand. The temperature in the room should not be higher than five degrees. In early spring, the cuttings are planted in a greenhouse and watered abundantly. Care is the same as for green cuttings.
- arc cuttings - as soon as the foliage is in full bloom, the shoots are bent to the ground and fixed with the help of a filled layer of soil and watered abundantly. However, the top should be left above the ground. By the fall, the roots will form their roots, then it should be cut and planted separately. Transplantation can be done next spring.
Description of planting and plant care
- Actinidia should be planted either in early spring or late autumn. Shrub prefers fertile and loose soil.
- For each plant should prepare a pit depth of fifty centimeters. Cover the bottom with a layer of gravel or rubble.
- The root neck should be deepened by two centimeters.
- The substrate for planting should be slightly acidic or neutral, the presence of lime in the soil is unacceptable. It is also necessary to add compost and peat to the soil.
- After planting, the plant should be fertilized with ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and wood ash.
- The distance between seedlings should be at least one meter.
To shrub fruit, it is necessary for every six female plants to plant one male.
Actinidia does not have aerial roots and whiskers; therefore, after planting, a support should be established for the plant.
Actinidia needs constant watering, it is advisable to water it with a sprinkling method once every seven days. In times of drought, six to eight buckets of water should be poured at the root. The soil near the roots should be regularly loosened and weeds removed.
It is necessary to fertilize a plant twice a month. mineral preparations containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
It is necessary to prune the plant every four to five years. It should thin out the crown and direct the processes on the support. The tips of actinidia need to pinch to increase branching. At the age of eight to ten years, the plant must be rejuvenated. To this end, the entire ground part should be cut to forty centimeters in the fall.
In winter, the shoots of the plant should be removed from the support and laid on the ground, from above mulch with fallen leaves or spruce branches. With the onset of spring, shelter must be removed and sanitary pruning carried out, the shoots returned to support.
The healing properties of the plant and contraindications
The fruits of actinidia contain a huge amount of ascorbic acid, micro and macronutrients, fatty oils. Consuming these berries strengthens the immune system. The fragrant fruit will help to get rid of whooping cough, anemia, scurvy, tuberculosis, bronchitis, constipation, rheumatism, dizziness, fever and hypertension.
Fruits should be eaten fresh or made from them jam, jams, jelly, marmalade.
Bark, flowers and leaves also have beneficial properties.. Of these, you can make oils and decoctions for use inside, as well as for wrapping and massage.
Due to the presence of a huge amount of active substances, the fruits of actinidia can not be used by people suffering from varicose veins, allergies, thrombophlebitis.
Botanical description and features
The decorativeness of a tree vine (sometimes the diameter of the trunk reaches 6 cm) is due to its luxurious color range, changing during the spring, summer and autumn.
At the beginning of spring shoots appear with bright golden leaves that change color to green in the process of growth, and just before flowering, the tips of the leaves turn white. At this metamorphosis with color does not end. After flowering, they gradually turn pink and turn into scarlet. The upcoming autumn will add its colors, and the creeper will amaze with the intensity of shades: pink, yellow, purple. The sunnier the place chosen for the plant, the brighter the riot of colors.
Thin, oblong, oval leaves are attached to the trunk with petioles, sometimes reaching 5-7 centimeters. The leaves grow sometimes up to 10-13 cm.
Blooms actinidia medium-sized white or pinkish fragrant flowers for three weeks. They are assembled in compact brushes.
A plant under 5 years old does not bloom - the vine is gaining momentum. But in the sixth year he will thank the gardener in full. Curly branches, climbing to a great height, will be covered with delicate flowers, beautifully arranged along the entire length. However, fruiting will begin only in the 10th year of life.
The fruits of actinidia are small, bright green with longitudinal stripes, in the shape of an ellipse. The largest grow up to 3 centimeters in length. Juicy, sweet, aromatic berries are full of seeds. Harvest is ready in late August - mid September.
There is controversy among culture lovers about whether actinidia is self-fertile. Some argue that there is no such variety completely, and the plant should be planted at the rate of two males for 5-6 females. However, this statement is not true.
There are types of actinidia that do not need pollinators.
Varieties and types
The most frost resistant variety, beloved in Central Russia. He is not afraid of frosts to minus 45 degrees! Liana does not grow more than 5 meters. Feels comfortable on a support.
This variety involves pollination by a male plant. 8-10 female plants are planted one male. Crop will give a plant of 10 years of age. With one liana you can get about five kilograms of berries. The fruits are extremely tasty and healthy.
The variety does not require periodic transfer to a new location. Active growth and fruiting lasts almost 50 years.
Actinidia colomict reproduces in three ways:
- cuttings - (10-15 cm long, with the lower leaves removed, planted at an angle into a wet mixture of sand with peat, the place should be in the shade), survival rate is about 50%,
- layering - (healthy shoots bend to the ground and sprinkled with soil, the next year they can be separated and transplanted to a new place),
- seeds - (prepared seeds, after two months of exposure in the cold, can be sown. They will germinate in boxes at room temperature, after which they are transferred to the air, but they can be transplanted to the soil only in the next season).
View of Argut
Actinidia of this species are significantly different from Colamicta. The species has several varieties. A powerful liana will please the harvest of small sweet kiwis, but the decorative appearance of the species is much more modest.
This durable plant (lives about 80 years) grows to enormous size and begins to bear fruit from 5 years of age.
Self-fruited variety. Other actinides can also be pollinated, for example, Pineapple, Wakey and others. The very name of the variety speaks of its Japanese origin. Fruits Issai medium size - up to 4 cm, very pleasant sweet-sour taste.
Gardeners love this variety for a good survival rate and for the appearance of the crop in the first or second year. Liana does not grow to large sizes, most often, does not exceed 3 meters in length.
Winter hardiness up to -25 degrees C. In the summer, suffers from drought and, at the same time, from the close groundwater. This will cause the roots to rot.
Winter-hardy climber up to 10 meters in size, gives a rich harvest and is considered by gardeners to be one of the best in this form (Argut). It grows equally well and bears fruit both in the sun and in partial shade.
In the period of fruiting enters 3 or 4 years. Fruits are medium-sized (up to 3 cm), but their pineapple flavor overshadows everything. The plant is feminine and requires pollination. The soil is suitable only loose, without alkali and groundwater. Requires watering and fertilizer. It is difficult to tolerate drought, the future harvest will suffer from this, as well as the wintering of the plant.
Cultivate the variety, like all actinidia, cuttings, layering and seed. In the second year, the vine will need any support. Since the plant is very decorative, it can be planted near the wall of the house. Air roots are absent - you can worry about the safety of the plaster.
Beautiful bright red fruits (up to 5 cm in size) look spectacular against a background of dark green oblong leaves. Good vine and flowering period. Besides beauty, the grade differs in excellent taste. Maturation occurs at the end of September - later.
Of all the actinidia that are grown in the middle zone, this one is the least frost-resistant. The plant is feminine, therefore a male individual of the same species (Argut) demands nearby. Planting the seedling is best done near any support - fence or grid, post, special picket fence.
An ideal place for landing is a sunny, not blown corner. The soil should be wet, but without water stagnation. Purple produces refined jam, but the berry will bring the greatest benefit in fresh or frozen form.
Italian scientists, breeders have created a variety with large fruits (about 6 cm) of light green color. Usually liana, reaching 8 meters in length, begins to bear fruit in the third year of great taste with sweet berries. In addition, this particular variety is well preserved after harvesting (in September).
Winter-hardy, withstands frost around -30 degrees, does not require shelter. Female variety. Requires pollination. For five female vines, one is enough - male.
During the flowering period exudes a delicate aroma. Best of all, the variety grows in a sunny area without drafts, it requires support, otherwise the liana, which grows several meters in a season, will turn into a thicket on the ground.
Another kind of actinidia. All, without exception, they are distinguished by powerful vines. Growing in the wild nature of Sakhalin, Kuriles and Primorye, in mixed and coniferous forests, they reach gigantic proportions. Twisting the trees, they continue to creep along the ground in search of a new tree-support. They are dioecious, and therefore need to be pollinated by males.
They bloom white, pink or golden flowers. Fruits - green in color - excellent taste and high healing properties.
The beautiful kiwi fruit, also actinidia (Chinese), has become familiar to all city dwellers. Not everyone knows that he was brought to New Zealand from China only in the 20th century! While a variety of actinidia has been known since the mid-19th century.
In Russian gardens, the usefulness of the fruit, the decorativeness of the plant, ease of care, and, most importantly, the healing properties and savory berries desserts were appreciated. Year by year in the nurseries throughout the country, the number of seedlings increases due to increasing demand for them.
Actinidia: description of the variety delicacy and other varieties, rules of cultivation and care of the plant
Actinidia is a perennial lianoid plant whose homeland is the Himalayas and Southeast Asia. The branches are covered with beautiful bright green leaves, so often this vine is used as garden landscaping, varieties with variegated foliage are especially popular for this purpose.
But most of all they love her for tasty and healthy fruits. Not everyone knows that kiwi is the fruit of one type of actinidia. Most varieties of plants produce small fruits, but they all have excellent taste.
Even a novice gardener will be able to grow such a plant on his plot, since planting and caring for him is not difficult.
Actinidia Kolomikta varieties for the Moscow region - Doctor Shimanovsky, Adam, September, Vitakola, Lakomka, video
Actinidia - a popular plant in the subtropical zone, belongs to the genus of shrub vines. Actinidia Kolomikta and its varieties for the suburbs, the photos of which are presented in the article, are known for tasty fruits. Many varieties are suitable even for the harsh Russian climate, and their characteristics will be described a little below.
Actinidia argut cultivation and care, including from seeds, as well as the best varieties with a description, characteristics and reviews
Actinidia argut on the backyards of Russian gardeners is rare. Meanwhile, this plant successfully combines the attractiveness of appearance with the presence of tasty and healthy fruits. Its advantages also include unpretentiousness in care, good frost resistance and high yield.
What does actinidia argut look like
Actinidia argut (translated from Latin as “sharp”) is a perennial deciduous vine, widely used in landscape design and grown as a fruiting plant. Her homeland is the northern regions of China, Japan. In Russia, the plant is found in the Far East, as well as on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. The productive life of the vine is 75–90 years. She brings the first crop in the fifth year after landing in the ground.
The stalk of the Actinidia argut can grow up to 20–30 m in length. At the same time it is very thin - 15–20 cm in diameter. As it matures, its base is woody, changing its olive color to brownish gray. The stalk winds strongly, therefore, when growing a plant in captivity, it is necessary to provide it with an arch, trellis, another support on which the vine can rise.
Actinidia argutu on the support looks much more advantageous than an inaccurate pile of mixed shoots
The leaves of actinidia throughout the season look very elegant. Before flowering, they are painted in a rich green color, after it noticeably brighten to a pale green tint. In the fall, they consistently change the tone from bright lemon yellow to crimson crimson and dark burgundy. The sheet plate has the shape of an ellipse with a sharply pointed tip. The length of the sheet reaches 8–12 cm, width –– 3–5 cm, the edges are carved with fine teeth. They bloom in early spring, fall in the second decade of October.
Thanks to the pointed tip of the actinidia argut leaf, it got its name
Like other actinidia, argouta belongs to the category of dioecious plants. This means that regular production of a bountiful harvest is possible only if there are both male and female bushes in the area at a ratio of approximately 1: 5. The first play the role of pollinators, berries ripen on the second. Modern breeders have deduced several varieties, which are positioned as self-fertile, but practice shows that this is not entirely true. Without a pollinator, the berries on them become smaller, the yield is sharply reduced.
It is possible to distinguish male plants from female plants only during flowering. The former are characterized by the presence of a large number of stamens in the absence of the pistil. Female flowers solitary (less often collected in buds of three), large. Male is much smaller, inflorescences in the form of a shield or umbrella.
The flowers of the male plants of the actinidia argut are easily identified by the absence of the pistil.
Flowering and fruiting
During the flowering of Actinidia argut, it spreads a marvelous sweetish aroma, similar to the smell of lily of the valley or orange blossom. The flowers are white or greenish-silver, rather large (2–2.5 cm in diameter). Flowering continues for about two and a half weeks, starting at the very end of May. Pollen is very dark, almost black.
This vine clings annually, has a good yield. About 15–20 kg of berries are removed from an adult plant; they resemble very small kiwis or large gooseberries. Their flesh is very delicate, with a pleasant sweet-sour taste and rich aroma. It is most often compared to the smell of pineapple, although to some it resembles apples, bananas or apricots. The skin of most varieties of bright green, sometimes with longitudinal dark stripes. But there are also varieties bred by breeders with bright purple edible peels.
The average length of the fruit is 2–3 cm, width is 1.5–2.8 cm. The berry weighs 4.5–6 g. The crop matures at the end of September, the fruit bearing stretches for 2–2.5 weeks. Berries for a long time not showered from the bush, even if the weather conditions are far from ideal.
The fruits of different varieties of actinidia argut vary greatly in shape and size.
Berries are not only tasty, but very useful. They contain much more vitamin C than lemons, sea buckthorn and black currant. Vitamins A, P and Q, keratin, organic acids, flavonoids and saponins are also present in high concentrations.
The benefit of heat treatment does not suffer at all, and the characteristic aroma is preserved, so Actinidia argut is excellent for making compotes, jams, jams, jellies, and other homemade preparations. In this case, it is necessary to use only enameled ware without chipping (vitamin C is destroyed upon contact with the metal) and to store the blanks in a dark place (the sun's rays destroy many organic substances).
During heat treatment, the use of actinidia does not decrease, therefore, it is often used for household preparations.
The fruits of actinidia argut are widely used in traditional medicine. They are recommended in the presence of problems with the gastrointestinal tract, to combat parasites. It is believed that they prevent the development of tumors, including malignant ones. Сок помогает бороться с воспалительными процессами, укрепляет стенки кровеносных сосудов. Свежие ягоды рекомендуют употреблять для укрепления иммунитета, при анемии и авитаминозе, наличии синдрома хронической усталости.
На родине, в Китае и Японии, актинидия аргута широко используется в ландшафтном дизайне. From it form hedges and "green walls", which can help disguise some unsightly building on the site. You can also decorate the arbor, porch and so on.
Actinidia argut is widely used in landscape design.
Late variety, berries ripen in the second decade of September. Fruits weigh on average 5–6 g, but there are also champions weighing up to 8 g. The shape is almost a parallelepiped with rounded tops, 2 cm in diameter or slightly larger.
The fruits of actinidia argut varieties balsamnaya differ slightly in size
The skin of the berries is smooth, bright green with a brownish subtone. Taste with distinctly sour taste. The flesh is tender, with a tart flavor, a bit like the smell of pine needles.
One of the latest breeding, bred specifically for cultivation in the Moscow region and surrounding regions. Fruits ripen at the very beginning of autumn (medium late variety).
Actinidia Argut Lunnaya - one of the latest achievements of Russian breeders
The berries are not too large, in the form of a cylinder slightly flattened from the sides. The average weight is 3-4.5 g, the length is about 2.5 cm. The skin is smooth, olive-colored. The taste of the fruit is sweet, with a light refreshing sourness.
Large-fruited female variety of late gestation. Authorship belongs to one of the most famous breeders engaged in work with actinidia - E.I. Kolbasinoy. Liana is different growth rate, the bark on the shoots of chocolate-brown, matte. The leaves are bright green with a noticeable yellowish subtone. Along the central vein, they slightly bend inward.
Actinidia argut Primorskaya - one of the achievements of the breeder E.I. Kolbasinoy
The average weight of a berry is 7–8 g, length is about 2.5–3 cm. The shape is cylindrical, elongated, with a rounded base and apex. The peel is glossy shiny, rather dense, of a lime color, covered with various tubercles that are clearly visible to the touch. The taste of the pulp is balanced, sweet and sour. Characterized by a pronounced aroma, reminiscent of the smell of apples. Professional tasters, he is estimated at 4.5 points out of five. The period of fruiting is stretched for 3-4 weeks.
Frost resistance in this class is within –20 ºС. It does not suffer from diseases and is extremely rarely affected by pests. For fruiting, the presence of male plants. It is even better if beehives are located nearby.
One of the world's most popular varieties of actinidia argut comes from the United States. Self-infertile, male plants are needed for pollination. Belongs to the late ripening category (the crop ripens in the last decade of September or in early October). The berries are large, barrel-shaped, the average weight of the fruit is 6–8.5 g. It tolerates cold winters down to –30 ºС, but can be severely affected by returning spring frosts. It is distinguished by its dimensions: the average length of the vine is 8–12 m, if not to carry out regular pruning, it reaches 30 m.
The fruits of actinidia arguta Geneva are almost the standard of taste
Shoots change from pale gray to brown-brown as they grow older. When flowers bloom, snow-white petals effectively contrast with bright scarlet stamens.
Berries are sweet, with a little noticeable sourness. Form - ovoid, slightly elongated. Honey notes are clearly felt in the taste and aroma. Geneva for actinidia - almost the standard of taste. But the fruits need to be collected on time, they quickly soften and showered from the shoots. The skin is thin, bright green, where the sun hit it, there are vague crimson or crimson spots.
Large-fruited (8–10 g) samobosplodny variety. Ellipsoid berries. They have an unusual balsamic taste. The flesh is sweet, tender, with a light acidity. Olive skin. The yield is relatively low - 1.5–3 kg per adult plant. Winter hardiness is within –25 ºС.
The fruits of the actinidia argut Green Balsam have an unusual peculiar flavor that not everyone likes.
Male variety, universal pollinator for all female actinidia argut varieties. At the same time, it is not suitable for pollination of other actinides (for example, colomicts, polygams). Interspecific pollination in these plants does not occur.
The male actinidia argut varicata is a versatile pollinator for female vines.
Liana is very decorative - the leaves are smooth, shiny, deep dark green shade, as if artificial. Stems are dark scarlet. Frost resistance is not bad - up to –30 ºС. Actinidia Wakey blooms in June. The flowers are small, collected in loose corymbose inflorescences. The plant is sensitive to cold drafts.
There is also a female variety of actinidia argut with the same name. You need to specify in advance what you are buying. Fruits are large, weighing 7–8 g and 3–3.5 cm long. The skin is bright green with a brick-colored blush. Fruiting begins in the first decade of October.
The female variety of actinidia argut wakey belongs to the category of late varieties
Issey (or Issai)
Variety actinidia arguta originally from Japan. Creators positioned as self-fertile, of all the currently existing varieties have the most rights to this name, but practice shows that the presence of a number of male plants greatly increases the yield.
Actinidia argut Issey is positioned by the creators as a self-fertile variety
Berries with a pleasant sweetish pulp ripen in the last decade of September. Characterized by a pronounced pineapple flavor. The average length of the fruit - 3-4 cm, weight - 10-15 g. The olive-green skin is covered with short copper fibers.
The first time fruiting vine is already next season. It is compact (the length is only 3-4 m), so it is perfect for small garden plots.
Liana, without prejudice to itself, tolerates temperatures up to –25 ºС. It is very sensitive to drought and to waterlogging. The productive period of plant life is about 30 years. Leaves 18–23 cm long, dense, velvety to the touch, shade of bottle glass. The flowers are large, 2.5–3 cm in diameter, the petals are cream.
Variety actinidia arguta originally from Italy. A characteristic feature is cylindrical fruits 5.5–6 cm long. The average weight of a berry is 25–30 g. The skin is bright green or lime, very thin. Jumbo actinidia has almost no aroma, but the fruits are very sweet and can be kept fresh for a long time. To taste, the flesh is almost indistinguishable from kiwi. The harvest ripens in the last decade of September or in early October.
Actinidia argut Jumbo has a good transportability and long shelf life.
The average length of the vine is 8–9 m. It differs by the growth rate, adding 2.5–3 m per season. Flowering is short - lasts only 7-10 days. Frost resistance within –30 ºС. For fruiting requires the presence of actinidia-pollinator (Wakey, Bayern Kiwi).
Variety actinidii argut Russian breeding. It has a very high winter hardiness, down to –40 ºС. The berries are sweet, of medium weight (9–10 g), the pulp has a pleasant apple flavor. The skin is smooth, matte, greenish-yellow. Form - ellipsoid, slightly elongated.
Actinidia argut Golden braid stands out for very high frost resistance
The liana is powerful, the leaves are large, saturated green. From a distance, they seem almost black. It can reach a length of 28–30 m, adding 2–3 m each year. It blooms rather late - in the last days of June. The petals are greenish-white, the diameter of the flower is about 2 cm.
Another Japanese variety, positioned as self-pollinated, is classified as middle-late. Harvest ripens in mid-September. Cold resistance - within –20–22 ºС. Kokuwa is very negative about stagnant groundwater and acidification of the soil.
Liana actinidia argut Kokuwa is compact, suitable for growing in small garden plots
Liana reaches a length of 5–6 m, the annual growth is 1.5–2 m. The fruits are sweet, with a barely perceptible acidity and a pronounced lemon scent. The skin is thin. Small berries, elongated, up to 2–2.5 cm long. Stored long enough.
Very powerful plant with large, rich green leaves. Shoots as they grow older plants change color from lime to brick. Frost resistance to –30–35 ºС.
Actinidia Argut Variety Relay - a plant with very powerful leaves
Fruits weighing 15-18 g have the shape of an ellipse oblate from the sides. The skin is opaque, greenish-brown. The flesh is sweet, the flavor is something between a pineapple and a strawberry. Even perfectly ripe berries are not showered with shoots.
Variety of Russian breeding, mature in September. The berries are small, cylindrical in shape, weighing 3.5–4 g and 2–2.5 cm long. The skin is dull, dark green. The taste and aroma of this actinidia resembles garden strawberries.
The average height of the vine is small - 3-4 m. The leaves are one-dimensional, bright green. Frost resistance is within –28–30 ºС. The variety is not self-fertile. Without problems transfers bright sunshine and partial shade. Not oppressed by larger plants.
The sort of actinidia arguta, sometimes found under the abbreviated name Anna. Differs in high productivity, excellent taste of fruits and their quite good transportability. The name of the variety is obliged to the characteristic pronounced aroma inherent in the pulp. The taste of oval berries is pleasant, sweet-sour, very much like kiwi. The skin is thin, the seeds are small, almost not felt. Where the sun's rays fall on the fruit, a pinkish-red blush is formed.
Actinidia arguta Pineapple is almost devoid of pith and seeds
The length of the vine is up to 10 m. Fruiting occurs in the second decade of October. The average yield is 5-7 kg from an adult plant.
A self-fertile variety cultivated by both amateur gardeners and professional farmers. The peel is light green, shiny, the shape of the fruit is regular, oval. The first harvest is removed already in the second season of being in the open field. The presence of nearby male plants contributes to the enlargement of berries and increase yields.
In the fruits of actinidia argut varieties Viti Kivi no seeds
Liana grows to 8-10 m in length. The harvest ripens in late September, the plant blooms at the very end of spring. Frost resistance - up to –24–26 ºС. Very negative attitude towards acidification of the soil and cold drafts.
Achievement of Ukrainian breeders, widely known not only in the countries of the former USSR, but also in foreign countries. The plant can be both female and male. The grade is obliged to the name to an unusual saturated and claret shade of a thin skin. The fruits are one-dimensional, cylindrical in shape, up to 4 cm long and weighing 5–6 g. The flesh is of the same shade as the thin skin. Even perfectly ripe berries are not showered.
Actinidia argut Purple garden fully justifies the name
Liana tolerates freezing temperatures down to –25 ºС. The average length is 3-5 m. The shoots are thin, dark brown in color. The harvest ripens in September or at the very beginning of October.
How to plant a plant in the ground
The correct choice of land for actinidia argut is a guarantee of abundant fruiting in the future. This plant does not tolerate direct sunlight, often undergoing burns. It is better to place the liana in light partial shade. But the lack of light and heat is undesirable - it adversely affects the quantity and taste of berries.
Actinidia does not like cold drafts very much, therefore at some distance from the plant there should be a natural or artificial barrier covering it from the north.
Actinidia arguta does not like the bright sun, especially for young plants
The soil prefers loose, rather nutritious, neutral or slightly acidic (pH 5.0–6.5). The best option - loam or sandy sand. It is categorically not suitable heavy oozy, clay, peat substrate, as well as places where groundwater is located closer than a meter from the surface of the earth.
You can plant a crop both in spring and in autumn. It depends on the climate in a particular region. The first option is optimal for areas with a temperate climate, where the weather is unpredictable, and winter very rarely occurs in accordance with the calendar. The best time is the beginning of May, before the active sap flow begins. Autumn planting is suitable for warm subtropics. At the same time, you need to be sure that there are at least two months until the first frost.
Biennial seedlings take root best. You need to acquire them only in specialized stores or nurseries, and not at agricultural fairs, and especially not with hands. This is a guarantee of quality planting material. It is desirable that the nursery is located in the same region. In this case, the planting material is already adapted to local climatic and weather conditions.
When making a purchase, give preference to a seedling with a closed root system. The roots of the plant are very fragile. Five minutes outdoors is enough to seriously damage them.
Actinidia argut seedlings with closed root system are guaranteed to survive the transportation
The optimum depth of the landing pit for actinidia argut is 65–70 cm with a diameter of 50–60 cm. When several plants are planted at the same time, at least two to three meters are left between them, unless a hedge is planned to be formed. In this case, the interval is reduced to 0.5 m. In advance, you need to provide a place for the trellis, arch, or other support. If you start to build it after planting, there is a risk of injury to the roots of the plant.
The landing pit is prepared 15–20 days before the intended landing. At the bottom of the required layer of drainage with a thickness of at least 10–12 cm. You can use expanded clay, pebbles, ceramic shards, brick chips, and so on. The fertile turf extracted from the pit is mixed with humus (20 l), simple superphosphate (150–180 g) and potassium sulphate (50–70 g). Mineral fertilizers can be replaced with wood ash (1.5 liters). Any products containing chlorine are categorically excluded.
Another plant does not like lime, it is not used to normalize the acid-base balance.
A thick layer of drainage is required for the actinidia argut at the bottom of the planting pit.
In the landing itself is nothing complicated. The procedure is as follows:
- 30–40 minutes before planting, a container with actinidia is soaked in water at room temperature so that it completely covers the soil. You can add potassium permanganate to a pale pink color or any biostimulator. The first is necessary for disinfection, the second - to strengthen the immune system of the plant.
- Actinidia is removed from the pot, trying to destroy the earthen room as little as possible. In the mound at the bottom of the planting pit, a small depression is made and the plant is placed in it.
- Pit gently, in small portions of the soil fall asleep. The substrate is needed so that the edge of the pit is flush with the surface of the earth. The well is not formed. This contributes to the stagnation of water, which actinidia does not like arguta. The root neck should be located 1–2 cm above the soil level.
- Sapling watered, consuming 7-10 liters of water. When it is absorbed, the pristvolny circle, which approximately coincides in diameter with the landing pit, is covered with peat, humus, sawdust, and freshly mowed grass. Or you can tighten it with a breathable covering material. It is important that for the first month and a half the roots of the plant are constantly in the shade.
Just planted actinidia, it is desirable to protect from the sun, this applies to the roots and leaves
The worst neighbor for actinidia is an apple tree. In general, she does not like fruit-bearing trees very much and can even “strangle” them. It is placed next to the currant bushes. Any legumes that loosen the soil and saturate it with nitrogen are also useful. Actinidia argutus looks spectacular, surrounded by bright annual flowers - marigolds, violas, asters, gerberas, petunias. They are not for her "competitors", sucking nutrients from the soil.
Actinidia argut planted into the ground must be surrounded with a net or create another obstacle protecting it from cats
Crop Care Tips
Actinidia argut is considered to be an unpretentious plant. Take care of it and regularly get the harvest under the force even to those who do not have a rich gardening experience.
It is important to find a middle ground. The plant reacts negatively to drying and to waterlogging of the soil. And the one and the other can ruin it. Therefore, the intervals between irrigation are adjusted depending on what kind of weather is outside.
In strong heat, 60–80 l of water every 5–7 days is consumed by an adult plant.
Every time after watering, the soil in the bore circle is loosened, but not deep. As needed, restore a layer of mulch. The root system of the plant is superficial, so you need to handle it carefully.
The preferred method is sprinkling or watering from a watering can, imitating natural rainfall. In strong heat, it is desirable in the evenings to additionally spray the leaves.
Fed actinidia three times a year. The first time fertilizers are applied in mid-April. 20–25 g of carbamide, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate in a dry form are distributed along the near-stem circle. Every two years, in the process of loosening the soil, humus or rotted manure is introduced (15–20 l).
Urea has a long-lasting effect, therefore it slowly gives minerals to garden plants.
For the ripening of fruits, plants need phosphorus and potassium. 45–60 g of simple superphosphate and 25–30 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 10 l of water and poured over the vine. Такую же подкормку повторяют осенью, через 12–15 дней после окончания плодоношения. Во втором случае можно использовать комплексные препараты (АВА, Осень) или настой древесной золы (двухлитровая банка на 5 л кипятка).
Древесная зола — абсолютно натуральное удобрение, природный источник калия и фосфора
Preparing for the winter
Actinidia argut at the age of five years and older does not need special preparation for winter. It is enough to clean the vegetable litter from the trunk circle and renew the layer of mulch, bringing its thickness to 12–15 cm.
Most varieties of actinidia argut are distinguished by good frost resistance, therefore only young plants need shelter for the winter.
Young plants are removed from the trellis, carefully laying shoots on the ground. They are powdered with fallen leaves, straw, covered with fir branches and tightened with breathable covering material. As soon as enough snow falls, they throw the resulting structure, creating a snowdrift. In winter, it will settle, so 2-3 times per season it will need to be refreshed, breaking the crust of a hard crust that forms on the surface.
Deprived of leaves in the fall, the actinidia argut looks rather unsympathetic
Since the vine is characterized by a growth rate, pruning for it is a strictly obligatory annual procedure. Such plants look much neater and more attractive. Any manipulation during sap flow is strictly prohibited. Pruning is carried out when the foliage has fallen (about a month before frosts) or closer to the end of winter so that the “wounds” have time to drag on a bit.
For trimming actinidia use only sharply sharpened disinfected instrument.
The first time the procedure is carried out on the third season after planting the seedling in the ground. Be sure to remove all dried, broken, non-fruiting shoots, as well as unsuccessfully located (thickening crown growing down). The rest are cut by about a third, stimulating further branching. They are fixed on the trellis, directing vertically upwards or creating a structure similar to a fan. The following year, shoots are arranged perpendicular to this.
Pruning is an important part of proper actinidia care.
Every 8–10 years, they use anti-aging pruning. All shoots older than this age are removed, leaving 20–30-centimeter “hemp”.
Diseases and pests
Harmful insects, as a rule, do not honor actinidia with their attention. The main danger for her are cats that can seriously damage the shoots and roots of the plant, trying to get to the juice.
From diseases, the plant also suffers infrequently. Basically, various types of rot and mold can develop, triggered by frequent overmoistening of the soil. Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate and other fungicides are used to combat them.
Actinidia argut is a beautiful and very useful plant. Even beginning gardeners can grow a vine and take care of it. Its fruits are valued for its excellent taste and high concentration of vitamins, which are important for the body of macro-and micronutrients. Russian and foreign breeders constantly display new varieties.
- Author: Oleg Sitnikov
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Popular varieties of actinidia
Actinidia "Hermaphroditic", "Lakomka", "Sentyabrskaya", "Delicacy" and "Klara Zetkin" belong to the category of the most popular and popular varieties in home gardens, which are successfully cultivated in the soil and climatic conditions of our country.
To make the right choice of planting material, you should not only familiarize yourself with the description of the varieties, but also obtain reliable information on planting and caring for plants. Equally important are the reviews of more experienced amateur gardeners.
Actinidia "Clara Zetkin"
The large-fruited actinidia variety Klara Zetkin, quite popular and demanded by amateur gardeners of our country, was bred as a result of continuous selection aimed at increasing the large-fruited size. The result of the fourth generation of the actinidia colomicta was the production of a variety that has excellent taste and a low percentage of crumbling of fully ripened fruits.
Tree perennial vine grows up to six meters in height and forms green fruits, the length of which does not exceed 2.5–3.5 cm. In soil-climatic conditions, the variety matures in the last decade of August. Ripe pulp is characterized as tender and very fragrant, sweet taste. The average yield of an adult productive plant of this variety is about 6.5-8.5 kg. The variety belongs to the category of dioecious and needs to plant male-type blooms.
Actinidia: features of cultivation (video)
The plant is characterized by a high decorative effect and forms whitish-pink flowers. It is the most large-fruited and resistant to fungal infection variety, which has perfectly proved itself in the conditions of home garden fruit growing in our country.
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