Datur plant is a lush bush with semi-lumbering stalks that reaches a height of one and a half meters. She has large ovate leaves with pointed tips on long petioles and fascinating beauty of funnel-shaped flowers up to twenty centimeters long.
Flowers are both simple and terry, with a variety of colors: white, yellow, purple or purple and they are directed upwards, like candles. In the Ballerina variety, about fifty centimeters high, the flowers are terry, and the Ballerina purple varieties have a refined aroma. This datur blooms from June to mid-autumn.
Datura dope care in indoor conditions
In a tub culture, a white datur can grow for several years. However, she needs a spacious bright room and moving to the street in the summer. In summer, the datur needs a lot of air, so if you can’t move it to the garden, put it on at least a balcony.
However, do not forget to water it regularly and regularly - large datura leaves evaporate a lot of moisture. And in the summer, once every ten days, datur terry is fed with complex mineral fertilizer.
In the autumn, after flowering, the datur flower is placed in a bright room, but away from the radiators, and watered much less frequently. The plant for the winter period can lose some leaves.
And remember that the leaves, stalks and roots of the Datura, like most of the nightshade, have poisonous properties, so take some caution when working with it.
Datura seed growing at home
The seeds of the datura are large, bright yellow, with a thick rind. In February-March, they are sown in well-sifted neutral garden soil at a depth of half a centimeter.
Part of the seeds at the optimum germination temperature within twenty-four twenty-eight degrees above zero grow quickly, after ten days, and without any problems, but mostly the seeds of the datura are tight and can germinate up to a month, or even fifty days.
In general, the germination of Datura seeds is not bad - up to ninety-five percent. And in order to get more aligned shoots, soak the seeds before sowing in a solution of epin, zircon or some other stimulator of seed germination.
After germination, the temperature is reduced to eighteen twenty degrees above zero. Seedlings of the datura, unfortunately, are prone to black leg disease, therefore, as soon as the seedlings appear, they are watered with a solution of fundozol or another fungicide. Young plants provide maximum coverage so that they do not stretch out.
Datura ordinary (Datura Stramonium), in popular circulation is also called "blue datura", however, while from the other species it does not differ in bright blue color. Blue Datura is a large leaves and large white bells with only a slight blue at the base of the bell crown itself.
Datura indian (Datura Innoxia) - is a beautiful plant with gray-green leaves and white flowers, as well as fruits with prickles. Native American datura was used by Indians from Colombia and Mexico for the manufacture of hypnotic drugs. Rumor has it that this plant has also been used to make products that can cause visions and hallucinations.
Datura indian (Datura Metel) is a plant that grows in Asian countries, especially in its Southeast part. In India, this plant was raised and began to be revered as a special divine flower, it is called the “flower of Shiva”. This flower has a specific difference in the quality of purple-white coloring bell.
Selection Indian Datura
Since Datura has always been considered one of the garden plants, people often brought new varieties, one of which is the selection Indian datura (Datura metel ballerina), it is also called the “Indian ballerina”. Very often it is used as a houseplant. The plant itself has a height of about 35 cm, the flower itself is quite dense and has a diameter of about 10 cm. The flower color is white with delicate purple inserts and lines. It is also worth noting that this dope has not only flowering, but also the fruits, which, in turn, represent a box that is covered with thorns.
How dope spreads and spreads
Any species of this plant is successfully grown. using seeds. Seed ripening occurs closer to the beginning of September or the end of August. Most often, those seeds that appeared during the first flowering of the plant sprout. The fruit of the plant, which has the shape of a box, it is best to roll in a gauze or cloth bandage. This is necessary so that the seeds do not crumble as the fruit unfolds.
The collected seeds are usually stored at the beginning of spring, and only then begin to sow (the beginning of April or the end of February).
Seeds have a very long shelf life (up to 10 years), but should be tested before proceeding to sowing. For this you need only pour hot water over the seeds. Those seeds that have surfaced can be safely thrown away, and left on the bottom in warm water for the next two days. Some gardeners add special growth stimulants to hot water and place them in a sunny place. As a vessel, not a glass and a jar are often used, but a simple cellophane bag.
For further sowing, it is worth using the deepest boxes or pots, as datur has a very large root system.
At the bottom of the boxes or pots should be put peat layer. It is worth picking up a kidney as light and fertile as possible from a mixture of black soil and black sand. The top layer of earth should sift a little. Very often gardeners, to improve germination, use ready-made peat tablets.
After the boxes with the ground and peat are ready, the ground in them should be watered in order to moisten the future soil, and after moistening you can begin to place the seeds. Arrange the seeds should be at a depth of 1 cm. After sowing, the soil should be watered again and covered with a glass lid or just a sheet of glass. The desired temperature in such a “greenhouse” should be approximately + 19- + 21 degrees.
Seedlings of datura seeds are famous for very weak growth. The plant can sprout after 2 weeks, or it can linger for 3-4 weeks. It should be noted that during emergence of shoots it is desirable to put boxes with seedlings on window sills or another sunny place.
Diving should be practiced at a time when at least 2 or 3 leaves are growing. After that, the indoor plant should be placed in pots or flower tubs. Immerse in the kidney should be approximately to the cotyledons.
The plant in this period is in need of regular watering, but it is not necessary to bend the bar and over-fill the young shoots. If the plant is intended for further transplantation into the ground, then they should be hardened for a month. When outside, at night, the temperature will be about 10-12 degrees, the seedlings can already be put into the yard at night.
Daturu garden should be planted near the end of May. As a place it is worth picking up a sunny plot, but at the same time it is desirable that it be protected from drafts and strong wind.
It is worth noting that the distance from the datura to other plants in the garden should not be less than 1 meter.
How to care for dope
Yes, excellent growth and good flowering of any type of datura will have to follow a number of certain rules. Further, in more detail:
- Daturu good lighting is needed and loose soil is properly chosen. If the acidity of the soil is very high, then you can pour it with a solution of lime in water, with a concentration of 1 gram of dry lime per 1 liter of water.
- Watering should be made at least three times a week, and if the body is very hot and sunny, you should water the plant every day in the evening. Room datur, in winter, can be watered once a week, which will be enough.
- Another important condition for the plant is mineral enrichment and organic fertilizer, which should be done 1 time per week. It is worth knowing that in the winter time the datur is not fed.
- Flowering in winter appears exclusively on young shoots, and the old when it is cut and form a crown.
It is important to always remember that the datur, though a beautiful flower, is still not simply called dope. At sunset, the flowers unfold, and by the morning everywhere there will be a subtle scent of dope. It is not just that this flower was considered magical in shamans and sorcerers, because the plant contains a large number of alkaloids, which have a sleepy effect and can also cause hallucinations. Another fact of danger of this flower is that it is used in the field of pharmacology, so you should not get such flowers in small apartments or small private houses. Especially these flowers are undesirable to grow where small children live.
Summarizing the information is possible in three stages:
There are many different types of datur, the cultivation of which is not uncommon. Picking up exactly the plant that you really like, you can mark it in your garden or on the balcony of the apartment.
At the cottage you can safely do datura. Growing from seed at home does not take much time and effort. For successful cultivation, you only need to bring down deep boxes, adhere to certain rules when planting, and also water regularly and observe the temperature regime.
Leaving also does not take much time, because the most important thing is regular watering of the plant. This is especially true of very hot summer days when watering is 1 time per day. It is also better to pay attention to fertilizing the soil and cutting off old shoots (winter time).
The most important thing to know is that you should not grow a dope in a small apartment or in a small house. The flower has a soporific effect and can cause hallucinations. Children are especially sensitive to this plant.
Taking place under the datur, do not forget that it reaches a large size, which means that over time it will take a lot of territory. Looks great in single landings, but very effective and group. The luxurious white flowers-phonographs of the dope seem to brighten the space around them. Fade quickly, but on one bush - a huge number of flowers. Therefore, in general, flowering is long. And it will be even longer if you provide a datura with abundant watering, because the leaves are very large, which means that the area of evaporation of moisture is considerable.
Indian Datura (Datura metel). © Gwen Pini
Removal of wilted flowers will help to prolong the flowering period. With good care you can enjoy flowering dope until late autumn.
Datur grown and as a container culture, but the capacity for planting should be bulky. Container plants will require more frequent irrigation and higher air humidity.
Datura, or Datur with pink flowers. © Graziano Arnetoli Datura, or Datura with white flowers. © Kurt G Datura, or Datura with yellow flowers. © cosmusic
Growing seed datur
The soil for planting should be fertile, well-fertilized, drained. Datur is light-requiring, therefore solar open spaces, protected from the wind, are diverted to it. From time to time feed complex mineral fertilizers.
It is better to grow datur seedlings, then it will bloom earlier. Seeds in boxes are sown in February and March. The germination rate is low, so the first shoots appear about 10 days after sowing. The rest can germinate about a month. To speed up the process, seeds are soaked overnight in a growth stimulator, and then sown, sprinkled with a layer of soil 0.5 cm thick.
During the germination of the seeds of the dope, the soil should be wet, the temperature of the air - not less than 18-20 degrees. When several pairs of leaflets appear on the sprouts of a datura, they are planted in separate pots. The plant from the first weeks declares that with time it will reach a considerable size - it grows quickly and develops a powerful root system. Therefore, dive pots are not very small.
Datury seedlings are planted in the open soil in May, when the threat of frost has passed. The distance between the plants is not less than 1 m, because with time they will turn into spreading bushes.
Seeds usually ripen in 1.5-2 months after they are fastened. For seeds, it is better to take the fruits that were formed in the place of the first flowers, then germination will be better. And so that they do not fall to the ground, gauze bags are put on the seed pods. The plant gives self-seeding. Datura seeds remain viable for a very long time. Datur can be propagated by cuttings. They are easily rooted in water and soil.
Opened seed box dope. © jay
Grow datur and as a perennial culture. Then the bushes from the street are dug up and planted in a container, which is brought into the room.
Attention! The whole plant is poisonous, especially the seeds.
Growing datura at home
Usually, a datur is grown as an annual, but diligent growers easily adapt to these properties of the flower and breed a datur for more than one year, that is, a home datur. This plant will ask for a lot of space from you, the window sill is hardly suitable here, you need a real tub for the plant, not a standard flower pot. In short, look for a container of 10 liters and start growing homemade datura.
A place. Datura home loves the heat and the sun. However, she is not afraid of light penumbra. We are looking for a room in the house without drafts and blowing.
Temperature. In the summer season, the datur is enough +18 degrees, more - worse. In winter, the plant can be provided with + 7 + 16 degrees, as it turned out the home datura prefers cool, but warm cool, without drafts and winds.
Lighting. Light dope-grass needs a lot, very much. And the brighter the better, even direct sunlight is very useful for the plant. You can put the plant at the south window with a slight shading, as the penumbra is also suitable for dature.
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Priming. The soil of the plant loves fertile, which compensates for the datur of its luxurious flowering. The composition is as follows: turf / leaf / humus / peat / perlite or coarse sand, proportions 2/1/1/1/1 respectively. You can take the finished substrate for peat. Do not forget about the drainage and the container with holes.
Humidity. At home, the datur will thank you for regular spraying with soft water at room temperature, especially if the house is hot.
Fertilizer. Top-dressing of home datur is carried out in May-September season with the help of liquid mineral fertilizers for ornamental flowering plants. You can alternate mineral dressings with organic. Datura fertilizer frequency: once every two weeks.
Watering. Water home datur need abundant and often, for example, in summer, when the plant color, water it every two days, do not let the soil dry up, otherwise, lose the main decorative quality - flowering. Water should be soft, you can use a water softener, which offers the brand "Flower happiness". Winter watering is carried out according to the results of the drying of the soil, the plant goes to rest.
Bloom. Datura blooms in summer with tubular flowers of different colors and sizes, depending on the variety. The flowers are very fragrant.
Transfer. As the seedlings develop, it is better to transplant them several times, then the adult plant needs to be transplanted annually, in the spring, and each time to increase the pot for the datura. When transplanting, the shoots are cut to half.
Diseases and pests. Aphid, spider mite, whitefly, and scythe.
In addition, the foliage and fruits of the datura fall from the dryness of the air, and if the temperature in the house exceeds 21 degrees. Also, the plant falls and with a lack of moisture in the soil, due to excessive watering, due to insufficient lighting. If the light is low, then your home datura can stretch out and give weak gains.
- If the datura has discolored foliage, then she needs to eat, remembering fertilizing. By the way, there are specialized fertilizers for datur, ask in specialized garden centers.
- If the foliage of the home datura turned pale, and below it turned yellow and covered with brown spots, then there is not enough magnesium in the soil.
- If the leaves are covered with yellow concentric rings, then the plant picked up the virus, which, unfortunately, is very difficult to get rid of, and in 95% of cases the plant dies.
Reproduction. The room datur is propagated by seeds and by grafting. The second method is most often used to save the varietal characteristics of the flower. The cuttings are carried out in September, cutting off the non-woody cutting, then they begin the rooting process. Roots a small part of the plant quite simply, right in the ground or in the water. По весне, приспособившееся молодое растение пересаживают в новый горшок, либо сажают прямо в отрытый грунт в саду .
Выращивание датуры из семян также возможно, нужно просто собрать семечки из образовавшихся шишек. Важно не пропустить момент, когда эта семенная коробочка лопнет, для этого можно обвязать шишки датуры марлей. Семена у неё достаточно большие, и не убегут сквозь дырочки.
Caring for your home datura is based on regular watering of the plant and its pruning.
Pruning. One of the important conditions for growing datura at home. Pruning plants need for quality flowering. After all, flowers form their "nests" exclusively on the young shoots of our dope-grass. This is especially true for homemade Datura, which is grown as a perennial indoor plant. The crown is formed in the fall, when the plant is completely fading.
Types of Datura
So, we have dismantled the cultivation of datura at home, it's time to look at the varieties and types of plants. In the genus Datura or Datura in Russian only 13 species, before and to this genus belonged also to the representatives of the genus Brugmansia, but now they are plants independent of the Datura. Enumerate all types of datur we will not, but the most popular - please.
Datura ordinary or smelly. In general, this type of datura is full of names, and the main habitat of the plant is Astrakhan, Volgograd, Samara and Saratov. The flowers are white, bloom in June and August.
Indian dope. A sort of flower of Shiva, but he comes not from India, but simply there it is most common. Differs more large flowers, their diameter can reach 20 cm. The color is white and light lilac. The derived varieties of this type of datura have a richer color spectrum: yellow, purple, purple and white color.
Datura Indian. Plant with white flowers, 12-19 cm long, bent down. The flowering of this species is very long: from early spring until the very winter cold.
Plant dope ordinary and Indian.
Datura Indian photo
Controversial and mythical plant-dope. For a long time it is used in medicine and ritual ceremonies. The names of the plant are many: datur, dope grass, foolish potion, prickly apples, stupid grass, etc.
This is due to the fact that all parts of the Datura plant contain alkaloids, which have a pronounced hallucinogenic effect.
Datura belongs to the family Solanaceae. Its height can reach 1.5 m. Datura Flowers- very large, corrugated-bell-shaped. Blossoming - long: from the middle of June to September. Datura Seeds ripen in a 4-nested box covered with long spikes.
As well as dope ordinary (Datura stramonium) for ornamental purposes usually grown Indian dope (Datura metel).
Datura flowers amazingly beautiful, and have long attracted the attention of breeders. Derived varieties and types of dope of different colors, with simple and double flowers.
Under natural conditions, a species of Datura common with lilac flowers and with fruits without thorns (Datura stramonium Inermis).
Datura - growing and care.
Datura Cultivation ordinary and Datura Indian does not represent special labor - the plant is very unpretentious. Datura is better to grow in well-lit areas, but it can tolerate partial shade.
The soil requires nourishing, loose. Datura grows well on compost and dung heaps. The plant is moisture-loving, needs regular abundant watering. With a weekly top-dressing with complex fertilizers, powerful flowering bushes grow. Pests do not encroach on datur because of poisonousness.
Datura - breeding.
Datura grass photo
Breeding dope ordinary and Datura Indian happens like other letnikov- seeds. To ensure a flowering plant, it is desirable to grow seedlings.
The seeds of the dope are characterized by poor germination; it is better to germinate before sowing.
Seeds are put on a saucer with a damp napkin, covered with a transparent bag and put on a bright place.
Planting sprouted seeds dope make a small depth (about 1 cm). Later, plants dope preferably seated in separate containers.
In open ground, breeding dope can occur self-seeding. At the same time, some of the seeds can ascend in the fall, and the seedlings, successfully wintering in conditions of mild winter. The rest of the seed rises in spring.
Breeding dope rooting of stem cuttings is also possible. To him resorted, if necessary, to increase the amount of planting material.
Datura - varieties and types of ornamental gardening.
Usually there are three main kind of dope. Datura ordinary (Datura stramonium), Indian dope (Datura innoxia) and Indian dope (Datura metel). The complete classification of species is quite complicated, but common in horticulture dope varieties Indian and Datura ordinary.
Of the varieties of the type of Indian dope, the most popular is the ballerina series. On the picture dope variety- Golden Queen with yellow terry flowers. Just below ballerina purple.
Low-growing varieties of Indian dope, for example, Evening fragrance. It has large white flowers (up to 10 cm), and its height does not exceed 40 cm. Such varieties can be grown in pots.
In general, the species dope ordinary and Indian dope- cultures are self-sufficient and do not need companions. Best of all looks in single landings against a lawn. Interesting multi-sowing dope planted in the group. For example, plants with simple white flowers alternating with plants with double lilac flowers.
Datura Flowers beautiful, the plant is unpretentious in growing and care. In species Datura ordinary and Datura Indian Many varieties are bred. Buy seeds and be sure to try planting this amazing flower in your garden!
Botanical description of the plant
This is an annual herbaceous plant, reaching up to 1 m in height. The stem is bare, upright, from which the mass of young shoots leaves. On long petioles grow ovoid leaves, pointed at the ends. In length, they grow up to 15 cm and in width - up to 10 cm.
Flowers bloom singly in places where the stem forks. A long tubular calyx, turning into a funnel-shaped corolla, gives the flower dope a bell or a tube. Up to 20 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter can reach the flower of the datura.
Some species should be grown with care, as they are poisonous and hallucinogenic. Datura can cause mental disorders, hyperthermia, tachycardia and partial loss of memory in a person.
Varieties of Datura
Currently this genus includes 13 species. Of these, the most popular:
- Datura ordinary - large herbaceous plant that can reach up to 1 m in height. The leaves are large, egg-shaped, have a dark green color from above, and a lighter color from below. The fruit is a box covered with spikes. In June, large, funnel-shaped flowers bloom.
- Indian dope - decorative perennial plant, but mainly grown as an annual. It is a strongly branched bush, reaching up to 1.5 m in height. The fruit is a ball-shaped box covered with sharp spikes. The flowers are shaped like a funnel, have a white color and exude a delicate aroma.
These two species are essential for growing in garden plots. In addition, widely used varieties derived from them:
- Troubadour is a plant with white flowers, reaching up to 70 cm in height.
- Metel Ballerina Parple - datura with dense double-sized perianths and flowers of white, yellow color.
- Paniculina Ballerina Yellow - this variety has light green leaves and yellow flowers.
Growing from seed
At home, growing seedlings start in early spring. Pre-gardeners purchase in a specialized store soil for seedlings and planting material. Drainage layer of expanded clay or fine gravel is poured into deep tanks at the bottom. Then fill them with soil and moisturize it abundantly. Seeds are laid out on the surface, sprinkled with light soil of 0.5-1 cm in them and wood ash is added from above.
The top layer is moistened with a spray bottle. Landings covered with plastic or food wrap with small holes for ventilation. Tanks clean in a warm and bright place. The air temperature should be at least 26 ° C, then the shoots will appear much faster. As soon as the seedlings begin to germinate, the film can be removed. Since the plant has a strong root system, watering can be carried out from a pallet, so as not to wet the topsoil too much.
When sprouts of 2-3 leaflets appear, the seedlings swoop in separate pots. With the onset of warm days, young plants begin to harden. To do this, they endure on the loggia or glazed balcony. Planted dope in open ground begin in late spring or early summer.
This method is the easiest and most effective. In the fall, they begin harvesting cuttings. To do this, cut from the tops and side shoots of the billet to 10-20 cm. The stalk should be cut with 2-3 buds. In the winter they are placed in the sand for storage, pre-moistened and placed in a bag. For storage conditions suitable cellar or basement. In the spring they take out the cuttings, make them a revision and start rooting.
To do this, the sections are refreshed and treated with a root growth stimulator. Then they are placed in a container with water or planted in the prepared soil. Each landing is covered with a glass jar or cut plastic bottle. When the ground warms up on the garden plot, rooted seedlings are planted in open ground.
For the successful cultivation of dope, the value of a properly chosen place on the site is important. It should be fairly light and closed to winds and drafts. Plant datur begin in late May or early June. The distance between seedlings should be at least 1 m, as the plants grow too much. At this distance, dig holes, and at the bottom make a drainage layer of broken brick or rubble.
Then prepare a fertile mixture of soil, sand and humus. Partially fill this hole with this mixture, lower the seedlings and fill the fertile soil and slightly tamp it. Plantings are watered abundantly and mulch is poured around them. If the season is too hot, the dope should be watered every day, as its flowering depends on it.
After watering or rain, around each bush loosen the ground, for air access to the root system. During the development of the plant, once a week they feed. To do this, alternate mineral and organic fertilizers. After flowering, it is necessary to prune old stems, since flowers bloom only on young shoots.
Plant Diseases and Pests
The plant is poisonous, so many pests bypass it. However, you can meet on it aphids and spider mites. For the prevention of dope treated with Bordeaux liquid. If, however, the pests have appeared, then the plants are treated with fungicides.
Of the diseases worth noting gray rot. To find out what the dope looks like, struck by this fungus, you should pay attention to its stems. They will be covered with gray spots. They are fighting with it with the help of the drugs Apollo and Actofit.
By the way, from the datura prepare the means to combat garden pests. To do this, during flowering, gather flowers and leaves. Then they are dried in a place protected from the sun, so as not to weaken the toxic properties. Prepare the tincture using 1 kg of crushed, dry mass per 10 liters of water. Having filtered the infusion, it is used to treat various plants from pests.
Observing care when growing and caring for a datur flower, you can grow a beautiful ornamental plant that will perfectly decorate any garden or balcony.