Calendula - undemanding and fairly simple to care for a plant that can not only beautify any summer cottage, but also to become a folk healer. Calendula is used for medicinal and decorative purposes. The enormous variety of varieties makes it possible to pick up calendula flowers that will improve the look of the flowerbed and add new colors. It is only necessary to devote a little time to the plant, and then it will delight you for many years.
Types and varieties of calendula
Calendula or marigold is an annual herb that belongs to the Aster family. There are twenty kinds of plants. The most popular ones are:
- medicinal - the only species that can be grown at home as an ornamental and medicinal plant,
Calendula varieties are extremely diverse and include stunted - up to 45 cm - plants, medium growth - up to 60 cm, and tall - up to 85 cm. What does calendula look like popular with gardeners?
- Pygmy - plant up to 15 cm in height. Terry flowers of small size are colored apricot, golden, cream or orange.
- Calypso - undersized variety up to 30 cm in height. The flowers are large, can be bright orange or golden-orange.
- Green heart - a plant up to 60 cm in height. Small flowers are colored yellow, pale orange or bright orange.
- Radio - a plant up to 55 cm in height. Flowers of small diameter hemispherical shape. May be bright orange or golden yellow.
- Pacific Beauty is a tall plant up to 80 cm in height. Flowers hemispherical shape with a huge variety of shades.
- Orange Flamingo - variety up to 60 cm in height. The flowers are small with an orange tinge.
Choosing a landing site
Calendula loves light, but does not tolerate dry and hot weather. With a lack of light, the flowers will grow small, and the flowering period will be small. The most suitable place for planting calendula in the open field and caring for it in the future is considered to be a plot in partial shade. The soil used for planting should be fertile, nourishing, light and loose. Calendula loves moisture and grows well under optimal conditions. The area on which it will grow should be protected from strong winds, as they can harm and damage the flowers.
When to put a calendula in the ground?
Planting seeds is best at the very beginning of spring or at the end of autumn - before winter. The main thing is that the soil meets the conditions described above. Sowing in late autumn will delight early flowering. Calendula is planted on seedlings in April, and after a month transplanted seedlings to a permanent place. Calendula is a cold-resistant plant that can withstand temperatures up to -5 degrees. Best of all, the soil was loose and crumbly. To check the condition of the soil should be thrown up a lump of earth up, if it is easily disintegrated, this means that the seeds can be sown. Before planting seed material, soil is dug up and humus is added per 4 m² of land - 4 kg. Seeds deepen into the ground by about one or two centimeters, the distance between the rows is made at least 30 cm. Under all conditions, shoots will appear after ten days.
Growing Calendula Seedlings
This method is considered more troublesome, but it makes it possible to get the first flowers much faster. For seedlings it is possible to use pots, wooden boxes, as well as containers, but small containers are best suited. In the flower shop you can buy a universal soil, which will be saturated with useful substances. Ready soil poured into the tank, make small grooves and sow the seeds. Next, close the plastic wrap and placed in a room with an air temperature of 14-15 degrees. Shoots will appear in seven days. As soon as the seedlings become stronger and five leaves appear, it is possible to plant the calendula in the open ground, and care for it in this case does not take much time. Before planting, seedlings are hardened by exposing the container to the street for several hours. When growing undersized varieties, it is best to use the seedling method for faster maturation.
Features plant care
Calendula, planting and care in the open field for which do not require much effort, still requires compliance with certain rules. For long-term flowering, you need to give the plant some time:
- regularly remove weeds,
- to give the bushes the pomp, the main stem of the plant should be pinched,
- When growing marigold for bouquets and cuttings, this manipulation should not be carried out, the flowers will be large if there are few inflorescences.
Calendula, as a rule, sick very rarely. In damp and cool weather, the plant is affected by powdery mildew, mucus and decay. To combat diseases and pests apply the following measures:
- remove the diseased plant
- the soil is treated with a disinfectant, you can use a solution of soda ash (50 g / 10 l of water), copper sulfate (300 g / 10 l of water).
For prophylaxis, the plant must be sprayed with a fungicidal agent, timely remove weeds, do not overfeed with nitrogen and transplant every three years to a new location.
Top dressing and watering
Calendula, planting and care in the open field for which are quite simple, needs frequent watering. During the dry period, it should be watered three to four times, and at a usual time once or twice a week. As a top dressing you can use any complex fertilizer, which is applied once every fourteen days. Excess nitrogen fertilizer causes small inflorescences.
Combination with other plants
The size of the calendula makes it possible to plant it in a live curb or a small fence framing low plants. It looks great with evergreen shrubs. The color variety will decorate the alpine hill and Moorish lawn. Calendula can add bright notes, if you put it next to the plants of dark shades. Low-growing calendula looks spectacular in hanging baskets or pots.
And with what plants can you plant calendula still? Planting next to vegetable crops will be useful, since calendula is an antiseptic for the soil in which it grows. It disinfects the soil from root rot and other parasites, such as ants, raspberries, butterflies, and other insects. In addition, calendula enhances immunity in plants growing nearby.
Calendula seeds are best collected in the last month of summer. By this time, calendula blooms coming to an end. To obtain seeds for the purpose of subsequent planting, tear off the boxes of brown color, which are in a horizontal position. Gather them in warm, sunny weather. Next, the seeds are dried and aired for a week in a dry room. They can then be put in a paper bag and stored until planting.
Rules for the collection, drying and storage of calendula
For medicinal purposes, they use the entire ground part of the plant completely, and therefore many gardeners are wondering when to pick calendula. Grass and flowers are harvested during the flowering period, i.e., from June until the first frosts in October. The workpiece is carried out in warm, dry and clear weather, preferably at noon. Inflorescences are chosen with fully opened baskets and neatly cut them off with scissors or cut off with their hands. Throughout the daylight hours, leaflets and stems are collected, which are cut with a sharp knife or shears. Collected raw materials are placed in pallets. Dry calendula outdoors, protecting it from moisture and sun, in the attic or enclosed balcony. Vegetable raw materials are laid out in a thin layer on the material and periodically tedied so that it is well dried. Store ready raw materials in cool and dry rooms.
Calendula - a plant that is widely used in traditional medicine, due to the significant number of healing properties. Quite often, calendula is used to treat diseases of the digestive tract, cardiac pathologies and diseases of the biliary tract. Calendula tincture is used for rinsing the mouth and treating sore throat. Calendula-based ointment and infusion are used to heal wounds. Tincture can also be used as a sedative. Calendula ointment is excellent as a treatment for injuries of the skin and surrounding tissues (for example, bruises, cuts, burns).
In folk cosmetology, the plant is used as a healing, sedative, tonic, as well as anti-inflammatory agent. In addition, calendula is used for the manufacture of masks and compresses, they have a beneficial effect on the skin, improving its condition and color.
It must be remembered and about contraindications. Pregnant women are not allowed to use Calendula. Hypertensive patients also can not use drugs from this plant, since the pressure can drop significantly to dangerous values. Calendula should not be used with other sedative drugs.
- Margarita Valois, the Queen of France, liked the calendula very much, so her rooms were decorated with bouquets of these beautiful flowers.
- The Queen of Navarre described the calendula in her writings, admiring its magnificence.
- Luxembourg Garden, which is located in Paris, is decorated with a statue of Margarita with a bouquet of calendula in her hands.
- The Welshs determined the weather by calendula: if the flowers did not open in the morning, then it would be overcast or raining, and a storm at sea.
- In China, this plant personifies longevity.
- In India, calendula is a sacred plant.
- In the Roman calendar, calendula designated the first day of the month.
- In ancient Greece, used the healing properties of plants.
- In the Middle Ages, calendula was used as food. It was used to make a filling for pies, added to cereals and salads, and puddings were prepared.
- Calendula is considered a saffron substitute.
Bright flowers of calendula colored shades on a bright green background look very impressive. A flowering plant will look great in a single planting, as well as in the center of the composition.
There are 3 kinds of calendula: decorative, medicinal. There is also a field calendula, which is considered to be weeds. Marigolds can be short, medium tall and tall. The minimum height of the plant is 45 cm, the maximum is 85 cm. Among the popular varieties include the following:
- Pygmy - low-growing variety, growing up to 15 cm tall. Inflorescences are small double flowers, the petals of which are painted in golden and cream tones.
- Calypso - also a short-growing plant that grows up to 30 cm. It blooms with large orange inflorescences with a golden shade.
- Radio - srednerosly bush 55 cm in height with small hemispherical inflorescences of yellow or orange color.
- Green heart - garden calendula, growing to 60 cm tall, with flowers of yellow and orange color.
- Orangeflamingo - Srednerosly plant slightly above half a meter in height with large orange flowers.
- Pacific Beauty - tall variety, growing up to 80 cm, with hemispherical flowers of various shades.
Buying seeds of any variety today is not a problem. In the future, seed material can be collected from plants that have grown on their own plot.
Note! The plant is used in traditional medicine to improve the work of the heart, treating hypertension, as an anesthetic, expectorant, antispasmodic. Apply calendula decoction and externally as an antiseptic. Contraindications include hypotension, bradycardia, and an allergic reaction to taking the drug from the nails.
Reproduction marigold occurs only in the seed way. Calendula can be grown by sowing seeds in open ground, or by seedling. When growing seedlings bloom occurs 2 weeks earlier. In open ground, seeds can be sown in the fall during the first night frosts or in spring, when the earth thaws and warms up.
Important! It is impossible to sow calendula seeds in the autumn too early, otherwise they will hatch and tender sprouts will freeze.
If you plan to grow marigold from seed, when to plant? In the middle zone, sowing in open ground is carried out in the second or third decade of April. Before spring planting, the ground should be well loosened and filled with humus. If a decorative calendula is planted as a border plant, the seeds are recommended to be planted in the grooves. When making flower beds sowing is done dotted. The optimum depth of laying seeds is 2-3 cm. When planting in autumn, the seeds are left in dry ground; in spring, the flower bed should be watered with warm water immediately after sowing. Shoots appear in a week, after a month they can be thinned out by transplanting some plants to another place. While seedlings are young, watering should be done 3-4 times a week. In the phase of active growth of calendula can be fertilized with nitrogen fertilizer, but you should not get too carried away with fertilizer application.
If you need an early flowering calendula, the cultivation is best done using the seedling method at home. Sowing seeds at home is made in wooden boxes or a plastic container. For planting suitable universal soil, bought in the store for gardeners. After embedding the seeds in the grooves to a depth of 2 cm, crops should be kept under the film in a room with a temperature of 14-15 ° C. The first shoots will appear in 6 days.
In open ground, seedlings are transplanted when 5-6 full-fledged leaves form on it. Before this, the plants should be hardened during the week. When planting in the ground between them observe the interval of 15-20 cm. To get the seedlings from the container should be carefully, trying not to damage the delicate roots. You can use for these purposes the usual tablespoon. After planting, seedlings are immediately watered.
Note! Some summer residents planted calendula in the garden between vegetables, so that its aroma, saturated with essential oils, scares off harmful insects.
How to grow calendula? Agrotechnology culture is very simple. Calendula does not require any special conditions for planting and care in the open field. Moisture is needed for active growth only at the very beginning. In the future, watering is carried out in a period of drought. In the absence of rain, calendula is watered 2 times a week, immediately after irrigation is loosening and weeding. The plant usually lacks those fertilizers that are laid before planting, so fertilizing is optional. In order to prolong the flowering of ornamental varieties, once every 2 weeks you can apply complex fertilizer for flowering plants when watering.
Important! When buds appear, it is recommended to treat the bushes on the sheet with a solution of boric acid. This measure will help to obtain a lush and prolonged flowering.
The calendula planted on the site is further propagated by self-sowing. Summer resident can only thin out the flower bed and occasionally care for the plant. To give the bush splendor the main stem of the plant is recommended to pinch. To extend flowering, you need to timely tear off the faded head. Leave them only if you plan to collect seeds.
Why does not calendula bloom? This situation is hard to imagine. The plant may not give buds only at too young or very unfavorable conditions for growth (with a lack of light, food and moisture). Diseases very rarely affect Calendula. They arise, as a rule, during wet cool weather, since such conditions favor the reproduction of mushroom spores. If dark spots or rotted spots appear on the leaves, they should be removed. After that, spray the plants with fungicides or copper sulfate solution.
Note! To please yourself with the bright flowering of marigolds can those who have no problem. In the city, calendula can be planted on a balcony with a southern or eastern arrangement in wooden boxes. For planting in such conditions will suit any stunted varieties. Calendula terry in combination with pansies, ampelous petunia, decorative herbs looks wonderful.
When to collect seeds
Calendula seeds can be harvested in late August or early September. By this time, the petals on the inflorescences fall off, leaving only dried seeds in the center of the head, which are easily separated. The collected seeds are dried in a warm ventilated area and put in a paper bag until the arrival of spring. As a rule, only one bush is enough to collect them. The collected material is more than enough for planting on the entire plot.
Tip! So that the seeds do not fall to the ground from the wind, experienced growers recommend tying the heads in advance with a piece of gauze. Later they are cut with scissors and poured seeds on a sheet of paper. Сбор семян следует производить только в сухую солнечную погоду, иначе они могут легко загнить. При хранении пакетик с семенным материалом следует периодически встряхивать. Не нужно забывать о нанесении маркировки, в которой будет указано название сорта и дата сбора семян.
In China, calendula symbolizes longevity, in India it is revered as a sacred plant. This flower deserves respect and love, bringing people benefit and beauty. Given its simplicity, you can safely plant in any garden. Calendula does not disappoint florist!
Calendula (Latin Calendula) is an annual plant from the Asteraceae family. The stem is straight, hard, light green. Its height can reach 60–70 centimeters. The whole stem is covered with a special gun, by touching it, you can feel a specific spicy smell.
The leaves are oblong or lanceolate, located on the stem in a spiral. Lower leaflets petiolate. Flowers - baskets of yellow, orange or red-orange color.
The fruit is a seed of a boat-shaped or ring-shaped form, beige or light brown.
Flowering period lasts from mid-June to mid-September..
Seeds are harvested in August, dried in the shade in the open air. Store seeds should be in fabric bags or paper unwaxed bags, cardboard boxes, which have holes for air circulation. With all the rules of storage, the seeds remain viable for 5-6 years.
Planting and care
Marigold refers to those residents of the flower garden and garden who do not require special growing conditions and undemanding care.
Grow this unassuming plant for decorative and medicinal purposesand sometimes it can also be found in the wild as weed.
Calendula does not need fertile soils - it feels great in dry and medium-fertile places.
As a medicinal raw material
Calendula officinalis seeds sown in early spring or late autumn. The soil should be well cultivated from weeds, plowed or dug. Sown directly into open ground, while respecting the distance between the rows of 60 centimeters. Per hectare of land the rate of seeds is 13-15 kilograms.
Leaving with such a sowing scheme consists in loosening the soil between the rows, as well as a single treatment of crops from weeds.
Calendula flower baskets are harvested as a medicinal raw material during their full development. If the raw materials require only marginal reed flowers, they are separated from the basket, that is, pulled out. Dried flowers loose loose layer in the shade.
For decorative purposes
Currently, there are several dozen varieties of this plant. To purely decorative include stunted specieswhich are used in rabatka and borders, planted in hanging pots. High species serve as a backdrop for low-growing flowers, enlivening evergreen shrubs.
Calendula looks beautiful and unusual in mixed plantings with colors of blue and burgundy shades.
If you decide to use calendula as a decorative decoration of your garden, flower bed or flower bed, then Here are two ways to grow this flower:
- sowing seeds for seedlings followed by planting in open ground,
- sowing seeds immediately in open ground.
The first method requires some effort, but is effective when growing ornamental undersized varieties, more capricious for planting and care. Plants in this case will provide uniform and amicable flowering, which will come in early June.
It should be noted that calendula loves sunny, lighted places. It grows well in partial shade, but in strongly shaded places the stems are drawn out, the leaves are rarely located on the shoots, the flowering is not abundant, and the flower baskets themselves are dull and small.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
- For seedlings, seeds are sown in special wooden or plastic containers at the end of March or in early April. In the southern areas it is recommended to plant on seedlings in late February.
- The soil under the seedlings should be loose, fertile. The composition of such an earthy mixture includes peat (60%), humus (30%), sand (10%). Sometimes a small amount of lime is added to such mixtures. You can use a special soil for seedlings, which offer specialized shops.
- The distance between the seeds should be 2-3 centimeters. Close up the seeds to a depth of 1-1.5 cm
- After watering, the containers with planted seeds are tightened with a special transparent film or covered with glass. The room temperature is maintained at 18–20 ºC.
- After 6-7 days sprouts appear, and then the glass or film should be removed. The temperature gradually needs to be reduced to 15 ºC - so the seedlings grow better.
- Watering and fertilizing with an aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers, as needed. We should not forget that an excess of fertilizers will lead to the formation of abundant greenery and weak flowering.
- A fifth real leaf appeared on the shoot, which means that the plant is ready for picking, after which it is planted in a separate container or in a common container, but already at a distance of 6–7 centimeters from another sprout. Calendula picking is an optional condition, but it provides plant resistance to adverse conditions, forms a strong root system.
- Marigolds are planted in the open ground in mid-May, when the threat of frost has passed.
- 5–6 days before planting, the seedlings are hardened to ventilate the room, ensuring a decrease in temperature.
- Seedlings are planted at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other.
- The soil on which the calendula seedlings are planned to be planted should be fertilized in the fall: apply standard fertilizer fertilizer: 3 kilograms of manure or 100 grams of ash per 1 square meter.
Sowing seeds in open ground
In open ground, seeds are sown both in autumn and spring.
Autumn sowing will provide early germination of seeds and, as a result, flowering in late May - early June. Seed marigold is resistant to frost, spit already at a soil temperature of 4 ºC. Sowing, carried out in the spring, guarantees friendly shoots.
Seeds are planted in grooves with a depth of 2 centimeters. The distance from one groove to the other should be at least 30–35 centimeters: calendula shoots branch out, grow, and if the plant has no place to grow, it does not bloom, develops inharmoniously. The calendula starts blooming in about 4–6 weeks after the first shoots appear.
It is important to know: marigold blooms are prolonged if you remove baskets in time, the reed flowers of which bloomed not horizontally, as in the first days, but horizontally. This will force the plant to form new buds, and flowering will last until September. Otherwise, it will end by the beginning of July.
Water the plant should be moderate, if necessary. Excessive watering can cause powdery mildew disease.
Threaded overgrown plants - this way you can avoid the appearance of some diseases of calendula.
Prevention of diseases and pests
Calendula is one of the most disease resistant flowers, but it is also affected by powdery mildew. If white leaves appear on the leaves, treat the plant with fungicides. It is necessary to process the flowers in the case of signs of black spot: brown or black spots. Sick plants are best removed from the flowerbed to prevent the spread of the disease.
Experienced growers are advised to plant calendula among garden crops - it frightens off spider mites and other pests of the garden. But the only insect that is not afraid of calendula - aphid. Treat plants with insecticides.
Calendula officinalis (or marigold) is common and is cultivated throughout the temperate climate zone. It is light-requiring, cold-resistant and unpretentious to the conditions. The plant is annual, upright, in different varieties the height ranges from 20 to 70 cm. Medicinal raw materials are inflorescences - baskets. They are yellow or orange. Along with the usual form of flowers there is a calendula terry. Flowering plant from June to autumn frosts. The fruits ripen in late summer - early autumn. Propagated only by seeds.
The timing of planting calendula seeds
Calendula can be grown from seed by sowing in open ground or on seedlings. In the second case, it will bloom earlier. Seeds of marigolds in open ground sown in two terms: in the spring, when the soil thaws and dries, and in the fall, before the start of steady frosts.
Under the conditions of the middle lane, the second and third decades of April are the best periods for spring planting. The soil is considered finished if an abandoned lump of earth crumbles.
Calendula autumn planting in the ground is done when night frosts become regular, the soil has not frozen yet, but no warm days are expected.
If you sow a calendula before the onset of cold weather, the seeds will have time to slip and then the seedlings will freeze. In order not to be mistaken in terms, it is possible to sow in prepared grooves after the upper layer freezes, falling asleep with earth, which was prepared in advance and kept in a warm place.
Terms of planting marigold for cultivation in the open field may vary in different regions. An inexperienced gardener can clarify them with neighbors in the dacha.
Seedlings are planted on seedlings from late February to early April. After planting, the tanks are watered with separated water and covered so that the earth does not dry out. Several times a day, shelter is removed to air. After the emergence of shoots shelter removed. Seedlings need bright lighting and moderate watering. A few days before planting in the open ground, seedlings begin to harden - they take it out at a temperature of 12-16 degrees. Despite the fact that the plant is cold-resistant, hardened seedlings will start growing faster and will hurt less after transplanting.
Rules for planting calendula in the ground
If an inexperienced summer resident has questions - how to plant calendula seeds in open ground - then these rules are no different from planting other cold-resistant annuals - asters, marigolds, cornflowers, sweet peas. For registration of beds with annuals can be sown at the same time.
For better flowering marigold should be given the most lighted places.
Before planting calendula soil is desirable to fertilize. In the fall in the ground make per square meter:
- 3-4 kg of compost,
- a tablespoon of phosphate and potash fertilizers,
- coarse sand for heavy clay soils.
Potash fertilizers can be replaced by ash.
Sow the seeds in the grooves for clearance rabatok and point for beds. In rabatka, the distance between the seeds should be 8-10 cm, for single plantings in flowerbeds, one plant requires an area of 20-30 cm2. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2-3 cm. From a greater depth, seeds will be harder to germinate. Spring planting is watered with warm water, the seeds are left in the fall in the dry ground. The first sprouts appear in 5-7 days, and after a month the shoots can be thinned if necessary. The pulled seedlings are transplanted to a new place. Calendula easily tolerates transplanting even during flowering.
In any photo with marigold flowers, you can see that healthy plants grow freely, without any concentration, each is illuminated by sunlight. Also need time to weed out the weeds.
Thickened planting, over-feeding and perennial cultivation in one place increase the risk of developing blackleg, spotting and powdery mildew.
Since the plant is unpretentious, after planting calendula care in the open field is only in periodic irrigation, weeding and dressing. If fertilizers have been applied to the soil in advance, it is necessary to feed with care, not exceeding the amount. At the beginning of the season you can fertilize marigolds with nitrogen to build up green mass. It is applied as a liquid urea solution for spraying or watered at the root. You can use diluted 1 to 10 solution of mullein, bird droppings or nettle infusion.
At the beginning of flowering plants can be sprayed with complex fertilizer containing boron. This trace element contributes to a longer and lush flowering.
Collection of medicinal raw materials and seeds
Marigold will bloom longer, if you quickly remove fading buds. But, if the calendula is planted as a medicinal plant, then it is necessary to pick off the flowers in the phase of full disclosure of the flower. Better to do it in dry weather.
Calendula seeds ripen at the end of summer. They are large, gray-brown, resemble the letter "C" in appearance. Flower stalks with seeds are cut off and laid out to dry in a dark place with good ventilation. After drying, they are scored and kept in a paper or paper bag in a dry place.
What are the benefits of calendula in the garden
The whole plant produces volatile production, which, if not destroy the pest, then scare him. So, planting marigolds can clear the strawberry beds from nematodes. Another marigold in the garden helps from such pests as:
- asparagus rattle fly,
- hawk moth caterpillars.
The green mass of the plant can be plowed into the soil, using it as a siderat. This operation heals the earth from phytophthora of solanaceous and nematodes. When growing marigold from seed for soil fertilization, the best planting dates will be early spring and August.
In the spring, calendula is sown on green mass before winter plantings of garlic, onions, carrots, and at the end of summer - to prepare the soil for the next season.
When you follow these simple recommendations bright bright calendula flowers will delight you all summer and, of course, will bring many benefits.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing seeds in the ground
- 3.2. Sowing on seedlings
- 3.3. Seedling care
- 4. Landing
- 4.1. When to plant
- 4.2. How to plant
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to grow
- 5.2. Breeding
- 5.3. Pests and diseases
- 6. Calendula after flowering
- 6.1. How and when to collect seeds
- 6.2. Wintering
- 7. Types and varieties
- 8. Properties
- 8.1. Beneficial features
- 8.2. Contraindications
Calendula flowers - description
The calendula flower is a herbaceous plant, pubescent with a glandular fluff, with orange or yellow flowers, which are many-flowered apical baskets consisting of external pistillate fetuses, false-tongued flowers and internal tubular, infertile flowers, sometimes of a darker color. Calendula leaves are simple, alternate, oval, lanceolate or elongated. Curved, sometimes ring-shaped seeds - calendula fruit - are located in 2-3 rows. Calendula flowers from June to November, fruits abundantly, the seeds remain viable for up to 5 years. In decorative floriculture calendula from the XVI century.
Sowing calendula seeds in open ground.
The easiest way to sow seeds in open ground in April or before the winter in October. In the spring, the time to sow comes when the earth warms up sufficiently and dries out after the snow melts: firmly squeeze a handful of garden soil in your hands and then throw this lump on the ground from about a meter height, and if it disintegrates easily, then it is time to sow Calendula. Before planting, the soil at the site for a couple of weeks is dug up with humus at the rate of 3-4 kg per m², adding 20 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride to the same area unit, as well as 30 g of urea. It is better, of course, to dig up a plot with humus, phosphate and potassium supplements since the fall, so that in the spring, before sowing, it was only necessary to add nitrogen fertilizers. Calendula seeds are sown in the ground to a depth of 1-2 cm with an interval of 25-30 cm from each other, and the distance between the rows is about 60-70 cm, if you grow a calendula because of its decorative qualities, but if you need a calendula medicine, the spacing between rows can be less - 30-40 cm. In this case, the distance between the seeds in the row can be reduced to 7-10 cm. 2-3 weeks after the sprout appears (and the seeds, when properly planted, begin to germinate in a week) they are thinned out in such a way that the seedlings . Ervaly 25-35 cm «Extra» seedlings can then be planted in another place - Calendula is well tolerated transplant. Calendula blooms in about 10 weeks after sowing seeds in open ground.
Sowing marigold on seedlings.
In order to calendula bloom early, it is grown seedling method. Low-growing varieties of calendula is also better to grow seedlings. At the end of March or beginning of April, seeds for seedlings are sown in a common container or in personalized cups with floral soil to a small depth - no more than 2 cm; containers with crops are covered with a film and kept in a bright place, protected from the sun, at a temperature of 18-20 ºC .
Care of seedlings calendula.
When shoots appear (this usually happens after 6-8 days), the film is removed and the temperature is lowered to 14-15 ºC. Calendula flower care at this stage consists in watering the soil and feeding the seedlings with a weak solution of complex mineral fertilizer once a decade or two weeks. At the developmental stage of the seedlings of two true leaves, the seedlings swoop for a distance of 5 cm between the specimens or seated them in individual cups.
When to put a calendula in the ground.
When the seedlings develop 5-6 true leaves, the calendula flower is planted in open ground - usually in the middle of May. However, despite the fact that the calendula plant is cold-resistant and calmly withstands the night spring frosts, it is still necessary to carry out hardening procedures with seedlings before planting. To do this, boxes or cups for a week every day, carry out briefly on the balcony or covered terrace.
The area for calendula should be sunny, and the soil - well drained, moist and nutritious. Опытные садоводы высаживают календулу между грядками других садовых и овощных культур, что позволяет защитить их от вредоносной жизнедеятельности клещей, бабочек и их личинок.However, calendula roots secrete substances into the soil that can slow down the development of planted with a number of radishes or basil. Consider this when choosing a site.
How to plant a calendula.
Calendula is planted in the ground according to the same pattern as sowing: the distance between the specimens in a row is kept between 25-30 cm for ornamental species and 7-10 for medicinal, and the spacing for decorative forms is left from 60 to 70 cm wide, and for medicinal - 30-40 cm. Flowering of calendula begins in 40-50 days from the moment of sowing of seeds for seedlings.
Calendula breeds well and self-sowing.
How to grow a calendula.
Growing and caring for calendula does not require any special conditions or great effort. Everything is as usual: watering in dry weather, loosening the soil, weeding the site and monthly feeding with complex mineral fertilizer. However, the cultivation of calendula has one subtlety: if you want your calendula to bloom long and abundantly, immediately after the reed flowers of the baskets take the horizontal position, cut off all the open flowers. This measure contributes to the formation of such a number of buds that lush flowering will last until late autumn. However, it is necessary to collect fully opened inflorescences-baskets constantly. If you do not, the flowering of calendula will last only until the end of July.
Pests and marigold diseases.
Sometimes calendula affects fungal infections black spot or powdery mildew. Black or brown spots appear on calendula leaves from black spot. Mealy dew forms a whitish bloom on the ground part of the plant, which eventually turns brown, causing the calendula to lose its decorative effect, and the affected areas stop developing and turn black. Even a minor defeat of this disease leads to a noticeable decrease in the cold resistance of calendula. If immediate and radical measures are needed, treat calendula from spotting or dew with fungicides, for example, Skor, Topaz, Fundazol or Topsin. But it is better not to be lazy and thin out Calendula in a preventive manner in case of a heavy planting density, weed the site in a timely manner, monitor the amount of fertilizers applied to the soil, especially nitrogen, to avoid oversaturation of the soil, thoroughly clean the area from plant residues in the fall, and dig deep for the winter soil, observe crop rotation and, of course, immediately remove diseased plants from the site.
Of pests, calendula can only suffer from aphids - it repels other insects. As for aphids, one gets the impression that calendula takes a blow upon itself, collecting aphids from the whole garden on its site. You can fight with aphids on calendula by processing Fufanon or Karbofos, as well as by Akarin, Aktellik, Biotlin or Antitlin.
As you can see, planting and caring for calendula in the open field is simple.
How and when to collect calendula seeds.
It is necessary to collect calendula seeds during their almost full maturity. In order not to be late, a gauze pouch is put on the withering inflorescence, in which the ripe seeds will fall. The problem is that calendula seeds do not ripen, which is why it is important not to miss the moment of their ripening. Otherwise, you face a plentiful self-seeding.
Field Calendula (Calendula arvensis)
- less popular type than marigolds, up to 30 cm high, with reed flowers of a modest ocher-yellow color. Under natural conditions, it grows in wastelands and abandoned areas in southern Europe. The rules for growing field marigold are the same as for calendula medicinal,
Calendula officinalis (Calendula officinalis),
or marigold, or pharmacy calendula, or pharmaceutical marigolds, or balaban or crocus full, or zharin - herbaceous annual plant from 20 to 75 cm high with thick, light green ribbed shoots covered with sticky glandular pubescence. The leaves of this species are simple, oval or elongated, also covered with stiff sparse hairs. The inflorescences-baskets with a peculiarly invigorating scent consist of orange-or-yellow reed flowers that are shiny on top and frosted on the underside, and small yellow, dark brown or orange tubular flowers. This type of flowers with proper care from June to November, abundantly fruiting. Selection works with calendula medicinal are conducted in two directions: medical and decorative. In America and Europe, breeders develop and improve the decorative qualities of calendula. For example, the group of varieties Pisific Beauty represents calendula forms for cutting with a stem height up to 70 cm and baskets with a diameter up to 9 cm, and the Patio group, on the contrary, is composed of varieties of compact sizes only up to 30 cm high. The Kabluna group includes anemone-shaped varieties - with heavily overgrown tubular flowers. The best varieties of decorative marigold:
- – Sonnenstein - compact bush with a height of 40-50 cm with strong ribbed shoots of light green color, large light green oblong leaves and semi-double bright yellow baskets up to 7.5 cm in diameter with reed flowers twisted down,
- – Yuvel - a spherical shrub of the same height with light green shoots that have the form of an irregular pentagon in cross section, wide, large, oblong light green leaves and terry or semi-double inflorescences 5-8 cm in diameter with flat salmon-orange reed flowers and yellow tubular,
- – Radio - Bush 35-45 cm tall with strong ribbed shoots, oblong large light green leaves in relief veins and hemispherical terry and semi-double inflorescences 6-7 cm in diameter. Reed flowers of bright orange color, half folded into a tube, at the base acquire a yellow-orange tint in tone with tubular flowers,
- – Sensation - the height of the bush is about 45 cm, the leaves are dark green, baskets are double and semi-double 7-8 cm in diameter with large, shiny, tiled-shaped reed flowers of bright orange color and yellow tubular,
- – Majershirtsuk - bush up to 45 cm in height with large, elongated leaves, extended in the upper part, of bright green color, double and semi-double baskets 6–8 cm in diameter with slightly concave oval bright orange reed flowers and light brown tubular.
In addition to the described varieties, Orange Koenig, Gold Koenig, Gold Kugel, Canarienfogel, Kabloona Gold, Calypso, Golden Emperor and others are also interesting.
Improved medicinal qualities of calendula are represented by varieties of domestic selection Ryzhik, Kalta, Sakharov orange and others.
Useful properties of calendula.
As a medicinal plant, calendula is grown on an industrial scale. For the manufacture of medicines, calendula inflorescences that have just been blossomed are harvested in which there are many carotenoids (carotene, flavochrome, flavoxanthin, rubiksantin, lycoline, cygroxanthin), as well as saponin, paraffin hydrocarbons, mucus, gums, phytoncides, bitters, proteins, flavone, bitters, flavins, flavon, hydrocarbons of the paraffin series, mucus, gums, phytoncides, bitters, proteins, flavone, bitters, flavins, flavon, hydrocarbons of the paraffin series, mucus, gums, phytoncides, bitters, proteins, flavone, phytoncids, bitters, proteins, flavon, hydrocarbons of the paraffin series, mucus, gums, phytoncides, bitters, proteins, flavone, bitters, phytoxins, bitters, phytoxins, bitters, proteins. , malic, salicylic, pentadecyl and ascorbic acid and essential oil. Calendula flowers are used as a wound healing, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal and antispasmodic. Apply Calendula in the treatment of the nervous system and diseases of internal organs, as a sedative, diaphoretic, expectorant, painkiller and fortifying agent. Preparations of calendula help to relax the smooth muscle structures of the stomach, liver and intestines, which enhances bile formation, bile secretion and secretory activity of the stomach. Calendula acts on streptococcus and staphylococcus as a strong antibiotic, but without such destructive consequences for the human body and without side effects. For some skin diseases (psoriasis, allergic dermatoses, vitiligo), calendula preparations are taken orally and externally. An aqueous solution of calendula tincture provides effective assistance in the treatment of stomatitis, tonsillitis, tonsillitis, reduces gingival bleeding. Calendula ointment treats burns, cuts, skin cracks, bruises and eczema. Calendula oil is effective for varicose veins, bedsores, dry eczema, it is also recommended to take orally for gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, liver disease, colitis, enterocolitis. It removes the drug manifestations of nervousness with neurasthenia and menopausal disorders.
Calendula is also good as a cosmetic: washing the head with an extract of calendula in combination with chamomile and hop cones in equal parts improves the appearance and condition of the hair and scalp.
Calendula - contraindications.
You can not use drugs from calendula during pregnancy, low blood pressure and heart failure, as well as individuals with individual intolerance to the product. However, even if you do not belong to the risk group, before you start taking the drug from the calendula, it will be reasonable to consult a doctor.
Medicinal use of calendula
Since ancient times known healing properties of this unpretentious plantwhich was used for dizziness, fever, they successfully treated some eye diseases.
Modern clinical studies have also confirmed the effectiveness of the use of marigolds in the treatment of purulent and inflammatory processes: extracts of this flower are part of tinctures and ointments from boils, carbuncles, used as an anti-inflammatory and disinfectant for non-healing wounds and ulcers, inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.
The effect of marigold is due antibacterial properties. Some scientists attribute to them the quality of antibiotics in their effects on staphylococci and streptococci.
Calendula is used in cosmetology to improve the structure of hair, in the treatment of dandruff.
Decorate your garden and garden with this wonderful flower, and all your efforts will be fully rewarded!
Inflorescences in various varieties are:
In single baskets 4–6 mm in diameter, marginal reed flowers are lemon yellow, golden orange, orange-reddish. Central - tubular, the same color or darker. Dried fruit seeds have sickle or hook shape.
Medicinal properties of calendula flowers give:
- mucous and tanning substances
Aroma - specific, unobtrusive, due to the presence of essential oil.
Calendula is grown as a medicinal and ornamental plant, cut for bouquets.
In recent decades, many new varieties have been created: yields for medical use, large-flowered ones for flower beds. Less commonly, floriculture and phytotherapy use another kind of Calendula - K. field (Calendula arvensis).
The natural look gave rise to forms with simple and double baskets with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The inflorescences can be varied in shape: anemic, gerberate, chrysanthemum, and tiled. Low-growing, medium-tall and tall varieties, varieties in the traditional yellow-orange range, as well as with pale pink, almost crimson and cream flowers.
Calendula with double flowers:
- "Favorite". Inflorescences are pale yellow with golden stripes.
- "Orange King". Dark orange baskets.
- "Golden Balls". Golden yellow inflorescences.
- "Radio". Baskets are dark orange.
- "Meteor". Inflorescences are bright orange.
Shrubs of all considered varieties grow to a height of not more than 60 cm
- Low-growing calendula can be grown in open ground, in containers, in balcony boxes. These are compact plants with a height from 15 to 30 cm with a strongly branching stem, mainly terry baskets of yellow, golden-orange, cream or apricot color. The diameter of the inflorescences of Calypso calendula reaches 10 cm. The Mandarin Hybrid blooms early.
- Sredneroslye varieties in height from 30 to 50 cm: "Lemon Queen", "Sensation", "Orange King", "Radio".
- The length of the stem of tall calendula is 50–85 cm. They are suitable for cutting, garden decoration, flower beds. In this group of varieties with terry baskets: "The Sun of Egypt", "Pink Surprise", "Golden Prince", "Erikot Twist", "Citron".
Calendula: the basics of growing
Varieties, cultivation options, terms of sowing or planting of seedlings are chosen depending on the available conditions and possibilities. It is possible to grow up decorative grades of "marigold" in a garden, on beds, in balcony boxes. Flowers for therapeutic use are planted on the lawn, in the garden after harvesting early vegetables and as a compaction culture.
Calendula is light-requiring, frost-resistant, responsive to watering and feeding. In spring and autumn it can withstand short-term frosts down to –5 ° С.
Inflorescences-baskets of marigolds in the shadow become smaller, lose their characteristic color. The stem is pulled out and lies down, the leaves “take away” the nutrients from the flowers, they become brittle. Full coverage is most needed varieties with double and simple buds.
Planting in open ground
The plant does not impose special requirements for soil conditions. However, varietal quality is fully manifested only on nutrient soils. The presence of a sunny place, fertile, well-moistened substrates are conditions for the successful cultivation of terry forms, tall cut calendula varieties. When planting in the shade inflorescences become smaller, the stem is pulled out. Areas with loamy, well-drained soil are best suited.
Choosing planting material: seeds or seedlings?
Growing marigold facilitates self-seeding. Due to the high germination rate, which persists for 3 years, without much effort, you can get a large amount of planting material. For the same reason, at least two thinning is required.
The choice of the method of cultivation depends on the specific climatic and weather conditions of the region, as well as on the plans of the gardener or summer resident on the use of calendula. The earliest flowering provides seed sowing in boxes of soil from late January and all of February. In this case, seedlings in the premises require additional lighting.
For planting in pots and flower boxes, ordinary garden soil with the addition of sand and peat is used. The permeability of the substrate is very important, so there must be a hole for draining excess water into the pan. To prevent this hole from becoming clogged with soil, drainage is placed at the bottom of the tank (expanded clay, shards from ceramic dishes).
How and when to plant?
The seedling method involves sowing seeds at the end of March in boxes or pots on the windowsill. Then it will be possible at the beginning of summer to enjoy the bright baskets of calendula.
- The seeds of the "marigold" are quite large, they are laid out one by one in the grooves with a depth of 1.5 to 3 cm.
- Within 1-2 weeks shoots appear.
- In 4–6 weeks, the seedlings grow, which is ready to be planted in open ground.
Seedlings of tall "marigolds" transplanted from boxes into the open ground in May. Calendula can be sown directly in the soil and in a heated greenhouse. Germination occurs at a temperature of about 15 ° C.
"Marigolds" can be sown in the open ground and in the fall, then the plants will bloom early, be strong and more healthy. It is also possible to plant in the spring from April to June. With the onset of warm days and warming up of the earth a lot of green shoots appear. Flowering begins in 8-11 weeks.
How to sow Calendula:
- Dig up the soil in the fall.
- Bring in ½ a bucket of humus, 20-30 g of double superphosphate and potassium chloride per 1 square. m square (you can replace two mineral fertilizers with one prepared nutrient complex).
- In the spring or summer just before sowing, they loosen the soil, add 20–30 g of ammonium nitrate or urea per 1 square meter.
- They are sown in rows in furrows up to 4 cm deep, well watered, slightly compacted soil.
- After 2-3 weeks, thin the seedlings, leaving between them a distance of 15 to 25 cm.
- During the last thinning, the most developed plant is left in one nest, and its top is pinched for better tillering.
In Europe, marigold calendula is grown mainly in seedlings. The seedless method is used to obtain medicinal raw materials - flower baskets. Such a method of cultivation is also possible: sowing of seeds of cut varieties in July, then new inflorescences bloom up to frost.
After the emergence of seedlings watered, loosened the soil and weed weed.
Modern varietal marigolds did not inherit from the natural species the ability to withstand short-term drought without problems.
On ordinary summer days, water is watered every other day or twice a week, on dry days - daily. In rainy weather irrigate the plants.
Fertilizer and dressing
Carry out feeding every two weeks. It is recommended not to “overdo it” with nitrogen fertilizers, as they primarily affect the growth of vegetative organs. Use a diluted extract of mullein or bird droppings within a week after transplanting.
When growing marigold in boxes on the balcony, watering is carried out more often, not allowing the substrate to dry out. Feed solution of complex fertilizer.
Collecting and storing seeds
Fully ripened fruits are gray-brown in color and easily fall into pieces. Собирают семена календулы с июля по сентябрь, упаковывают в бумажные мешочки и складывают в картонные коробки или деревянные ящички. Всхожесть семян сохраняется от 3 до 5 лет.
Распространение «ноготков» в природе происходит только с помощью семян. Такой же способ размножения используется и в цветоводстве. Срезанные побеги не укореняются, а листья быстро теряют тургор. For this reason, vegetative reproduction does not apply.
Such a herbaceous plant has a pubescence, which is a glandular down. Flowers can be yellow or orange. They are multi-flowered apical baskets, which include infertile tubular internal flowers (often have a darker color) and external pistillate fruitful false-tongued flowers. Simple alternate oval leaf plates can be elongated or lanceolate. Fruits are seeds, which can be curved or ring-shaped, and they are placed in 2 or 3 rows. Flowering begins in June, and ends in November. There are a lot of seeds, while they remain viable for 5 years. Cultivated marigolds as decorative flowers from the 16th century.
Sowing in open ground
If you want to spend less effort, then you should make the sowing of seeds in open soil in April or in October. In the spring, you should begin to sow after the soil after a massive melting of snow cover dries out and warms up. To test the readiness of the soil for planting this plant, you need to pick up a handful of soil in the garden and squeeze it in a fist, and then it must be thrown from a hundred centimeter height. If the soil is ready for sowing, the lump will have to crumble completely. The soil must be prepared for sowing. So, approximately half a month before the planned sowing date, it will need to be tipped, while adding fertilizer. So, for 1 square meter you should take 20 grams of potassium chloride and superphosphate, from 3 to 4 kilograms of humus and 30 grams of urea. However, experienced gardeners recommend doing this procedure in the autumn, only with nitrogen-containing fertilizer will need to be applied to the soil in the spring months. Build the seeds in the soil should be 10-20 mm. In this case, the distance between bushes should be from 25 to 30 centimeters, the distance between rows should be from 0.6 to 0.7 m. If such plants are grown as a medicinal raw material, then the distance between bushes is made from 7 to 10 centimeters, and the row spacing must be from 0.3 to 0.4 meters. If done correctly, the first seedlings will appear within 7 days. After 15–20 days after the appearance of the first shoots, the plant will need to be thinned out, while at the same time the distance between seedlings should be at least 25–35 centimeters. Those seedlings that are not necessary to discard the extra, and transplant. The fact is that calendula tolerates transplants very well. Flowering will begin approximately 2.5 months after sowing.
Sowing on seedlings
The seedling method of growing marigolds helps to bring the moment of flowering. It is also recommended to grow by seedlings and varieties that are stunted. Seeding should be done in the last days of March or the first - in April. You can sow them both in individual cups and in a container, and you should use flower soil mixture. Seed should be deepened only a couple of centimeters. Crops should be covered with a film and placed in a well-lit, warm (from 18 to 20 degrees) place, protected from direct sunlight.
How to care for seedlings
After the seedlings appear (usually this happens after 6–8 days), the shelter should be removed and the containers should be moved to a place with a lower temperature (from 14 to 15 degrees). Such plants require timely watering and feeding once a fortnight or a decade, using a weak solution of complex mineral fertilizer. When the marigolds appear in a pair of true leaves, they will need to be seated in individual containers or in a larger container, while maintaining a distance of 5 cm between the plants.
What time to land
After the plants appear 5 or 6 leaves, they should be transplanted into open soil. As a rule, this time falls on the second half of May. But it should be remembered that before planting the seedlings will need to be tempered, and this despite the fact that these flowers are quite winter-resistant and tolerate spring frosts at night well. To harden the seedlings, you need to carry them for seven days every day for a not very long time on a covered terrace or balcony.
For the landing, it is necessary to choose an illuminated area, while the ground should be moist, well drained and rich in nutrients. Gardeners with experience try to plant such flowers in between rows of other garden and vegetable crops, which is the prevention of some harmful insects (ticks, butterflies with their larvae). In this case, plant such a plant next to basil or radish can not, because otherwise they will grow very slowly.
How to land
To plant seedlings in open soil should be using the same pattern as when sowing such a flower in the garden. So, between bushes you need to keep a distance of 25 to 30 centimeters, and between rows you need to leave a distance of 0.6 to 0.7 m. For plants grown to create medicinal raw materials, you will need a distance of 7-10 centimeters, while the spacing must be from 0.3 to 0.4 meters. Flowering plants begin, after 40 to 50 days from the date of sowing.
This plant can multiply independently by self-sowing.
Garden care for calendula
Caring for nails is very simple. So, they need to be watered only during a long drought, you still have to loosen the surface of the plot and remove weeds from it. Also, calendula requires fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers once a month. But when growing such a flower, it should be remembered that after the position of the opened inflorescences becomes horizontal, all those flowers that have already been revealed should be removed from the bush, this will allow the plant to blossom even longer and more magnificently. As a result, a lot of buds will appear, and calendula will bloom for a long time. But at the same time to tear off fully opened inflorescences should be regularly. In case you don’t do this, the plants will fade away in the last days of July.
Pests and diseases
It happens that these flowers are infected with powdery mildew or black spot. If specks of brown or black color appear on the leaf plates, this means that it is infected with black spot. In the event of powdery mildew infection on the shoots, leaf plates and flowers, a whitish bloom appears, which eventually turns brown, the infected parts stop growing and change their color to black. The infected plant becomes less frost resistant. It is possible to get rid of such diseases by treating infected bushes with fungicidal agents (Topaz, Topsin, Skor or Fundazol). Preventive measures:
- timely thinning landing,
- time to remove weeds,
- correctly feed the flowers, especially should pay attention to nitrogen-containing fertilizers,
- remove plant residues from the site,
- dig deep in the autumn,
- remember the rules of crop rotation,
- time to identify diseased bushes and remove them from the site.
Only aphids can live on this flower, and other pests bypass it. Such a plant has one peculiarity - it is able to attract all the aphids present in the garden plot, which greatly facilitates the fight against such a pest. To destroy it, you should use such means as: Karbafos, Fufanon, Aktellik, Antitlin, Akarin or Biotlin.
It should be remembered that the means prepared on the basis of marigolds are prohibited from using:
- people with low blood pressure (blood pressure),
- in heart failure,
- in the presence of individual intolerance of such a plant.
Be sure to consult your doctor before starting treatment with calendula.