Few of the housewives get pleasure from wasting their time and cleaning small bulbs. Get a good harvest of large heads can, if you plant onion sets. Of course, if you do not trust the sellers and prefer home planting material, you will have to wait a bit. For one season to grow large bulbs will not work. This will require two years: first you need to plant the seeds of the so-called Chernushka. But small onions grown from them in the fall - this is the sevy, which is planted in the second year. From it already and get a perfect bow, beautiful and big. When planting onion sets, depends on the method and region of cultivation, as well as on the particular variety.
There are two ways of planting onions:
Each of them has its own characteristics regarding the timing of landing.
Spring planting dates
Traditionally, onion sets are planted in spring. However, this culture is not in a hurry. Too early planting in a cold, cold garden can deprive the harvest. Instead of strong elastic heads and lush feathers, there will be an equally beautiful but unnecessary arrow.
In open ground sevok need to plant not earlier than the end of April, and even in early May. By this time, return frost should go away, and the earth should warm up to at least 7 degrees Celsius.
When to plant onion sets in the fall?
Podzimny planting onions allows you to get a harvest two weeks earlier. In addition, the heads are usually much larger than the spring ones. Equally important is the fact that there is no need to store the bulbs. Sometimes during the winter most of the material deteriorates. But the bulbs grown through autumn sowing are practically not affected by the onion fly and rarely get sick. And they are better stored.
Before winter, it is recommended to plant frost-resistant varieties, the so-called winter onions. These include Radar, Shakespeare, Danilovsky, Odintsov, Sturon and others.
To sevok not begin to grow prematurely and did not die when the frost comes, it is important to plant it in time. Daytime temperatures should be no higher than 5 degrees Celsius, and nighttime temperatures should not be less than 4 degrees Celsius. Depending on the specific region, the autumn planting dates vary from early October to early November.
When and how to plant onions in spring
The next year, the bulb will grow from small to large sizes, and the seeds will appear in the second - third year. Planting small sevka - the most convenient way for the gardener, the cultivation of this useful vegetable on the site. He will require minimum of trouble and will provide a great result even in difficult climatic and soil conditions. How to grow yourself, when it is better to plant onions and how to care for them, read on.
Before you start planting a seedling, you must:
- formulate a goal
- decide on planting material to meet these goals.
The size of the seed is very important.
If the heads are large in size, more than 2 cm, this material is called “sampling”, it is not suitable for landing on the “turnip”. Such a seedling, on landing on the garden, will give an arrow, and you will not get a commercial onion. It needs to be calibrated and landed separately on a feather, you can at home on the windowsill in the winter or spring in the ground, on the greens.
Onion must be less 2 cm in diameterthen plant it boldly. The amount of organic matter in a small head is very small, which means that this seed does not have enough strength for the pasture arrow. Therefore, you first need to gain weight and become a large turnip-onion, and after full maturity and secondary planting it will throw out the arrow, and will give seeds for the continuation of the species.
How do gardeners get sev from seed
Many gardeners buy ready-made seed, but you can grow it yourself on your own plot. If you want a rare variety, then easier to buy its in the seeds. But if you have already decided on a variety, then you can begin to grow the seeds on your own land. So, the onion will already be adapted to the soil and conditions in your garden and you will completely collect high-quality seeds for further planting.
To get your own seeds, choose the most beautiful, large and sturdy turnips for planting onions in the fall. When the snow melts, we immediately plant onion sets in the spring, you can plant them in ground or greenhouse (if it is still cold). it is necessary to plant wider than during normal planting, not less than 20 to 20 cm. Care, as for the whole garden:
Already at the end of the summer your arrows will present seeds. Cut a bouquet of arrows with stems and hang to dry. In about a month, thresh and dry again, store such seeds - chernushku not more than two years.
Chernushka can be sown in early April. They do not germinate very actively, so it is advisable to soak first for half an hour in warm water and for another day in room water. It will be easier to put them in a bag or a napkin, change the water periodically, take it out of the water and leave it in a wet napkin until germs appear. Sprouted seedlings land in the ground no deeper than 3-4 mm, after emergence, thin out if necessary.
When ready onion sets
- when the leaves start to fall,
- the neck gets thinner
- the husk gets brown.
Harvesting seedlings plan on sunny weather until the greenery is completely dry. Since the seedling is very small, without a stem, it easily rolls and can be lost. It is more convenient to store together with dried tops. Then it is necessary to dry, most correctly in the sun, provided that there is no threat of rain, but it is possible and well ventilated indoors. You can save the seedling in the attic, in the basement or in the barn until next season. The best temperature for storage is around zero, with a higher one, the onions will dry out.
How to prepare for planting onion sets
Both purchased and homegrown sowing material in spring should be touched. Dried or damaged samples should be thrown out, the rest should be sorted by size into three parts:
If more medium sized onions turned out, this is great, this is the best material, because a small turnip will grow from small ones, and a large arrow will immediately grow from large ones.
To reduce the tendency to bolting the seedling should be heated before landing in the ground. If you stored correctly in the cold, then to warm up It will take about 2-3 weeks. After that, we bring in a warm (from 30 to 40 degrees) place for at least a day, you can more. It is best to warm up in the bag near the battery heating.
If it so happens that you did not have time to warm the seed material, you can warm it up for about 20 minutes in very warm water (about 50 degrees) and cool it immediately in cold water. These manipulations are needed to wake dormant buds, as soon as you start their activity, the growth of the bulb will begin, and the possibility of shooting will come to naught. It will not be superfluous, before planting, treat onions with a solution of manganese or copper sulphate from possible pests.
Which place is better to choose for planting onions
Lowlands with nearby groundwater will not contribute to yield. The onion grows well in a bright, open place in fertilized and loose soil. Seedling does not like shady places either. When growing on your own plot of this crop, observe crop rotation, that is, change places for each subsequent crop. Planting a seedling in one place, every year in a row, will lead to vegetable diseases and low yields. This may be due to the fact that pests and diseases multiply and accumulate in the soil, and the necessary and useful material exhausted. Because the beds for planting must be transferred annually, coming to the original place not earlier than three - four years, and even better than five.
Preparing onion beds should begin in the fall. Look at the place where you used to grow peas, potatoes, tomatoes or cucumbers. These are the best predecessors for onions. And after carrots and garlic, the place will not work. When digging for the winter in this part of the site, apply fertilizer in the form of rotted manure. Fresh will not work, because after it will grow a lot of weeds and greens will grow more abundant than turnip.
How to plant a bow on the spring
To get excellent harvest, it is important to choose the appropriate time to plant a seedling in the ground. Smaller bulbs can be planted by the end of April, and those that are larger in the first decade of May. The soil should thaw to a depth of 5–7 cm, but remain wet. Planting a plank ahead of time will cause the turnip to develop poorly and grow arrows. During late planting periods, the warmed earth will dry out quickly and prevent the head from forming. With well-moistened soil, the best temperature for the effective development of vegetables, from 10 to 13 degrees.
The distance when planting between seedlings should be 6–12 cm, depending on the variety and size of the planting material itself. Row spacing of about 25 cm, for good air circulation between plants. Depth is from 3 to 5 cm. At deep occurrence the bulb will grow extended. Very good way to fit in the ridges. You need to make furrows in moistened and loosened soil, plant them according to the plan of sevok, from above to get the ground from the row spacing. The onions will be covered with loose, moist soil and warm up well and the pests from dense layers will not reach your seeds.
How to care for onions
If you planted your bow correctly, then this is already half the battle. This vegetable is non-capricious and undemanding, but still it will want your attention during growth, ripening. Since spring, onions are in dire need of moist soil, because its roots are weakly developed. In case of moderate humidity of the weather, watering is sufficient up to two times a week. Since July, watering gradually reduce, and to harvest completely stopped. After each watering, it is necessary to loosen the ground so that it is breathable.
If your site is covered with weeds, it can lead to diseases due to high humidity and the onion bulbs will be thickened, which will shorten the shelf life. Because greens need good airing and removal of all nearby weeds. Fertilizing make three times per season, this mineral fertilizers and solutions of humus.
- For the first time - 10 days after spitting up the seedling.
- The second - in 20 days.
- The last - in another 20 days.
Two weeks before the harvest, the onions are not watered or loosened, only young shooters are removed.
When to plant in the spring?
The planting dates for planting in spring depend on many factors: the climatic conditions in the region, the likelihood of frost and the depth of soil warming. In the southern areas, onions and greens can be planted on the turnip from mid-April, in the central areas from the beginning and mid-May.
If you live permanently on the plot, you can start planting sevok as soon as the threat of night frosts passes. In this case, planted onions covered with a film, first in constant mode, and then only at night.
When planting in open ground is better to focus on the state of the soil.
The optimal conditions for starting work are:
- the earth warmed up and dried out on 6-10 cm,
- at a depth of 10 cm, the soil is moist, and when compressed, it forms a tight clump.
Important for determining the timing of planting in the spring is the size of the bulbs you have. Experienced gardeners recommend sorting sets by caliber: small ones are planted early, and large specimens 2 weeks later, when they are warmer.
Before you prepare the soil for onions, you should determine the place where it will grow. This culture loves well-lit areas with non-acidic soil. Luka likes to grow after zucchini and cucumbers, legumes, potatoes and tomatoes.
How to properly prepare the beds for sevok spring:
- Before digging the beds, fresh wood ash is applied to the ground at the rate of 1 bucket per 5 sq. M. Such a measure will serve not only as a fertilizer, but also reduce the acidity of the soil, as well as destroy a number of onion pests.
- In some sources, before digging, it is recommended to apply grown three-year-old humus into the soil. Per 1 sq.m. beds should be filled with at least 3.5 kg. natural fertilizer. But such a measure is necessary if you plant sevka on greens, when growing a crop on a turnip, it is better not to make any additional fertilizing, since they will provoke an intensive growth of feathers and arrows, which will significantly slow down the formation of the head.
The beds should be dug and then leveled. Some gardeners prefer to compact the ground, rolling it with barrels, concrete rings or crushing the board. In the soil devoid of emptiness sevok well rooted.
Preplanting seed preparation for planting in the spring is mandatory and serves to prevent common diseases in culture. Starting to engage in onions should be in advance - 2-3 weeks before the intended landing.
The first thing seed should be carefully looked through, removing from the total mass of specimens that have the slightest defects. If necessary, the onion can be expanded in caliber.
After the bulkhead, sevok should be properly prepared, for this there are several techniques:
- Drying 2 weeks before planting, the seed needs to be heated for 11-12 hours at a temperature of up to 45 degrees. Usually, boxes with bulbs are simply placed near the batteries - dry, warm air emanating from them is enough to protect sevka from powdery mildew that affects it after a long period of moisture.
- Warming up Another drying option, which should begin 3 weeks before planting. The moved sets are kept for 15-20 days at a temperature of 20 degrees, and then rearranged to a warm, dry place, where at a temperature of 30-40 degrees it warms up for 10 hours.
- Boiling water. A quick, but no less effective method of preventing diseases in onions is pouring boiling water. Contact with hot water at the onions should last no more than 2 seconds. It is most convenient to place the sevok in a sieve or colander and pour it from the kettle.
- Hot water. If you are afraid to use boiling water, seed can be soaked in hot (45-50 degrees) water for 10-15 minutes.
Regardless of the chosen method of heating, you will additionally need to carry out pre-sowing disinfection of the bulbs.
Soaking the causative agents present in the seeding will help soaking for 2 hours in traditional solutions:
- weak pink solution of potassium permanganate (10 crystals per 100 ml of water),
- a solution of copper sulphate (1 tsp. on 2 l. of water),
- salt solution (200 gr. per 1 liter of water).
After all preventive measures are taken, the onions should be dried and soaked in a solution of mineral fertilizer for 5-6 hours. This preplant dressing will allow the culture to take root quickly and efficiently.
The correctness of the technology of planting seed in the spring directly affects the future size of the bulbs. Grooves should be organized on prepared leveled and laminated beds. Their depth depends on the caliber of the selected seed: for small onions, a depth of 2 cm is sufficient; for large ones, 4 cm is required.
It is important to strictly follow these instructions: insufficient penetration of the onions will lead to underdevelopment of the root system and nutritional deficiencies, which means the harvest will be small. Excessive “instillation” of the seeding during planting will cause a curvature of the turnip - it will acquire an elongated shape.
Furrows most convenient to do the edge of the board. Rows for planting are organized with an interval of 20-30 cm. Furrows are recommended to additionally powder with wood ash.
Sevok is gently inserted into the furrows with an interval of 8 cm. It should not be too deep - the tip of the bulb should stick slightly above the surface of the bed. After planting in the spring, the ground needs to be well shed and its moisture should be controlled throughout the germination period. In hot and arid weather, soil moisture deficiency can lead to the death of the crop.
Care of crops and onions
To ensure optimum yield of onion turnips, the crop should be constantly maintained:
- In the period of rooting and growth of feathers should not be allowed to dry out the soil.
- Timely weeding will not allow weeds to slow the growth of the bulbs.
- Periodically, the soil should be shallowly loosened between rows, destroying the crust formed on the ground.
- The first top dressing with urea and superphosphate is made when the feathers reach a height of 10-15 cm.
- Left arrows after a thickening at the base break.
Onions turnip is harvested after it "lies down", and the feathers are significantly dried. It is better to pull the bulbs out of the garden in dry, warm weather, during the day they should be well dried in the sun.
Assembled heads are carefully cleaned and scattered in a warm place - in the attic or under a canopy. From time to time, the bulbs should be agitated, the husks should be removed and their feathers dried off in a natural way.
Drying the crop should last 2-3 weeks. After that, the onion is folded into bags or boxes and stored in a permanent storage place.
Selection of planting material
There are several secrets, the knowledge of which will help to acquire high-quality sevok, from which a good crop of turnip will grow.
CouncilIf planting for planting is grown from its own seeds, it needs the same preparatory procedures as the purchased one. You also need to do the calibration and quality selection.
От размера севка зависит урожай лука. Самый плодоносный в весенней посадке — средний размер луковички.
Севок среднего размера
Она идеально подходит для зимней посадки, но не для весенней.
Экземпляры такого размера не стрелкуются, но могут вымерзнуть при сильных морозах.
Used for spring and sub-winter landing.
If sown in spring, the plant will not go to the arrow, and the bulbs will be large in size and of good quality.
Mainly used for planting in the winter, since spring planting is likely to be bolted if sown too early.
However, such a bow ripens earlier than the average, and the harvest is almost guaranteed even with poor care.
Sevok of this size began to sell recently.
It is intended for planting in the winter only for the purpose of obtaining greenery.
Landing material must not be moldy and scaly damaged. The upper scales should be dry, the bulbs themselves dense.
Different varieties of onion sting
If onions are sold in a package, and not by weight, then it must necessarily indicate the period of storage, the batch number and the name of the variety.
Note! If the sevok is darker in color than it should be, then it is wet. It may be enough to dry it, scattered on paper near the battery. And, perhaps, the material is spoiled completely. In any case, it is better not to take it.
Onions need to be planted when the earth warms up. Usually in the middle lane is the end of April - the beginning of May. Small onion planted earlier, medium and large - 7 - 10 days later.
Calibrated bulbs for a day, place in a temperature environment equal to 40 ° C. How can I do that? Hang the net with the bulbs directly above the battery, either place it in the oven or use the slow cooker in the “Yoghurt” mode.
After a daily heat treatment, wash each bulb with warm water and send it for hardening.
Warm the onions in the oven at the lowest temperatures
Hardening procedure. Step-by-step instruction
Prepare a container with hot water at a temperature of about + 70 ° C.
Use a thermometer to accurately determine the water temperature.
Fill the second container with cold tap water.
It is desirable that the water was colder
For two minutes, immerse the net with the bulbs in hot water.
Then chill for one minute in the cold.
Make at least 10 such repetitions. Or continue until the temperature of the hot water drops to + 50 ° C.
Onion, although it is a bactericidal plant, is itself susceptible to many diseases, especially rot and fungal infections. In addition, the smell lures flies - onion and carrot. That is why it is impossible to plant it right after carrots.
CouncilTo protect future plants from infection and damage, sevok need to soak in the copper sulphate. The solution is very simple - 1 gram of chemical per liter of water.
For disinfection and prevention, you can also purchase a nitroammofosku. In both media, the bulbs are kept for 10 hours.
Onions are also disinfected in potassium permanganate
For the prevention of an onslaught of the onion fly, sevok is kept in strong saline for two hours. This procedure helps prevent larvae from laying in the bulb.
Ways to increase yield
Soaking of seedlings in solutions of fertilizers with mineral complexes helps very well in this matter. For the solution you need two grams of fertilizer and a liter of water. Soaking procedure can last from four to twelve hours. This is the last treatment, after which sevok can be planted.
Growth stimulation soaking
Preparation of beds
For onions it is important that it grew on the garden. Best of all, if it were zucchini or pumpkin, as well as beans, peas and tomatoes. It is permissible to sow onions after white cabbage.
Choose fertile soil for planting.
Remember!No need to sow onions to the place where carrots or garlic were grown in the previous year. And it is absolutely not recommended to grow a turnip in one place for two years in a row.
The soil must undergo preliminary preparation and processing. But initially it is necessary to pay attention to the soil in your area. For onions the most suitable is loam, or sandy soil with alkali.
CouncilIf the soil in the garden is acidic, it is worth starting the preparation for spring planting of onions in the fall. At this particular time it is necessary to add dolomite flour or hydrated lime of 1.5 kg per square meter of ridges.
Also in the fall, the soil under the onion ridge is dug up to 15 centimeters, and 30 g of potassium or phosphorus are added.
Phosphate fertilizers have a positive effect on onion growth.
As for manure and other organic matter? If onions are grown on a green feather, then it is appropriate. And if your goal is to get large onion heads, then it is better not to use organic fertilizers.
Not sure which fertilizer is best for onions? Recommendations for feeding from an expert in the article - How to grow a good harvest of onions.
The ridge with sevke should be located on a sunny, not wetland place without drafts.
As already noted, the landing time depends on the climate. In Belarus, near Moscow, in the Urals and in other areas with a similar climate, they begin disembarking at the very end of April or on May holidays.
Important!The main thing when landing is that the soil at this moment warms up to + 12 ° С. In this case, the bulbs will not freeze and germinate as quickly as possible.
Seeding starts in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and southern Russia in early April and even in late March.
The size, length, width of the garden can be any, the main thing is of such dimensions that it is convenient to take care of the bow.
- If the soil is dug up in the fall, it is necessary to loosen and “fluff” well.
- If there was no digging in the fall, then you need to do it, digging the top layer of 10 centimeters.
- When applying fertilizer in autumn, nothing is added to the soil.
- If fertilizers have not been applied, you must first prepare the grooves, and then pour phosphorus or potassium into them at 30 g per square meter.
- Grooves close the soil from the top layer two centimeters thick.
- Then the ridge is marked so that the distance between the grooves is from 18 to 25 cm (depending on the size of the bulbs and the variety).
- Wells are made in the groove at a distance of 7-10 cm. The depth of the hole is up to 6 cm.
Onions holes can be made from the form of eggs
The second method of marking is to draw even stripes on the ridge so that a “grid” is obtained with a cell size of 20 cm. At the intersection of the horizontal and vertical stripes, make landing holes.
After the ridge has been prepared, it is possible to proceed with the landing of the planter.
Planting sevka in the hole
Step-by-step landing instructions
Selected bulbs dipped in a solution of root or sprinkle with powder-stimulator base of each bulb in the places of root formation.
Kornevin is a biostimulating drug.
Drain holes in the grooves with plenty of warm water.
Water the wells so as not to destroy the markup.
Dip the bulbs into prepared pre-wells to a depth of no more than six centimeters for large and four for small specimens. Deeper planting should not be - the shoots are late, and the turnip will grow elongated. Do not plant onions and too close to the surface of the soil. Its roots will not be able to obtain the necessary nutrients from the soil.
No need to deeply plant a shallow bottom
From above, cover the bed with two centimeters of fertile soil. Press it lightly, leaving a small notch in place of the hole.
Thanks to fertile soil, onions grow faster
Water the landing. Use warm water. Pour gently, without blurring the wells.
Care for spring planting onions
With decent care, even a small ridge can provide family with a turnip for the whole winter.
There are several stages of care for onions.
Watering the landing of a sevka is necessary immediately after disembarkation and then twice a week.
Per square meter of landings will need up to ten liters of water.
With the onset of summer, if it is hot, you need to water the onions once a week (the frequency of watering is halved). If the summer is rainy, it is enough to water the plants twice a month.
The onion does not like to root the roots, and can easily rot, at the same time it is necessary to ensure that the onion bed does not dry out in the hot summer.
It is done as necessary.
Immediately after planting, even if fertilizers were applied in the fall, additional plant fertilization is not necessary.
But some time after the emergence of shoots, they begin to feed the plants, especially if onions are grown on scanty soils.
During the summer period, fertilizer will have to be thrice.
The first application, as soon as the pen reaches seven centimeters.
The second and third, three and six weeks after the first.
Many gardeners recommend feeding onions with bird droppings or mullein. This should not be done, remembering that onions do not like organics.
It is best to use minerals, of which the best are urea or superphosphate (2 g per liter of water).
The soil under the bow must be loosened to a depth of 5 cm with regularity once a week, coasting, because the onion head should not be bare, but should be underground.
In addition, it is so easy to control the preservation of moisture.
Weeds, so that they do not pull the sap from the plant, are removed immediately after they appear.
You also need to break off at the base of the arrow, if you do not plan to receive seeds, because they inhibit the growth and maturation of the turnip bulb.
If the summer is wet, onion plants may be affected by pathogenic fungi, it is better to prevent it, or start treatment immediately.
Perinosporosis is a fungal infection that is carried by wind or insects. It is characterized by modified leaves covered with discolored spots. It is treated with one percent Bordeaux liquid. You can also treat plants with the suspension "Podicarbacin". All treatments are threefold every 10 days, but no later than three weeks before harvest.
Rust is another common onion ailment, manifested by bloated spots on orange leaves. It is not treated, but it can be prevented by thinning the landings and carefully removing weeds. It is possible during the period of active growth to treat plants with copper oxychloride once.
Fusarium rot is treated with "Iprodion", which is processed soil.
The most dangerous pests are onion fly larvae. For their scaring and destruction use insecticides.
Growing "standard" vegetables, such as onions, potatoes, carrots, usually takes place without much difficulty. Therefore, gardeners often do not even think about the rules of their agricultural practices. But, following these rules, you can increase the yield by several times. And their non-observance is fraught with the loss of the whole onion crop.
How to prepare the site for planting?
Onion loves lighted areas and does not tolerate lowlands with heavy, over-wetted soils. Cabbage, cucumber and nightshade will be good forerunners for him. These crops do not have common pests and diseases with onions, and since their cultivation is accompanied by the introduction of high doses of organic and mineral fertilizers, the soil is still quite nutritious.
Onions can also go after zucchini and peas, but it is undesirable to occupy areas formerly under carrots, since fresh organic matter is not added to this crop, and onions require fertile soil. Also, the area after it is released late, you can not have time to prepare it for a new landing. Carrots after onion can be planted, good joint planting and close proximity of the beds (they scare pests from each other).
It is possible to return the plant to its former place not earlier than after 3 years, and in case of a high disease incidence - only after 5 years. Planting onions on the head in the spring should be carried out in loose and moderately moist soil, so from autumn the site should be dug up on the spade bayonet, and in the spring only to be raked and leveled.
If necessary, in the autumn they bring compost or humus and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. To neutralize the soil solution on acidic soils make chalk or lime. It is recommended to keep onion sites where fresh manure was applied for only 2 years.
In poorly heated areas with heavy clay soil in the fall, wide ridges are cut, which will be planted.
When put onions on the head?
The exact time of landing is determined by the folding weather conditions and the temperature of the soil. Onions are cold-resistant culture, but when planted in cold soil, it will shoot out, which will reduce the quality of the crop.
On the other hand, the procedure must be completed when there is still a reserve of moisture in the soil, in which the onions have great needs at the beginning of growth. And the relatively long growing season of this crop does not forgive the delay.
For Moscow region spring planting is recommended in the first decade of May. According to national signs, the optimal time is determined by the beginning of the flowering of the bird cherry. For Siberia and the Far East, the dates are shifted to the middle and end of May.
Preparation of planting material
Planting material (sets), kept in a warm way (18-20ºC at a humidity of 60-70%), does not require any procedures to activate growth processes. A week before planting, it is sorted, discarding dried, sprouted and rotting onions, and sorted, dividing into 2-3 fractions.
It is recommended to sow the smallest fraction (diameter less than 1.5 cm) in earlier periods, as it does not provide arrows. Sevok from the middle fraction (diameter 1.5-2 cm) gives the best yield, but on the condition that the planting is made in a sufficiently heated soil. Large onions (more than 3 cm in diameter) can be used to grow onions on a feather or to get turnips for canning, as they often give arrows, which affects keeping quality.
If the planting material was stored at lower temperatures (in the attic, cellar, etc.), then 2–3 weeks before planting it must be transferred to a warm room and dried (container with a sevka can be simply placed near the battery, but not very close ).
Calibrated sevok heated at a temperature of 40ºC for 8 hours to destroy internal infection (you can put on the battery in a cardboard box). Before planting, onion soaked in hot water for 12-24 hours. Instead of water, you can use a weakly concentrated solution of complex fertilizers.
Immediately before planting, planting material is treated for 15 minutes with a pale solution of potassium permanganate or a fungicide (for example, copper sulphate). After treatment, rinse with clean, warm water is required.
Some gardeners cut tails at the bottom to speed up germination. However, such a procedure damages the protective barrier and opens the door to infection, so it is better to do soaking, which will shorten the time before germination in anyway.
Technique planting onion sets
Shallow grooves are cut on a leveled garden bed. The distance between the grooves should be 15-20 cm, so it was convenient to care for the plants. If the soil is not wet enough, sheds water. Onions respond well to the introduction of wood ash and sand in the furrows.
In the prepared bed you can plant the treated sets. Onions are buried in the bottom down to the "shoulders", and then sprinkled with earth, so that a layer of 2 cm is obtained from above. Surface plantings will give earlier shoots, but a good turnip with this technique will not work.
Sevok in a row placed at a distance of 6-10 cm (depending on the variety). Some gardeners advise to plant it tightly with a “snake” in order to get not only bulbs from one bed, but also greenery. As they grow, the plants in the row are thinned, removing the bulbs along with the feather. This method is convenient on a small garden, when there is confidence that it will be thinned out in a timely manner.
How to choose sevok
It is important to choose the right quality planting material. Onions should not be shriveled, already sprouted. In this case, the supply of nutrients has already gone to the pen, and a good turnip will not work.
Also inspect them for damage and rot, this is important because such a set will not produce a good onion head, it will be susceptible to diseases, it will grow poorly, and it may even rot.
Here the principle applies: quality is more important than cheapness. It is better to get good planting material than discounted, but not meeting these criteria.
Good sevka small size, dense, with a shiny, smooth, solid and tightly adjacent husk.
When planting onion sets in open ground
The most popular month for planting onions is May. Specific dates depend on your climate zone. In central Russia, onions can be planted throughout May, while the spring moisture of the soil, which the onions are highly respected, is maintained.
When planting onions, it is more important not even the date, but the weather conditions and the temperature of the soil. No need to rush to the landing, if the weather is cold and wet. You need to wait for warm days when the soil warms up to at least 15-20 degrees Celsius.
Hurrying and planting onions in the cold ground will not lead to anything good. Although the onion tolerates frost and cold quite well, but his character deteriorates because of this. He will certainly take revenge on you and, instead of a good turnip and greens, will grow you floral arrows.
What to do so that the bow does not go to the arrow
Even before planting, it is important to know why the sevok goes into the flower stalk and how to avoid it.
The reason for the onion arrow is the wrong storage temperature of planting material, the lack of adaptation before planting, violation of the rules of care.
Объясним подробнее: лук-севок необходимо хранить при плюсовой температуре, потому что именно холод провоцирует лук на создание стрелок. Это сигнал к тому, чтобы запустить программу самосохранения и скорее дать потомство. Поэтому едва вы посадите такой севок, как он начнет выдавать цветоносы, чтобы быстрее дать семена.
The key to a large and strong onion turnip is storage in a comfortable environment, without cold stress.
But what to do if you purchased onions in the store, and you have no idea how it was stored? No problem. Purchased onions need to arrange an adaptation period.
To do this, two weeks after the purchase we withstand the battery near the battery or in another warm place. And then store before planting only at room temperature and in the dark, so as not to begin to germinate ahead of time.
If there is no time to warm up the battery or the heating has already been turned off, you can do the following: arrange a warm bath for the onions. In a basin with warm water (40-45) degrees lay out the onion and leave for 8 hours, periodically adding warm water. Then we get heads, we dry it carefully and store at room temperature until planting.
For landing on a turnip, choose medium-sized heads, because the larger ones are more prone to bolting and should be planted on greens. Do not plant in cold ground. For the same reason, cold water irrigation should be avoided.
Processing and soaking onions before planting
First of all, preparing sevke for planting, you need to carefully sort it out. Arm yourself with several sorting tanks.
It is necessary to reject all damaged and small specimens, leave for landing on the head bulbs of medium size. Onions fit large onions, small and even sprouted. But empty, shrunken, missing - throw away.
Next, gently scissors cut off each dry tail on the crown. This simple operation will help them germinate faster and better. Well, you need to be afraid that the infection will fall into the cut, because the sevok will be treated for diseases before planting.
Soak the onions before planting? And the better to do it? Let's figure it out.
Of course, it is interesting to us that our sevok grows big and at the same time be protected from diseases and parasites. Therefore, a simple scheme is usually used: first, the planting material is soaked in growth stimulants, and a little later, just before planting, it is treated with protective agents.
To supply the bulbs so that it grows large, it is recommended to dilute the complex fertilizer in water (40-45 degrees) and soak the onion there overnight. When sevok is saturated with usefulness, you can proceed to its defensive processing and planting.
Most popular recipes:
- Soak the onion in potassium permanganate. Make a strong dark pink solution of potassium permanganate and soak the onions in it for 2-3 hours. After that, they will need to be washed under running water, so that concentrated potassium permanganate does not harm future young roots. Potassium permanganate prevents fungal and bacterial diseases.
- Soak the onions in saline. 1 tbsp. l salt to dissolve in one liter of water, immerse the bulbs in it for 2-3 hours. Salt also prevents decay and disease.
- Soaking in blue vitriol. 1 tsp of copper sulphate per 10 liters of water, for 10-15 minutes. Copper sulfate disinfects seedlings and protects them from diseases.
These are time-tested ways of preparing onions. But time does not stand still, and we want to share with you new interesting recipes that will help comprehensively protect the landing. One of these recipes is the combined treatment of salt, potassium permanganate and ash together in one solution. How to make it, see below:
Processing onions before planting against pests of birch tar
The most nasty pest of onion is of course the onion fly. For our happiness, it can not stand the smell of birch tar. And if you want to protect your crops, then it is useful to soak the onion in solution: 1 tbsp. l tar in a liter of water for 10-15 minutes.
The same solution can be additionally shed planting during the growing season.
When the green begins to turn yellow and go to bed, and the turnip has the correct color, it is time to start harvesting. Terms of ripening will depend on when the planting material was planted in the ground. Time can vary from the end of July to the beginning of autumn. If time and weather allow, do not rush, let the vegetable dry right on the garden bed. Just do not allow the onions to remain in the ground for the autumn rainy season. It may begin to germinate again, which is why it will be poorly stored.
Do not immediately advise to trim the tops. Some of the nutrients during the drying will still go into a turnip. And the husk can not regret it, in its place will be another, new, clean. When drying is over, trim the tops to 5 cm and sort out. Small and with a thick neck of the head, it is desirable to eat first, so as not to lose some of the crop.
Some tips on growing onions
If you can not decide when to plant the seed material, watch the flowering of bird cherry and planting potatoes. Do not be afraid to plant a small seedling early, because it rarely shoots. Due to the long period of growth, it will mature synchronously with the large one. If you want to get a lot of feather, then before landing in the ground cut off the top shorter from the sevka.
If after autumn you have found a lot of small (about 1 cm) onion sets, then it will not be possible to save it in winter, it will be best to plant it on the garden in the winter about 20 days before the cold weather begins. Early in the spring you will have greens and these onions will catch up with the growth of large spring planted in the spring and will not allow arrows.
We have already written that onions do not develop well on the spot after carrots. However, these vegetables perfectly carry the neighborhood on the same bed and benefit each other, killing onions and, respectively, carrot for each other.
How to grow a seed head in one season?
Onion growing on a turnip in the Nechernozemie, the Far East and Siberia takes place in a two-year crop, i.e., first, seeds are obtained from seeds, from which the following year they grow a turnip. In the southern regions and central Russia, some sweet and semi-sharp varieties and hybrids can form a commodity onion of seeds in one season. To get a turnip immediately from the seeds, you need to carry out early spring and podzimny sowing or use seedlings.
If weather conditions allow, then onions can be sown in late April right into open ground. To accelerate the germination of seeds, they must be placed in warm water or a solution of growth stimulants for 1-2 days.
Sowing is best done on high ridges. Seeds are sown to a depth of about 2 cm, by a tape method with a distance between the ribbons of 20 cm. Thus, if a ridge is 1 meter wide, then it can fit 4-5 rows. Shoots need regular watering and thinning twice. The first time is thinned a few days after the mass shoots, leaving an interval of 2 cm between the plants, and a second time in the phase of 2-3 true leaves with an interval of 6 cm.
In winter, seeds are sown from late October to mid-November. Podzimniy sowing is characterized by an increased seeding rate (3 times) and mulching of sowings with peat. Shoots appear earlier, so the bulb matures earlier.
Through the seedlings are grown mainly sweet lettuce varieties. Sowing on seedlings in a heated greenhouse is carried out in early March. It is possible to grow seedlings at home, but only with sufficient light. When sowing in nutrient soil, seedlings need only regular watering. Plants are planted in the open ground at the age of 55 days (they should have 3 to 4 true leaves already formed). To do this, choose a cloudy day or evening. Planted with a row spacing of 25 cm, between plants in a row withstand 6 - 8 cm.
The best varieties and hybrids
Onions are very sensitive to the length of daylight, so for planting you need to choose only zoned varieties or achievements of local selection. Varieties bred in the northern regions in the south with a short light day may not form an onion at all. When creating your collection of favorites in the garden, include representatives from different groups. Spicy varieties are characterized by high keeping quality and yield, semi-sharp and sweet have good taste.
A guaranteed harvest can be obtained by planting old local varieties. In various regions, Strigunovsky, Rostov local, Bessonovsky, Spassky, Mstersky, Pogarsky, Timiryazevsky received national glory. They are zoned quite widely and are known among gardeners throughout the central part of Russia and abroad.
Of the widely released sharp varieties and hybrids, the Golden Semco, Centurion and Stuttgarter Risen are worth noting.
Golden Semko - early ripening with a large rounded golden bulb, which is formed in one season from seeds at once, gives high yields, is cultivated in all regions of Russia.
Centurion - a little sparking hybrid with medium early ripening, golden bulbs, of medium size, slightly elongated, resistant to diseases.
Stuttgarter rizen - mid-season with large slightly flattened bulbs.
Peninsula varieties for Central Russia: Zolotnik, Odintsov, Sputnik, Myachkovsky 300, Red Baron.
Zolotnik - medium early with golden rounded bulbs.
Myachkovsky 300 - early high-yielding with flat yellow medium-sized bulbs, suitable for growing turnips immediately from seeds.
Red baron - early ripening, dark purple bulbs, rounded, weighing up to 150 g
Good varieties and hybrids of sweet onions: Eksibishen, Ritmo, Comet.
Exibichen - medium ripening period with large oval yellow bulbs, suitable for growing in an annual crop from seeds, has a high yield, but low keeping quality.
Comet - late ripening with large white bulbs, disease resistant and suitable for long-term storage.
Novice gardeners can be difficult to decide what kind of onion to plant on the head. After all, not only taste and yield are important, but also keeping quality and disease resistance. Moreover, the same variety in different soil and climatic conditions can show different results. Therefore, pick up to 5 different varieties, for 2-3 seasons to highlight their favorites.
Subtleties of plant care
Young seedlings need regular (1-2 times a week) and moderate watering followed by loosening between rows to restore root aeration. With the beginning of the formation of the head, the multiplicity of irrigation is reduced, and a month before harvesting, they are not carried out at all for successful ripening of the bulb. However, in case of severe drought it is recommended to sprinkle with a small amount of water.
Weed plants pose a serious threat to seedlings, so weeding should be timely. Hilling of plants and close loosening are not allowed. Weeds in the row are removed manually in order not to damage the bulb with a weak root system.
Many gardeners advise to carry out one or even two dressings per season. However, the need for them on fertile soils, filled with organic matter from the autumn, is absent. On poor soils, the first feeding with liquid organic fertilizers (horse manure, bird droppings, mullein) is carried out approximately one month after planting. The second dressing is carried out during the formation of the turnip, using phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. To eliminate the burn of the roots, fertilizing is carried out after soil moistening and before watering.
Onion planting and care in the open field
As we know, onions cannot be planted in the same place, where last year also had an onion bed. The probability of illness in this case greatly increases, and such landings should be avoided.
Choose a place where tomatoes, carrots, potatoes, legumes, cucumbers, squash, squash, cabbage were planted before. The earth after them retains its nutritional value, and the onion is necessary for building a good turnip. Good neighborly relations with onions and carrots, they scare away the pests of each other, so you can plant them side by side.
He also prefers that the soil is not heavy, loose and nutritious. Places like light, with good drainage, without stagnant moisture.
It is better to prepare the future onion bed in the fall, well loosen the ground and make humus and compost. In the spring, one to two weeks before planting, the soil is loosened and shed with organic humic fertilizers. Suitable Gumi Kuznetsova.
Planting onions on a turnip (per head)
We prepare grooves approximately 8-10 cm deep. The distance between them is at least 15 cm.
We spill them with a solution of Fitosporin for disinfection. You can use both powder (1 tsp per 10 liters of water) and paste (1 tbsp of diluted paste per 10 liters of water).
In the spilled grooves we plant our sevok at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Sit him what is called "on the shoulders," ie, not only to cover the roots, but much deeper. This is necessary so that the bulb has good contact with the soil and does not hang out, because she will not have roots soon.
Sprinkle on top of wood ash as a fertilizer and disinfection. And fill up the grooves with earth.
Planting onions for greens (on the feather)
When we do not have a goal to grow a turnip, and we only want greens, then to save space we suggest you use the landing method in a bridge way.
This is when the bulbs are planted one by one very tightly and not very deep. In this case, planting in open ground is not required, you can use the container with the ground. Or select a small place in the garden.
Mixed landing on the pen and on the head at the same time
When we don’t have a lot of space, but we want to grow a good onion and eat greens, then this method is useful to you. We make grooves as usual, but we plant planters in them in a staggered manner and quite often.
With such a goal that some of these seedlings will grow on a turnip, and some will be able to be pulled back as the greenery grows and used fresh.
The rest of the action is the same as with the classic landing on a turnip (see above).
When we organized a good bed, on a lighted place, with nutrient friable soil, we only need to weed it in time so that the weeds do not interfere with the growth of the crop. Watering is carried out after planting once a week.
Also onions need frequent loosening of the soil (between the rows and between plantings, especially after the rain, so that the earth does not turn into a crust) and fertilizing.
At the end of May, it is necessary to feed it with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, in the middle of June, it needs potassium fertilizers and ammonium nitrate. For those who prefer to do without chemistry, suitable green fertilizer from weeds and nettle, vermicompost and ash.
This dressing do tridzhi with an interval of 10 days. And you forget about the yellowing of the onion feather, and the onion fly and its nose will not stick on your beds.
That's how, dear friends, in the cultivation of onions is nothing complicated, you will definitely succeed.