I grow delicious peas. The plant can be "capricious", but with the right care it pleases with a rich harvest! Peas take root in a light, fertile, neutral soil. Bean culture requires timely watering and fertilizing. To make it grow well, be sure to fertilize in the quantities I specified!
The benefits of peas, botanical description
Pea belongs to the family "Legumes". It was first discovered in southwest Asia. The fruits of the plant have a rich composition, they contain carotene, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, iron.
Peas strengthens the immune system, cleanses blood vessels, neutralizes the effects of free radicals. The legumes also contain lysine, a valuable amino acid.
The pea is pollinated by itself. The plant is a green manure and a good predecessor for vegetable crops. Between rows of peas, you can plant radishes. The roots of the plant are powerful, leaving 1 - 2 m under the ground. The stem is branched, depending on the variety, grows by 1.5 or 2.5 m.
Pea leaves are complex, pinnate, small flowers: purple or white. This legume culture blooms in 1 - 1.5 months after sowing.
In early varieties, peduncles appear when 6 full-fledged leaflets form. The color and size of the fruit also depends on the variety. Some varieties of peas contain 4 seeds, others - 10. As I said, peas are used as siderata.
It saturates the soil with nitrogen and trace elements. Of particular value are the roots of the plant: they live bacteria that improve the composition of the soil.
Peas capricious. It must be grown, following all the rules of agricultural technology. I plant a crop in the twenties of April, when the soil is warm enough. If the frosts return for a while, the peas feel fine: it does not fade, does not rot. Early variety is better to plant in June. If desired, sow the plant 2 to 3 times at a twelve-day interval.
Before sowing seeds in open ground, warm them for 4 minutes in boric acid (1 g per 5 liters of water). Through this treatment, you will increase the resistance of the crop to diseases and insects.
Seeds swell, sow them the next day. My friend asks what should be the ground for peas. The plant does not take root where there are deposits of groundwater. It prefers a spacious, lighted area.
It is worth remembering that the pea roots go to a considerable depth. As for the soil, it should be easy, drainage, with a pH level in the range of 6. You can not plant a culture in acidic soil, because its growth is disturbed. Peas feel bad in poor soil and that which is supersaturated with nitrogen.
Gardeners practice spring planting plants, but the soil for him should be prepared in September. Dig it to the depth of the spade bayonet, deposit 25 g of potassium salt and 40 g of superphosphate per square meter. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to add wood ash (250 g of product is calculated per 1 sq. m.).
In the spring, just before planting, you need to make 8-10 g of saltpeter per 1 square meter. m. It is worth remembering that the pea can not tolerate such organics as fresh manure.
The best predecessors for culture:
I do not advise planting vegetables after other legumes:
Under the plant form a furrow with a length of 7 and a width of 17 cm. Observe the distance between specimens of 30 cm. A small amount of soil should be poured into each well, and then sow. I advise you to seal the soil and water the seedlings. After dry, cover them with plastic wrap. Shoots you will see in 7-10 days.
How to plant peas in open ground
Planting peas in open ground is carried out in late April. Planting is necessary from the twentieth, when the earth is dry from the snow. Pea can survive light frost. This property allows you to sow the culture in the early stages.
Planting peas carried out several times. The first landing occurs from the end of April, and the second in 10 days. Planting material is heated in boric acid. The temperature of boric acid for heating the seed is 40 degrees. Make a solution of 2 grams of sulfuric acid per 10 liters of water. Warming up occurs no more than 5 minutes. This procedure allows you to protect the seed from diseases and pests.
Seeds should dry out after swelling in solution. If this procedure was not carried out, then the seeds must be planted dry. The existing seeds will swell in the ground in the evening.
It is necessary to choose the right piece of land. for planting peas in open ground.
- For peas, you must choose a well-lit plot of land.
- Preferred light soil for sowing.
- Requires average acidity of the soil for growing peas. Culture dies in the acidic earth.
- The plant does not tolerate dining land. Before planting, it is desirable to fertilize the soil.
Peas grow well near the apple tree. Apple tree does not shade the sun for peas. In turn, the plant enriches the earth with nitrogen to feed the tree.
Planting begins in early spring when the snow has melted. Soil preparation is carried out in the autumn. First, the earth is dug upand then 20 grams of potassium salt and 50 grams of superphosphate are added to it. The acid of the soil is neutralized by the addition of wood ash.
In the spring, before planting, 10 grams of nitrate is applied to 1 meter of land. Fresh manure is prohibited to use as a fertilizer peas. Culture does not tolerate fresh manure. But it grows well in the soil, which was fertilized with manure in the past.
Planting culture is carried out according to the following scheme:
- The first step is to dig a furrow 5 centimeters deep and 15 wide. The distance between the furrows is 50 centimeters.
- Compost with ashes is introduced into the furrow. Above the furrow is sprinkled with a small amount of garden soil. The depth of the furrow after feeding is 3 centimeters.
- 15 seeds are sown per 1 meter of furrow. The distance between the seeds is about 5 centimeters.
- Furrows are buried to the ground level after landing. After, the earth is compacted and slightly trampled. This measure allows you to protect the seed from the birds.
- Furrows are covered with polyethylene before germination. The first shoots appear 1-2 weeks after sowing.
Between the rows of peas you can grow radishes or lettuce.
Seeds germinate at a temperature of 4-7 degrees. For culture, the optimum temperature will be 10 degrees. The plant does not tolerate a hot climate. Planted in the heat of plants do not bloom.
Basic pea care consists in timely watering and weeding of the earth. The first loosening is carried out by hilling pea bushes. This happens 2 weeks after germination.
Pinching the top of the stem allows you to get a little earlier. Stalks begin to move away from the site of pinching. These stems can also pinch. It is necessary to pinch in the morning so that the wound heals in the evening.
Pea does not tolerate heat. On hot days it is necessary to ensure timely watering. During the growing season, the culture requires particularly careful watering. During flowering the plant is watered 2 times in 1 week. The rest of the time, 1 watering per week is enough.. Weeding and loosening after each watering should be carried out.
For fertilizing using a solution of nitroammofoski. A tablespoon of powder is diluted with 10 liters of water. Fertilizer diluted in water mullein is also allowed. In the spring nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied. Peas well perceives potash-phosphate fertilizer.
Culture has weak stems. Under the action of pea pods, the stems sag. To stems do not break, they must be tied up. For the garter fit dug pegs or wire arc. Pegs digging into the different ends of the trench. Between the pegs tighten the rope. The pegs must be firm and the rope strong. Pea stalks are tied to this rope.
Peas are threatened by the following pests:
Scoops and moths lay eggs on culture stalks. After hatching, the caterpillars begin to eat leaves and peas. Insecticides are used to fight insects.
Peas are harmed not only by insects, but also diseases. One of these diseases are powdery mildew and mosaic. To combat these diseases are used fungicides.
Harvested a month after flowering. Fruiting culture occurs over 40 days. The first ripen peas in the lower sections of the shrub. With one square meter you can collect up to 4 kilograms of the crop.
Gardeners recommend growing sugar and shelling plants. The varieties of these peas have good characteristics for use in cooking. If you collect all the pods after ripening, then by the end of August the shrub will again bring the harvest.
Shelling varieties are collected from the end of June. This crop gives harvest until autumn.. Shelling is grown for green peas. Green peas are stored in canned form. For storage it is necessary to boil the peas in boiling water for 2 minutes. Next, it is washed through a sieve and cooled in cold water. After cooling, it is dried at a temperature of 45 degrees. Drying lasts for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, the drying temperature rises to 60 degrees. Drying is necessary before the appearance of wrinkles.
Terms for sowing peas in Ukraine, Moscow region, in the Urals and in Siberia
Peas belong to cold-resistant plants, young shoots withstand night frosts to minus 5-6 ° C. But this fact does not mean that you can start sowing in March. Resistance to cold short, the escape will not develop at low temperatures. Therefore, you need to wait for the time when the nightly figures will not fall below the mark of 5-8 ° C.
Terms of planting peas in open ground depend on the climate of the area
When is it better to plant peas at home? There is no specific time for sowing seeds, but many gardeners are guided by the lunar calendar and weather conditions. In Ukraine and Moscow, planting in the open ground begins in late April - early May, when the soil still retains moisture accumulated during the winter. In the Urals and Siberia, time shifts by 10-15 days, depending on climatic conditions. But anyway Experts recommend to complete the sowing of legumes before the end of May. The plant develops better, blossoms and bears fruit in the period of a long daylight hours.
Seed preparation before planting at home
Seed germination directly depends on the correctness of their preparation for planting. First, peas should be calibrated. - select from the total the highest quality specimens, on which there are no signs of damage, black spots and other defects. The spoiled seed will not produce healthy shoots, and weak sprouts are subject to disease and pest attack in the first place.
Calibrate peas before planting.
Further preparation depends on the chosen seeding method. There are only two of them: dry and with pre-soaking. Seedlings plant peas and beans is not accepted.
Stages of seed preparation for planting:
- soak in a solution of boric acid (1 g. of powder per 5 liters of water heated to 40 °) for 5-8 minutes,
- removal of excess moisture dry cloth
- drying for 1-2 hours at room temperature
With the dry method, it is important to pre-water the groove and cover the garden bed with a film to create the greenhouse effect. This speeds up the germination process of the shoots.
As a preparation of peas for seeding, you can use the old old-fashioned way. To do this, the seeds for 1-2 days are immersed in a container with warm water (soaked), previously wrapped in a cotton napkin. For swelling and germination will require compliance with the temperature regime of at least 20-23 °. As the fabric dries, it is wetted. Seeds can germinate in 3-5 days.
In order not to worry about the timing of germination, you can process the seed in the growth promoter. How much to soak the seeds? In this solution, it is enough to soak the planting material for 2 hours, putting it on the home balcony or window sill.
Preparation of beds and proper cultivation
It is necessary to begin preparation of a bed from a choice of a place at the dacha or a personal plot. Preference should be given to well-lit areas on the hill.. The roots of the plant penetrate deep into the soil, with a high level of groundwater occurrence there is a danger of their rotting. Therefore, flooded land is not suitable for planting legumes. Where better to plant peas?
It is not recommended to organize a pea garden where perennial grasses, leguminous crops, which can cause disease or pest invasion, grow.
Plot for pea choose sunny, with a deep groundwater
What kind of soil does pea like? Ideal soils for peas are non-acidic loams and light sandy loams.. Chernozems, domesticated sod-podzolic and other types of soil are also suitable. Sour, salty and raw are excluded. If acidification is observed at the site, then the introduction of dolomite flour or chopped lime will help to neutralize the environment.
Experienced gardeners advise that when preparing the beds it is good to fertilize the soil, so that with intensive development the plant does not feel a deficiency of nutrients. However, feeding it is not worth it, you can provoke a buildup of green mass. Still in the autumn during digging injected organic (compost, humus, rotted manure). In spring, when preparing the site, the soil is enriched with potassium (30 g.) And double superphosphate (20 g.) Per 1 m2.
The scheme of planting in the open ground at the cottage
When choosing a planting scheme, you need to focus on the characteristics of the bush of an adult plant. If it is undersized and medium grown crops, then the bed is planned with the following parameters:
- row spacing - 15-20 cm,
- spacing between seeds - 5-6 cm
- immersion depth - 3-5 cm (if you make the powder by 1-2 cm, it increases the risk of peas eating birds).
For tall plants (at a height of over 80 cm) it is recommended to apply the scheme: 30x10 cm in two rows with an interval of 50 cm between rows.
The process itself involves sowing seeds into prepared grooves, followed by falling asleep soil. Before you lower the seeds into the ground, you need to generously pour it with warm water. The first shoots will appear after a week and a half after sowing. For tall bushes it's time to build a support. It will not be good to bear fruit spread on the ground.
Summarizing the above information, we can conclude that with the correct selection of varieties and compliance with the requirements of cultivation, a good harvest of peas is ensured. The main mandatory tasks: to feed the soil, prepare the beds, germinate and sow the seeds, care for the seedlings - a good harvest is ensured. The generous gifts of nature are suitable for fresh consumption, as well as preparations for the winter. Fruits retain their valuable qualities even when frozen.
Do I need to soak peas before planting in open ground?
Planting peas is a simple process that does not require soaking and germination of seed. Often, gardeners in the hope of speeding up the process of sprouting legumes, soaked peas. This should not be done, because at this time the land for planting is sufficiently wetted, but there is a risk of cooling, then the germinated seeds will die.
In order for the plants to grow, it is necessary to properly prepare the pea seeds for planting.
First you need to select the seeds that have signs of infection with grains. To determine the disease by eye is difficult, so you can use a special method. Prepare the brine using 2 tbsp. l salt per 1 liter of boiled water. Put the peas in this composition and wait. Within 5 minutes all affected seeds will float.
Floated grains are not suitable for further use, they need to be collected and thrown out.
Healthy peas should be washed with clean water at room temperature, and then dried (can be decomposed on a cloth or paper towels). Seeds selected in this way still need to be divided in size in order to plant large and small grains in different rows.
So that the seeds begin to germinate at the same time, they can be heated before sowing. This is done simply: it is enough to put the seed for 1 or 2 hours next to the heater or battery.
When is it best to sow peas?
Terms of sowing peas depend on the selected variety, the duration of its growing season. The popular varieties are early sugar varieties, they are ready to be harvested in 1.5 or 2 months. Sowing peas should be carried out depending on the planned period of its collection. This plant can be planted early as soon as the earth thaws.
For example, in the middle zone of Russia, in warm years, this plant can be planted from mid-April, and in colder regions - from mid-May. When it is planted in the southern regions, it is necessary to plant it as early as possible (for example, in March), since this plant does not tolerate hot weather, and the entire crop must be harvested before the onset of heat. To extend the period of harvest, it is worth sowing both early and mid-season varieties at the same time.
To have fresh peas for a long time, you need to plant it several times. The interval between landing should be about 2 weeks. В средней полосе и холодных регионах это бобовое нужно сеять не позднее начала июля.
Температура почвы и воздуха
Важно понимать, что при посадке гороха в открытый грунт нужно учитывать температуру почвы, а не среднесуточную температуру воздуха. The grown plant has good resistance to cold, but before germination, its unsprouted seeds in the soil, which are saturated with moisture, can die or rot when the temperature drops. Therefore, before sowing, it is necessary to choose the right type of plant, taking into account the temperature of the soil at which it can germinate effectively.
For the germination of varieties of the smooth-type type, the soil temperature should be above +1 ° С (several days after the snow has completely melted), and for the brain ones - above +4 ° С (2 weeks after the snow melts). For plant growth, a steady temperature of + 12 ... + 16 ° С is required, and pod formation is + 16 ... + 22 ° С.
If the temperature is above this index, the taste characteristics will suffer and the yield will decrease, so the peas are more suitable for growing in spring.
Pea is a plant that at its roots produces organic substances that contain nitrogen for growth. Despite this, legumes still need to be fertilized with fertilizers so that there are more pods and the bush does not die prematurely. Nutrient mixtures containing potassium, phosphorus and even nitrogen are required for proper nutrition.
Before sowing peas, you need to choose a suitable soil. Sandy or medium loamy soil is better suited. It is important that there is low or neutral acidity, as the plant does not tolerate acidic soils. If the land on the site has high acidity, it is necessary to pre-add crushed chalk, lime or dolomite flour to it in advance.
With a large area of sowing peas in the fields, it is worth choosing the land on which they used to grow potatoes, cabbage, pumpkin, beets or corn, cereals. It is not recommended to plant it after other legumes.
What next can plant peas?
Peas saturate the earth with useful organic nitrogen-containing substances due to nodule symbiotic bacteria.
The soil that the pea has enriched with nitrogen is favorable for many plants, because of this it is considered a useful neighbor. Peas can be planted even between rows of beds as a producer of fertilizers for neighboring vegetables, and the harvest of the peas in this case will be a nice bonus.
Taking into account the usefulness of neighboring plants for peas, you should pay attention to tomatoes (they will help in the fight against pests), corn (as a support for it), mustard (will overcome the pinwort). Well, this legume also gets along with potatoes, carrots, various salads and herbs, cucumbers and cabbage.
Next to the peas do not plant: garlic, onions, and other legumes.
Before planting, it is necessary to plow, the depth of plowing the soil under the peas is from 20 to 27 cm.
How to plant peas in open ground?
After the seeds and ground for peas are ready, you need to start planting. To do this, first you need to choose the area that was dug up last fall and fertilize, form beds. Then, using a hoe, make furrows 3-4 cm deep, at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other. If it can be seen that the earth is not sufficiently moistened, it is worth watering the furrows. Then, in the created strips, spread the seed at a distance of 10 cm from each other, the peas need to be deepened into the soil by 4-5 cm.
After the peas are laid out, the grooves need to be covered with earth and a little tamped down on top of the soil. If the earth looks dry, you can pour it (necessarily from a watering can with a lens). When planting is finished, you need to cover the beds with dense non-woven material, otherwise the birds can eat the seeds.
Shoots will appear about a week after planting. When this happens, you will need a little and gently loosen the soil.
Sprouts pecked at a temperature of + 6 to + 8 degrees. Pea does not tolerate heat. If the seeds are exposed to sunlight, they germinate worse. I advise you to regularly water the plant, then immediately loosen the soil. Do not forget to remove weeds from the plot! The first time should loosen the soil after 15 days after germination.
When your plants reach a height of 25 cm, you will need to establish support for them. Those who wish to get a rich harvest, I advise you to pinch peas in the upper part of the stem. Thanks to this procedure, he will start additional branches on the side. Pinch peas better in the morning.
If the weather is dry, you should water it very copiously. It is necessary to increase the intensity and duration of watering when the peas form flowers. In other cases, you need to make water 1 time in 7 days.
During flowering, I advise you to water the peas 1 time in 4 days, spend 5 liters of water per 1 square. m. In hot weather should be made in 8 - 9 liters of water per 1 square. After irrigation, I advise you to loosen and weed the bed.
The introduction of useful formulations, garter
Peas, like other legumes, require additional fertilizing. After fertilization, be sure to water it. I feed the plant with nitroammofoskoy: 15 g of the drug is dissolved in 9 liters of water (this amount is calculated per 1 sq. M.). Peas positively perceives the solution of mullein and organic matter in a dry form.
I advise you to feed it with potash-phosphorus agents, you can make them before and after flowering. Top dressing should be 3, the latter is carried out in mid-September. Nitric compounds are best made in March.
As I said, the peas are actively growing, for this reason it needs to be tied up. When you see a plant form a fruit, tie it to a support.
A few days after planting, you can place pegs with strained metal threads near it. Peas need to tie up completely, parts of the plant should not lie on the ground, otherwise they will begin to rot.
Malicious insects, diseases
Peas can attack pests, the most common:
The latter lays eggs on different parts of the plant, eats the juice of leaf plates. Moth also lays larvae, it feeds on flowers and leaves. As for diseases, peas are prone to mosaic and powdery mildew.
The first is not amenable to treatment, as it occurs due to exposure to the virus. If a pea has a mosaic, its leaves are covered with dark spots (necrosis). Mealy dew also harms the plant. With this disease, a loose plaque appears on the leaf blades.
Powdery mildew infects the fruits: they crack, respectively, become unsuitable for human consumption.
The leaves become dark, then die off. Diseases of peas are not treatable. Having found the affected specimens, it is necessary to perform soil disinfection. Treat it with a solution of potassium permanganate. The soil in this case should rest. During the year I do not advise growing any fruit crops on it.
For the prevention of disease, you can use fungicides. The most popular ones are Fundazol and Topaz. Some gardeners prefer folk remedies. Thirty grams of calcium salt and the same amount of soap, dissolved in 8 liters of water, then mixed and sprayed with a spray gun once every 2 weeks.
As you can see, the care of peas is simple, but it should be regular and timely. Be sure to plant a culture after favorable predecessors.
This variety is characterized by the fact that, in addition to the peas, the leaflets of the pod in which they are enclosed are also edible. Such varieties, as a rule, are most valued by gardeners. The leaves of the pods do not have a hard parchment layer. Ripe seeds are somewhat wrinkled in appearance, as they contain quite a lot of moisture in the grains. Compared to shelling peas, this group is more demanding on growing conditions (soil fertility and moisture, heat), and is also more susceptible to diseases and pest damage. Varieties of sugar peas are used in industrial canning, as they boil dry much longer. In addition, they are perfectly frozen.
Be sure to carefully read the packaging, it always indicates when to plant peas in open ground.
Varieties of this group have hard leaf pod with a pronounced parchment layer. For nutritional purposes, only seeds that are mature enough to contain a lot of starch are used. This leads to the fact that in a dry form, they are boiled soft very quickly. Therefore, shelling peas are used to make soups. And the one that is collected at the stage of technical ripeness, goes to canning and freezing.
The most common varieties of sugar peas:
- early maturing: Ambrosia, Oregon, Children's sugar, Miracle of Kelvedon,
- mid-season: Zhegalov 112, Moscow delicacy,
- late: inexhaustible 195.
The most common varieties of shelling peas:
- early maturing: Faith, Sphere, Misty, Hezbana,
- mid-season: Asana, Abador, Vinko, Sherwood, Ashton,
- later: Era, Pecan, Twin, Nicholas, Matrona.
On what sort you prefer, depends on the time when planting peas in the open ground with seeds. Every year dozens of new varieties appear on the market, including zoned ones. For Siberia, as a rule, mid-season varieties are used, such as Sugar Cerebral, May 13, Henry.
Planting seeds: prepare the soil for peas
This plant loves heat and sunlight, so the place must be chosen appropriately, preferably without drafts and strong winds. This representative of legumes does not require abundant fertilization. If you have previously determined a place for planting, it is better to add mineral preparations and organic matter in the fall. Or, knowing when to plant peas in the open ground in your area, you can do it a week before the expected date. If you have a loamy or sandy soil at the site, then before digging it is advisable to add humus or compost (per 1 square meter 5-6 kg).
Seed preparation for sowing
There are two ways of sowing seeds: dry or with a short soak. First, the seeds of peas must be sorted out before planting, sorted, removed broken and damaged. All those that are suitable should be soaked in a weak hot (40 ° C) solution of boric acid (dissolve one gram per 5 liters of water). The duration of soaking - 5-8 minutes. Thanks to this method of processing, you prevent root damage by the nodule larvae. After soaking the seeds, you need to get on a paper napkin, dry a little and then start planting.
You can use dry peas, only the soil must be watered first, and the top should be covered with a special covering material.
When to plant peas in open ground?
The dates of sowing peas depend primarily on the temperature of the soil, the time when it warms up. Peas sprout already at + 2-3 ° C and even withstand return frost. That's just the roots still need warm soil. Since the country is large, and spring comes with a noticeable delay in terms, the landing time varies considerably. On the question of when to plant peas in the open ground in the suburbs, any gardener will tell you that as soon as the snow melts and the ground dries out, approximately in the twentieth of April. In general, everything is strictly individual, because spring can also be protracted. After planting the peas must necessarily cover something. Firstly, to preserve moisture, and secondly, so that birds do not peck out.
On the question of when to plant peas in open ground in the Urals, the answer is similar. The earth, as a rule, warms up in early May (until the 10th). At this time, frosts are still possible, but the plant will survive. Landing dates in Siberia are shifted by about 2 weeks, that is, by the middle or end of May.
When planting peas in the open ground in spring
Predecessors for planting peas - cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers. The soil for sowing is prepared in autumn: they dig up to a depth of 20 cm and 4-6 kg of humus, 15 g of potassium salt, 20-40 g of superphosphate are applied per 1 m 2 of earth.
In the spring it is necessary to add ash, distributing it on the site. Under the sowing of peas, it is possible to deposit only rotted manure, otherwise only green mass will actively develop, not fruits.
Any soil will be suitable for planting peas, he prefers sunny and protected from the wind places to grow. Pea roots penetrate the ground by almost 1 m, avoid places with upper groundwater.
Planting peas in the open ground
Peas - cold-resistant culture, shoots withstand frosts down to -6 ° C. In early spring, they begin to sow peas as the soil dries, but not earlier than April 20.
In summer, sowing peas can be done until mid-July (early ripening varieties).
Before sowing, pea seeds can be soaked in cold water for 12 hours (water should be changed every 2 parts) or sown dry in open ground.
Dry seeds are heated for 5 minutes in a hot solution (40 degrees) of boric acid (2 grams of acid per 10 liters of water). Such a pre-sowing treatment reduces the likelihood of pea being affected by the nodule larva larvae.
Sowing seeds: 80-130 seeds are sown per 1 m 2 plot.
Important: pea seeds remain viable for 2 years.
The technology of sowing peas in open ground is as follows:
- make a furrow 15-20 cm wide, 50 cm wide, 5 cm deep with a flat hoe
- distribute the peas into the ground at a distance of 5 cm from each other
- to fall asleep on top of the ground, well compacted.
Shoots usually appear for 6-15 days after sowing.
The whole season you will be with young peas, sowing seeds with an interval of 14 days.
It is not difficult to care for peas - the main thing is to carry out weeding, watering, and harvesting on time.
With the emergence of shoots, sprouts need protection from birds - cover the shoots with a regular fishing net.
Pea moisture-loving plant and needs abundant watering, does not tolerate heat. Watering should be sufficient in dry weather - 9 liters of water per 1 m 2 plot.
Try to combine watering with pea dressing (for 1 liter of water 1 tbsp. Of nitroammofoski), mulch the soil after watering.
Do not forget, especially in the initial period of pea growth, to loosen the soil and spud the plants.
Pea bushes need a support from a wire or mesh stretched and fixed on pegs driven into the ground next to the plants.
After 30-60 days after sowing the seeds, the pea blooms, the flowers are self-pollinated. Approximately 1 month after flowering proceed to harvest. The period of fruiting peas lasts 33-42 days. Green peas are often harvested in a day or two.
To gather ripe beans, the pods are left to ripen on the bushes. After that, the plant is cut at the root and dried for 2 weeks in a ventilated room.
When the whole crop of peas has been harvested, the bushes are cut and thrown into the compost pile, and the roots are dug up along with the soil - fertilizer is obtained.
Planting peas in the same place is permissible after 5 years, otherwise there is a risk of various diseases.
Pests and diseases
Malicious pea enemy - pea mothwhose caterpillars hide for the winter in the ground. With the beginning of flowering of peas, butterflies fly out of cocoons. Butterflies lay eggs on the leaves, flowers, stems. Hatching caterpillars get inside the fruit with peas and eat them.
To overcome this pest spray plants with infusion of garlic or tomato tops.
Infusion of garlic Prepare as follows: 20 g of garlic skip through the garlic press, pour 10 liters of water, leave for 24 hours, then strain and spray the pea bushes.
Tomato infusion: 3 kg of tops we fill with 10 liters of water, insist day, filter and spray the pea bushes.
These infusions help with the appearance of pea aphids.
Often the plant is sick powdery mildew. To combat used infusion of field sludge: taken leaves 300 g filled with water 7 liters and insist 12 hours. Strain and spray the plants 2 times with an interval of 1 week.
Preparation of beds and landing scheme
When looking for a place to plant peas, it is better to choose a plot that is dry and open to the sun. For varieties that ripen earlier, you can make the beds up to 0.5 m wide, and later varieties - narrow beds, arrange the trellis and plant several rows of plants. So it will be easier to harvest.
Immediately before sowing peas into open ground, furrows are made longitudinally for narrow beds, transversely for wide ones. On such beds, you can make inter-row spacing (about 40 cm wide) and plant a salad on them. With this scheme, both cultures will actively grow, especially on fertile soil.
Often the peas are planted in the open ground under the apple trees. It is easy, the main thing is to know how to plant peas and make it so that there is enough light for it, and before planting it is necessary to fill the fertile soil with a layer of about 10 cm.
Sowing peas on the garden bed
Before the start of suburban work, you should watch a video that describes how the peas are planted in the open ground. From the video, you can explore the method of sowing peas, see the rate of sowing seeds and learn useful tips on varieties and planting material.
How to get pea seeds for planting
Pea seeds in the photo
Pea is a herb from the legume family. A green, curly and very cute annual plant becomes at a certain moment a supplier of a sweet and juicy product.
The feasibility of growing pea seeds in garden plots is beyond doubt. In bags purchased in stores, rarely there are more than 20-40 peas, which is barely enough for 1-1.5 m row. Два фактора — простота получения семян и многолетнее (до 6 лет) сохранение ими высоких посевных качеств — позволяют достаточно просто решить проблему посевного материала. Достаточно строго придерживаться правила — в год, когда оставляют горох на семена, высевают только один сорт. Если из года в год выращивать горох из своих семян, взятых с лучших растений, вскоре у вас в руках окажется сорт, адаптированный к условиям вашего участка.
To get mature pea seeds for cultivation, the plants are left in the ridge for another 3 to 6 weeks (depending on the variety and weather) after the last harvest of the peas and the elimination of the beds. During this time, the sugars in the peas turn into starch, the seeds give up water, coarse, and eventually dry out, acquiring the characteristic color (yellow or green) and shape (smooth or wrinkled) characteristic of the variety. It is necessary to collect carefully so that peas do not crumble.
When ripe, bean leaves lose their green color, become whitish, coarse, and finally dry out. Plants pull out when the stems, leaves, and 2-3 lower bean become brown in color.
Scourge is dried under a canopy or indoors in a suspended position. Peas, husked from dried beans, are scattered in a single layer in a dry warm room and dried further for several days.
Pea seed treatment before sowing
Before planting peas, the seeds should be carefully sifted, folded, broken. The rest must be heated and soaked for 5 - 7 minutes in a solution of boric acid (1 g per 5 liters of water). Landing takes place in a swollen, but dried form.
For the treatment of pea seeds, it is possible to use growth stimulants, but is it worth it, if properly prepared peas at home, and so gives normal shoots.
It is very important that the soil at the site for planting peas be minimally fertilized - it is enough to apply mineral fertilizers and organic matter. Before planting peas in open ground with seeds, it is necessary to treat the soil with lime, up to 250-300 g / m2, and also add 30 g of potassium and 20 g of double superphosphate.
How and when to plant pea seeds in open ground
Planting peas in the open ground in the photo
When is it best to plant peas when growing plants from seeds? Sowing peas in the garden occurs around mid-spring, but at a time when the soil is warm enough. Sowing comes with a certain thickness - low-growing peas are planted thicker, more tall ones are sown less frequently.
Immediately after sowing beds you can cover with a film for several days. After sprouting, it is advisable to lay a net on the bed, cover the framework of the greenhouse, pull ropes, wire to protect from birds.
When the plants appear color, and the beans begin to fill, try to provide more constant watering of peas, up to one bucket of water per square meter of bed.
It is necessary to install the pegs through every meter and a half and to let the horizontal guides out of a rope or wire, so that the plants do not lie on the ground, do not rot from excessive moisture, are well ventilated and warm in the sun.
Within two weeks after flowering, you can try young peas, which should be collected very carefully, without breaking off half of the bush behind each pod.
To seriously increase the yield, collect peas during ripening every day, cutting off only the most suitable from the bushes. If on the bushes of peas there are overripe and dried pods, they should be removed, as they slow down the growth and development of young.
How to plant peas: planting scheme
All experienced and not very gardeners are certainly familiar with the concept of "predecessors". It refers to the cultures that grew in this place last year. So, the cultivation of peas in the open ground should be carried out where the predecessors were representatives of the nightshade (potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes) and pumpkin.
The bed should not be too high, about 15-20 cm. The soil on it requires a good digging, leveling and watering. Make furrows on the bed, the distance between them should be 20-25 cm. It is better to sow the seeds of peas dry. Leave a gap between the grains of about 10 cm. The depth of seeding is 2.5–3 cm (birds can pick up on a smaller one). As a rule, shoots appear in about 5-7 days. When they are uniform and friendly, the soil needs to be plowed, but only slightly, so as not to damage the young plants. Growing peas in the open ground (photos are given in the article) requires periodic mineral fertilization (phosphate and potash fertilizers). Do it at the time of flowering culture. For irrigation, plant one tablespoon of nitrophoska in 10 liters of water (consumption per 1 sq. M - 5 liters).
Plant care during the summer
Basic pea care during the growing season is quite simple. Two weeks after the emergence of shoots, they need to be bred again and even slightly tucked up. Care should be taken about pegs or pea supports. This must be done, otherwise as the plant grows it will gradually fall to the ground, especially after a strong wind or rain. Such lodging slows the growth, flowering, and then the ripening of the crop, and it will be extremely inconvenient to collect it. The garter can be made in the same way as in the photo, using a wooden frame and a grid, or you can simply set the pegs and tie up the plants as they grow.
Growing peas in the open field involves frequent and abundant watering. Approximate consumption - 1 bucket of water per square meter. Growing peas is the very case when the drip irrigation system will be very useful. The plant is quite fragile, so you need to water at the root.
The first pods can be tasted as early as 2 weeks after flowering. To increase yields, experts recommend harvesting peas during ripening daily. Tearing the pods from the bushes should be carefully and only the most suitable, and dried ones should be immediately removed.
Pest and disease control
All plants, including peas, are at risk of being affected by fungal diseases or any pests. As they say, forewarned is forearmed. The danger must be known in person.
The most important pest is the larvae of the leafworm, they can quickly gnaw greens, and also damage the pods. For prevention, you can treat the beds with peas with an extract of tobacco, burdock root, celandine, tomato tops, or garlic.
Of the diseases of the fungal nature of the most dangerous is powdery mildew. If you do not want to use different chemicals, then you can use folk methods, they are also more natural. From powdery mildew helps infusion field sludge, aged for 8-10 hours. Spraying is carried out twice with an interval of one week.
Thus, we figured out when to plant peas in open ground in Siberia, in the Urals, or in the suburbs. The terms are only approximate, and it is necessary to individually focus on the weather in each region. Peas - culture unpretentious, but very useful both for the person, and for your site. At the place of its cultivation next year it will be possible to plant any other crop, which will undoubtedly affect its growth.