Peppers and tomatoes are extremely responsive crops for fertilization. If you want the plants to please you with an excellent harvest, it is necessary from the first days of planting seedlings to ensure that the soil contains all the necessary trace elements for its growth and development. And since they will absorb them quickly and rather diligently, fertilizers for pepper will have to be applied regularly as the seedlings grow.
Talking with gardeners, you often hear that they stop growing peppers on their own plots. This is due to some difficulties, which is the cultivation of heat-loving culture in our climatic conditions. Few people know that this is a perennial shrub, but we have cultivated exclusively as an annual plant. His fruits are loved by all, they go to the preparation of salads, first and second courses, are sources of vitamins and minerals.
Is it difficult to grow them in Russia? Let's just say it is possible, subject to a number of rules. We do not take into account the southern regions of the country. This culture has a long growing season, which means that in many regions of the country planting of seedlings begins in February. This gives the plant a chance to have time to bloom and grow fruit in a short, hot period. In addition, very important factors are timely weeding and watering, loosening. Do not forget to fertilize the soil in time. For pepper it is one of the foundations of normal life.
To get a good harvest, it is necessary to sow seeds in the ground at the end of January - early February. To do this, you need to prepare the boxes in advance, fill them with soil, water. After a couple of days, you can start planting seeds. The composition of the soil is the same, which will be used for subsequent cultivation in open ground, hotbeds or greenhouses. You will need two parts of the land, one peat and one humus. Everything is thoroughly mixed. If you take a garden land, then do not forget to sanitize it with potassium permanganate or exposure to high temperatures.
Fertilizer for pepper is a source of life and health. Only on nutrient-rich soil will seedlings grow strong and healthy. So, it will easily transfer the transplant to the open ground and take root without any problems. As soon as the seedlings have the first true leaves, it is necessary to feed. The second stage - two weeks after the picks. The last time the seedlings are fed up 10 days before landing in the ground. Further, all activities will be carried out already in the main place of residence.
The best composition
The ideal fertilizer for pepper during the first weeks of seedling life is complex, nutritional mixtures, in which the nitrogen content prevails. If you have no place to buy it, you can cook it yourself. There is nothing complicated about it. It is enough to dissolve 1.5 g of potassium salt and 0.5 g of urea, as well as 4 g of superphosphate in one liter of water. This is the starting composition, which will allow the plants to quickly gain strength, and will start to grow. Feeding seedlings of pepper is carried out by irrigating with a nutrient composition of a pre-moistened soil.
As soon as the plants release the second and third leaflets, it is time to engage in picking. Best of all, if it will immediately be cups, designed for individual fit. For example, peat.
Immediately after this follows the next feeding of seedlings of pepper. It is best to use urea for this. To do this, dissolve one tablespoonful of the substance in 10 liters of pure water. For the third time, immediately before landing in the ground, preparations containing nitrogen and phosphorus are used. In small quantities, potassium is acceptable.
Optimum dosage - the key to success
Fertilizers for the growth of pepper seedlings should come to the soil regularly, this is the essential guarantee of good growth and future harvest. Young peppers are the most unpredictable of all garden plants. They can grow and develop normally, and suddenly, in an instant, they begin to dry out. Experienced gardeners say that this is just the result of a lack of food. If you urgently make dressing, then the situation can still be saved.
It is useful to know what functions a particular substance has. Nitrogen is essential for increasing the green mass of the stem, phosphorus - for a powerful root system. But potassium seedlings almost does not use, it will be needed much later. But to determine the amount a little more difficult. If we proceed from practical experience, we can say the following. While plants are well developed, have thick stems and well-developed leaves, you can not bother with fertilizer. And as soon as a growth slowdown is diagnosed, you can correct this situation with a new portion.
We stopped at this point because an inexperienced gardener can decide that granulated compost, biohumus and other “charms” that are currently sold freely in country shops can be poured into the root in unlimited quantities. It is unlikely that this plant will die, it is a fact, but they will begin to "fatten". That is, you get a huge bush with lush leaves, which refuses to bloom and yield. All his energy will go to the formation of green mass. But if you really overfeed, the leaves will lose their beauty, begin to curl and become fragile.
The main differences feeding seedlings
Fertilizer for Bulgarian pepper needs to be correct. If in the ground you can just pour the earth, and only then with the help of a healer go through the nutrient solution, then in the boxes you will have to change tactics. Here, in the evening, you moisten the soil, and in the morning apply fertilizing. Otherwise, there is a risk to fill the root system. The tactics of fertilizer is of two types. In the first case, the nutrients are brought under the root, and in the second they are sprayed on the green leaves. In the case of seedlings, the first option is suitable, since the food should go both to the roots and to the leaves.
The first nutritious cocktail is prepared in approximately the following proportions: 1 g of urea, 8 g of superphosphate, 3 g of potassium sulphate. This mixture must be dissolved in two liters of water. There is another trick. Before applying fertilizer for Bulgarian pepper, it is recommended to sprinkle ashes on the ground in pots. In the future, the concentration is doubled. The frequency of application is two weeks.
Choose a bed
It is best to plan spring planting in advance, and for this you need to know what conditions pepper likes. Cultivation and care in the open field is a little easier than in pots. The main thing that the southern guest needs is a warm land with a high content of humus. Best of all, if the composition is sandy or loamy. That is moderately loose. Be sure to have good moisture, so it is necessary to add peat, turf and leaf humus to too light soils. Best of all, if last year in the selected area grew legumes. But the bed from under the tomatoes fits poorly, because they have some pests.
The soil for planting pepper is prepared in advance. From autumn, organic matter should be added to the selected bed. For example, rotted manure. This is the best choice of each gardener. Make it necessary in the amount of 3-4 kg per square meter. Another option may be straw with the addition of nitrogen components. These are the best fertilizer options for any kind of soil.
Top dressing in soil
It's time to repot our young peppers in the garden. Cultivation and care in the open field will be largely determined by weather conditions. If the weather is hot and sunny, then you just have to make the necessary nutrients, as well as regular watering. If it is cool outside, then you will have to organize additional protection in the form of a greenhouse or greenhouse. But more about that later.
The first feeding will be needed two weeks after the young peppers have moved into the open ground. For this purpose, use the following solution. For 10 liters you need to take two teaspoons of urea and the same amount of superphosphate. Under each bush will need to make about one liter of solution.
Mass flowering period
This is an important point, since your future harvest is being laid right now. The formed ovary will now grow and turn into healthy vegetables. To bloom was not wasted, it is very important to add potash fertilizers. For pepper it will be their first introduction from the moment of landing. To prepare a nutrient solution, you will need a teaspoon of potassium sulfate, a similar amount of urea and two tablespoons of superphosphate. Dosage is similar to the first feeding.
When flowering is over, a small ovary appears on the bushes. Each of these primordia can grow a huge juicy and tasty pepper. For more intensive growth and development, a third dressing is performed. To do this, 10 liters of water must be taken two teaspoons of superphosphate and potassium salt. If the growth of the fruit is intensive, then this can be limited. But sometimes the gardener notices that, despite all efforts, the ovary continues to hang on the bushes unchanged, or the plant itself stands in growth. If nothing is done, you can still stay at the end of the season with tiny green fruits that are suitable only for winter harvesting. An excellent solution would be foliar feeding with a solution of urea. A bucket of water will take 30 grams. It is best to do this in the evenings, for 5-7 days.
Schedule feeding in closed ground
Growing plants in a greenhouse has its own specifics. Here, another temperature regime, which means that the growth of peppers will be more intense. Accordingly, nutrients will need much more. In this case, do not forget that organic substances contribute to the productive formation of the harvest, and minerals are necessary for proper growth of the plant. Ideal fertilizer for pepper when landing is an aqueous solution of bird droppings. Concentration should be weak, maximum 1:15. You can use and mullein, here the proportions can be 1:10. These mixtures contain a complete set of useful substances that contribute to the growth and development of crops. If the soil of the greenhouse is well manured in autumn, then organic matter can be replaced with potassium sulfate with superphosphate.
Mineral fertilizers for peppers in the greenhouse become very important about two weeks after flowering. Now comes the time of active formation and growth of the fruit. The best choice would be organic with the addition of mineral fertilizers. By the way, the collection of first fruits does not mean that the care of plants can be stopped. The third dressing is done just at this time. The composition can be slightly changed. In some cases, gardeners believe that the best fertilizer for peppers is the composition indicated above. Further feeding is necessary only if the ground is very poor. Here is best suited mixture of superphosphate with mineral fertilizers.
If you are against the use of chemistry, and there is no way to get rotten manure, then you can use other folk remedies. To do this, one tablespoon of wood ash must be dissolved in two liters of hot water. Stir and leave to stand for a day. Now it remains only to filter and use as intended. Ash as a fertilizer for peppers is a source of essential minerals.
You can also use egg shells for feeding. To do this, take the shell of two or three eggs, wash and dry. Now chop thoroughly, pour into a three-liter jar of water and let it brew for three days, stirring occasionally. During this time, the water is enriched with magnesium and iron, calcium and potassium. As a top dressing, this infusion can be used, spreading one to three.
Another great recipe is onion peel tincture. It not only saturates the soil with microelements, but also disinfects it, which is especially useful for young plants. It is very easy to prepare, for this you will need to take 20 g of husk per 5 liters of water and insist for five days. If you like coffee, then during the year try not to throw away the thick. It is dried and collected and then applied to the soil. So it is saturated with nitrogen and oxygen, which is very useful for plants. In addition, gardeners recommend storing dry banana skins. Crushed and added to the soil, they are also an excellent source of potassium and other nutrients.
Ready-made nutrient complexes
It is difficult to say which option is optimal. Someone prefers to grow their plants solely on natural top dressing, such as mullein or bird droppings. Others from early spring are stocked with industrial solutions, powders and tablets, which are sufficient to be diluted in water and applied to the soil. Complex fertilizer for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers can be bought in liquid form or in granules. Trademarks may have different names, but the essence does not change. Check out the composition. If it contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, then this is exactly the mineral complex that you need. For pepper, the percentage should be N: P: K% 12.5: 17.5: 25. When preparing the soil, fertilizer in the amount of 20-30 g per 1 square meter is evenly scattered over the surface of the earth, and then dug.
The second stage opens during the growing season. Now additionally feeding plants half the dose. That is already used 10 g per square meter. Bring means in the damp earth and evenly distribute around, sealing up in the soil. In addition, the fertilizer is applied as a solution. To do this, take 10 g of seedling powder and 20 g for adult plants. A small amount of insoluble residue is acceptable. For seedlings it is recommended to alternate top dressing with one watering with ordinary water. For adult plants it is permissible to use it with every watering.
Instead of conclusion
Pepper is a rather capricious culture, therefore, in order to get a good harvest, a gardener must provide all the conditions for it. The southern plant loves hot weather and abundant watering, as well as nutritious soil. If the first two factors strongly depend on the climatic conditions of the region, the third is entirely dependent on you. The choice of dressings differs preferences gardener. You can ask for a humus from a neighbor - a farmer, supplement it with wood ash and forest humus, and you will get excellent nutrition for your plants. And you can simply buy a special solution or granules in the store, which is enough with plenty for the whole season.
And finally, the advice of experienced gardeners. After harvesting, plant a bed on which you plan to plant peppers with ordinary barley next season. As soon as the first green appears, mow it with a sickle and leave it on the ground. This will enrich the soil with nodule bacteria and heal it.
Seedlings of Bulgarian and sweet pepper
Growing such a vegetable has its pros and cons, with an error with watering, sudden changes in temperature or improper transplantation, the yield is reduced to almost zero.
Damaged plants will not give the desired harvest for a short summerbecause without pollination there will be no pollination, and without it the plant will receive less nutrition and thus will not give a long-awaited harvest in the fall.
But so that he grew up and pleased with his harvest, you need to plant very early and ensure the seedlings and development without stress and temperature change. This is the most important rule when growing sweet pepper in the open field.
The most important points in the sowing of bell peppers are:
- Seed preparation for sowing,
- soil preparation for sowing peppers,
- sowing seeds
- picking peppers.
Each procedure is better to consider separately, so as not to miss and avoid mistakes.
Preparing seeds for seedlings for growing peppers in the open field
Purchased seeds need to consider the seeds and remove all puny and damaged. Good seeds need to be treated with a fungal infection.
To do this, put the seeds in cheesecloth, as in a bag, and place in a thick solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes. After this procedure, rinse with warm water.running water.
There is another good way for good shoots of the Bulgarian pepper - this is the solution of Elina. It is necessary to place a bag of gauze in a solution of 1 drop of Eline, diluted with 1 liter of water and leave for one day.
After all these procedures, put the seeds on a damp cloth and close with wet gauze. In this form, the seeds need to be put in a warm place for one week, but if the seeds are not swollen, then you can wait another week.
The main thing is not to leave the seeds dry, they must be moistened, otherwise the seeds dry and disappear.
Preparation of soil for landing
For sowing, you can buy ready-made soil in a specialty store. and only add one fifth of the washed sand.
В готовый грунт можно уже ничего не добавлять, ведь в нём уже есть:
- раскисляющие добавки,
- минеральные удобрение,
- Гезминовые вещества,
Чтоб понять для чего они нужны почве лучше узнать все добавки подробно.
Верховой грунт практически без микробов и хорошо впитывает влагу, без этой добавки не могут обойтись все растения.
Раскисляющие добавки нужны чтоб, убрать высокую кислотность из верхнего слоя почвы.
Mineral fertilizer provides mineral nutrition and promotes the growth of plants.
Gesminov substances needed for stimulation and rooting, as well as the resistance of the plant.
Sand reduces shrinkage of the soil during long-term plant growth. Usually, sand in large quantities is needed in home flowers in pots.
Agropermite nourishes the roots with oxygen and promotes their good growth and nourishes them with substances necessary for growth.
Experienced gardeners do not buy the soil, but do it themselves at home. For this you need only two parts of humus, one part of sand and two parts of peat. Mix everything well and heat in the oven for about one hour. In this way, the soil will be ready for planting seeds.
Seed ripening occurs after 10 or 14 days after germination, and seedlings are better to plant when it is 60 days. Therefore, it is better to do sowing in mid-February when the day is still short.
Before you start plantingit is necessary to rinse the plate well in potassium permanganate solution, and then fill it with the prepared soil mixture. Slightly compact the soil so that the bowl was two centimeters higher than the soil.
Make a recess and gently spread the seeds at a distance of 1.5 cm. After the seeds are filled with cooked soil and compacted.
Pour warm water, only gently, so as not to erode the seeds. So that the moisture does not evaporate, you need to close the special lid, and if there is no such lid, you can use the usual plastic bag.
Seeds need to be put in a warm place, where the air temperature is about 17 degrees. Be sure to water with warm water and not give drying out of the soil, but you can not pour too.
Be sure to look for the seedlings of peppers, so that they do not bend over. To avoid this, you need to turn in turn towards the sun. And also can be over the seedlings
How to pee
To reduce the risk of damage to plants of root rot, peppers are transplanted when the plant has two leaves.
But it is better to transplant after 4 weeks, when the seedlings are stronger and more resistant to stressful conditions and the stalks of the pepper seedlings are already strong.
Before transplanting seedlings, you need to shed well and wait for the excess water to drain.
It grows and develops more slowly than tomatoes and therefore it is better to transplant into separate small pots.
Fill the prepared soil in half of the pot, make a hole and place the pepper seedlings, send it with earth and compact it slightly. Carefully shed warm water, holding the stalks and if the soil has settled, then you need to fill the prepared soil, but not too much. Peppers should be half in a pot, not completely covered.
Such seedlings to put in a warm and well-lit room.
How to lure seedlings
Caring for seedlings should already begin after the transplantation of peppers to the open ground at the dacha.
First bait produced in two weeks after diving and two weeks after the first bait. As long as the plant is young, it is better and very convenient to apply top dressing in liquid form. You can buy it in a flower shop and it is best to choose:
How to dilute dressing for peppers will be written in the instructions for use.
Two weeks before the planting of peppers in the usual soil at their summer cottage, it is necessary to harden the seedlings in the open air.
But you need to take into account one necessary part of the open air: direct sunlight should not fall on the peppers, but there should not be a cold and strong wind either.
The best option for hardening is a closed balcony with a non-solar side.
Grow seedlings in peat tablets
There is another great way to seedlings of peppers is peat tablets. Peat tablets give excellent results, and a plant that is under stress when diving can no longer be afraid, so like this procedure with a peat tablet do not need to perform.
The peat tablet contains all the necessary additives for the development of pepper and with the help of such a wonderful pill to grow good seedlings, even for beginner gardeners.
Saplings still need to be grown in separate pots, so peat tablets can be taken with a diameter of three centimeters.
Place the right amount of peat tablets on the tray and pour them with warm water. When swelling pills increase and take the form of a cup.
As soon as the peat tablet swells to the desired size and stops absorbing water, you need to drain the excess water and make a small hole in cups.
Pepper seeds should be prepared in the same way as when sown in the soil. This must also be done in advance. Seeds should be carefully placed in the hole and sprinkle with cooked soil. Close the tray with a lid or put on a plastic bag.
Pepper planting and care in the open field
Peppers do not like cold and heavy soil, and if clayey land is in the area, then it is better to cultivate Bulgarian pepper in open ground with peat and humus.
The earth needs to be well digged into the shovel bayonet and Good rakeso that there are no large lumps. After that, make not very deep wells for planting, but also very frequent holes do not need to be done either.
Before planting, it is necessary to put a bit of mineral fertilizer into each well, which will contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Such a composition should be mixed well until a homogeneous mass.
Carefully remove the seedling from the pot, taking care not to damage the pepper root system. Place the seedlings in the hole and fill it in half with the ground hole. You need to fall asleep so that the entire root system of the seedling is closed.
Liberally pour with warm water and the year the water is absorbed to cover the entire hole with dry earth.
If the plant is tall and requires a garter, then it is worth tying peppers to a special support. If the nights are still cold, then you need to cover sweet peppers over polyethylene meadows, but you cannot cover with woven covering material.
Care for pepper in open field
To cultivate in the open field was carried out the right care, there are four rules:
Top dressing. During growth and cultivation, it is necessary to feed three times. The first top-dressing after 10 days after disembarkation in usual soil can be fed with usual manure.
The second feeding is done before flowering. Feed the wood hall or supperfasfat. To do this, potassium humate diluted with 10 liters of water. So pour over the peppers.
The third feeding should occur two weeks after flowering. Feed the wood room. And you can feed the sweet pepper with a nettle solution. To do this, cut the nettles into small pieces and cover with warm water. Insist such a solution for several days, and then pour the peppers.
Watering. Sweet peppers are very fond of moisture, but excess pepper is very harmful. Therefore, water the sweet peppers need as the soil dries.
The Prophet. Light and fluffy soil gives good growth to plants. It is necessary to make sure that the peppers are not overgrown with grass, and the soil must be loosened near the peppers.
Growing pepper seedlings
If you do not have a greenhouse, then the seeds of pepper must be sown in February, so that before the transplantation in May, the plants are between 90-100 days old. Pepper does not tolerate picking badly, so try to immediately sow seeds in individual peat pots with a diameter of about 8-10 cm. It does not make sense to use large pots due to the slow development of its root system.
Peat pots for pepper - a good option
The substrate for growing peppers in a seedling way should be light and loose and consist of 2 parts of humus mixed with 1 part of sand and 1 part of earth. At 1 kg of this mixture, you must add a tablespoon of ash.
Pepper seeds need preplant treatment - they must be kept until they swell for five hours in water at a temperature of about + 50 ° C. After that, they must be placed for naklevyvaniya in a damp cloth for 2-3 days, the temperature in the room about + 20 ° C. After such a simple preplant seed preparation, you get the seedlings just the next day after sowing.
Sown seeds of pepper must be watered thoroughly, and immediately thereafter covered with plastic wrap or glass. Before the emergence of shoots, they can be in any warm (about + 22 ° C) place, the lighting is not important at the same time, it is possible in the dark. After germination, the optimum temperature for growing seedlings in the afternoon is about +26. + 28 ° С, at night about +10. + 15 ° С.
It is not necessary to spoil the peppers with excessive watering, it can only damage them - cause disease of the black leg. But try to prevent the substrate from drying out. Water for irrigation should be warm - about + 30 ° C, from excessively cold seedlings will be frail, sick and may even die. Do not forget to follow the air in the room in which the seedlings are grown, it should not be too dry. Spray the plants, and ventilate the room itself, not forgetting to protect from drafts.
Pepper seedlings require additional lighting. During the month of February, it should be covered from 7 am to 9 pm. Before planting, seedlings need hardening, gradual training to the sun's rays, lower temperatures, wind and rain. To do this, take out the plant to fresh air, gradually increasing the time of his stay there. During hardening, watch the weather conditions, it is impossible to allow seedlings of pepper to fall under frost or lower temperature - for pepper it is below + 13 ° С.
The best predecessors for pepper: onions, cucumbers, pumpkins, cabbage after sideratov, zucchini and carrots. Bad predecessors: potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, physalis and eggplant.
Light soils are best for growing. It is better to prepare the soil for pepper in advance - for the year, adding 5 kg of organic fertilizers per square meter under the predecessor, and in the autumn 50 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers for deep digging. In the spring on the site - in the top layer of soil, we bring 40 g of ammonium nitrate. Five days before transplanting the pepper seedlings to a permanent place, take a disinfecting of the soil, it is necessary to do this with the help of a solution - add a tablespoon of copper sulfate to the bucket of water.
Seedlings are planted in open ground at the end of May - mid-June, according to the 40x40 cm scheme. Pepper seedlings are planted in an unheated greenhouse film at the beginning of April, and at the end of May in tunnel shelters.
Put the seedlings in the wells try to the same depth at which the plants grew in the seedling box, without exposing the roots and not dribbling its root neck. Pepper does not like cold soil, and if you want to get a serious harvest, arrange him high beds, which must be raised by 25-55 centimeters.
Remember, pepper is highly susceptible to over-pollination, so if you plant several of its varieties on your plot, try to locate them as far as possible from each other and, if possible, separate them with each other using planting of tall tomatoes, corn and sunflower.
Growing pepper planting seeds in open ground is impractical even in the southern regions. It will be necessary to sow anyway late, when the soil warms up, the plant will develop more slowly, the first fruits will ripen later, and the period of fruiting of pepper will be significantly shorter.
Pepper care consists of timely watering, garters, weed and dressings. The first feeding of pepper seedlings should be carried out in the phase of 1-2 true leaves, for which in 1 liter of water 0.5 g of ammonium nitrate, 1 g of potash fertilizers and 3 g of superphosphate are mixed. The second feeding 2 weeks after the first one, the dose of mineral fertilizers must be doubled for it.
Effective feeding of pepper seedlings with a special infusion of nettle, for the preparation of which it is necessary to take 1 part of nettle and 10 parts of water - insist 2 days. The last feeding should be done 2 days before you intend to plant the seedlings at a permanent place, while increasing the dose of potash fertilizers to 7 g per 1 liter of water. For the season you need to make about 3-4 dressings of pepper chicken droppings - 1:10, alternating such dressings with foliar, for which you need to use mineral fertilizers, such as nitrophoska (tablespoon in a bucket of water).
A bed of peppers
With a lack of potassium, the leaves of the pepper curl and a drying border appears on them. But with potassium, you must be careful - the pepper does not tolerate an abundance of potassium chloride. If the plant lacks nitrogen, its leaves become dull and, acquiring a grayish tint, gradually shrink. When phosphorus is lacking, the underside of pepper leaves becomes saturated purple, and the leaves themselves are pressed closer to the stem of the plant and rise up. If there is a lack of magnesium, the leaves become marble in color, and the excess nitrogen in the soil leads to the shedding of ovaries and pepper flowers.
In hot and humid weather it is imperative to conduct a pinching (removal of lateral shoots), especially for lower stepsons, and vice versa, if there is hot, but dry weather, plants do not stepon because the leaf mass perfectly protects soil moisture from evaporation. Experienced growers are advised to remove the central flower on the plant, growing from the first branching, this will contribute to increasing the yield.
During the growing season, peppers must be trimmed several times, trying to shorten the longest shoots and achieve the absence of shaded branches. Be sure to remove all processes of pepper below the main fork of its stem, as well as the branches inside the crown. Pruning should be done every ten days and after picking the fruit. Simultaneously with pruning produce and tillage.
Try to attract pollinating insects to the garden. To do this, spray plants with a sugar solution: 100 g of sugar and 2 g of boric acid per liter of hot water. Excellent result is given by feeding the pepper with liquid organic fertilizers.
It is useful to mulch with peppered straw — a layer of about 10 cm, which makes it possible to reduce the frequency of irrigation by reducing them to 9–10 days. Timely care of pepper plants is the garter plants. It is necessary to make a garter after hilling and mulching.
Pests and diseases
The most common diseases of pepper: late blight, white rot, macrosporioz, vertex rot, septoriosis, black leg. More than other peppers harm slugs, whitefly, scoop, aphid, Colorado potato beetle and bear. To protect the pepper from being damaged by a medvedka, it is necessary to fill it with water an hour before its landing. After dropping out the seedlings of pepper, again spray the plantings with a spray. For a season of 3 times, pepper plants must be pollinated with wood ash - better in dew. It will also help protect them from pests.
If you notice aphids on the seedlings, process the peppers with whey - one and a half liters per bucket of water. After this procedure, powder the plants with sifted wood ash.
Before planting pepper, it is necessary to decide on the choice of variety, and it all depends not only on your taste preferences, but also on the appointment of future fruits. So, if you intend to use peppers mostly fresh, it is better to give preference to more thick-walled and large-fruited varieties, for example 'California miracle', 'Gladiator', 'Winnie the Pooh' or 'Gift of Moldova'. If the main purpose is conservation, then choose small-fruited varieties belonging to the “Siberian” series: 'Merchant', 'Ermak', 'Victoria' other.
One of the most ripening varieties of pepper, the fruits ripen early and together. After the first harvest pepper varieties'Ermak ' blooms again and gives a good second harvest. Very large fruits, the mass of which reaches 250 g. The yield of the variety is 12-15 kg / m².
- 'California miracle'
- 'Black Cardinal'
Growing bell pepper seedlings method
How to grow bell pepper?
The most common breeding culture seedling method. Рекомендуют выращивать рассаду в перегнойно — земляных горшочках во избежание повреждений хрупкой корневой системы растения.
Смесь для них готовится следующим образом: на 8 частей перегноя берут 2 части дерна и 1 часть коровяка с добавлением из расчёта на ведро получившейся смеси 40 г суперфосфата, 10 г мочевины и 5 г сернокислого калия. Оптимальные размеры каждого горшочка 60х60 мм.
For faster seed germination, boxes with future seedlings are placed in a well-lit place with a temperature:
- 25 - 30 ° С (it can be a window sill in a house or a greenhouse) before germination,
- after their appearance 10 - 15 ° С during the week,
- 20 - 25 ° С before planting seedlings in the ground.
Watering seedlings at least 2 days later, while avoiding stagnant moisture in the ground. Daily watering is required when the appearance of four - five true leaves.
Seedlings need to be fed. 50 g of superphosphate, 20 g of urea and 15 g of potassium sulfate are taken on a bucket of water. From organic fertilizers use fermented bird droppings or slurry. The application of organic and mineral fertilizers alternate. The first feeding is carried out in the phase of appearance of the first true leaf, re-fertilized in the phase of four to five leaves.
According to the lunar calendar, sowing pepper to seedlings is recommended in the days of the growing moon. For growing seedlings of pepper, seeds are sown as early as February, because by the time they are transplanted into a greenhouse — at the beginning of May, or in open ground, seedlings must reach three months of age.
Preparing pepper seeds before sowing
Phased presowing preparation technology
- Disinfect seed in 1% iodine solution for half an hour, then rinse.
- Immerse them for 5 hours in warm water (temperature - up to 50 ° C).
- For final germination, leave the seeds in a warm room for a couple of days, covered with a damp cloth.
If sowing is done on seedlings, prepare the soil by mixing the ground with sand (one to one), add the same amount of humus to get a 1: 1: 2 ratio. For every kilogram of soil, add a tablespoon of ash.
Agrotechnika sowing seeds of Bulgarian pepper to seedlings
- Fill the crates with prepared soil, moisten it.
- In the ground, make a groove depth of 1.5-2 cm.
- Plant the seeds at a distance of 4-5 cm one from another, so that later the seedlings do not swoop down.
- Sprinkle with earth and pour warm water well. Capacity cover with plastic or glass and place in a warm room.
The presence of light at the moment does not matter. But after the germination of seeds requires additional coverage from 7 am to 9 pm.
Features care for seedlings pepper
Watering is necessary for seedlings once a day, it is advisable to carry out the procedure in the morning or in the evening. Use warm water, preferably melted, infused to room temperature (up to + 30 ° C). Before watering, loosen the soil to a depth of 5-6 cm.
Watering pepper seedlings
Increased soil moisture can lead to blackleg disease, but the soil should not dry out completely. In order to avoid diseases and the appearance of pests, it is necessary to constantly humidify the air by daily spraying and airing the room.
- Maintain the daytime temperature at 22-27 ° C, nighttime - 14-16 ° C.
- Dive the first sheet that appears, this will prevent tangling of the roots.
Feeding seedlings pepper
During the cultivation of seedlings twice fertilized.
- The first time is after the formation of 3-4 leaves (13-15 days after the first shoots). Use urea: 1 tbsp. 10 liters of water. To improve the effect, pre-tuck the soil with ash.
- The second time - 4-5 days before transplanting into the ground. The composition used is the same as for the first time, but superphosphate is also added to it (1 tbsp).
Nettle infusion is also an effective top dressing.
Hardening seedlings before planting
To cultivate pepper in the open ground was successful, the seedlings need to be hardened 14 days before planting.
Hardening seedlings in boxes on the veranda
- For several days, open the window for 1-2 hours, if the weather is warm.
- Having built a sun shield out of plywood sheets, it is hardened on the balcony or veranda during the week.
- If the night air temperature is not below 14 degrees. Celsius, then in the room it is no longer entered.
Site selection and soil preparation for growing peppers
Choose a plot where you plan to grow peppers. It should be protected from strong drafts and well lit. The bed must be pre-treated:
- In the autumn, the soil is carefully dug up and loosened, after which complex potassium and phosphate fertilizers are applied (50 gr. Per 1 sq. M)
- In the spring, 40 g of ammonium nitrate per square meter is applied to the site in the top layer of soil.
- Five days before planting, the soil is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tbsp per bucket of water).
If you use different varieties, it is better to carry out the cultivation of peppers in the open field at a remote distance from each other, since the culture tends to pereopylyatsya. You can distinguish between planting varieties of tall plants - corn, tomatoes or sunflower.
The procedure for planting pepper seedlings in open ground
Pepper does not tolerate cold soil, so the height of the beds is better to raise by 20-50 cm.
Planting pepper in open ground
- Pepper seedlings are watered in order to be taken out of the tanks with their roots, planted in the morning or in the evening, when the sun is not too active.
- Plant vertically according to the 40x40 cm scheme.
- Peppers are sprinkled with earth, the area around it is slightly compacted and well watered with warm water.
- The leaves of young plants break easily, so put a peg on each one and tie it up.
- To provide access to oxygen, loosen the ground around the plant.
- Cover the ridge with a film, pulling it onto pre-installed arcuate rods. After rooting, remove the film.
Construct for peppers protection from the cold with available materials at hand, erecting a tent of roofing material, boards or cardboard. From above it can be covered with burlap or agrofibre.
Pinching pepper in open field
For proper shaping of the bush and good development of the fruit every ten days spend pasynkovanie. When the plant reaches a height of 25 cm, cut off its top. As a result, the stem will give a lot of shoots, they must be partially removed, leaving 5-6 upper. They will serve to form the crop. Masking is carried out in hot, but not dry weather.
How to pinch pepper
To attract insects to your site that will pollinate pepper during flowering, spray it with a special sugar syrup. It is prepared like this: in a liter of hot water dissolve half a cup of sugar and 2 grams. boric acid.
Watering pepper in open ground
Growing bell peppers in the open field does not require abundant watering. The first time it is watered during planting, the second - after 5 days, then once a week. For watering one plant, 1-1.5 liters is enough. But as you grow, the rate can be doubled.
When the pepper begins to bloom, water it only with warm water (20-22 degrees Celsius). Watering is stopped 2 weeks before the full harvest of vegetables. After each watering or rain the soil must be loosened.
To reduce the number of waterings and it is better to retain moisture at the roots of plants, grind pepper 10 centimeters with a layer of re-burnt straw.
Top dressing of pepper in an open ground
Care for the pepper after planting in the ground necessarily includes three dressings per season.
Feeding pepper in high beds
- The first is carried out after two weeks. Nitrogen fertilizers are necessary for good growth. To do this, a tablespoon of superphosphate and urea dissolve in a bucket of water. You can mix the urea (1 teaspoon) in the same volume of water. Pour this mixture of 1 liter for each plant.
- The following feeding is done during flowering. Since potassium is needed for making fruit, use wood ash. Feed urea once again, as with the first feeding.
- The last time the pepper is fed with the appearance of the first fruits. To do this, dilute the potassium salt and superphosphate (2 teaspoons) in 10 liters of water.
Observe the growth of pepper, perhaps, he needs additional feeding. It can be foliar, because the plant can receive the necessary substances not only through the roots, but also through the leaves.
Problems in the cultivation of pepper and their solution
- If the leaves turn yellow, they lack nitrogen. To ensure this substance is sprayed with a solution of urea in water in the ratio: 1 tablespoon per bucket of water.
- If the pepper loses the ovary, then prepare a solution of boric acid: a teaspoon in a bucket of water.
- In case of poor fruit formation, feed with superphosphate or ash: a teaspoon per 5 liters of water.
Extra root dressing is made exclusively in the morning or evening, otherwise the leaves can burn in the scorching sun. In this case, the weather should be windless. A good effect on the development of peppers has a top dressing with yeast.
Pepper Feeding Recipe
For the preparation will need 100 grams of fresh yeast. They are soaked in 0.5 liters of water per day. Before use, add 5 liters of water to the solution.
Fertilizer recipe for dry yeast peppers
One packet of dry yeast dissolve in a bucket of water, add 2 tablespoons of sugar, leave for 2 hours to activate the fermentation process. Infusion dilute with water at the rate of: 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water.
Such top dressing bring only in rather warmed up soil. It can be used no more than two times per season. After feeding with yeast, make sure to add wood ash.
Pepper protection from diseases and pests in the open field
- To protect the pepper from the main pests of the pepper, season it three times with wood ash. This should be done in the early morning when there is still dew on the plant.
- To prevent damage by a bear, 1 hour before planting the pepper, fill the wells with onion water (0.5 kg of onion peel insist on 10 liters of water for three days).
- If during the growing season you find a defeat by aphids, treat with a solution of 1.5 liters of whey in a bucket of water. After spraying, sand ash.
Dates of harvesting pepper in open ground
- Fruits are harvested when they have acquired size and color corresponding to ripening. Since these vegetables are fragile, it is better to cut them with a stem.
- The first harvest appears by mid-August, then it is harvested every week until frost.
To harvest seeds for the next year, select a few large fruits. Do not remove them before the end of the summer, letting them fully mature. Cut and wrap in paper until completely dry. Cut and collect seeds. Their varietal characteristics may persist for three years, unless cross-pollination occurs.
Pepper sweet: growing and care in the greenhouse
Since pepper is a very thermophilic culture, its cultivation in open ground most often starts from seedlings. When sowing seeds in pepper ground, they are carefully treated and harden well. That is why, many gardeners prefer growing Bulgarian pepper in a greenhouse, where the plant can create ideal growth conditions.
Growing bell peppers in the greenhouse
For planting seedlings or sowing seeds using glass, film greenhouses or greenhouses. It is also widely practiced growing peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse.
Planting technology of bell pepper in the greenhouse
Planted pepper in the greenhouse in early April. You can sow seeds, but for better yields using 2-month-old seedlings with a height of 20-25 cm, which already have from 6 to 10 leaves.
Planting bell peppers in the greenhouse
- In a greenhouse, ridges are prepared at a distance of half a meter from one another.
- They make pits corresponding to the size of the capacity in which the seedlings grew.
- In the pits poured a solution of manure or chicken droppings. For its preparation, a liter of manure or a glass of litter is dissolved in a bucket of warm water (about +50 C).
- 1 liter is poured into each well.
- Pepper seedlings watered to remove it from the root of the container.
- After pepper is planted in the prepared wells and tied to pegs.
Peppers in the greenhouse cultivation and care
The main care for pepper in the greenhouse is to maintain the optimum temperature, water, feed regularly, weed and loosen.
Drip automated watering of pepper in the greenhouse
- The greenhouse must be ventilated and shaded in the heat.
- Pepper is poured every 2-3 days, 1-2 liters of water are poured under the root of each plant.
- Growing peppers in a greenhouse involves maintaining the optimum temperature. During the day it should be at a level of 20-27 ° C, at night - 15 ° C. After the onset of fruiting, it can be reduced by a couple of degrees.
- Shrubs pile when the soil is still wet. After the earth dries up, it is necessary to gnaw between the rows.
Caring for peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse does not differ from the rules of care in an ordinary greenhouse.
How to feed the peppers in the greenhouse
Growing peppers in a greenhouse is impossible without enough nutrients. For dressing use urea in a similar proportion. But it is better to use a solution of bird droppings in water in the ratio of 1 to 15. They pour 1 liter of each sprout on them. Before feeding, pepper care includes wood ash.
Fertilized beds of pepper in the greenhouse
- The first feeding is carried out two weeks after planting in the greenhouse.
- The second - with the ovary of the fruit.
- The third - before the harvest.
The composition of fertilizers may be the same for each of the procedures, if the plant does not show signs of a lack of any trace elements.
Bulgarian pepper, the cultivation and care of which we have considered, will delight you with an excellent harvest while adhering to agrotechnical rules. Follow the recommendations, make timely watering and fertilizer and you will not have any problems with this crop.
Prepare a strong base
How to plant pepper in open ground, seedlings or seeds of each choice. But more likely to get a good result in the first case. Seeds are self-germinated at home with the observance of several rules.
Growing sweet pepper in the open field begins three months after sowing the seeds. Therefore, you need to plant the grain in early February. For the rapid emergence of healthy sprouts, the seeds must undergo various manipulations.
For sweet pepper, care begins with the seeds. The preparatory stage in the cultivation of pepper in the open ground is based on seed treatment. To remove fungal and bacterial infections from the seed coat, a disinfection procedure is carried out. Use a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
In water enough to add 1 g of the substance, the solution should be a faint pink hue. The holding time of the grains in such a solution should be about 25 minutes.
After disinfection, it is recommended to quench the seeds. How to carry out the procedure? To this end, the seeds for three days alternately placed in a cold and warm place. Hardening will allow you to resist the bushes in adverse weather conditions.
To seedlings grow faster, and in the future, pleased with the quality of the crop, it is recommended not to skip the soaking procedure. For this purpose, you can buy special drugs or make yourself from natural ingredients. You can use the recipe based on wood ash or aloe juice. Aloe juice will additionally increase resistance to various diseases. In the juice of two fleshy leaves, place a cloth bag with pepper seeds.
Grow pepper is faster, if the seeds wrap in a damp cloth and put in a warm place. After two days, the seeds can already be sown in a prepared container with soil. The distance between the holes should be not less than 1.5 cm. One seed should be put into each depression. The container is closed with plastic film or glass. As soon as most of the seedlings appear, the seedlings are opened.
The ground for the peppers should be chosen light. You can independently mix the black earth, humus and sand. It is useful to add charcoal. Soil with seedlings is watered with water, which has been settled for at least a day.
Seedlings should be protected from drafts and ensure sufficient access of light. Be sure to make mineral or organic fertilizers. The first time feeding of saplings is made as soon as the first leaves are dismissed. The last feeding is carried out two weeks before transplanting into open areas.
Peppers are very difficult to transplant, so many experienced gardeners omit the stage associated with picking (pinching long roots). But if the planting of pepper seedlings is accompanied by a correct and careful picking, then the root system will be branchy and strong. One of the experiments described a positive result of this procedure: “I’ve been growing peppers for more than a year. The procedure of picking many times increases the strength of each bush and allows the seedlings to adapt more quickly to a new place. ”
If it is decided to plant pepper in open ground with seeds, then sowing begins three weeks earlier than seedlings. In the depth of about 4 cm is recommended to put 4-5 grains. The method of heap arrangement of seeds allows to facilitate the process of seedling development. By sowing seeds should pay more attention.
Features of landing under the open sky
There are many secrets of how to grow a good crop of pepper in the open field.
How to plant sweet pepper in open ground seedlings? Before planting pepper seedlings in open ground, you need to pick up a place, and prepare the beds. Planting bell peppers should be carried out in a place where there will be no piercing wind. Еще осенью подходящий участок земли вскапывают и удобряют. Посадка перца и уход в открытом грунте не обходится без подпитки из калийных и фосфорных веществ.
Так же сладкий перец в открытом грунте не переносит слишком жаркого воздуха и прямого солнечного света. Нужно позаботиться о затенении грядок в жаркую погоду.
In the spring, it is necessary to loosen the ground once more, with the introduction of ammonium nitrate. Pepper planting scheme can be varied, but the variety is always taken into account. At what distance from each other is it recommended to plant seedlings in the ground? The holes are dug at a distance of 35 cm. The distance between the rows should be approximately 45 cm. If two pieces are planted in the hole, the distance should be increased to 60 cm.
Known and often used square-breeding method of landing. The hole should have equal sides, not less than 60 cm. Pepper can be planted in each recess by two bushes. How to plant a plant if three pieces are placed in a nest? In this case, the dimensions of the sides should be equal to 70 cm. For more information on this planting method, see the video.
Planting pepper in the soil comes at the end of spring. If the weather is not established, then the landing of the pepper is postponed to the beginning of June. It is better to plant pepper in the ground in the evening or on cloudy days.
Seedlings are carefully watered and gently removed one by one from the tank together with the earthy clod that has enveloped the roots. What fertilizer to make when planting pepper? In the hole when planting it is useful to add a composition with humus and nitrophoska. The plant is placed at a depth of the first pair of leaves.
Immediately after disembarking, it is recommended to install pegs to which the bushes will be tied in the future. Tie up after hilling and mulching. Such care will not allow delicate leaves to break and bend to the stem.
A valuable step in the care is pepper mulching. Are the features of cultivation in soil cover organic or inorganic layer, which is called mulch. It is necessary to mulch the ground to reduce weeds, preserve moisture, protect from heat and cold. In the soil that is covered with mulch, the useful flora spreads and it becomes fertile.
You can grind the area where the pepper will be planted with the following substances.
- The organic layer of straw can quickly cool the earth, reduces the number of weeds, and allows you to get a good harvest. The depth of the mulch layer is not less than 10 cm.
- For the cultivation of sweet peppers, humus and compost turn out to be useful and nutritious mulch. In their composition there are beneficial microorganisms that fight against pathogens. Pepper grows better, fruits ripen faster and become juicy.
- Mulch the ground chopped grass. Any herb can be used. Planting sweet peppers in such a place will only benefit. Layer well retains moisture, contributes to the rapid development of the plant and the formation of fruit. The thickness of the mulch should be at least 30 cm.
- Planting seedlings can be using inorganic mulch. It carries a black film. The soil under the black film retains moisture well and protects against weeds. Many experienced growers plant peppers just under the film, as the need for constant watering and weeding of the beds is lost.
On the Internet you can find detailed information about each type of mulch, as well as watch the video.
In addition to the benefits of mulching can lead to problems. Most often this occurs when setting a thick layer of mulch. Stagnant moisture in the soil can lead to rotting roots. Periodically, you should change the old layer to a new one.
To avoid mistakes, each type of mulch should be laid in such a thickness that is recommended by agronomists. The layer is laid on a well-warmed, dry ground. Every spring, the old layer of mulch should be removed.
The first days after transplantation, the growth in pepper slows down, the leaves are sluggish and down. Within a few days, when the bushes take root, a strong stalk will begin to develop. Pepper care in the open field is accompanied by regular watering, fertilizing the soil and weed control.
Cultivation and care in the open ground pepper must be accompanied by proper, regular watering. The first watering is carried out at the time of disembarkation, and then after 5 days. If the weather does not indulge in rains, then water until the first fruits appear, recommended every other week. During rapid fruiting, watering is reduced. As soon as the first harvest will be harvested, and new flowers will appear on the plants, the former watering mode will resume.
As soon as the height of the plant reaches 35 cm, pinch the top. Thanks to this new side branches will go. In order for the flowering to be abundant and many ovaries form, remove the flower that is in the center.
During all the time when the Bulgarian pepper grows, it is necessary to pluck excess leaves and twigs. This provides better sunlight and air access to the stalk.
Pepper loves soft, well loosened earth. Therefore, no hard crust should be allowed. During loosening, the soil is enriched with oxygen, the plant grows faster, the activity of beneficial bacteria improves. At the same time weed control. The first loosening should be carried out no deeper than 6 cm. Further, it is useful to loosen the soil after each watering or rain.
Since the peppers are heat-loving plants, they can hardly tolerate adverse weather surprises. Protect peppers from frost as follows. Shelters are made of cardboard, warm fabric over the beds. If the cold nights continue for a long time, it is better to cover with foil.
Additional nutritional components
Bulgarian pepper cultivation is not complete without the introduction of nutrients. The frequency of fertilizer should be every 12-14 days. Fertilize the plant should be at least three times. Especially acutely pepper needs to be nourished during flowering and fruit formation.
The first nutrient feeding occurs 14 days after disembarkation. During this time, the peppers take root, and get used to a new place. The best formulations at this stage are those that contain mullein. Water is added to manure in a ratio of 1: 5, infused and stirred with water 1: 2 before watering.
When the flowers appear, you can use the following recipe based on herbal infusion and mullein. Nettle, the leaves of the plantain and dandelion pour water, add mullein and insist during the week. Add the finished solution to the root of each bush. You can repeat watering every 2 weeks. Obtained during this feeding nutrients contribute to the growth of growth and the formation of better fruits.
To attract during the flowering of insects that pollinate, you can use a solution with sugar. Sugar and boric acid are dissolved in water. The resulting composition sprayed bushes. As a result, the ovaries are formed faster.
During the formation of the fruit, you can take care of it using fertilizer based on chicken manure and nitroammofoski. The components are mixed and left to infuse for the entire week. Fertilizer is transferred between the rows to the garden bed.
For Bulgarian pepper can be treated with nettle infusion. An infusion of nettle alone stimulates the growth and development of pepper. Best for the infusion of young nettle. It contains magnesium, iron, potassium and other essential micronutrients. The stems are crushed and infused in a barrel of water, covered with a lid for two days. Before feeding the solution is diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10.
Before you make organic or mineral dressing, beds should be watered with plain water. Such care will allow you to evenly distribute nutritional components and avoid root burn.
Agricultural technology of growing peppers does not allow the use of fresh manure as a fertilizer. Manure contains a lot of nitrogen, so the risk of overabundance of this element increases. Begin to gain mass and strength of the stem, the leaves, and the fruiting stops.
The emergence of problems
If it was noticed that the leaves change shape, color, stems look sluggish or other signs appear, often the reason is a lack of mineral components:
- with a lack of potassium, the leaves curl, and their tips dry and turn yellow,
- it is time to apply nitrogen fertilizers when the leaves have lost their saturated green color and turned gray,
- if the leaves are pressed against the stem and have acquired a bluish tint, it means that there is not enough phosphorus,
- white spots speak of magnesium deficiency,
- leaves and ovaries fall off when there is an excess of nitrogen.
For the cultivation of sweet pepper you need to create conditions. With improper care, he is subject to the development of various diseases. The most common disease is blackleg, which develops in too moist soil. You can notice the problem on the dark part of the stem with a patina that passes near the ground. If you do not take action, all roots give in to rotting and the plant dies.
For information, the risk of developing black stem seeds are planted only in the treated soil, only strong, healthy seedlings are transplanted into the open ground. The distance between the bushes must be large, it will reduce the rate of spread of the disease. In addition, close-planted bushes will be bad for air, light.
Phytophthora is a fungal infection that affects the green part of the plant. You can find out by the appearance of brown spots on the stem and leaves. To avoid this disease, care must begin with the seed. Before planting, they are soaked in potassium permanganate, foliar spraying of seedlings in open ground is carried out with protective solutions. You should also avoid the neighborhood of pepper with tomatoes and potatoes.
Another common fungal disease is white rot. The lower part of the stem is covered with a whitish bloom, while the inner part of the stem turns black. As a result, the stem loses its strength and the plant dies. To avoid problems, seedlings of pepper in the ground transplanted well warmed by the sun. Do not forget to remove lethargic leaves in time and water the bushes only with warm water. At the early stage of the appearance of the disease, you can try to get rid of it with a solution with wood ash.
Planting seedlings in the ground, its watering and feeding
A very important agrotechnical method for growing peppers is planting seedlings in the ground.
- One to two weeks before planting seedlings they begin to quench it: they reduce the temperature, limit watering, in order to improve the illumination, in the absence of the threat of frost they take the plants to the open air.
- 5 - 10 days before planting peppers in the ground they are sprayed with a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate to protect against fungal diseases.
- Peppers, suitable for planting in the ground, have 5 - 6 true leaves, strong stalk, developed root system.
- Before planting, seedlings are well watered.
Planted in the southern regions in the late days of April. In areas with lower temperatures for this period, it is advisable to choose the beginning of June at the time of landing.
In general, the whole cycle from the preparation of seeds to the planting of peppers into the ground takes 45 - 55 days while ensuring the correct mode of temperature, frequency compliance, as well as the quality of watering and feeding. Planting is carried out in an ordinary way with a feed area of 70x15 cm in one plant or 70x30 cm in two plants per well.
In the pre-watered wells they place the plants together with the earthy lump 1 - 1.5 cm deeper than the root collar, then sprinkle them with dry earth. The next day after the landing of the peppers in the ground they need to be watered again. Throughout the time of cultivation up to harvest, watering is repeated regularly, preventing the soil from drying out.
- to fall off of flowers and ovaries,
- plant growth,
- violations of fruit formation,
- significant yield reduction.
After watering, the soil is loosened, and it should be done carefully, going deeper by no more than 5 cm, paying special attention to the space near the stem.
But The first feeding is required 10 - 15 days after disembarkation: A mixture of 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 5 g of potassium salt is applied per 1 m².
Such seedlings quicker and better to take root, gives a better and earlier harvest.
You can learn more about how to plant seedlings of sweet pepper in open ground, you can on the video below:
Growing pepper from seeds in the ground
How to grow sweet Bulgarian pepper in the open field?
When growing sweet pepper in open ground in a non-seedling way, first of all a thoroughly leveled and chopped soil is required for sweet pepper.
Seeds of Bulgarian pepper for open ground are disinfected, but not germinated. The optimal time for planting seed is the second decade of April.
In case of unfriendly, late spring, when the terms of planting are shifted, the seeds are first germinated before biting.
How to plant Bulgarian pepper seeds?
In carefully leveled and ground soils make 8 - 10 holes per 1 m². In each of them, for faster germination, 4–5 seeds are heaped, with a seeding depth of 3–4 cm and subsequent mulching.
After the emergence of seedlings in the wells, usually 1 to 2 plants are left. With this method of growing further care for the plants is watering, loosening, weeding with the same rules and frequency as in the method of growing pepper seedlings.
Diseases and pests
The fight against diseases and pests also plays a big role in the cultivation of pepper. Proper diagnosis of the disease and timely action will help preserve the crop and even prevent its death.
- Causative agent verticillary wilting is a fungus that lives in the soil. It penetrates the wounds of the root system of a plant when it is planted on the ground or excessively loosened.
Manifestation of the disease withering in the spotty lesion, withering, leaf fall and deformity of internodes. At the early stage of the disease, the plant does not form the ovaries, if the infection has occurred in the phase of fruit formation, the fruits frown and do not fill. Preventive measures- disinfection of soil, careful planting of seedlings along with an earthy clod, careful loosening of the soil.
White rot leads to the death of the plant. Preventive and therapeutic measures: timely cleaning of dead plants, moderate watering, dusting with ash or chalk with minor lesions, thermal disinfection of the soil. Gray rot. Plants cultivated in greenhouses are generally susceptible. Brown, moist spots with a gray bloom appear on the stem and leaves at high humidity and lowering the temperature to 10 ° C. Preventive measures - compliance with temperature and humidity, the requirements of crop rotation, weeding.
If gray mold has already manifested itself, remove all affected fruit. You can remove the gray rot by spraying the infusion of garlic: 30 g of crushed garlic for two days insist on a bucket of water. Spraying is also applied with industrial preparations of the corresponding spectrum of action.
Pepper pest control is usually effective with insecticides.
- Aphid, accumulating on all organs of the plant, sucks nutrients and moisture from the tissues. A good result is given by spraying daily infusion of ash with the addition of soap per 10 liters of water, 1 cup of ash and 30 g of soap. Instead of ash, you can use smoking tobacco - 100 g per 10 liters of water. Such solutions process the plantation of pepper several times in the morning.
- Spider mite forms colonies on the lower part of the leaf of the plant. The defeat of the tick leads to disruption of vital and fruitful functions. To destroy the tick, spray the leaves with soap and water from below.
- Slugs cause great damage to the fruit, climbing inside them. The mechanical way of dealing with slugs is manual collection and destruction. The soil should be periodically pollinated with ash, slaked with lime or mustard powder. As a deterrent of these pests, parsley can be sown next to the pepper.
- Colorado beetle. Larvae, laid off by adult insects, devour the leaves. При массовом поражении вредителем это может привести к полному уничтожению кроны и гибели растения. Жуков, личинок и яйца собирают вручную. Плантацию перца можно обрабатывать инсектицидами или настойкой чистотела.
Больше информации о возможных болезнях и вредителях сладкого перца вы можете узнать на видео ниже:
Сбор и хранение урожая
Harvest when ripe fruit: they are poured, acquire color and size, conditioned for a particular variety.
About ripeness can be judged by the characteristic sound when touching the fruit. The first collection is carried out in mid-July - early August. depending on the climatic zone of cultivation.
It is important to note that best to shoot the fruit in dry weather, so that the moisture on the harvested peppers does not lead to decay during storage. Peppers are removed without cutting the stem, which increases its shelf life without losing its taste.
For the entire season spend up to five fees. When forecasting frosts collect all the remaining fruits on the bushes for ripening them indoors.
How to save Bulgarian pepper?
Store the harvested peppers recommended at a relative humidity of 80 - 90% and a temperature of 8 - 10 ° C. The absence of defects and damage to the fruit increases their shelf life. Ripe peppers can be stored in refrigerators and basements for up to a month. It is possible to freeze the pepper as a way of preservation.
When harvesting, you need to take care of the gene pool for the next season, because the germination of seeds from self-grown, in compliance with all the rules of plants reaches nearly 100%. From the selected, the most beautiful and large pepper core is extracted, seeds are separated from it. Seeds are dried naturally and stored in cotton bags for three to four years.
And a little more about breeding.
See further the useful video about growing peppers:
Here it is, Bulgarian pepper - whimsical, capricious, time consuming. But with all the rules, grown carefully and with love, he will definitely give beautiful, juicy and sweet fruit.
Growing Bulgarian pepper seedlings
When growing seedlings at home, pepper seeds are sown in February, so that before the transplant into the soil the plants are 90-100 days. Pepper does not tolerate a dive, so try to immediately sow the seeds in separate peat pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm.
Large pots do not need to use because of the slow development of the root system of peppers.
Soil for seedlings
Suitable light and loose substrate consisting of humus, mixed with 1 part of the earth and 1 part of the sand. Add 1 kg of substrate 1 tbsp. l wood ash.
Before sowing, carry out the treatment of pepper seeds - keep the seeds in hot water + 50 degrees for 5 hours. Then place the seeds in a damp cloth for germination for 2-3 days, the temperature in the room should be + 20 degrees. After this preplant preparation, seedlings appear as early as the day after sowing.
Seeds sown in cups, pour and cover with plastic wrap or glass. Before the emergence of shoots to keep the pots in a warm place with a temperature of + 22 degrees. After the emergence of the shoots, remove the film and transfer the seedlings to a room with a temperature of 26-28 degrees during the day and 10-15 degrees at night.
When caring for seedlings of peppers, do not allow the soil to dry out, but we do not recommend excessive watering.
Watering produce warm water +30 degrees, from cold water grow frail seedlings, plants can get sick. The air in the room should not be too dry, protect the plants from drafts and spray the plants.
In winter in February, the seedlings require additional lighting so that daylight is from 7 am to 9 pm.
First feeding be carried out in the phase of appearance of 2 true leaves with the following solution: dilute 5 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 l of water, 10 g of potash fertilizers, 30 g of superphosphate.
Second feeding be carried out 14 days after the first mineral fertilizers in 2 times greater proportions than the first.
Third dressing be carried out 2 days before transplanting to the ground. Increase the dose of potash fertilizer to 70 g per 10 liters of water.
A few weeks before the planting of pepper seedlings, they harden the plants, bringing them to fresh air for several hours. Make sure that the air temperature was not lower than +13 degrees, the seedlings may die.
Choosing a place for planting bell peppers
Pick up a plot in the garden, where cucumbers, onions, pumpkins, carrots, cabbage, zucchini, various siderats grew before. Pepper grows poorly and be fruitful if planted on a plot where potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, and peppers were grown before.
Pepper grows best on light soils. Prepare a site for planting in advance, in the autumn to make 50 g of phosphate and potash fertilizers per m 2, dig deep. In the spring, add 40 g of ammonium nitrate per m 2 plot to the topsoil.
Before planting seedlings in open ground, disinfect the soil with this solution: dilute 1 tablespoon of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water.
At the end of May, seedlings of pepper are planted in open ground with a distance of 40x40 cm between the plants. In the film greenhouse seedlings are planted in late April.
Seedlings should be planted to the same depth as the plants grew in cups or boxes. Do not expose the roots, but try not to drop the radical neck.
Pepper does not like cold soil, arrange high beds for peppers raised by 25 cm to get a good harvest of peppers.
Attention: pepper is subject to over-pollination; therefore, different varieties of peppers should be planted as far as possible from each other or separated using tall plantations of tomatoes, corn, and sunflower.
Top dressing of peppers in an open ground
During the season, it is necessary to conduct 3-4 dressings of chicken manure diluted with water 1 x 10. Such alternate dressings alternate foliar using spraying with nitrophosphate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Potassium deficiency lead to twisting of the leaves, the appearance of a drying border. But pepper does not tolerate an abundance of potassium chloride.
With nitrogen deficiency pepper leaves are becoming smaller, getting dull grayish shade. If excess nitrogen occurs dropping flowers and ovaries.
Phosphorus deficiency - leaves from the bottom become saturated purple, pressed against the stem of plants and rise up.
With magnesium deficiency leaves become marble in color.
Video - HOW TO FORMATE THE PEPPER. CARE AND SUPPORT.
Pasyoning in hot and humid weather, removing side shoots, especially the lower ones. Conversely, when the hot and dry weather pepper is not a stepchild, the leaves during this period protect the plants from evaporation of soil moisture.
During the growing season, pruning of the longest shoots is carried out, especially remove all the processes below the fork of the main stem, as well as all the branches going inside the plant. Crop every 10 days and after harvesting.
To attract insect pollinators, spray pepper plants with sugar or honey solution: 100 g sugar, add 2 g of boric acid, dilute all in a liter of hot water.
Mulching of peppered straw (layer 10 cm) will reduce the frequency of watering to 1 time in 10 days.
Timely carry out the garter plants, it is better to do it after hilling.